WorldWideScience

Sample records for chernobyl nuclear power

  1. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  2. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  3. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  4. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-04-01

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  5. Experiences using laser Doppler vibrometers at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovoi, Leonid K.; Robur, Lubomir I.; Siegmund, Georg; Tushev, Dmitry

    2000-05-01

    The implementation of laser vibrometers into various branches of industry solves complex technical problems as well as raising the authority of laser vibrometry as unique measurement tool. From this point of view, the nuclear industry is an interesting and attractive application field with specific and rigorous exploitation conditions of measuring systems. The objective of this work was to evaluate all advantages and disadvantages of the laser Doppler vibrometry with respect to nuclear power plant (NPP) equipment examination. The Chernobyl NPP is the ideal place for these purposes. The diagnostic ability on different Chernobyl NPP systems (e.g. third power unit main circulators, bearing shaft of fifth turbo-generator and various pipelines) has been demonstrated using laser Doppler vibrometers. The measurements performed by laser vibrometers were checked by standard Chernobyl NPP vibration measurement tools. The laser Doppler vibrometers (CLV, Polytec GmbH and LDV, Kiev University) have been tested and have shown full functionality in NPP zone at 0.5 sievert/hour radiation levels, high electromagnetic fields (magnetic component up to 5 kA/m) and significant vibrations.

  6. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  7. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  8. Nuclear power debate and public opinion in Belarus: From Chernobyl to Ostrovets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikau, Aliaksandr

    2016-05-05

    The Belarusian government's decision of the last decade to build a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets, in northern Belarus, has proven to be controversial, resulting in a great deal of debate about nuclear energy in the country. The debate was inevitably shaped by the traumatic event that affected Belarus - the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. The Belarusian authorities have consistently promoted a positive view of nuclear energy to the population in order to overcome the so-called 'Chernobyl syndrome' and deliberately shaped nuclear risk communication. As a result, the issue of trust remains crucial in all nuclear debates in Belarus.

  9. Distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Ueno, Takashi; Nagao, Seiya; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Miki; Hanzawa, Yukiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Characteristics of the distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (30 km exclusion zone) has been investigated. Research items are, (i) Distribution of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (ii) Speciation of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (iii) Characteristics of the migration in the surface environment, (iv) Characteristics of the uptake into the vegetables, (v) Prediction of future radioecological situation in the environment, respectively. (author)

  10. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  11. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  13. Neutron-activation analysis of hot particles from the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyul`, A.Yu.; Kolesov, G.M.; Cherkezyan, V.O. [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-04-10

    A considerable portion of the radioactive contamination of the surface layers of soil after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was caused by hot particles or aggregates with a diameter of several tens microns and a specific activity >n{center_dot}10{sup {minus}11} Ci. They consist of primary particles of the dispersed material of the nuclear fuel and secondary particles formed as a result of the interaction of the fuel and uranium fission products with the structural materials of the reactor and the destroyed active zone. The radionuclide composition of the hot particles characterizes the nuclear fuel used and the temperature conditions in the reactor during the first weeks after the accident and their chemical composition reflects the conditions and processes leading to their formation, which must be known in order; to ascertain the mechanism of the formation of the radioactive emission from the reactor and to evaluate the degree of ecological danger posed by the particles. All this promotes the urgency and importance of studying the radiation-chemical characteristics of such hot particles. Their small sizes and masses impose definite restrictions; on the investigative methods used, which must be highly sensitive and must offer the possibility of performing a nondestructive analysis. One such method is neutron-activation analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to apply instrumental neutron-activation analysis to the simultaneous determination of the elemental composition of hot particles and establishment of the isotopic composition of the uranium in them.

  14. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  15. International measures for supporting the Ukraine in decommissioning Chernobyl nuclear power plant; Internationale Massnahmen zur Unterstuetzung der Ukraine bei der Stilllegung des KKW Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.

    2006-07-01

    The destruction of Block 4 of the Ukranian nuclear power plant in Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most momentous accident in the civil use of nuclear energy. Its far-reaching and lasting ecological, heath-related and economic effects confronted the then Soviet and later the Ukraine with grave problems. Particularly after the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc and the emergence of information about the safety shortcomings of RBMK-type (Chernobyl-type) reactors the Western states pressed for the decommissioning of these reactors. At the G7 summit in Naples in 1994 the Ukraine was offered an action plan of support if it were willing to close down Chernobyl nuclear power plant. This initiative led to the signing on 20 December 1995 of a Memorandum of Understanding on the Closure of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant between the G7 states, the European Commission and the Ukraine. It contained an assurance by President Kuchma that Chernobyl nuclear power plant would be closed by the year 2000.

  16. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  17. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer.

  18. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  20. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides emitted due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Zibtsev, Sergey; Myroniuk, Viktor; Zhurba, Marina; Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Paugam, Ronan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Kireev, Sergey I.

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) have caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The total active burned area was estimated to be about 15,000 hectares, of which 9000 hectares burned in April and 6000 hectares in August. The present paper aims to assess, for the first time, the transport and impact of these fires over Europe. For this reason, direct observations of the prevailing deposition levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the CEZ were processed together with burned area estimates. Based on literature reports, we made the conservative assumption that 20% of the deposited labile radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, and 10% of the more refractory 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am, were resuspended by the fires. We estimate that about 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events. These releases could be classified as of "Level 3" on the relative INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) scale, which corresponds to a serious incident, in which non-lethal deterministic effects are expected from radiation. To simulate the dispersion of the resuspended radionuclides in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the terrestrial environment, we used a Lagrangian dispersion model. Spring fires redistributed radionuclides over the northern and eastern parts of Europe, while the summer fires also affected Central and Southern Europe. The more labile elements escaped more easily from the CEZ and then reached and deposited in areas far from the source, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere and thus did mainly affect the CEZ and its vicinity. For the spring 2015 fires, we estimate that about 80% of 137Cs and 90Sr and about 69% of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am were deposited over areas outside the CEZ. 93% of the labile and 97% of

  1. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of {sup 137}Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and `dingoes tending the sheep`. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet `system` performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors). 16 refs.

  2. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E

    2009-11-19

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident consisted of fuel and condensation components. An important radioecological task associated with the late phase of the accident is to evaluate the dynamics of radionuclide mobility in soils. Identification of the variability (or invariability) in the radionuclide transfer parameters makes it possible to (1) accurately predict migration patterns and biological availability of radionuclides and (2) evaluate long-term exposure trends for the population who may reoccupy the remediated abandoned areas. In 1986-1987, a number of experimental plots were established within various tracts of the fallout plume to assist with the determination of the long-term dynamics of radionuclide vertical migration in the soils. The transfer parameters for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil profile, as well as their ecological half-time of the radionuclide residence (T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol}) values in the upper 5-cm thick soil layers of different grasslands were estimated at various times since the accident. Migration characteristics in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: {sup 90}Sr > {sup 137}Cs {ge} {sup 239,240}Pu. It was found that the {sup 137}Cs absolute T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values are 3-7 times higher than its radioactive decay half-life value. Therefore, changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited {sup 137}Cs now depend only on its radioactive decay. The {sup 90}Sr T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values for the 21st year after the fallout tend to decrease, indicating an intensification of its migration capabilities. This trend appears consistent with a pool of mobile {sup 90}Sr forms that grows over time due to destruction of the fuel particles.

  3. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krasnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  4. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  5. SUBSTANTIAL AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MENTAL STATUS OF THE PERSONS WHO HAVE RECEIVED SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION DURING LIGUIDATION OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the peculiarities of ideas about the catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster at the persons who have suffered from radiation during liquidation of the accident’s consequences. View of the accident was considered as a key element of a person’s mind, in particular the adaptive. There were 30 persons, who took part in the research – participants of Chernobyl disaster’s liquidation, veterans of division of an extra risk. The subjective assessment of mental health at persons who survived in Chernobyl disaster was defined; personal properties of victims were revealed; interrelations between personal properties and subjective assessment of mental health were established. It is possible to assume that in process of moving away from the moment of the accident the content of view of Chernobyl disaster shows concentration of the person on experience of mental health and the personal potential.

  6. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Alexander; Mironov, Vladislav [International Sakharov Environmental University. Box 220070, 23 Dolgobrodskaya Street, Minsk, 220070 (Belarus)

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 239}Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year ({sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides {sup 241}Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and {sup 239+240}Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of {sup 241}Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of {sup 241}Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg{sup -1}, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of {sup 241}Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of {sup 241}Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg{sup -1}, and the

  7. Simulation of {sup 137}Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, V.; Pozzoli, L.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T., E-mail: kindap@itu.edu.tr; Karaca, M.

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30 years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to {sup 137}Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of {sup 137}Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of {sup 137}Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the ‘Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident’ and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on {sup 137}Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2–3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m{sup −2} and 100 kBq m{sup −2}. Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - Highlights: • Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

  8. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  9. Total cancer incidence in relation to 137Cs fallout in the most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: a register-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Wålinder, Robert; Vingård, Eva; Tondel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 (137Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Methods A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of 137Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual 137Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986–1990), from which 5-year cumulative 137Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of 137Cs and changing residencies. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence. Results The 734 537 people identified were categorised by exposure: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0–45.4 kBq/m2), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41–118.8 kBq/m2), and the fourth quartile was the highest exposure (118.81–564.71 kBq/m2). Between 1991 and 2010, 82 495 cancer cases were registered in the 3 counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure compared to the reference exposure. Conclusions We found a small overall exposure–response pattern of the total cancer incidence related to 137Cs after adjustment for age, sex, rural residence and pre-Chernobyl cancer incidence. PMID:27998898

  10. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  11. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  12. DYNAMICS OF THE RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION IN THE SURFACE LAYER OF SOILS IN BULGARIA TWENTY YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The twenty years period past after the contamination with radionuclides in 1986, as a result of the accident in the Chernobyl’s NPP, allowed the accumulation of rich data base for the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Objective of many years studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hilly and flat (the region of Kozlodouy NPP and the Danube river valley. Ceasium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils, few years after the accident. The content of ceasium-137 and strontium-90 in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains is several times higher then that in the soils from Northern Bulgaria and Sofia field. High non-homogeneity in the pollution within small areas (scores of square meters even was determined. No significant horizontal redistribution was observed for the period after 1986. The tendency of changes in the radioactive status of the soils in Bulgaria after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is not due to trans-border transfer of radioactive materials or to any breakdown at the Kosloduy Nuclear Power Plant.

  13. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  14. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  15. Origin of a signal detected with the LSD detector after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N. Yu., E-mail: natagafonova@gmail.com; Malgin, A. S., E-mail: malgin@lngs.infn.it [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Fulgione, W. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A rare signal was detected at 23:53 Moscow time on April 27, 1986 with the LSD low-background scintillation detector located under Mont Blanc at a distance of 1820 km from Chernobyl. To reveal the origin of this signal, we discuss the results obtained with other instruments operating within a similar program, as well as analyze the characteristics of the pulses of the signal and facts referring to the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. A hypothesis based on detection with the LSD of gamma-quanta from {beta} decays of {sup 135}I nuclei ejected into atmosphere by the reactor explosion and carried in the underground detector camera with air of positive ventilation is considered. The explosion origin of the LSD signal indicates a new technogenic source of the background in the search for neutrino bursts from cores of collapsing stars.

  16. Origin of a signal detected with the LSD detector after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N. Yu.; Malgin, A. S.; Fulgione, W.

    2013-08-01

    A rare signal was detected at 23:53 Moscow time on April 27, 1986 with the LSD low-background scintillation detector located under Mont Blanc at a distance of 1820 km from Chernobyl. To reveal the origin of this signal, we discuss the results obtained with other instruments operating within a similar program, as well as analyze the characteristics of the pulses of the signal and facts referring to the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. A hypothesis based on detection with the LSD of gamma-quanta from β decays of 135I nuclei ejected into atmosphere by the reactor explosion and carried in the underground detector camera with air of positive ventilation is considered. The explosion origin of the LSD signal indicates a new technogenic source of the background in the search for neutrino bursts from cores of collapsing stars.

  17. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

  18. Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  19. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  20. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  1. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  2. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, N.; Zibtsev, S.; Myroniuk, V.; Zhurba, M.; Hamburger, T.; Stohl, A.; Balkanski, Y.; Paugam, R.; Mousseau, T. A.; Møller, A. P.; Kireev, S. I.

    2016-05-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y-1 in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray.

  3. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs, thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1 and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2. Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively; after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320 in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482. On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003, though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  4. Environmental monitoring data around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant used in the cooperative research project between JAERI and CHESCIR (Ukraine). Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Takashi; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tkachenko, Yuri; Kovalyov, Alexandr; Sukhoruchkin, Andrei; Derevets, Varely [The State Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control (Ukraine)

    2003-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the shared data derived from the environmental monitoring by RADEK (The state Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control of Ukraine) and the record of environmental characteristics derived from field observations during a research project (1992-1999) between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CHESCIR (Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research). The compiled data in this report are especially related to one particular research subject (Subject-3) of the project on the migration of radionuclides released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments after a nuclear accident. The present report shows the basis of published works concerning Subject-3. (author)

  5. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  6. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag; Le crime de Tchernobyl. Le goulag nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchertkoff, W

    2006-07-01

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  7. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  8. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  9. Perspective of Using the Results of Monitoring and Modeling of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's Cooling Pond as Analogue for the US DOE Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Voitsekhovich, O. V.; Bugay, D.; Skalskjj, A.; Shestopalov, V. M.; Zheleznyak, M.; Kashparov, V. A.; Antropov, A. S.; Kireev, S. I.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Ivanov, Y.; Oskolkov, B.; Marra, J.; Jannik, T.; Farfan, E.; Monken-Fernandes, H.; Hinton, T.; Smith, J.; Onishi, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are many contaminated sites that may be suitable candidates for providing analogue information for the development and testing of environmental modeling and risk assessment approaches, of particular scientific and practical interests is the feasibility study of planned decommissioning and remediation of the highly contaminated Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CP), located within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The presence of the CP has caused an artificially high groundwater table within the ChEZ. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the CP, substantial areas of sediments, containing 137Cs, 90Sr, and hot particles with U, Pu, and Am. will be exposed to the atmosphere, and the groundwater level is expected to decline by as much as 7 m. The areal extent of the exposed zone, the dissolution rate, mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will vary over time, depending on the dynamics of seepage losses from the pond and climatic conditions. The objective of the presentation is to discuss hydrological and geochemical processes, a conceptual model, and the results and perspectives of numerical modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater flow and transport, including the parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation for various decommissioning and remediation options of the CP. In particular, the results of 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations of radionuclide transport in surface water and groundwater will be discussed, along with the evaluation of Kd parameters from the results of field monitoring and modeling of seasonal variations of 137Cs concentrations in pond water and sediments. It will be shown that the results of field monitoring and modeling of the Chernobyl CP can be used as analogue for several US DOE sites to improve scientific and practical understanding of subsurface hydrological and geochemical processes, as well as to obtain a better understanding of processes affecting natural attenuation of radionuclides in

  10. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  11. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterov A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  12. Medical lessons learned from chernobyl relative to nuclear detonations and failed nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E

    2012-12-01

    The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 involved the largest airborne release of radioactivity in history, more than 100 times as much radioactivity as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs together. The resulting emergency response, administrative blunders, and subsequent patient outcomes from this large-scale radiological disaster provide a wealth of information and valuable lessons for those who may find themselves having to deal with the staggering consequences of nuclear war. Research findings, administrative strategies (successful and otherwise), and resulting clinical procedures from the Chernobyl experience are reviewed to determine a current utility in addressing the appropriate protocols for a medical response to nuclear war. As various myths are still widely associated with radiation exposure, attention is given to the realities of a mass casualty medical response as it would occur with a nuclear detonation.

