WorldWideScience

Sample records for chernobyl nuclear catastrophe

  1. The Chernobyl catastrophe is the most terrible civil nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 4th nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl NPP exploded on 26 April 1986, 20 years ago. It's the most terrible nuclear civil accident of all times. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident led to contamination of 3,1 million ha of arable land, 1,5 million ha of natural pasture land, 3,5 million ha of forests and changed the lifestyle for millions of people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. It is well known that the mortality in the contaminated areas (infant mortality by cancer) drastically increased. The Chernobyl catastrophe is presented , such as a sad example for humanity, a complex political international, economical, social and, particular, ecological problem according to the traditional and new studies for the development of the nucleotide contaminated territories: 1. Financing of safety of stopped working 4th nuclear reactor (security of covering system) and of work another 3 blocks at the Chernobyl NPP. Detailed control of international financial support for guarantee the safety, security of the Chernobyl NPP and sustainable development for rehabilitation of the affected zones and people. 2. It should be marked increase in medical, demographic analysis and in social, economical protection of the people in the contaminated areas. 3. Analysis and synthesis, monitoring of the long-time data results due to environmental, ecological, social and political consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. 4. Protection from the possible terrorist (extra) actions and (inter) damage or incident function of the Chernobyl plant, such as an old generation nuclear power. 5. Planned budget for future studies in the affected territories and flexibility actually realization of budget (State and International). 6. Nuclear refuse and aria/water protection in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia contaminated zones. 7. Risk evaluation of not good function of NPPs which are situated in Russia, Ukraine and in another places (always remembering that the Chernobyl catastrophe is the

  2. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  3. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  4. Chernobyl catastrophe: An unexpected result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, the Chernobyl-4 reactor has exploded. During 10 days , an important part of radioactive products of reactor heart has been ejected in the atmosphere, shaping a radioactive cloud whose the trajectories and fall-outs on all Europe have worried the public opinion. The author, J.C. Nenot and R. Coulon, 6 years after, take stock of the ecological, agricultural and sanitary consequences and if the ecological effects are in a good issue of regression, even near to Chernobyl, on the other hand in medical and sanitary scopes stay uncertainties. 8 refs., 4 figs

  5. 'The star called Wormwood': the cause and effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 astounded the world. It was shocking not just because of the technical failure - unfortunately such things happen from time to time - but as a social and political failure. The Chernobyl catastrophe undermined and exposed the false, vicious and inhumane Soviet totalitarian system. The Chernobyl explosion initiated the disintegration of the corrupt Communist regime - a regime which had been deemed unshakeable in the USSR. (author)

  6. Chernobyl: Endless horror. Late effects of the reactor catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the accident, the people of Chernobyl are trying to live a normal life, but the problems resulting from the catastrophe have not been solved. Some of them are just starting to emerge. (orig.)

  7. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive blow-outs after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe reached many states. The largest amount of them (according to experts' estimations - 70%) fell out on the Belarus territory. The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. More than 14 years have passed since the Chernobyl NPP accident but some of the problems caused by the catastrophe have not been solved. This is bound up, first of all, with a high collective dosage absorbed by the population, with difficulties in forecasting and prophylactics of remote radiological effects, with ecological and economic crisis. The consequences of the disaster greatly affect all the aspects of vital activities of the affected regions and the state as a whole. Destructive tendencies have been revealed in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population inhabiting the contaminated territory and resettled as well, require considerable optimisation. Negative factors of the Chernobyl catastrophe, which are significant for human health can be divided into two groups as follows: radiation-based, directly related to influence of ionising radiation and non radiation based, related to changes in habitat and prolonged psychological stress. The specific peculiarities of psychogenic disorders caused by the catastrophe are determined by the following reasons: insufficient knowledge of radiation effects; constant apprehension for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, especially children; unexpected change of the life stereotype (forced resettlement, the break of the former life, changing the place and the character of work, etc.); the necessity of constant keeping precaution measures and prophylactic

  8. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and

  9. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  10. Nuclear energy after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper on fundamental questions by a representative of the Federal German Government focuses on the following subjects: Nuclear energy as a part of the energy policy of the Federal German Government, the justifiability of nuclear energy, lessons from Chernobyl, nuclear phase-out, safety concepts for the future, supply of nuclear power plants, and nuclear waste disposal. (UA)