  13. Survey of thyroid diseases among inhabitants exposed to fallout radiation from the nuclear power station explosion at Chernobyl, 2; Prevalence of palpable goiter in school children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugenoya, Akira; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Asanuma, Kazuhiko; Iida, Futoshi (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Skidanenko, G.S.

    1992-09-01

    We report the prevalence of diffuse goiter and thyroid nodules in children aged 10-15 years living at Chechelsk city, Byelorussia, which is one of the high radioactive fallout areas after the Chernobyl accident. Seven hundred thirteen children (330 males and 383 females) were enrolled in the study. The goiter staging was defined according to the WHO classification. Those who showed apparent goiter from Grade I to III were additionally examined by ultrasonography. The prevalence of palpable goiter was 41.5% in males and 56.9% in females. The incidence in females was significantly higher than that in males (p<0.01). In the ultrasonography survey, 9 (3 males and 6 females) of 196 children revealed one or several small nodules in diffuse goiter, which were less than 1 cm in size and appeared as irregular hypoechoic lesions. These school children with nodular lesions require further medical examination for defined diagnosis and proper treatment. Future investigation regarding both the endemic goiter of this district and goiter prevalence in non-affected neighboring areas is crucial for evaluating the effects of radioactive fallout correctly. (author).

  14. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  15. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  16. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  17. Nuclear power - menace or miracle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porritt, J.; Gittus, J.

    1988-04-01

    The main points of the anti-nuclear lobby are put by the Director of Friends of the Earth. These are on its failure to provide cheaper electricity, reactor safety (the Chernobyl accident is cited), on the problems of radioactive waste disposal and on the public preference for a non-nuclear energy programme. Coal is seen as able to provide most of the United Kingdom's energy needs until the 22nd century. Long-term solutions to the energy and environmental problems are energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The pro-nuclear case is made by the Director of Communication and Information at the UK Atomic Energy Authority. This is that renewable energy sources will not be viable for another 30 years or so and, anyway, do not solve all the environmental problems. The choice of energy is thus coal or nuclear. Coal gives rise to acid rain and, as it is in limited supply, is too valuable simply to burn. Nuclear power can provide the energy economically and safely. The accident at Chernobyl is not possible in the UK. The amount of high level nuclear waste generated is small and measures for its disposal will be taken. The levels of radiation due to the nuclear power industry are small compared with natural radiation levels, and have not been shown to cause higher than normal levels of leukaemia or cancer. (U.K.).

  18. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima.

  19. Chernobyl Nuclear Catastrophe and the High Risk Potential for Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

    1993-01-01

    This report considers potential effects of the 1986 nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl (Ukraine) nuclear reactor. Approximately 17 million people, of whom 2.5 million were below the age of 5, are thought to have suffered some radioactive contamination. Many of these children are at high risk for mental retardation and learning disorders.…

  20. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrane, Y; Wybo, J-L; Armand, P

    2013-12-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues.

  1. The Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents and their tragic consequences

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Unit 4 of the RBMK nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, went out of control during a test at low-power, leading to an explosion and fire. The reactor building was totally demolished and very large amounts of radiation were released into the atmosphere for several hundred kilometres around the site including the nearby town of Pripyat. The explosion leaving tons of nuclear waste and spent fuel residues without any protection and control totally contaminating the entire area. Several hundred thousand people were affected by the radiation fall out. The radioactive cloud spread across Europe affecting most of the Northern, Central and Eastern European countries. Some areas of southern Switzerland, of northern Italy as well as western France were subject to radioactive contamination. The initiative of the G7 countries to launch and important programme for the closure of some Soviet built nuclear plants was accepted by several donor countries. A team of engineers was established wi...

  2. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  3. The Italian debate on nuclear energy in the post Chernobyl age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantone, M.C. [Milano Univ., Dipt. di Fisica and INFN (Italy); Sturloni, G. [SISSA, Innovations in the Communication of Science, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Italy entered with enthusiasm into the production of nuclear energy for civil use at the end of 50. By 1966 - with an overall output of 3.9 billions kWh - Italy had become the fourth world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactions, the second one in Europe after Great Britain. Chernobyl's 1986 disaster, which so much shook public opinion all over Europe, had particularly important economic and political consequences in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted for the repeal of three laws which promoted the installation of nuclear power plants on the Italian soil and the participation of ENEL (National Institution for the Electrical Energy) to plant constructions abroad. The 1987 referendum was interpreted by the Italian government as an opposition to nuclear power generation - the following year, the four Italian plants (Garigliano, Latina, Trino Vercellese, Caorso) ceased their activity and plans to build new plants were abandoned. This decision marked the ruin of Italian research on nuclear energy, that in the 30 had known a glorious era thanks to Enrico Fermi works. As the 20. Anniversary of Chernobyl's accident is drawing near, the University of Milan and ICS-research group (Innovations in Communication of Science) at SISSA, Trieste, have decided to analyse jointly the reasons which brought Italy to give up its nuclear energy production. In the present scenario of controversies concerning the development of science and technology, in which European countries exchange experiences of best practice to involve the public in decision making processes, Italy reaction to Chernobyl accident can indeed be considered paradigmatic in that it anticipated crucial risks governance issues in today relationship between science and society. The research project draws on methodologies used in media studies and on socio linguistic analysis, as developed by risk perception and risk

  4. Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed from the 7010 m Muztagata ice core record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN LiDe; YAO TanDong; WU GuangJian; LI Zhen; XU BaiQing; LI YueFang

    2007-01-01

    The total activity variation with depth from a 41.6 m Muztagata ice core drilled at 7010 m,recorded not only the 1963 radioactive layer due to the thermonuclear test,but also clearly the radioactive peak released by the Chernobyl accident in 1986.This finding indicates that the Chernobyl nuclear accident was clearly recorded in alpine glaciers in the Pamirs of west China,and the layer can be potentially used for ice core dating in other high alpine glaciers in the surrounding regions.

  5. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  6. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  7. Frequency of dicentrics in Ukrainian children and teenagers from areas near Chernobyl 20 years after the nuclear power plant accident; Frecuencia de dicentricos en ninos y adolescentes ucranianos de zonas cercanas a Chernobyl 20 anos despues del accidente de la central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Sebastia, N.; Candela, C.; Francesc Barquinero, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Almonacid, M.; Sahuquillo, V.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Arnal, C.; Villaescusa, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, frequency of dicentrics in the peripheral blood of 55 children and teenagers from Ukrainian areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are studied, in order to assess the possible existence of chromosomal damage due to radiation, and to estimate absorbed dose through biological dosimetry. A total of 36 dicentric chromosomes found in 53477 analyzed cells reflected a low dicentric frequency (below the baseline limit). From these results, it can be concluded that, within the detection limits of the used technique, no overexposure to radiation was detected in these children. (Author) 18 refs.

  8. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanyan, Anna, E-mail: ann-aghajanyan@yandex.ru [Cytogenetics Laboratory, FSI Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenology and Radiology, Profsoyuznaya 86, GSP-7, Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Suskov, Igor [Laboratory of Ecological Genetics, N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics Russian Academy of Sciences, Gybkin st. 3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p < 0.01), but also in their children born after the accident (n = 159, p < 0.05). This is an indicative of the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. To elucidate this phenomenon, experiments were undertaken to model genomic instability by using single and fractional in vitro {gamma}-irradiation ({sup 137}Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  9. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: reporting on nuclear and other hazards in six Swedish newspapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aasa; Sjoeberg, L.; Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-07-01

    A European Commission sponsored study (RISKPERCOM) involving France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK, is concerned with surveying public perceptions of radiation related and other risks. This was partly done by distributing a questionnaire in each country at three different times in 1996: before, during and after the expected media attention given to the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A selection of print media were analyzed, during a period of eight weeks - four weeks before the anniversary, and four weeks after - making it possible to contrast any changes between the three waves of the questionnaire with the results of the media study. The present report aims at providing a picture of the Swedish media coverage of different kinds of risks during the period referred to above. The purpose of the analysis is thus primarily of a descriptive nature; explanatory factors are only considered in an ad hoc manner while discussing the results and their possible implications. Naturally, the findings arising from this study cannot alone serve as a basis for making statements about the effects of risk related content on the Swedish newspaper readers. The risk stories included in the analysis were those dealing with one or more of the twenty different hazard items referred to in several of the questions in the RISKPERCOM questionnaire. Radiation and nuclear power energy were not the only issues of concern. The selection covered a wide range of other hazards as well, in order to provide for a wide risk panorama, thus making it possible to compare specific risk qualities etc., as these were presented in the media 70 refs, 40 refs

  10. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  11. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  12. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  13. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  15. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  16. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  17. Nuclear Power Feasibility 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Beltrán, José María; Hill, Barrie Frederick; Kadak, Andrew C.; Shultz, Donald F.; Spitalnik, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology and has the potential to generate virtually limitless energy with no significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can become one of the main options to contribute to substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues -high capital costs, the risks posed by ...

  18. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl; Bewertung oekologischer Studien zur Untersuchung des Schilddruesenkrebsrisikos bei Kindern nach Strahlenexposition durch den Kernkraftwerksunfall in Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blettner, M. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Jacob, P.; Kaiser, C.J. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Bertelsmann, H.; Kutschmann, M. [Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through {sup 131}I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and {sup 131}I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses.

  19. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  20. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  1. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-07-15

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  2. Nuclear power in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J. (British Nuclear Forum, London (UK))

    1991-04-01

    The 1990s are turning out to be a most crucial phase for the nuclear industries of Europe. A time of uncertainty, as well as considerable opportunity, lies ahead. Despite a measure of public and political opposition to nuclear power, many are beginning to realise that, as a method of generating electricity that produces only 1% of greenhouse gases compared to coal per unit of electricity, nuclear energy may be the best alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Although advances have been made in renewable energy, nuclear power is still the main non-fossil fuel source that can cope with today's energy demands. (author).

  3. Nuclear Power in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  4. Safety and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-05-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.).

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  6. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-28

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people`s republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear power in our societies; Le nucleaire dans nos societes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C.

    2011-07-01

    Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi are the well known sad milestones on the path toward a broad development of nuclear energy. They are so well known that they have blurred certainly for long in a very unfair way the positive image of nuclear energy in the public eye. The impact of the media appetite for disasters favours the fear and puts aside all the achievements of nuclear sciences like nuclear medicine for instance and all the assets of nuclear power like the quasi absence of greenhouse gas emission or its massive capacity to produce electricity or heat. The unique solution to enhance nuclear acceptance is the reduction of the fear through a better understanding of nuclear sciences by the public. (A.C.)

  9. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  10. Nuclear power industry: Tendencies in the world and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, V. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Pavlovych, V. N.

    2007-11-01

    This review deals with new trends in nuclear reactors physics. It opens by an easily understood introduction to nuclear fission energy physics, starting with some history, including the achievements of the Kharkov nuclear physics school. Attention has been given to the development of fission theory, the Strutinsky theory, and the possible use of “nonstandard” fissile elements. The evolution of the design of nuclear reactors, including the merits and demerits of various structures used worldwide, is given in detail. A detailed description of nuclear power plants operating in Ukraine and their (large!) contribution to Ukraine’s total electricity production as compared with other countries is presented. A comparative evaluation of different energy sources influencing environment contamination and the pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident are presented. The lessons of the Chernobyl accident are summarized, including the features of the shelter (“Sarkofag”) covering the remaining of the power plant fourth block and some examples of calculations of the radioactive evolution of the station’s fuel-containing mass (by authors of the present review). The evolution of traditional nuclear reactors designs set forth under the separate heading of next-generation reactors including new projects such as subcritical assemblies controlled by an external beam of particles (neutrons and protons). The Feoktistov reactor operation and the possibility of its realization are discussed among the new ideas.

  11. Chernobyl and after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J.; Gittus, J.

    1986-10-01

    The paper contains two reports on the Chernobyl post-accident review meeting. The first is a factual account of the meeting, the topics discussed include: the accident, preventative action, outcome of the accident, and future interactions with the Russians on nuclear power issues. This report also describes two Accident Conventions, drawn up at the time of the meeting, which cover notification, information, and commitment of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident. The second report is by a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency, who reviews the accident, health effects, human factors, man-machine interference, positive void coefficient, and handling of the accident by the Soviet Authorities. (U.K.).

  12. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  13. Biomedical Lessons from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    transfusion administered. An intravenous anti- urine and blood were drawn for anal- replacement of blood and blood prod- fungal (amphotericin B) was admin...solely by the gastrointestinal tion-induced keratitis , which regressed several cases. Respiratory infections syndrome. over one to two months without

  14. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  15. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  16. Lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

  17. Overview paper on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  18. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  19. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Umair

    2010-09-15

    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  20. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhaud, G. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station.

  1. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  2. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  3. Let us learn nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Wan Sang

    2006-08-15

    This book teach us nuclear power through nine chapters with recommendation and a prolog. The contents of this book are how did Formi become a scientist? what does atom look like? discover of neutron, what is an isotope?, power in the nuclear, various radiation, artificial nuclear transformation, nuclear fission and clinging atomic nucleus. It also has an appendix on SF story ; an atom bomb war. It explains basic nuclear physic in easy way with pictures.