  11. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  12. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  13. Dynamic of gastroduodenal bleeding distribution after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated the evidence of gastroduodenal bleeding between Belarus population from 1989 to 1996 period. 27981 occurrences of this disease were registered. The annual permanent growth of the disease was revealed. Between persons, having worked in the Chernobyl region in the first year after the catastrophe, it was found the ulcer disease distribution in 7 times greater than between the whole population. It was concluded about heavy course of ulcer disease in residents of Belarus in the modern conditions

  14. The ecology of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Scientific outlines of an international programme of collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster was the largest civil nuclear catastrophe of all time. When reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded on 26 April 1986, it permanently changed the lives of more than 4 million people living in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, shaking the fabric of an area almost the size of England, and triggering a whole swathe of environmental, economic, social, medical and political repercussions. At first the Soviet Union tackled the aftermath alone but, by 1990, with the process of change associated with perestroika, the three affected states of Belarus, Ukraine and the Federation of Russia appealed to the international community for solidarity and help. In co-operation with other agencies of the United Nations system, the UNESCO Chernobyl Programme was launched , with the formal signing of an agreement in January 1991 between the three republics and UNESCO. Since then, some twenty projects have been carried out in UNESCO's various fields of competence - education, science, culture and communication. The volume reviews eight years of study on the impact of Chernobyl on natural ecosystems, agro-ecosystems, human ecology, biological diversity, and genetic and socio-economic systems. It comprises eight chapters. The first three chapters discuss the effects of the high levels of radionuclides released from the Chernobyl reactor on the environment, on natural ecosystems and on agro-ecosystems. The fourth chapter, on human ecology, covers both the human effects at the time of the disaster and those still continuing today. Chapters five and six describe the impact of radionuclide release on biological diversity and genetic systems respectively. The socioeconomic effects of the catastrophe are discussed in chapter seven. Each of these seven chapters ends with scientific hypotheses and research recommendations, with a final chapter providing a detailed description of the setting up and aims of the multinational and multidimensional Chernobyl

  15. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  16. Vegetative disthonic syndrome treatment in children, suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetative diatonic syndrome was diagnosed in 28,3% of children, arrived to sanatorium from the regions, suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe. In order to make correction of this kind of pathology 62 children had undergone the treatment on the base of specially developed programs: 1-st - complex of spirulina reception, infrared radiation treatment, collar-neck zone massage, 2-nd - glycine reception and collar-neck zone massage, 3-d - short wave frequency therapy on active points (control group - 37 children). As the result, in children of the main group in comparison with control, for certain decreased somatic complains quantity (p=0,008), neurological state (p=0,0009) and autonomic system state (p=0,05) improved. Thus the suggested complexes exert gentle influence upon mane autonomic system characteristics and promote subsidence of clinical manifestation of the vegetative diatonic syndrome. (Authors)

  17. Dynamics of radioactive pollution of atmospheric air on the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of atmospheric air radioactive pollution on the territory of Belarus in the first period (April-May 1986) after the catastrophe on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant has been considered. Dynamics of gamma-radiation exposure dose rate in several towns of the Republic for the period 1986-1993 has been presented. Average monthly values of total beta activity in near earth layer of the atmosphere in Brest, Gomel, Mozyr, Minsk, Mogilev for the period 1987-1989 have been given. The atmospheric air pollution by caesium-137 and strontium-90 in Mozyr, Gomel and Mogilev have also been shown. (author)

  18. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On the 26th of April 1986 an accident at the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP took place. The accident became known to the whole world as a Chernobyl catastrophe. By its scale, by complexity of global problems stipulated by the accident, by long-term consequences it is the largest and the gravest catastrophe in the history of nuclear energy application. After Chernobyl catastrophe the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of an environment and prognosis in future. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of an exposure gamma-rates in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The results of monitoring show, that exposure gamma-rates decreases in a result of processes of natural radioactive decay and vertical migration of radionuclides in soil. The results of monitoring of exposure gamma-rates allow to make the prognosis and to calculate a year, when exposure gamma-rates will be equal to levels before the catastrophe on ChNPP. The numerical prognosis shows, that in Bragin town exposure gamma-rates will be equal to level before the catastrophe on ChNPP approximately after 65 years, in Slavgorod and Chechersk towns - after 23-24 years. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs- 37 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of the evolution of area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986 - 2046 shows: - In 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will be approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease with a factor 1,5 in comparison with 1986; - In 60 years (2046) contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. will decrease with a factor 2