  4. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  5. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  6. The monitoring of herbaceous seeds in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Frolova, N.P.; Popova, O.N.; Shevchenko, V.A. (AN SSSR, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation). Komi Filial AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Obshchej Genetiki)

    1992-02-01

    Species of wild herbaceous plants growing over a period of 3 years under chronic irradiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident were studied. Examining the mass of 1000 seeds and their germination did not yield any significant differences between groups of seeds of the same species collected from the different contaminated zones. Nor did the frequency of aberrant cells in roots of germinated seeds reveal any significant differences between the zones. Seeds of Plantago lanceolata growing in areas with higher levels of radiation, did appear to be more sensitive to additional gamma-irradiation. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  8. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    world security, economy, environment, prosperity. Fossil fuel carbon emissions are the world’s biggest problem. Renewable energies can already...3 ) pound-force (lbf avoirdupois) 4.448 222 newton (N) Energy /Work/Power electron volt (eV) 1.602 177 × 10 –19 joule (J) erg 1 × 10 –7 joule (J...and Fukushima disasters measured Level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  9. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing was a major mobilizing force in the rise of mass environmental movements in the 1970s and 1980s around the globe. Nevertheless, the historiography of anti-nuclear protest remains largely limited to national stories about...

  10. Photography and nuclear catastrophe. The visual representation of the occurrences in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Chernobyl; Fotografie und atomare Katastrophe. Die visuelle Repraesentation der Ereignisse von Hiroshima/Nagasaki und Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerkner, Daniel

    2014-02-13

    The dissertation project seeks to analyse the photographic positions that deal with the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. This focus includes press photographs of the events as well as artistic, documentary and touristic images that take an approach towards the disasters often years after and hereby form iconographic or material references to the events. The study reveals central strategies for photographic images of atomic catastrophes, be they of military or civil nature. It is the inability to visualize non-visible nuclear rays or the complexity of processes on an atomic level that has turned out to be crucial. This incapacity of making images, a paradigm of invisibility, substantially coins the cultural role of the events. The question of how a society deals with these abstract potentials of nuclear technology has turned out to be always anew of high relevance in regard to ecological, social and technological policies of images.

  11. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chengge; Li Shulan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation, moderate development and active development. So far, there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW. In addition, there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  12. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  13. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  14. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  15. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Walter

    2012-05-01

    The recent claim made in this journal that nuclear bomb tests and the Chernobyl disaster caused distortions in the secondary sex ratio is shown to be a likely artifact of data mining, misused statistics, and misreading of the evidence. In particular, the concept of statistical "significance" and its limitations do not seem to be fully understood, and important confounding factors have not been accounted for.

  16. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  17. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  18. Elimination of nuclear power in Italy - Consequences and future; Avveckling av kaernkraften i Italien - Konsekvenser och framtid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascanzoni, D.

    1995-08-01

    The report describes how the elimination of nuclear power has affected power production, industry and education in Italy. A referendum after the Chernobyl accident led to the phase-out, after 20 years of operation. The most important consequence has been to loss of competence in an area where Italy has been advanced for several years. Industry, in particular, has lost most of its competence, and universities have lost most of the students in reactor technology. Dependence on foreign energy supply is highest among the industrialized countries. The future for nuclear power is also discussed, changes in the political climate can make room for a return of nuclear power. 22 refs, 4 figs.

  19. [Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

    1987-06-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv.

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  1. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  2. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation,moderate development and active development.So far,there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW.In addition,there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  3. Micro-analytical uranium isotope and chemical investigations of zircon crystals from the Chernobyl “lava” and their nuclear fuel inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pöml, P., E-mail: Philipp.POEML@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Burakov, B. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2-nd Murinskiy Ave., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Geisler, T. [Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Walker, C.T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grange, M.L.; Nemchin, A.A. [Department of Applied Geology, Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Berndt, J. [Institut für Mineralogie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Corrensstraße 24, 48149 Münster (Germany); Fonseca, R.O.C. [Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Bottomley, P.D.W.; Hasnaoui, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    U isotope data measured on real fragments of the Chernobyl nuclear fuel included in zircon crystals crystallised from the Chernobyl “lava” are presented for the first time. The U isotope data show no anomalies and lie within the expected burnup values for the Chernobyl nuclear fuel. However, the U concentration, the U isotopic composition, and the Ti concentration in the host zircon vary significantly within single crystals as well as between single crystals. Our results indicate that during the time of melt activity temperature and melt composition likely varied considerably. New melt was formed progressively (and solidified) during the accident that reacted and mixed with pre-existing melt that never fully equilibrated. In such an environment zircon crystals crystallised at temperatures below 1250 °C, as estimated from thermodynamic considerations along with the observation that the centre of the investigated zircon crystal contains monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} inclusions. Since the zircon crystals crystallised before the silicate melt spread out into the reactor block basement, the flow of the melt into the basement must also have occurred at temperatures below 1250 °C.

  4. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  5. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C.C.

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure.

  6. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  7. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear plus greenhouse effect?; 15 ans apres Tchernobyl. Nucleaire plus effet de serre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. [Wise-Paris, 75 (France); Rosen, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2001-04-15

    Today, the argument in favour of nuclear energy is not an economical one nor linked to energy resources but is at the level of climatic change. Nuclear energy is seen as the only energy source without carbon dioxide emissions. A more detailed analysis of greenhouse gases on the life cycle shows that nuclear energy gives as greenhouse gases as big hydroelectric power plants or wind power plants, these emissions are more important than for biogas installations with cogeneration. The strategy of energy efficiency is certainly more competitive than the new reactors in other terms it is more efficiency to reduce the consumption than to increase the nuclear production. (N.C.)

  8. Topics in nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  9. Problems and prospects of nuclear power plants construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergamenshhik Boris Klimentyevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 60 years ago, in July 1954 in the city of Obninsk near Moscow the world's first nuclear power plant was commissioned with a capacity of 5 MW. Today more than 430 nuclear units with a total capacity of almost 375000 MW are in operation in dozens of the countries worldwide. 72 electrical power units are currently under construction, 8 of them are located in the Russian Federation. There will be no alternative to nuclear energy in the coming decades. Among the factors contributing to the construction of nuclear power plants reckon limited fossil fuel supply, lack of air and primarily carbon dioxide emissions. The holding back factors are breakdown, hazard, radioactive wastes, high construction costs and long construction period. Nuclear accidents in the power plant of «Three-Mile-Island» in the USA, in Chernobyl and in Japan have resulted in termination of construction projects and closure of several nuclear power plants in the Western Europe. The safety systems have become more complex, material consumption and construction costs have significantly increased. The success of modern competing projects like EPR-1600, AP1000, ABWR, national ones AES-2006 and VVER-TOI, as well as several others, depends not only on structural and configuration but also on construction and technological solutions. The increase of the construction term by one year leads to growth of estimated total costs by 3—10 %. The main improvement potentials include external plate reinforcement, pre-fabricated large-block assembly, production and installation of the equipment packages and other. One of the crucial success factors is highly skilled civil engineers training.

  10. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  11. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  12. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  13. Nuclear power world report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  14. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective....... This focus issue approaches the phenomenon from a transnational perspective for the first time. Against the backdrop of the debate on transnational history, this article develops a framework of analysis, and contextualizes anti-nuclear protest in a broader postwar perspective. The contributions show...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  15. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  16. The future of nuclear power

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James

    2012-01-01

    Newly conceived, safer reactor designs are being built in the United States (and around the world) to replace the 104 obsolete operating nuclear power reactors in this country alone. The designs--which once seemed exotic and futuristic--are now 40 years old, and one by one these vintage Generation II plants will reach the end of productive service in the next 30 years. The Future of Nuclear Power examines the advanced designs, practical concepts, and fully developed systems that have yet to be used. This book introduces readers to the traditional, American system of units, with some archaic te

  17. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  18. The legacy of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojcun, M.

    1991-04-20

    This article looks at daily life in the Northern Ukraine, where the fallout effects from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident were felt most keenly. High levels of radioactive iodine 131, strontium 90 and caesium 137 are still present five years on and the health of the population, including those evacuated from the exclusion zones, is at risk from leukaemia and thyroid problems, especially among children. Other worrying reports suggest the occurence of a new disease, ''Chernobyl AIDs'', in which sufferers' immune systems are depressed. Other major outstanding problems include the integrity of the concrete sarcophagus enclosing the damaged reactor, and the continued consumption of locally grown contaminated food due to government inadequacies in supplying ''clean'' equivalents. (UK).

  19. TRAC laboratory monitoring of Chernobyl radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, R.A.

    1986-06-09

    A severe accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant number 4 in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1986. An explosion released large amounts of radioactive debris, primarily fission products, to the atmosphere. As winds carried debris from the Soviet Union, scientists in Europe and the United States reported detecting fission product activities in air samples. Monitoring by the Tracking Radioactive Atmospheric Contaminants (TRAC) mobile laboratory showed concentrations in the Southeastern United States were well below those considered hazardous. This document provides details of this monitoring effort.

  20. Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  2. Nuclear Power on Energy Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The big debate on whether or not to use nuclear power as an energy option has raged among countries like the U.S., Britain, and Germany for decades, with not even the advent and threat of global warming forcing a conclusion. China, however, has always stressed energy diversity and been determined to develop and use this alternative energy source.

  3. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  4. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  6. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  7. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  8. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods.

  9. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  10. Incorporation of severe accidents in the licensing of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz, E-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: sidney@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Severe accidents are the result of multiple faults that occur in nuclear power plants as a consequence from the combination of latent failures and active faults, such as equipment, procedures and operator failures, which leads to partial or total melting of the reactor core. Regardless of active and latent failures related to the plant management and maintenance, aspects of the latent failures related to the plant design still remain. The lessons learned from the TMI accident in the U.S.A., Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union and, more recently, in Fukushima, Japan, suggest that severe accidents must necessarily be part of design-basis of nuclear power plants. This paper reviews the normative basis of the licensing of nuclear power plants concerning to severe accidents in countries having nuclear power plants under construction or in operation. It was addressed not only the new designs of nuclear power plants in the world, but also the design changes in plants that are in operation for decades. Included in this list are the Brazilian nuclear power plants, Angra-1, Angra-2, and Angra-3. This paper also reviews the current status of licensing in Brazil and Brazilian standards related to severe accidents. It also discusses the impact of severe accidents in the emergency plans of nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  12. The economics of nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  13. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  14. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  15. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  16. Study of a cohort of Latvian workers having participated to the decontamination of the nuclear site of Chernobyl; Etude d`une cohorte de travailleurs lettons ayant participe a la decontamination du site nucleaire de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, J.F. [Faculte de Medecine de Besancon, 25 (France)

    1999-11-01

    In the consequences attributable to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it is debated whether post-disaster psycho-pathology is related to the perception of the level of contamination or the level of contamination itself. To address this issue, the authors have assessed the association of various exposure mental and psychosomatic distress, on a sample of 1,1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers registry. The outcome considered was a mixed mental/psychosomatic disorder occurring during the time period 1986-1995. Comparisons between subgroups of the cohort, classified according to exposure type or level, were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work ({>=} 28 days) in a 10 km radius from the reactor (relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR 1.46, 95 percent CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR 1.41,95 percent CI 1.19-1.68), and fresh fruits consumption ({>=} 1 time/day) (RR 1.72,95 percent CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental/ psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR 1.82, 95 percent CI 0.89-3.72), is also associated with this outcome, although non significantly. These findings confirm that some exposure variables represent risk factors for mental disorders and suggest some radiation-induced consequences although surely overweight by stress-related effects. (author)

  17. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  18. Nuclear power a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    With the World desperate to find energy sources that do not emit carbon gasses, nuclear power is back on the agenda and in the news, following the increasing cost of fossil fuels and concerns about the security of their future supply. However, the term 'nuclear power' causes anxiety in many people and there is confusion concerning the nature and extent of the associated risks. Here, Maxwell Irvine presents a concise introduction to the development of nuclear physics leading up to the emergence of the nuclear power industry. He discusses the nature of nuclear energy and deals with various aspec

  19. Getting More Out Of Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s first nuclear power plant generated 31 billion kw/h electricity from 1991 to 2007 Major repair work on the first phase of the Qinshan nuclear power plant,which began operation in 1991 as China’s first nuclear power plant,was completed on January 13,2008.The overhaul has improved the reliability and safety of the reactors and given the oper- ators experience for running,repairing

  20. Differences and similarities between behavior of Fukushima-derived and Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Golosov, Valentin; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Takase, Tsugiko; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium (r-Cs) of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of its chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation-remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). R-Cs in the environment is strongly bound to soil and sediment particles containing micaceous clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, etc.). This is associated with two basic processes - high selective reversible sorption and fixation. Climate and geographical conditions for Fukushima Prefecture of Japan and Chernobyl zone differ. For example, the catchments of the Chernobyl zone are flat and characterized by low slopes, while Fukushima's watersheds are hilly with steep slopes. Annual precipitation also differs substantially, with annual average for Fukushima about 3 times higher than at Chernobyl. The soils on the north-east coast of the Honshu island that were primarily affected by the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident differ significantly from the Chernobyl zone soils. The proportion of clays such as illite, vermiculite etc. is 20-30% at Fukushima, which is higher than in the sandy loam soils of the Chernobyl zone. In addition to the landscape differences, the speciation of r-Cs in fallout was also different between Fukushima and Chernobyl. It is a challenge to compare r-Cs behavior in FDNPP and Chernobyl zones. Comparative analysis has been carried out for r-Cs wash-off parameters and the distribution coefficient Kd in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. The r-Cs distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. This suggests higher ability of Fukushima soils and sediments to bind r-Cs. The normalized

  1. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

  2. Monitoring of radionuclides in the vicinities of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1993 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K

    1998-08-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1993-1994 in accordance with the regular programmes. Some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environments of the two power plant sites. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air, deposition and soil samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments. However, the concentrations were so low that they did not significantly increase the radiation burden in the environment. The dominant artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of the power plants remained the cesium isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs but also {sup 134}Cs, originating from the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) 14 refs.

  3. Chernobyl; Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  4. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  5. Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: a new nuclear disaster about to happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Hao, Wei Min; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive contamination in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia after the Chernobyl accident left large rural and forest areas to their own fate. Forest succession in conjunction with lack of forest management started gradually transforming the landscape. During the last 28 years dead wood and litter have dramatically accumulated in these areas, whereas climate change has increased temperature and favored drought. The present situation in these forests suggests an increased risk of wildfires, especially after the pronounced forest fires of 2010, which remobilized Chernobyl-deposited radioactive materials transporting them thousand kilometers far. For the aforementioned reasons, we study the consequences of different forest fires on the redistribution of (137)Cs. Using the time frequency of the fires that occurred in the area during 2010, we study three scenarios assuming that 10%, 50% and 100% of the area are burnt. We aim to sensitize the scientific community and the European authorities for the foreseen risks from radioactivity redistribution over Europe. The global model LMDZORINCA that reads deposition density of radionuclides and burnt area from satellites was used, whereas risks for the human and animal population were calculated using the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model and the computerized software ERICA Tool, respectively. Depending on the scenario, whereas between 20 and 240 humans may suffer from solid cancers, of which 10-170 may be fatal. ERICA predicts insignificant changes in animal populations from the fires, whereas the already extreme radioactivity background plays a major role in their living quality. The resulting releases of (137)Cs after hypothetical wildfires in Chernobyl's forests are classified as high in the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES). The estimated cancer incidents and fatalities are expected to be comparable to those predicted for Fukushima. This is attributed to the fact that the distribution of radioactive fallout after the

  6. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  7. On the possible physical mechanism of Chernobyl catastrophe and the unsoundness of official conclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A; Filippov, D V

    2003-01-01

    The official conclusion about the origin and mechanism of the Chernobyl catastrophe is shown to essentially contradict experimental facts available from the accident. In the frame of existing physical models of nuclear fission reactor, it is shown analytically that under conditions of the accident the period of runaway of reactor at the fourth power generating unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) should be either 10 times slower or 100 times faster than that observed. A self-consistent hypothesis is suggested for the probable birth of magnetic charges, during the turbine generator test under it's own momentum test, at the fourth power generating unit of CNPP, and for the impact of these charges on the reactivity coefficient.

  8. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  9. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  10. Nuclear and radioactivity; Nucleaire et radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Among the industrial risks of nuclear facilities, the nuclear risk is often associated to the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents the nuclear major risk in a french PWR type power plant, with consequences on the personnel, the surrounding population and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  11. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, George W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  12. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  13. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  14. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  15. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  16. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  17. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  18. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  19. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... nuclear material control and accounting system requirements for nuclear power plants. This guide applies... Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' ANSI N15.8-2009...

  20. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L

    2000-05-01

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half time, T{sub eff,eco} of fallout radiocaesium, and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half times, T{sub e} of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of {sup 137}Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for {sup 137}Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average 66{+-}3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81{+-}4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated. The {sup 137}Cs from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s still gave a significant contribution to the total {sup 137}Cs levels in man during the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994). About 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of {sup 137}Cs (3.5-4 Bq/kg) in 1987, was attributed to pre-Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs. The effective ecological half-time for {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8{+-}0.2 y. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 0.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m{sup 2}. These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the Lund reference group in

  1. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  2. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  3. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident.

  4. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  5. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  6. The Role of Nuclear Power in Eurpoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The World Energy Council has published the results of an in-depth review of the current state of nuclear power in Europe, and the possible role of this energy source in Europe's energy future. This regional study combines policy insights, technical details and an analysis of the potential for nuclear as a part of the energy-mix.

  7. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  9. Deposition of artificial radionuclides from atmospheric Nuclear Weapon Tests estimated by soil inventories in French areas low-impacted by Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Gael, E-mail: gael.leroux@ensat.f [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, DEI/SESURE, Laboratoires d' Etudes Radioecologiques en milieu Continental et Marin, CEN Cadarache Bat. 153 BP 3, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Duffa, Celine; Vray, Francoise; Renaud, Philippe [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, DEI/SESURE, Laboratoires d' Etudes Radioecologiques en milieu Continental et Marin, CEN Cadarache Bat. 153 BP 3, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2010-03-15

    Soil inventories of anthropogenic radionuclides were investigated in altitudinal transects in 2 French regions, Savoie and Montagne Noire. Rain was negligible in these 2 areas the days after the Chernobyl accident. Thus anthropogenic radionuclides are coming hypothetically only from Global Fallout following Atmospheric Nuclear Weapon Tests. This is confirmed by the isotopic signatures ({sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu; {sup 137}Cs/{sup 239+240}Pu; and {sup 241}Am/{sup 239+240}Pu) close to Global Fallout value. In Savoie, a peat core age-dated by {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} confirmed that the main part of deposition of anthropogenic radionuclides occurred during the late sixties and the early seventies. In agreement with previous studies, the anthropogenic radionuclide inventories are well correlated with the annual precipitations. However, this is the first time that a study investigates such a large panel of annual precipitation and therefore of anthropogenic radionuclide deposition. It seems that at high-altitude sites, deposition of artificial radionuclides was higher possibly due to orographic precipitations.

  10. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-03-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  11. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  12. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, M.; Ostroumova, E.; Brenner, A.; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Tronko, M.; Mabuchi, K

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium – heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well-established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much les...

  13. Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: Reducing impact on public mind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kakodkar; Ram Kumar Singh

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear energy professionals need to understand and address the catastrophe syndrome that of late seems to be increasingly at work in public mind in the context of nuclear energy. Classically the nuclear power reactor design and system evolution has been based on the logic of minimization of risk to an acceptable level and its quantification based on a deterministic approach and backed up by a further assessment based on the probabilistic methodology. However, in spite of minimization of risk, the reasons for anxiety and trauma in public mind that still prevails in the context of severe accidents needs to be understood and addressed. Margins between maximum credible accidents factored in the design and the ultimate load withstanding capacities of relevant systems need to be enhanced and guaranteed with a view to minimize release of radioactivity and avoid serious impact in public domain. A more realistic basis for management of an accident in public domain also needs to be quantified for this purpose. Assurance to public on limiting the consequences to a level that does not lead to a trauma is something that we need to be able to credibly demonstrate and confirm. The findings from Chernobyl reports point to significant psychological effects and related health disorders due to large scale emergency relocation of people that could have been possibly reduced by an order of magnitude without significant additional safety detriment. A combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches should be evolved further to minimize consequences in public domain through enhancing safety margins and adding greater precision to quantitatively predicting accident progression and its management. The paper presents the case studies of the extreme external event such as tsunami and its impact on the coastal nuclear plants in India, the containment integrity assessment under the extreme internal event of over-pressurization and aircraft impact along with hydrogen deflagration

  14. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium: Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in Southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaf, Christopher Leopold

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South-Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund (55.7°N, 13.2°E) between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half-time, Teff,eco, of fallout radiocaesium and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half-times, Ts, of 137Cs and 40K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of 137Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of 137Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for 137Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average (+/-1 WSE), 66 +/- 3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81 +/- 4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated in the group during the post-Chernobyl study period. The effective ecological half-time for 137Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8 +/- 0.2 y. The aggregate transfer of 137Cs from deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 1.7 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2. These vales may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the reference group in the 1960s, and an aggregate transfer factor of 9.8 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2. The average committed effective dose from ingested 137Cs Chernobyl fallout in the study group was estimated to be 0.02 mSv and from the nuclear weapons fallout to 0.20 mSv. The estimates of whole-body content of 137Cs in the Russian subjects obtained through

  15. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  16. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  17. Nuclear power development and nuclear data activities in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui Ah Auu [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, research activities on nuclear power requirement carried out jointly by MINT and other organizations are described. Also discussed are activities on neutronics such as TRIGA reactor fuel management, storage pool criticality, and reactor fuel transfer cask calculations. In addition, recent work on radiation transport activities in MINT such as skyshine and photon phantom dose calculations using the MCNP and MRIPP computer codes are presented. Finally, nuclear data measurement works by researchers in Malaysian universities are described. (author)

  18. Urinary bladder lesions after the chernobyl accident. Immunohistochemical assessment of p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and p21[sup WAF1/Cip1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A.; Zaparin, W.; Vinnichenko, W.; Vozianov, A. (Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)); Lee, C.C.R.; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hori, Taka-aki; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Fukushima, Shoji

    1999-02-01

    During the 11-year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium-137 ([sup 137]Cs) accounts for 80-90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21[sup WAF1/Cip1], cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucosa of 55 males (49-92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so-called ''clean'' areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addition, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21[sup WAF1/Cip1], was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. (author)

  19. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  20. Studies of Fourteen Nuclear-Powered Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J. N.; McCulloch, J. C.; Schmill, W. C.; Ward, W. H.

    1952-09-01

    A representative series of aircraft which could be powered by a relatively low-temperature liquid-coolant-cycle nuclear power plant are described. Present aircraft such as the B-36, B-52, and B-47 bombers as well as new designs were investigated. Design and performance characteristics of all the aircraft are presented.

  1. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant... with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  2. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16,...

  3. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The nuclear power discussion in change. Nuclear controversy has shifted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, Wolf J.; Popp, Manfred

    2015-07-15

    The public discussion on nuclear energy is not focused on power plant safety anymore. A globally good safety statistic and years of information activity on safety technology provided progress, even though all incidents are still discussed with great dedication. Nevertheless the field of disposal receives more prominence in public discussions since 1976; reprocessing of irradiated fuels and storage of nuclear waste follow the topic of nuclear power plants with temporary shift. During a long preparation time technical and operational know-how was gathered for both fields that is now available for use on large technical scale. For the entire disposal complex exists a comprehensive concept prepared by the federal government, which has to be put into practice together with the industry. The priority assignment for a dialogue with the public is to comprehensively inform on extend and quality of problem solutions and to highlight that even here the safety of the biological-cycle is the guiding principle for all considerations.

  7. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  8. Nuclear Power: Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lianyi; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant started, China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing, and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development. In this course, China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  9. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  10. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  11. The Fundamentals and Status of Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear power has enormous potential to provide clean, safe base-load electricity to the world's growing population. Harnessing this potential in an economic and responsible manner is not without challenges. Safety remains the principal tenet of our operating fleet, which currently provides ˜20% of U.S. electricity generated. The performance of this fleet from economic and safety standpoints has improved dramatically over the past several decades. This nuclear generation also represents greater than 70% of the emission free electricity with hydroelectric power providing the majority of the remainder. There have been many lessons learned from the more than 50 years of experience with nuclear power and these have been factored into the new designs now being constructed worldwide. These new designs, which have enhanced safety compared to the operating fleet, have been simplified by employing passive safety systems and modular construction. There are applications for licenses of more than 20 new reactors under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the first of these licenses will be completed in early 2012, and the first new U.S. reactor will start operating in 2016. Yet there are still more improvements that can be made and these are being pursued to achieve an even greater deployment of nuclear power technology.

  12. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  13. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  14. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  15. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  16. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome.

  17. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  18. Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant

  19. CLAD CARBIDE NUCLEAR FUEL, THERMIONIC POWER, MODULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The general objective is to evaluate a clad carbide emitter, thermionic power module which simulates nuclear reactor installation, design, and...performance. The module is an assembly of two series-connected converters with a single common cesium reservoir. The program goal is 500 hours

  20. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  1. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  2. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  3. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-09-01

    The appropriateness of the initial response and countermeasures taken following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 should be further examined. Implementation of a prospective epidemiological study on human health risks from low-dose radiation exposure and comprehensive health protection from radiation should be emphasized on a basis of the lessons learnt from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In contrast, the doses to a vast majority of the population in Fukushima were not high enough to expect to see any increase in incidence of cancer and health effects in the future, however, public concerns about the long-term health effects of radioactive environmental contamination have increased in Japan. Since May 2011, the Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project with the purpose of long-term health care administration and early medical diagnosis/treatment for prefectural residents. In this report, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence after nuclear accidents, especially due to early exposure of radioactive iodine, will be focused upon to understand the current situation of risk of thyroid cancer in Fukushima, and the difficult challenges surrounding accurate estimations of low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures will be discussed.

  5. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  6. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  7. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  8. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  9. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  10. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  11. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  12. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  13. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  14. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  15. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  17. Chernobyl operators: criminals or victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munipov, V M

    1992-10-01

    The blame for the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been variously attributed to the operating personnel, the plant management, the design of the reactor, and the lack of adequate safety information in the Soviet nuclear industry. This paper considers a number of design faults, operational shortcomings and human errors that combined in the accident. It examines the sequence of events leading up to the accident, design problems in the reactor and cooling rods, and the course of the accident itself. It considers the ergonomics aspects, and expresses the view that the main cause of the accident was inadequate human-machine interaction. Finally, it stresses the continuing inadequacies of the Soviet nuclear system, and emphasizes that unless the ergonomics lessons are fully learned, a similar disaster could still occur.

  18. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  19. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background First.... NFP-58, which authorizes operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the...

  20. Perceived risk of nuclear power and other risks during the last 25 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Reiko; Tsuji, Satsuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2012-04-01

    The present study described the results of three "fixed-point" surveys on perceived risk related to a list of social and individual risk events during 25 years in Japan. Female clerical staff and researchers were asked to rank 30 items related to various types of technologies and human activities according to their subjective judgments on the order of perceived magnitude of risk in 1983, 1992, and 2007. A similar survey was undertaken for Japanese citizens using web-based questionnaires in 2007. In general, the risk perceptions of the Japanese people, irrespective of gender, age, and occupation, have been uniform during the last 25 years. The female clerical staffs have consistently judged nuclear power as most risky during the last 25 years, whereas researchers' judgment fluctuated with events such as the Chernobyl accident. The ranking of the risk of motor vehicles fell during the 25-y period, whereas those of health risks with food preservatives, x-rays, and antibiotics rose transiently in the 1992 survey. During the 15 years from 1992 to 2007, people tended to learn how to accommodate themselves to these technologies with low risks in exchange for high benefits, except in the case of nuclear power. Nuclear power was regarded as a high-risk item by the Japanese even before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. This partly explains that the crisis inevitably provokes further high risk perception in Japan, although the overall health threat to the human population in Japan is estimated to be relatively limited so far.