  19. Community centers of UNESCO-Chernobyl programme-psychological support model for population in a post-catastrophe crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community Centers for Psycho-social Rehabilitation created within UNESCO - Chernobyl Programme (Project no 64) is aimed at providing psychological support to population suffered from the catastrophe. Centers are located in communities that in different ways suffered from Chernobyl - people evacuated and relocated from the contaminated territories, people who are still living in contaminated regions, employees of the nuclear power plant etc. Centres are providing psychological support to people suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe, trough developing adaptive behavior models under living conditions that changed - both ecological and social and economic crises, developing of personal and social responsibility in community members. The professionals of Community Centers implement activities aimed on coping victimization, on community interaction and communities restructuring. They are working with all age and social groups in the communities, with acute crises and suicide prevention, creating mutual support mechanisms. Centres performance results in decrease of psycho-social tension and anxiety in population. Centers present successfully functioning model of social and psychological support under complicated ecological and social conditions in post soviet countries. They have accumulated unique professional and organizational experience of efficient work in, a post-catastrophe period under social and economic crisis. (author)

  20. Transition of cesium in food chains [after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of 25,000 samples of foodstuffs and feedstuffs in Czechoslovakia, contaminated by fall-out cesium after the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, performed from May 5, 1986 to March 31, 1988, revealed that both the values of cesium transfer-factors in food--animal tissues--milk transitions and the values of biological half-life of cesium are functions of internal and external conditions of contamination. Organism individuality as the main internal condition causes the variance of about +/- 50% of the mean value of the respective transfer-factor. Through the external conditions, mainly the environmental contamination level, type of ingested food and time of ingestion, the mean values of transfer-factors are influenced up to 500%, e.g. to the value of 0.5. But this value converges with growing up contamination of food and environment to the limit of 0.3. The first two to three biological half-lives after the last ingestion of contaminated food are up to ten-times shorter than those at stabilized state

  1. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Ten Years After the Chernobyl Catastrophe (Scientific Aspects of Problem)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection is dedicated to the 10 anniversary of Chernobyl catastrophe and contains the results of researches carried out in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russian Federation, on different aspects of the Chernobyl problems: radiation medicine and risks, biological radiation effects and their forecasting, agricultural radiology and radioecology, decontamination and radioactive waste management, socio-economic and psychologic problems caused by the Chernobyl Catastrophe. (authors)

  2. Ethical aspects of technogenic catastrophes sequences on the example of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is examined such ethical aspects of technogenic catastrophes sequences on the example of Chernobyl disaster, as violation of individual right to get information about the environment condition, getting the liquidator status, maintenance of all ethical norms while holding of biomedical research on disaster victims, and forming of social-ecological stress. (authors)

  3. Characteristics of cerebrovascular pathology in Chernobyl catastrophe after-effects liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty eight liquidators of Chernobyl catastrophe after-effects (1986-1987) had been observed for 10-12 years. Their clinical and psychological status, brain functional state, cerebral hemodynamics and results of magnet resonance tomography were assessed. Differential diagnostic criteria for vasomotor dystonia and cerebrovascular diseases were determined. Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency was determined to increase in those persons (authors)

  4. Catastrophe theory with application in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph is structured on the following seven chapters: 1. Correlation of risk, catastrophe and chaos at the level of polyfunctional systems with nuclear injection; 1.1 Approaching the risk at the level of power systems; 1.2 Modelling the chaos-catastrophe-risk correlation in the structure of integrated classical and nuclear processes; 2. Catastrophe theory applied in ecosystems models and applications; 2.1 Posing the problems in catastrophe theory; 2.2 Application of catastrophe theory in the engineering of the power ecosystems with nuclear injection; 4.. Decision of abatement of the catastrophic risk based on minimal costs; 4.1 The nuclear power systems sensitive to risk-catastrophe-chaos in the structure of minimal costs; 4.2 Evaluating the market structure on the basis of power minimal costs; 4.3 Decisions in power systems built on minimal costs; 5. Models of computing the minimal costs in classical and nuclear power systems; 5.1 Calculation methodologies of power minimal cost; 5.2 Calculation methods of minimal costs in nuclear power sector; 6. Expert and neuro expert systems for supervising the risk-catastrophe-chaos correlation; 6.1 The structure of expert systems; 6.2 Application of the neuro expert program; 7. Conclusions and operational proposals; 7.1 A synthesis of the problems presented in this work; 7.2 Highlighting the novel aspects applicable in the power systems with nuclear injection