  1. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  2. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  4. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  5. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  6. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  7. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  8. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  9. Key issues in space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  10. The Resurgence of U.S. Nuclear Power, 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The updated report provides an overview of the opportunities for nuclear power in the U.S. electric industry, including a concise look at the challenges faced by nuclear power, the ability of advanced nuclear reactors to address these challenges, and the current state of nuclear power generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of U.S. Nuclear Power including its history, the current market environment, and the future of nuclear power in the U.S.; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in nuclear power; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of new nuclear power plants; a description of nuclear power technology including existing reactors, as well as 3rd and 4th generation reactor designs; a review of the economics of new nuclear power projects and comparison to other generation alternatives; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting nuclear power development; profiles of the key reactor manufacturers participating in the U.S. nuclear power market; and, profiles of the leading U.S. utilities participating in the U.S. nuclear power market.

  11. Nuclear power: Is the renaissance real or a mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.-Holger; McDonald, Alan

    2010-09-15

    In 2009, in the midst of the global financial and economic crises that began in 2008, and as the nuclear power industry posted its first two-year decline in installed capacity in history, the IAEA revised its projections for future nuclear power growth upwards. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power in the world today and the status of all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle. It summarizes nuclear power's prospects and important trends in key factors. It explains the reasons for optimism and rising expectations about nuclear power's future, and it acknowledges that there is, nonetheless, much uncertainty.

  12. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  13. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  14. Analysis of the results of environmental monitoring in Spain after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents; Analisis de los resultados de la vigilancia radiologica ambiental en Espana tras los accidentes de Chernobil y Fukusima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Salas Collantes, R.; Rey del castillo, C.; Marugar tovar, I.; Sterling carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L.; Lorente Lorente, P.

    2013-07-01

    As a result of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plants, CSN launched special surveillance devices to monitor radioactive contamination through the values provided by the various networks and environmental monitoring programs. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the results corresponding to the exposure pathways and matrices in which contamination is detected. (Author)

  15. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management-global radiocontamination and information disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-06-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Fukushima Health Management Survey Project" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management.

  16. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  17. Nuclear Power:Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No.1 Nuclear Power Plant started,China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing,and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development.In this course,China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  18. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  19. Internal Mainland Nuclear Power Liquid Waste Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU; Xin-feng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao; ZHENG; Wen-jun; WANG; Lei; YANG; Lin-yue; HUA; Xiao-hui; ZHENG; Yu; YANG; Yong-gang; WU; Yan

    2013-01-01

    Taohuajiang power station is the first internal mainland nuclear power station,and it adopts AP1000nuclear technology belongs to the Westinghouse Electric Corporation.To ensure the safety of the environment around the station and satisfy the radio liquid waste discharge standards,our team has researched the liquid waste treatment technology for the internal mainland nuclear power plant.According

  20. Operational monitoring in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, A. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Suedwest e.V., Filderstadt (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [GKN Neckarwestheim, Im Steinbruch, Neckarwestheim, D-74382 (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Act requires that measures made feasible by state of the art technology be adopted to avoid damage that could be caused as the result of the construction and operation of a nuclear plant. This stipulation constitutes the basis for deriving requirements for planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Ensuring the function and integrity of those components and systems that are relevant to plant safety is of major significance with regard to operation of a nuclear power plant. The basis for ensuring these features is laid in planning, design and construction. Important as these foundations may be, it is absolutely essential to monitor the quality originally planned and achieved in an object as undeniably complex as a nuclear power plant. The RSK-Leitlinien fuer Druckwasserreaktoren (Reactor Safety Commission Guidelines for Pressurized Water Reactors) incorporate fundamental requirements for design, mechanical design, materials, manufacturing, testing and examination, and operation. Meeting these requirements makes it possible to exclude a catastrophic rupture of the components in the reactor cooling system pressure boundary (primary system), as has been demonstrated in detailed research and development work. The term basic safety was defined for this concept. Basic safety coupled with multiple redundancy suffices to exclude the possibility of large ruptures (rupture preclusion). The principle of plant monitoring and documentation (operational monitoring) implements redundancy in a significant manner within this concept. The monitoring techniques used in Germany have reached an advanced state of development and are still being optimized. Thus, operational monitoring is a major contributory factor in the safety and high availability of nuclear power plants. It also provides a means of expanding our knowledge of life time expectation. (orig.).

  1. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  2. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles.

  3. Post-crisis efforts towards recovery and resilience after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    One of the well-known radiation-associated late-onset cancers is childhood thyroid cancer as demonstrated around Chernobyl apparently from 1991. Therefore, immediately after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, iodine thyroid blocking was considered regardless of its successful implementation or not at the indicated timing and places as one of the radiation protection measurements, in addition to evacuation and indoor sheltering, because a short-lived radioactive iodine was massively released into the environment which might crucially affect thyroid glands through inhalation and unrestricted consumption of contaminated food and milk. However, very fortunately, it is now increasingly believed that the exposure doses on the thyroid as well as whole body are too low to detect any radiation-associated cancer risk in Fukushima. Although the risk of radiation-associated health consequences of residents in Fukushima is quite different from that of Chernobyl and is considerably low based on the estimated radiation doses received during the accident for individuals, a large number of people have received psychosocial and mental stresses aggravated by radiation fear and anxiety, and remained in indeterminate and uncertain situation having been evacuated but not relocated. It is, therefore, critically important that best activities and practices related to recovery and resilience should be encouraged, supported and implemented at local and regional levels. Since psychosocial well-being of individuals and communities is the core element of resilience, local individuals, health professionals and authorities are uniquely positioned to identify and provide insight into what would provide the best resolution for their specific needs.

  4. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  5. Chernobyl-what do we need to know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor No.4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes on April 26, 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols, and gases (including iodine and caesium) are ejected into the atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant (Belarus, Ukraine) but deposits are very uneven, producing a 'leopard spot' type of pattern (Russian Federation). In Europe, propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives over France. The eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. For the contamination, ground, water, and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. In France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. It is hard to assess the impact on health in the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant; among children in southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. The doses delivered in France represent generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor No.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provide for december 2000. (N.C.)

  6. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  7. Future Expectation for China's Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China:the future of nuclear power Wang Yonggan:In terms of the highlighted issue of energy security,oil is of paramount importance,coal is the foundation and electricity is the pivot according to China's energy strategy.The national total installed power capacity will hit a record high of 900 GW in 2010,and will probably approach 1 500 GW in 2020 when coal-fired power will continue to dominate,and alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,and others will take up only 30% at most.Therefore,China remains in dire need to create more room for alternative energy.To solve this problem,solutions should be found in the diversification of energy,especially large-scale development of alternative energy,by which a lowered-and ultimately zeroed-growth of coal-fired generating units could be realized,and the target of low,even zero carbon emission could come true.

  8. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  9. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  10. Nuclear Power and the World's Energy Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, V; Dunning-Davies, J

    2004-01-01

    The global requirements for energy are increasing rapidly as the global population increases and the under-developed nations become more advanced. The traditional fuels used in their traditional ways will become increasingly unable to meet the demand. The need for a review of the energy sources available is paramount, although the subsequent need to develop a realistic strategy to deal with all local and global energy requirements is almost as important. Here attention will be restricted to examining some of the claims and problems of using nuclear power to attempt to solve this major question.

  11. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  12. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear..., construction, operation and maintenance of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000), the APR1400...

  13. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  14. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  15. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  16. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  17. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subki, I.M.; Arbie, B.; Adiwardojo; Seotrisnanto, A.Y. [National Atomic Enegy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  18. Nutherm: A small thermionic nuclear power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.H.; Brown, G.B. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., P.O. Box 158, Madison, Pennsylvania 15663 (United States)); Blackmon, J.B.; Drubka, R.E. (McDonnell Douglas Space System Company, 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, California 92647 (United States)); Hartenstine, J.R. (Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Road, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17601 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    NUTHERM is a 40 kWe space nuclear thermionic power supply with a design life of ten full power years. Thermionic conversion is achieved by Thermionic Heat Pipe Modules (THPM's) located in a central cylindrical channel in each fuel assembly. Heat is transferred by thermal radiation from the fuel to the tungsten emitter and is removed by the molybdenum heat pipe, which also acts as the current collector. The core consists of 61 prismatic graphite-UC (ZrC coated) fuel assemblies. Fifty-seven fuel assemblies carry the THPM's and four contain shutdown rods to prevent criticality in case of reentry and water immersion. A moveable beryllium reflector, which is split in the center with independent electric motor drives for each section, provides reactivity control. The payload is shielded by an optimized, conical, multilayer shield consisting of lithium hydride, boron carbide, stainless steel, and tungsten.

  19. International nuclear power status 2002; International kernekraftstatus 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  20. International nuclear power status 2001; International kernekraftstatus 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  1. The Educational Effects of basic Nuclear Power and Radiation Education on Elementary-, Middle-, and High-School Students in 2012-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Seung Koo; Choi, Yoon Seok; Hahm, Young Kyu; Lee, Ji Eun; Han, Eun Ok [Department of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Due to the cognitive anchoring of both powerful and negative images, such as those concerning the Chernobyl accident and the Fukushima nuclear accident, as well as insufficient post-accident management following such events, the general population's perception of risk regarding technology or institutions related to nuclear energy is heavily affected by the occurrence of these nuclear accidents. Because the acceptability of local and general residents serves as a prerequisite to nuclear power institutions and policies, increasing the social acceptability of nuclear power is important in South Korea, where the continuous use of nuclear power is necessary for the security of its nationwide energy supply and economic growth. By focusing education regarding nuclear power generation and radiation use on elementary-, middle-, and high-school students, who will, out of the general population, likely experience some of the greatest ripple effects from this focused education, the relationship between perception, knowledge, and attitude regarding nuclear power generation and radiation were then analyzed. The goals of this analysis were to help form an extensive and national social consensus regarding nuclear power generation and radiation use that is appropriate to South Korea, and improve the understanding and public perceptions of the aforementioned technology of the people of South Korea. In order for radiation technology to power national developments through the next generation, understanding and acceptance of for radiation technology by the general population must come first. In order to effectively provide data about this understanding and acceptance, elementary-, middle-, and high-school students all of whom will constitute the majority of public opinion in the near future were provided basic education regarding radiation use and nuclear power. Their perceptions before and after the intervention, as well as their knowledge and attitude as based on traditional

  2. International nuclear power status 1999; International kernekraftstatus 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report isthe sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  3. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  4. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  5. Nuclear Power Important for China’s Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Will China change its nuclear power development goal after the nuclear crisis in Japan? Yu Zhouping, former Head othe Chinese Delegation to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),and Tian jiashu, Director of the Nuclea Safety Center under the Ministry of Environmental Protection believe thatChina’s nuclear power

  6. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  7. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  8. [The radioecology of the grapevine. 2. Effects of the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl on the radioactivity in the soil, leaves, grapes and wine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Diehl, J F

    1991-04-01

    Natural (tritium, 14C, 40K, 226Ra) and man-made radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs, 137Cs) were determined in soil (top 30 cm), vine leaves, grapes and wine in eight locations of the most important viticultural regions in the Federal Republic of Germany. The results obtained in 1983-1985 have been published previously. Part II of this study presents results obtained in 1986 and 1987, i.e. after the reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Soviet Union. The mean content of 137Cs before (after) Chernobyl was 4 (9) Bq/kg dry matter in soil, 0.07 (3) Bq/kg fresh matter in leaves, 0.02 (0.4) Bq/kg in grapes, and 0.008 (0.9) Bq/L in wine. As compared with 1986, distinctly lower levels were found in leaves, grapes and wine in 1987. In 1986 the content of 134Cs was about half that of 137Cs. Owing to its shorter half-life, 134Cs was below the detection limit in many of the 1987 samples. Transfer factors such as from soil to leaves and from soil to grapes for caesium agreed well in 1983-1985 and 1987, but showed considerable deviations in 1986, due to the ubiquitous contamination of the environment. Results of 90Sr determinations confirmed other reports showing this radionuclide to be a very minor contributor to the total radioactivity released at Chernobyl. No effect of the reactor accident on levels of the other radionuclides was detected.

  9. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or

  10. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  11. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  12. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry; L'entree de la Pologne dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidez, J. [CEA/Ambassade de France a Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  13. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-15

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2007; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2008-05-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2007 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  16. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  17. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005; Kernekraft of nuklear sikkerhed 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-15

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  18. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  19. A Study on the Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Power Caused by Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwon [Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It would be necessary to utilize the economic competitiveness of the generation cost calculated based on the previous power plant generation cost and the overall safety related costs taken into account after the Fukushima incident, i. e. expenses related to safety facilities, legal restrictions, environmental expenses and social expenses for the mid and long-term strategy establishment of energy. The above conclusion is premised on utilizing the levelized generation cost method, base load operation (based on a certain utilization rate), straight-line depreciation method, etc. However, this thesis would be significantly meaningful at this point where the general public, including civic groups, etc. are concerned with the economic feasibility and safety of nuclear power plant, and that even after considering the social expenses such as safety related expenses after the Fukushima incident, the generation cost of nuclear power plant still remains competitive.

  20. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  1. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy.

  2. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaff, K; Lorenzoni, I; Pidgeon, N F; Poortinga, W; Simmons, P

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, human influence on the climate through increased use of fossil fuels has become widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues for the global community. For the United Kingdom, we suggest that these concerns have increasingly become manifest in a new strand of political debate around energy policy, which reframes nuclear power as part of the solution to the need for low-carbon energy options. A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey. The data allow us to explore how UK citizens might now and in the future interpret and make sense of this new framing of nuclear power--which ultimately centers on a risk-risk trade-off scenario. We use the term "reluctant acceptance" to describe how, in complex ways, many focus group participants discursively re-negotiated their position on nuclear energy when it was positioned alongside climate change. In the concluding section of the paper, we reflect on the societal implications of the emerging discourse of new nuclear build as a means of delivering climate change mitigation and set an agenda for future research regarding the (re)framing of the nuclear energy debate in the UK and beyond.

  3. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  4. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  5. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  6. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  7. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  8. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  9. Nuclear power's mysterious afterlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-10

    As the number of nuclear reactors which have reached the end of their service life or will do so by the end of the 1990s grows, nuclear power plant decommissioning is becoming a major issue. A table shows more than thirty reactors in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the UK are candidates for decommissioning. Definite plans and cost estimates are being demanded of the plant owners. However it is becoming clear that even the USA, which has the greatest decommissioning experience, has not had to deal with the large reactors which now have to be dealt with. The experience and progress of decommissioning in the UK, France, Germany and the rest of Europe is reviewed. Problems of disposing of the mainly low-level radio-active wastes generated by decommissioning are discussed. The estimation of costs has become complicated by the idea of discounting costs which means relatively small sums set aside now will be sufficient to pay for the decommissioning in the decades to come. (UK).

  10. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  11. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  12. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License... M.S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is...

  13. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  14. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on wildlife: what knowledge have we gained between the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Nicholas A; Copplestone, David

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions over the effects of radiation in the environment. This article considers what we have learned about the radiological consequences for the environment from the Chernobyl accident, Ukraine, in April 1986. The literature offers mixed opinions of the long-term impacts on wildlife close to the Chernobyl plant, with some articles reporting significant effects at very low dose rates (below natural background dose rate levels in, for example, the United Kingdom). The lack of agreement highlights the need for further research to establish whether current radiological protection criteria for wildlife are adequate (and to determine if there are any implications for human radiological protection).

  16. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  17. Chernobyl Studies Project: Working group 7.0, Environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, March--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    In April 1988, the US and the former-USSR signed a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety; this MOC was a direct result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 and the following efforts by the two countries to implement a joint program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. A Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) was formed to implement the MOC. The JCCCNRS established many working groups; most of these were the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as far as the US participation was concerned. The lone exception was Working Group 7 on Environmental Transport and Health Effects, for which the US participation was the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of Working Group 7 was succintly stated to be, ``To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` To implement the work DOE then formed two subworking groups: 7.1 to address Environmental Transport and 7.2 to address Health Effects. Thus, the DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project began. The majority of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus is now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are currently working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  18. Nuclear Systems (NS): Kilopower Small Fission Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear power systems enable human and robotic exploration missions to solar system locations where other power system alternatives are infeasible,...

  19. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2003 (in Danish); Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2004-03-01

    The report, 'Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003' (Nuclear power and nuclear safe-ty 2003) is the first report in a new series of annual reports on the international devel-opment of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nu-clear emergency preparedness. The report series is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency and re-places the previous series, 'International kernekraftstatus' (International Nuclear Po-wer Status). The report for 2003 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production and regional trends, development of reactors and emergency management systems, safety-related events with nuclear power production, and international rela-tions and conflicts. (au)

  20. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another.

  1. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  2. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  3. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  4. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  5. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  6. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms collected in Kawauchi Village after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Nakashima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known from the experience after the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant that radiocesium tends to concentrate in wild mushrooms. In this study, we collected wild mushrooms from the Kawauchi Village of Fukushima Prefecture, located within 30 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and evaluated their radiocesium concentrations to estimate the risk of internal radiation exposure in local residents. We found that radioactive cesium exceeding 100 Bq/kg was detected in 125 of 154 mushrooms (81.2%. We calculated committed effective doses based on 6,278 g per year (age > 20 years, 17.2 g/day, the average intake of Japanese citizens, ranging from doses of 0.11–1.60 mSv, respectively. Although committed effective doses are limited even if residents eat contaminated foods several times, we believe that comprehensive risk-communication based on the results of the radiocesium measurements of food, water, and soil is necessary for the recovery of Fukushima after this nuclear disaster.

  7. Agriculture and food production after a nuclear power accident; Jordbruk och livsmedelsproduktion efter en kaernenergiolycka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvsand, T. [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence; Finck, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Preuthun, J. [Swedish Board of Agriculture, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Svensson, Kettil [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    In a situation with radioactive fall-out in agricultural areas in Sweden, many organisations will be engaged. The authorities in the field of agriculture and food will give advices and recommendations, the producers will see to their interests, the consumers will react and researchers and experts will be engaged. A combined game and seminar was carried through in the city of Huskvarna 17 - 18 March, 1998 with participation from the responsible authorities: Swedish Board of Agriculture, National Food Administration, Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and from producers, organisations and the government and with researchers and people from contract laboratories. The game and seminar was based upon a scenario with a release of radioactivity from the nuclear power plant of Ignalina in early July and focused on the threat phase and the time close to the deposition. The release and the weather condition resulted in a deposition of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 131}I in agricultural areas in southern Sweden. The biggest levels of deposition took place in the county of Oestergoetland, where the resulting levels were three times the highest levels in Sweden after the Chernobyl-accident The seminar combined lectures, group-work and discussions and actualised a great number of issues that should be further investigated. The report ends with a factual part about possible countermeasures in agriculture 13 refs, 6 figs

  8. Detection of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident radioactive traces in Monaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, M K; Eriksson, M; Levy, I; Nies, H; Osvath, I; Betti, M

    2012-12-01

    Daily air monitoring of radionuclides in the Principality of Monaco (43°73'N, 7°43'E) after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed that only Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Caesium isotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were detected. The peak of (131)I varied and reached its maximum between March 29th and April 5th, meanwhile both peaks of (134)Cs and (137)Cs arrived later and attained a maximum between April 1st and 4th. Their maximum activity concentrations in air were 354, 30, and 37 μBq m(-3) respectively. The (134)Cs to (137)Cs activity ratio was close to 1, which is different from that one observed after the Chernobyl accident (around 0.54). Up to 95% of caesium isotopes were washed out by wet scavenging during 27-28th of March, where the maximum deposition rates of (134)Cs and (137)Cs (13.7 and 19.1 mBq m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were observed. The significant input of (134)Cs and (137)Cs into the Mediterranean seawater column (30 m depth) was detected later, on the 24th of May. Radioisotopes of caesium and iodine were found far above the applied detection limits, but still with no concern for harmful radiation exposure and public health. The contamination gradually decreased in air and activity concentrations returned to background values after one or two months.

  9. International nuclear power status 2000; International kernekraftstatus 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  10. Nuclear power policy as a differential game

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines nuclear energy output in a differential game framework involving two countries. The countries differ regarding nuclear technology with one being relatively safe and the other less safe. Simulation of a numerical model gives the following results, (i) A cooperative agreement will imply less use of nuclear energy compared with both a noncooperative Nash equilibrium and an uncontrolled market solution, (ii) The country with relatively safe nuclear energy technology benefits m...

  11. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  12. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  13. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  14. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Volkanovski; Leon Cizelj

    2014-01-01

    The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear ...

  16. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  17. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  18. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  19. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  20. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  1. Lessons from Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The ag...

  2. Chernobyl: the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-08-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  3. [Comparative analysis of semiotic shifts, established by LCS of blood plasma from random samples of studied subjects from the zone of the Chernobyl accident, "Ural Radiation Trace", and collaborators from St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Selezneva, T N; Akleev, A V; Pashkov, I A; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    Using the developed "semiotic" classifier of laser correlation spectra of blood plasma the authors have carried out the verification of organism states of patients from the zone of Chernobyl accident, "Ural radiation trace" and collaborators from Sanct-Petersbourg Institute of Nuclear Physics. An analysis of results obtained using accidental selections which differed as to the character of radiation injury evidences for high informativeness of "semiotic" classifier of laser correlation spectra of blood plasma.

  4. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  5. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document

  6. Resource Needs for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. B. Nyarko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is a proven technology that has served humanity for the past fifty years. It has provided electricity for several countries and shall continue to serve as a viable base load source of electric power. The need for skilled human resources for nuclear practice cannot be overlooked in the quest of any nation to adopt the technology. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and the University of Ghana in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency have thus started a Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences to provide the human resources needed for nuclear power generation in Ghana. The School currently offers second degree courses as well as doctor of philosophy courses. Financial, land and water resource needs for nuclear power generation have been discussed. Availability of the national grid due to the deregulation of the electric power sector has also been discussed. Nuclear Fuel availability has been discussed along with the steps Ghana has to go through to obtain the technology to her development. The legal and legislative framework for nuclear power generation has also been presented. The programs currently available from the IAEA to assist Ghana to develop nuclear power have also been discussed. Conclusions have been drawn based on the discussions made.

  7. Uranium comparison by means of AMS and ICP-MS and Pu and 137Cs results around an Italian Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cesare M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy built and commissioned 4 nuclear power plants between 1958-1978, which delivered a total of 1500 MW. All four were closed down after the Chernobyl accident following a referendum in 1987. One of the plants was Garigliano, commissioned in 1959. This plant used a 160 MW BWR1 (SEU of 2.3 % and was operational from 1964 to 1979, when it was switched off for maintenance. It was definitively stopped in 1982, and is presently being decommissioned. We report here details on the chemistry procedure and on the measurements for soil samples, collected up to 4.5 km from the Nuclear Plant. A comparison between uranium (238U concentration as determined by means of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry techniques respectively at the ANU (Australian National University and at the Ecowise company in Canberra, Australia, is reported, as well as 236U and 239;240Pu concentration results detected by AMS. 236U/238U and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios by means of AMS are also provided. A contamination from Chernobyl is visible in the 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratio measurements.

  8. Uranium comparison by means of AMS and ICP-MS and Pu and 137Cs results around an Italian Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.

    2015-04-01

    Italy built and commissioned 4 nuclear power plants between 1958-1978, which delivered a total of 1500 MW. All four were closed down after the Chernobyl accident following a referendum in 1987. One of the plants was Garigliano, commissioned in 1959. This plant used a 160 MW BWR1 (SEU of 2.3 %) and was operational from 1964 to 1979, when it was switched off for maintenance. It was definitively stopped in 1982, and is presently being decommissioned. We report here details on the chemistry procedure and on the measurements for soil samples, collected up to 4.5 km from the Nuclear Plant. A comparison between uranium (238U) concentration as determined by means of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) techniques respectively at the ANU (Australian National University) and at the Ecowise company in Canberra, Australia, is reported, as well as 236U and 239;240Pu concentration results detected by AMS. 236U/238U and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios by means of AMS are also provided. A contamination from Chernobyl is visible in the 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratio measurements.

  9. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered.

  10. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  11. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  12. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on thebehavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e....

  13. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  14. Golden Nuclear Power:A Big Cake of Irresistible Temptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Bo; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ By 2020, the nuclear power installed capacity in China will go up from 8700 MW in 2005 to 40,000 MW. It signifies that30 generating units with a capacity of 1000 MW each will have been built. In fact, the development of nuclear power wants not merely enthusiasm. "The national policy maintains that we should take a road of localized development This is of great benefit to the expansion of nuclear power in China. However, many people still doubt whether the manufacturing capability and level can meet the requirements of nuclear safety, and multiple introductions are not good for digestion and assimilation, so that there exist potential risks in operation, maintenance and technical support," said Zeng Qingxiong, manager of financing section, Daya Bay Financial Company, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. Ltd (CGNPC).

  15. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  16. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningle Yu, Yimei Zhang, Jin Wang, Xingjiang Cao, Xiangyong Fan, Xiaosan Xu, Furu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China.Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted.Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey.Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables.Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power.Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently.

  17. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR...

  18. Heat transfer in the core graphite structures of RBMK nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoglinger, E., E-mail: ernst.knoglinger@a1.net [Am Winklerwald 15, A 4020 Linz (Austria); Wölfl, H., E-mail: herbert.woelfl@tele2.at [Berg, Im Weideland 19, A 4060 Linz (Austria); Kaliatka, A., E-mail: algirdas.kaliatka@lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Proposed solution of heat transfer model from a hollow cylinder to a fluid through narrow duct. • Thermal conductance of annular gaps, filled by two component gas was discussed. • Xenon transient preceding the Chernobyl Accident was analyzed. • Reactivity balance during power manoeuvres and potenrial causes of the accident were discussed. - Abstract: Conductive and combined radiative/conductive gap conductance models are presented and discussed in great detail. The heat resistance concept and an exact solution to the one dimensional heat conduction equation for a 3-region composite hollow cylinder are used to calculate gap conductance in function of gap gas composition and fuel burn up. The study includes the back calculation of a reactor experiment performed at the Ignalina NPP Unit-1 which provides some insight in the function of the RBMK nitrogen supply and regulating device and an investigation of the role the graphite temperature played during the power manoeuvres preceding the Chernobyl Accident.

  19. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  20. Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Publishing, 2006, pp. 55-86; John Diamond and Judy Keen, “Bush’s Daily Intel Briefing Revamped,” USA Today, August 25, 2005, p. A1; Douglas Jehl...India’s 1974 nuclear explosion, which led the principal ex- 470 porters to organize the Nuclear Suppliers Group to exercise some control over the spread

  1. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2010-05-15

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  4. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. (eds.); Oelgaard, P.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Israelson, C.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. [Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nonboel, E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2012-07-15

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  6. A preliminary study on the cultural differences between Korean and Japanese organizations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ingyu [Hanshin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Giang [Sol Bridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The meltdowns of the Chernobyl and Fukushima I nuclear reactors are fundamentally linked to their organizational characteristics, as they caused severe social and economic disruptions with equally significant environmental and health related impacts. This shows that we have to find practical solutions to reactor safety from various organizational standpoints by introducing a systematic approach to the issue of organizational deficiencies and human errors. We posit that one of the fundamental causes of organizational deficiencies can be derived from an organizational culture. An organizational culture has both formal and informal types. Generally, organizational culture refers to the common beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and language systems that organizational members use when they add meaning to their organizational behavior within their specific organizations. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we are interested in finding internal contradictions between Korean organizational culture and U.S.-derived organizational safety mechanisms applied to the operation of Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). We want to discern safety related problems that are thought to have occurred routinely within the parameters of Korean NPPs owing to the use of U.S. safety mechanisms. Second, we compare the Korean and Japanese organizational culture in NPP mainly on safety and comfort cultures in order to cope with the cultural problems. Third, we want to propose an alternative model of safety mechanisms that are more appropriate for Korean organizational culture, using a system dynamic model that we devised based on empirical observations from the NPPs and factors drawn from the extant literature as compared with Japanese organizational culture.

  7. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  8. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  9. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  10. The Politics of Nuclear Power and Waste Storage in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)), e-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2010-09-15

    A complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors makes anticipating the scale and scope of nuclear power expansion difficult for both established and aspiring nuclear nations. In response, this article investigates the forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We define 'socio-political economy' as the dynamic forces of state and society which influence the nuclear power industry. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France (with supplemental insights from the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States). This emergent framework posits that strong state involvement in guiding economic development, centralization of national energy planning, campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, subordination of challenges to political authority, and low levels of civic activism were influential factors in supporting the expansion of nuclear power in France. These six catalysts create conducive conditions in unique ways. First, a history of strong government intervention in guiding the direction of economic development is a requisite condition seemingly because nuclear power is a 'socio--technically inflexible' technology that requires a high degree of supply chain coordination which only the government is capable of unifying. Second, a highly centralized energy sector infuses the requisite control for planning and implementing a sustained expansion of nuclear power in the midst of a politicized environment. Third, the presence of a government strategy that attempts to link technological developments to a national renaissance fosters the formation of a national culture which tolerates risks associated with risk-prone technologies. Fourth, the dominance of a technocratic approach to policymaking appears

  11. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andrew S.; Kuma, Manish [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Seismic isolation is a viable strategy for protecting safety-related nuclear structures from the effects of moderate to severe earthquake shaking. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The funding by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a research project to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and MCEER/University at Buffalo facilitated the writing of a soon-to-be-published NUREG on seismic isolation. Funding of MCEER by the National Science Foundation led to research products that provide the technical basis for a new section in ASCE Standard 4 on the seismic isolation of safety-related nuclear facilities. The performance expectations identified in the NUREG and ASCE 4 for seismic isolation systems, and superstructures and substructures are described in the paper. Robust numerical models capable of capturing isolator behaviors under extreme loadings, which have been verified and validated following ASME protocols, and implemented in the open source code OpenSees, are introduced.

  12. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are ...

  13. China's First Salvaging Robot for Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Researchers from the CAS Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu,capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, have been successful in building China's first robot for searching and retrieving underwater foreign objects in nuclear power stations.

  14. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  15. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  17. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  18. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG documents and interim staff guidance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development...

  19. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  20. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  1. Coaxial Ring Cyclotron as a Perspective Nuclear Power Engineering Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Simonyan, Kh. A.; Mkrtchyan, R. L.; Amatuni, A. Ts.; Avakyan, R. O.; Khudaverdyan, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    The circuit arrangement of the proposed coaxial ring cyclotron (CRC) is described, and its main advantages, such as simple injection technique, several injected beams summation option, high efficiency, are considered. The proposed proton accelerator is a perspective machine for the solution of the main problems of the present day nuclear power engineering as well as for the next-generation nuclear power plants, representing a combination of subcritical reactors and particle accelerators. The ...

  2. International nuclear power status 1994; International kernekraftstatus 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au).

  3. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  4. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  5. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  6. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  7. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  8. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  9. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  10. SNPSAM - Space Nuclear Power System Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Seo, Jong T.

    The current version of SNPSAM is described, and the results of the integrated thermoeletric SP-100 system performance studies using SNPSAM are reported. The electric power output, conversion efficiency, coolant temperatures, and specific pumping power of the system are calculated as functions of the reactor thermal power and the liquid metal coolant type (Li or NaK-78) during steady state operation. The transient behavior of the system is also discussed.

  11. Nuclear power: The beginning of the end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The global significance of nuclear energy is greatly overestimated - accounting for share of barely two per cent of worldwide energy consumption, it is a rather phoney giant: The closer one look at facts, the less potential this controversial energy source seems to hold for the future. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear power: on line; Kernenergie Online

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Christian [atw Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Presentation of these contents in the World Wide Web (WWW): Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) - itu.jrc.ec.europa.eu Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen (Germany) - www.kkw-gundremmingen.de Canadian Nuclear Association (Canada) - www.cna.ca Kernkraftwerk Krsko (Slovenia) - www.nek.si. (orig.)

  13. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  14. Power Counting and Wilsonian Renormalization in Nuclear Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavon

    2016-01-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental ---perhaps unknown or unsolvable--- high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding ...

  15. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  16. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  17. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors. Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  18. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  19. Power Spectrum Analyses of Nuclear Decay Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Javorsek, D; Lasenby, R N; Lasenby, A N; Buncher, J B; Fischbach, E; Gruenwald, J T; Hoft, A W; Horan, T J; Jenkins, J H; Kerford, J L; Lee, R H; Longman, A; Mattes, J J; Morreale, B L; Morris, D B; Mudry, R N; Newport, J R; O'Keefe, D; Petrelli, M A; Silver, M A; Stewart, C A; Terry, B; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.06.011

    2010-01-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are n...

  20. Development of nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meng; YANG Yan-Hua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; HU Rui

    2005-01-01

    A nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator was developed based on general-purpose thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5. It main1y consists of three parts: improved thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5, control and protection system and human-machine interface. A normal transient of CHASHMA nuclear power plant turbine step load change from 100% to 90% of full power, was simulated by the engineering simulator as an application example. This paper presents structure and main features of the engineering simulator, and application results are shown and discussed.

  1. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  2. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants; Servicios en recargas de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.

    2007-07-01

    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  3. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  4. Reconciling nuclear risk: The impact of the Fukushima accident on comparative preferences for nuclear power in UK electricity generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C.; Elgueta, H.; Eiser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polls conducted in the United Kingdom following the Fukushima nuclear accident (March 2011) indicated a fairly muted and temporary shift in public approval of nuclear power. This study investigated how: (a) comparative preferences for nuclear power in the U nited Kingdom might have been affected by the accident; and (b) how “supporters” of nuclear power reconciled their pro-nuclear attitude in the wake of the disaster. Between-subjects comparisons with a pre-Fukushima sample revealed our post...

  5. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2011-01-01

    plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage of already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.

  6. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  7. Role of research reactors for nuclear power program in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S.; Arbie, B. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    The main objectives of nuclear development program in Indonesia are to master nuclear science and technology, as well as to utilise peaceful uses of nuclear know-how, aiming at stepwisely socioeconomic development. A Triga Mark II, previously of 250 kW, reactor in Bandung has been in operation since 1965 and its design power has been increased to 1000 kW in 1972. Using core grid of the Triga 250 kW, BATAN designed and constructed the Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta which started its operation in 1979. Both of these Triga reactors have served a wide spectrum of utilisation, such as training of manpower in nuclear engineering as well as radiochemistry, isotope production and beam research activities in solid state physics. In order to support the nuclear power development program in general and to suffice the reactor experiments further, simultaneously meeting the ever increasing demand for radioisotope, the third reactor, a multipurpose reactor of 30 MW called GA. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) has been in operation since 1987 at Serpong near Jakarta. Each of these reactors has strong cooperation with Universities, namely the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung, the Gadjah Mada University at Yogyakarta, and the Indonesia University at Jakarta and has facilitated the man power development required. The role of these reactors, especially the multipurpose GA. Siwabessy reactor, as essential tools in nuclear power program are described including the experience gained during preproject, construction and commissioning, as well as through their operation, maintenance and utilisation.

  8. Tecnatom support to new nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. B. [TECNATOM, S. A., Av. Montes de Oca 1, 28709 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: amanrique@tecnatom.es

    2009-10-15

    Tecnatom is a Spanish engineering company with more than 50 years of experience working for the nuclear industry all over the world. It has worked in over 30 countries in activities related to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Along this half century of history. Tecnatom has been providing its services to nuclear utilities, regulators, NPP vendors, NPP owners / operators and nuclear fuel manufacturers not only in Spain but also abroad. It started to work in the design of new nuclear power plants in the early 90 s and since then has continued collaborating with different suppliers in the design and licensing of new reactors especially in the areas of plant systems design, man-machine interface design, main control room simulators building, training, qualification of equipment and PSI/ISI engineering services. Some challenges to the reactivation of nuclear power plants construction are common worldwide, including: regulatory processes, workforce availability, construction project management, etc. Being some keys to success the following: apply qualified resources, enough resources for early planning, project leadership, organization and integration, establish a strong integrated management team. The goal of this paper is to inform regarding the capabilities of Tecnatom in the construction of new power plants. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, K.S.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Nuclear Environmental Research Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of {sup 137}Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric

  10. Optimization Algorithms for Nuclear Reactor Power Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min; Oh, Won Jong; Oh, Seung Jin; Chun, Won Gee; Lee, Yoon Joon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    One of the control techniques that could replace the present conventional PID controllers in nuclear plants is the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The most attractive feature of the LQR method is that it can provide the systematic environments for the control design. However, the LQR approach heavily depends on the selection of cost function and the determination of the suitable weighting matrices of cost function is not an easy task, particularly when the system order is high. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient and reliable algorithm that could optimize the weighting matrices of the LQR system

  11. Laser applications in nuclear power plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Sanyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of using a solid-state Nd:YAG laser for material processing applications such as cutting, welding and drilling of several components of operational nuclear reactors in radioactive environment. We have demonstrated several advantages of laserbased material processing over conventional methods, and these are discussed briefly. At NPCIL, we have used laser techniques to cut stainless steel sheets up to 14 mm thickness and stainless steel weld up to a depth of 3 mm. This remotely operable laser system has been engineered for its robustness with proper fixtures and tooling for various material processing operations on industrial scale.

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Volkanovski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plant considering the plant safety is developed and presented. The objective function of the optimization is the mean value of the selected risk measure. The risk measure is assessed from the minimal cut sets identified in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The optimal solution of the objective function is estimated with genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on probabilistic safety analysis model of the selected safety system of the reference nuclear power plant. Obtained results show that optimization of maintenance decreases the risk and thus improves the plant safety. The implications of the consideration of different constraints on the obtained results are investigated and presented. The future prospects for the optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plants with the presented method are discussed.

  13. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  14. Analysis of environmental contamination and human health effects in the southeastern of Belorussia 13 years after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueller, J.; Schweitzer, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Trojanov, M.W. [District Hospital Krasnopolje, Krasnopolje (Belarus)

    2000-05-01

    Associated with the humanitarian aid of the Chernobyl association and the University of Jena for the last 6 years simultaneous analysis of the radioactive contamination and the health situation is performed in the white-russian district of Krasnopolje (200 km north of the reactor, 23.000 inhabitants, 30% of the population evacuated since 1988). The retrospective analysis of incidences of malignant and non-malignant diseases is based on the annual epidemiologic reports of the district physician, comprising data from the past 13 years with a cutoff data of December 31, 1998. The level of contamination of the soil with Cesium 137 measures 1-5 Ci/km{sup 2} in 14% of the territory, 5-15 Ci/km{sup 2} in 50%, 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2} in 25% and >40 Ci/km{sup 2} in 11% (evacuated zone). The gamma-radiation dose rate in still inhabited areas fluctuates from 0,2 to 1,0 micro-Sv/h (normal values: 0,1-0,2 micro-Sv/h). In areas which have been evacuated and closed for agricultural use, levels exceeding 9 micro-Sv/h have been recorded. As expected comparing 1996 to 1998, no decrease of the radiation dose rate in corresponding places of measurement was seen. The existing dosimetry of food which does not fully cover the area shows only slight exceedings of the limits for the basic food supplied by the government controlled trade. With mushrooms, game and berries, peak levels up to 200 times of the Bq-levels per kg were measured. The annual rate of newly diagnosed malignant diseases was relatively constant until 1992 with 23/10.000, but did increase to 43/10.000 in 1993, followed by a decrease to 27/10.000 in 1997 and a increase to 35/10.000 in 1998. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma (n=9) have been observed since 1992. A tendency of growing incidence without significance was seen with tumors of the lungs, the urogenital and the colorectal tract, but barely with leucemia and malignant lymphomas. A significant increase in the incidences of endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, autonomic adenoma

  15. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  16. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  17. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized..., NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant...

  18. Regulatory practices for nuclear power plants in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bajaj

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB is responsible for the stipulation and enforcement of rules and regulations pertaining to nuclear and radiological safety. This paper describes the regulatory process followed by AERB for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their construction as well as operation. This regulatory process has been continuously evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor technology. Some of the recent initiatives taken by AERB in this direction are briefly described. Today, AERB faces new challenges like simultaneous review of a large number of new projects of diverse designs, a fast growing nuclear power program and functioning of operating plants in a competitive environment. This paper delineates how AERB is gearing up to meet these challenges in an effective manner.

  19. Regenerating the U.S. nuclear power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowden, Marcus A.; Kraemer, Jay R.; Koehn, Mark R. [Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Through industry planning initiatives, new licensing regulations, favorable court decisions and supportive legislation, the U.A. nuclear community - in both its private and governmental sectors - has, during the last five years, produced fundamental changes in the approach to planning, ordering, licensing and operating future nuclear power plants. Integrated and well-planned initiatives are leading to a more hospitable and promising institutional framework for regeneration of the U.S. nuclear option. While demonstrable progress has been made on many fronts - a streamlined plant licensing framework and standardized design development to name the most apparent - other critical path obstacles must still be surmounted to transform current progress into an order for a new nuclear power plant or a family of plants. Early signs are encouraging, but much work remains to be done. (author).

  20. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  1. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  2. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  3. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  4. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Petrochenko; Georgy Toshinsky

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  5. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government

  6. Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-02-01

    Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time

  7. Nuclear power for energy and for scientific progress

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2012-01-01

    The Introduction in this paper underlines the present general situation for energy and the environment using the words of the US Secretary of Energy. A short presentation is made of some major nuclear power plants used to study one fundamental parameter for neutrino oscillations. The nuclear power status in some Far East Nations is summarized. The 4th generation of nuclear power stations, with emphasis on Fast Neutron Reactors, is recollected. The world consumptions of all forms of energies is recalled, fuel reserves are considered and the opportunities for a sustainable energy future is discussed. These considerations are applied to the italian situation, which is rather peculiar, also due to the many consequencies of the strong Nimby effects in Italy.

  8. Type Selection for Present Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Junyang; Shi Wenbao; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    With rapid development of nuclear power in China, in view of reactor type selection, this paper analyzes the current situation that faces nuclear power industry, the technical characteristics of optional reactors and the tendency of nuclear power technology development in the future. The proposals put forward in this paper include choosing and introducing GW-class advanced PWR as main reactors, carrying out self-supporting projects and technical transfer negotiations, in addition, promoting the design of the advanced generation-Ⅱ PWR and initiating small-scaled construction. The ultimate target is to catch up with the world advanced level by means of technical upgrading and recreation based on technology importation and assimilation.

  9. Study on evaluation system for Chinese nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-bai; CHENG Jian-xiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the meaning, structure, function and assessment methods of a nuclear power plant evaluation system, and the similarities and differences among various assessment methods. Based on this research an integrated and detailed suggestion is proposed on how to establish and improve internal and external evaluation systems for Chinese NPPs. It includes: to prepare and implement the nuclear power plant operational management program, to build an integrated performance indicator system, to improve the present audit system and conduct the comprehensive evaluation system, to set up and implement the integrated corrective action system, to position precisely the status of operation assessment of nuclear power plants, to conduct the assessment activities on constructing NPP, to initiate the specific assessment in some important areas, to establish industry performance indicator system, to improve the assessment methods, to share the assessment results, to select,cultivate and certify the reviewers, and to enhance international communication and cooperation.

  10. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  11. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  12. Characterization study of cesium concentrated particles in the soils near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated a vast area. Two types of contamination, spread and spot types, were observed in soils with autoradiography using an imaging plate. Other samples such as dust filters, vegetation, X-ray films, and so on, also indicate the spot type contamination in the early stage of the FDNPP accident. The source of spot type contamination is well known as hot particles at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986. Hot particles were divided into two groups, fuel hot particles and fission product particles, and they were emitted directly from reactor core with phreatic explosion and fire. In contrast, the official reports of the FDNPP accident did not conforme core explosion. In addition, the emitted total amount of Uranium was very few (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Thus, the spot type contaminations were not identified as the same of hot particles yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to pick up and identify the spot contaminations in soils. Surface soil samples were collected at 20 km northwest from the FDNPP in June 2013. Soils were spread in plastic bags for autoradiography with imaging plate analysis. Then, the soil particles were collected on a sticky carbon tape and analyzed by SEM-EDS to detect radioactive particles. Finally, particles were confirmed to contain photo peaks in the γ-spectrum by a germanium semiconductor detector. Four radioactive particles were isolated from the soil samples in the present study. Detected γ-ray emission radionuclides were only Cs-134 and Cs-137. The X-ray spectra on the SEM-EDS of all particles showed a Cs peak as well as O, Fe, Zn, and Rb peaks, and these elements were distributed uniformly within the particles. In addition, uniform distribution of Si was also shown. Moreover, U was detected from one of the particles, but U concentration was very low and existed locally in the particle. These characters are very similar to previous

  13. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  14. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  15. Power counting and Wilsonian renormalization in nuclear effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavón

    2016-05-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental — perhaps unknown or unsolvable — high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding of how to apply these ideas to non-perturbative phenomena and in particular to nuclear physics. Here we review a few of these ideas, explain power counting in two-nucleon scattering and reactions with external probes and hint at how to extend the present analysis beyond the two-body problem.

  16. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  17. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  18. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  20. Contracting and subcontracting by the French nuclear power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaud-Mony, A

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear power industry contracts out 80% of the maintenance work in its plants to independent companies. The workers in these companies are seldom protected by unions or by government regulations. The average dose of radiation received by such a worker is four times that received by a permanent employee of the contracting entity. As the contract worker approaches a specified dose limit, he is laid off, with no support other than welfare and no compensation for medical expenses that may arise as a result of the radiation exposure or occupational stress. There is a danger that this pattern of worker exploitation will spread as nuclear power plants proliferate around the world.

  1. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  2. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  4. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  5. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  6. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  7. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Mammad Oglu Rashydov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011. The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  8. Safety and effective developing nuclear power to realize green and low-carbon development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Zhen Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of nuclear power of China's energy structure and industry system. Comparing with other renewable energy the nuclear power chain has very low greenhouse gas emission, so it will play more important role in China's low-carbon economy. The paper also discussed the necessity of nuclear power development to achieve emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, nuclear power safety, environmental protection, enhancement of nuclear power technology, nuclear waste treatment, and disposal, as well as nuclear power plant decommissioning. Based on the safety record and situation of the existing power plants in China, the current status of the development of world nuclear power technology, and the features of the independently designed advanced power plants in China, this paper aims to demonstrate the safety of nuclear power. A nuclear power plant will not cause harm either to the environment and nor to the public according to the real data of radioactivity release, which are obtained from an operational nuclear plant. The development of nuclear power technology can enhance the safety of nuclear power. Further, this paper discusses issues related to the nuclear fuel cycle, the treatment, and disposal strategies of nuclear waste, and the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, all of which are issues of public concern.

  9. Assessment of temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after a nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A Ra; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chan; Seol, Jeung Gun [Radiation Safety Team, Korea Electric Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    It has been about 5 years since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which contaminated large area with radioactive materials. It is necessary to assess radiation dose to establish evacuation areas and to set decontamination goal for the large contaminated area. In this study, we assessed temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The dose assessment was performed based on Chernobyl model and RESRAD model for two evacuation lift areas, Kawauchi and Naraha. It was reported that deposition densities in the areas were 4.3-96 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 134}Cs, 1.4-300 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. Radiation dose to the residents depended on radioactive cesium concentrations in the soil, ranging 0.11-2.4 mSv y{sup -1} at Kawauchi area and 0.69-1.1 mSv y{sup -1} at Naraha area in July 2014. The difference was less than 5% in radiation doses estimated by two different models. Radiation dose decreased with calendar time and the decreasing slope varied depending on dose assessment models. Based on the Chernobyl dosimetry model, radiation doses decreased with calendar time to about 65% level of the radiation dose in 2014 after 1 year, 11% level after 10 years, and 5.6% level after 30 years. RESRAD dosimetry model more slowly decreased radiation dose with time to about 85% level after 1 year, 40% level after 10 years, and 15% level after 30 years. The decrease of radiation dose can be mainly attributed into radioactive decays and environmental transport of the radioactive cesium. Only environmental transports of radioactive cesium without consideration of radioactive decays decreased radiation dose additionally 43% after 1 year, 72% after 3 years, 80% after 10 years, and 83% after 30 years. Radiation doses estimated with cesium concentration in the soil based on Chernobyl dosimetry model were compared with directly measured radiation doses

  10. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored.

  11. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  12. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-10-10

    The project on ``Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance`` was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds.

  13. Silicon Carbide Based Power Mangement and Distribution for Space Nuclear Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard, 100's kWe power management and distribution (PMAD) system for space nuclear...

  14. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Rundmo, T.; Eraenen, L.; Ekstroem, H

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects

  15. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  16. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  17. On maintenance management of wind and nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Electrical production in Sweden today is mainly from nuclear and hydro power. However, there is large increase in renewable energy like wind power and the installed new capacity goals are large. Several electrical production sources are important for the sustainability of the energy system. Maintenance is an approach for keeping a system sustainable. The importance of structured maintenance for reliable electrical production systems triggers the development of qualitative and quantitative mai...

  18. Power quality considerations for nuclear spectroscopy applications: Grounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Hernández, J.M., E-mail: josemanuel.garcia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Ramírez-Jiménez, F.J., E-mail: fjr@ieee.org [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Mondragón-Contreras, L.; López-Callejas, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Torres-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-21

    Traditionally the electrical installations are designed for supplying power and to assure the personnel safety. In nuclear analysis laboratories, additional issues about grounding also must be considered for proper operation of high resolution nuclear spectroscopy systems. This paper shows the traditional ways of grounding nuclear spectroscopy systems and through different scenarios, it shows the effects on the more sensitive parameter of these systems: the energy resolution, it also proposes the constant monitoring of a power quality parameter as a way to preserve or to improve the resolution of the systems, avoiding the influence of excessive extrinsic noise. -- Highlights: •We analyze the performance of nuclear spectroscopy systems with different configurations of the grounding system. •The neutral to ground voltage is an indicator of the ground conditions, a high value may contribute to the increase of the FWHM in nuclear spectroscopy systems. •The use of an isolated ground system is the best option to preserve the best FWHM value. •The application of power quality concepts can help to guaranty the best configuration of the grounding system.

  19. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  20. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  1. Recognition of Instrumentation Gauge in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear emergency robots were developed in 2001 as the countermeasure following the criticality accident at the JCO (uranium refinery facility) in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. We assumed that these nuclear emergency robots were deployed (or put into) for a mitigation (or management) of severe accident, for example, occurred at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In the case, the image understanding using a color CCD camera, loaded on the nuclear emergency robot, is important. We proposed an image processing technique to read indication value of the IC water level gauges using the structural characteristics of the instrumentation panels (water level gauges) located inside the reactor building. At first, we recognized the scales on the instrumentation panel using the geometric shape of the panel. And then, we could read the values of the instrumentation gauge by calculating the slope of the needle on the gauge. Using the proposed algorithm, we deciphered instrumentation panels for the four water level gauges and indicators shown on the IC video released by TEPCO and Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Commission of Japan. In this paper, recognition of the instrumentation gauges inside reactor building of the nuclear power plant by an image processing technology is described.

  2. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri Husam Fayiz, Al

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms.

  3. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA. In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will

  4. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  5. EVMS for nuclear power plant construction: status and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, M. S.; Kwak, J. K.; Park, S. Y. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) method integrates three critical elements of project management scope, cost and time management. It requires the periodic monitoring of actual expenditures and physical scope accomplishments and allows calculation of cost and schedule variances along with performance indices. It allows for casting of project cost and schedule at completion and highlights the possible need for corrective action. It is anticipated that there will be intense competition in the nuclear industry as the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction. In order to attain competitive advantages, utilizing advanced project control systems by integrating cost and time management is of great concern for practitioners. This paper is to review the status of EVMS and its effective implementation to nuclear power plant construction.

  6. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  7. Climate Change or Nuclear Power - Which Risk do we Prefer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Donald [Church of Scotland, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Society, Religion and Technology Project

    2006-09-15

    Climate change and nuclear power provide two of the biggest technological risks of our times. Both involve widespread risks, long-term wastes and inter-generational equity, but in rather different ways. If it came to a choice, which is the worse set of risks to run? Serious doubts have been raised whether the implementation of renewable energies and energy saving are able in practice to deliver quickly enough the radical reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions that are needed to tackle climate change. Some countries may face a dilemma - to continue another generation of nuclear power or to accept that its CO{sub 2} emissions will rise when current nuclear stations finish their time? This paper compares the risks, and explores the ethical issues around which a society would have to weigh up such a choice, the role of the precautionary principle, and the place of expert and lay evaluations of risk (full text of contribution)

  8. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  9. The japan a nuclear power?; Le Japon puissance nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P. [Universite Jean Moulon Lyon-3, Centre Lyonnais d' Etudes de Securite Internationale et de Defense, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-07-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  10. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  11. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-12-14

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

  12. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  13. Layout of China’s Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants in operation Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant-total installed capacity of 2.956 gigawatts The first stage started construction in March 1985, was incorporated into grids in December 1991 and began business operation in April 1994. It has an installed capacity of 300

  14. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  15. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  16. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  17. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  19. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  20. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  1. Development of TSC SAMG for Nuclear Power Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDong-xing; PUSheng-di; ZHAOShou-zhi; LIJi-gen

    2003-01-01

    Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) is developed to prevent the severe accident progress and mitigate the consequences of severe accident in nuclear power plant. Technical Support Center (TSC) SAMG is one of important components of the strategies. It contains Severe Accident Guidelines (SAGs) and Severe Challenge Guidelines (SCGs).

  2. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  3. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  4. The Active Field of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Not Just Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    " … The number of universities teaching nuclear and radiochemistry has decreased, not least as radiochemistry is erroneously linked to the use of nuclear power … Radiochemistry is essential for a variety of fields, including radiopharmaceuticals, as well as the management of radioactive waste … we are facing a lack of specialists in the area of radiation protection …" Read more in the Editorial by Clemens Walther.

  5. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  6. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  7. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power......

  8. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  9. 76 FR 46856 - Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC considers acceptable for... environmental seals in combination with cables or wires as assemblies for service in nuclear power plants....

  10. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed...

  11. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide applicants and licensees with the most current information on testing safety-related actuators in nuclear power plants. This...

  12. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  13. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant; Aceleracion del suelo en una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E., E-mail: pablo.pena@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  14. Nuclear power is not competitive: Climate protection in UK and France also viable without it

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Casimir; Brauers, Hanna; Gerbaulet, Clemens; von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Kemfert, Claudia; Kendziorski, Mario; Oei, Pao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear power industry is faced with profound challenges- not only in Germany, but throughout Europe as well. New nuclear power plants are very expensive to build and even at high carbon prices, nuclear power is not competitive. Nevertheless, the EU reference scenario assumes that within the next three decades, new nuclear power plants will be built with a total capacity of at least 50 gigawatts (GW), and licenses will be renewed for a further 86 GW. Model calculations show that nuclear p...

  15. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...... functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained...

  16. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  17. Strontium-90 concentrations in human teeth in south Ukraine, 5 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulev, Y D; Polikarpov, G G; Prigodey, E V; Assimakopoulos, P A

    1994-10-28

    Approximately 1000 human teeth, collected in South Ukraine, in 1990-1991, were measured for 90Sr concentration. The teeth were grouped into 18 samples according to the age and sex of the donors. Measured levels of 90Sr concentrations were lower by a factor of 10 than measurements taken in the mid-1960s and mid-1970s. An interesting feature of the data is a 3-fold enhancement of contamination levels in the 25-45 year-old age group of the male population. A possible explanation for this anomaly is that this age group contains a significant number of men who were mobilized immediately after the Chernobyl accident for clean-up operations within the 30-km zone around the damaged nuclear power plant.

  18. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  19. Safety and Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalas, Corinne C.; Schmidt, George R.

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear power sources have been used in space applications for decades. They have been used extensively for electrical power production, and their future potential for propulsion has been recognized since the dawn of the spaceflight era. Nuclear power sources offer many advantages in terms of long duration operation and high power densities independent of distance and orientation with respect to the Sun. However, it is also broadly known that use of radioactive materials do carry more risk that must be addressed to ensure safe operation during all phases of the mission, particularly before and during launch into orbit. Almost all of the nuclear-powered missions to date have been flown by the United States and former Soviet Union, but other space-faring nations have recognized its importance for their future missions. Consequently, many in the space community have advocated the development of a broad set of principles that could be applied on an international basis. This paper examines the current guidelines by the major space-faring nations, and suggests a framework primarily based on the U.S. methodology for ensuring reduction of risk, mitigating environmental impact and promoting launch safety.

  20. Pipe rupture incident of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yushi; Nakagami, Motonori; Hayashi, Haruhisa; Ichikawa, Yoshihiro [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    At the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (540 MWe of electric output; BWR-4 type) of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., an incident of pipe rupture of residual heat removal system on steam condenser system occurred on November, 2001. This incident gave no effects on outer parts of the station, because safety system apparatuses in the station worked adequately from a standpoint of accidental phenomenon. On the other hand, on its forming processes, as it is no similar case at the nuclear power stations in and out of Japan, to securely carry out countermeasures for preventing a recurrence of the incidence, its cause was striven to elucidate thoroughly. This paper was introduced about contents and results on site surveys, and surveys such as tests, analysis, and so on performed for about a half year after the incident, for preventing a recurrence of similar incidents. (G.K.)