  5. Long-term consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe and remediation programs in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unprecedented scale of radiological emergency at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has set us a package of the most difficult tasks aimed to eliminate negative consequences and remediate a normal life in contaminated areas. Due to the accident, above 56,000 square meters of the Russian Federation's territory, including about two million hectares of agricultural lands and about one million hectares of forest resources, were radioactively contaminated. The four regions, namely the Bryansk/Kaluga/Orel/Tula regions, were contaminated to the most extent. About three million people lived in those areas. More than 52,000 citizens were relocated in an organized way or resettled independently. Above 200,000 citizens of Russia were involved in elimination of emergency effects. The Russian Federation (RF) Government has charged EMERCOM of Russia to coordinate activities on mitigation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Ministry has undertaken the functions of a state customer of federal target programs for elimination of effects of radiological emergencies and catastrophes. Federal ministries and agencies, as well as executive authorities of the RF subjects are involved in implementation of the programs. Since 1998, joint Russian-Byelorussian projects to mitigate effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe have been under way. Large-scale work on radiological/medical/social protection for the citizens and remediation of the lands has been performed within the scope of federal target programs. Since 1991, more than 5 billion USD has been spent on the activities to eliminate consequences of the accident, as well as to pay out benefits and compensations. The key element of EMERCOM's policy is to comprehend the role of a radiation factor in the entire package of vital objectives. The result of it is that protective actions are directed towards the most contaminated areas and priority attention is focused on the development of a social sphere and health care. The main

  6. Chernobyl, a catastrophe. Few elements for an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book, the authors present Chernobyl reactor accident, take stock of its causes and consequences on population (radiation doses received), food chain and environment, the programs of population relocation and of area decontamination in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation and the radionuclide migrations (Cesium 137, strontium 90)

  7. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  8. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  9. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-04-01

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Methodological aspects of health evaluation of the population suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological situation in Belarus and the necessity of liquidation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP Catastrophe demand many years' dynamic observation after the health condition of large people's contingents. At present this problem is being solved by the clinical follow up of the population undergone irradiation due to the Chernobyl catastrophe which is the basis of medical-prevention measures, directed to low medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. All the information on population's health received during the clinical follow up is put to a special State Data Base which was started for a clinical follow op information support, carrying out scientific researches and receiving reliable data on medical- biological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. At present there's a problem of correct evaluation of health changes of the population who need clinical follow up on all its levels. The problem of comparative analyses of stored data hasn't been solved yet. It's necessary to underline that illness data of the population suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe received due to intensive clinical follow up can't be compared with illness data of the population in general received due to ordinary applies to hospitals. It would be methodologically incorrect. Besides all said above, including into the research all the classes and forms of illnesses according to IDC-9, IDC-10 (International Disease Classification 9,10) what in a great degree enlarges volume of the research and its expenses is irrational. While studying the Chernobyl catastrophe medical consequences one must include to the analysis classes and nosologic illness forms which level and dynamic changes connected in some extend to radiation irradiation. By doing this one can minimize the volume and the expenses in the research like this. In this situation it's necessary to state such population health indexes which level exposed to a distortion in the lowest degree in the result of

  11. Genetic consequences of radionuclide contamination 9 years later the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic consequences of radionuclide contamination in the zone of estrangement within 9 years of the Chernobyl catastrophe are studied. By the example of winter wheat, the essential increase is revealed in a natural level of chromosomal mutations and visible morphological attributes (by 2.49-6.39 and 2.6-13 times, respectively). This indicates that the retained high level of radionuclide contamination continues to be an effective mutagen factor of the environment and is a genetic threat for living organisms

  12. An information system for analyzing some aspects of radiological contamination cause by Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we briefly report a set of programming tools designed to support the analysis of some aspects of radiological contamination caused by Chernobyl catastrophe. First of all a system for data storing is characterized; after mentioning basic data structures, two mutations of this system are described (one version for data collected during a pilot study and the second for the main investigation). Next the problems of data analysis are discussed. Again we distinguish between pilot and main analysis. A simple query language is introduced and the procedures for coding some variables are mentioned. Lastly the problems and difficulties arising during the whole analysis are specified. (author). 2 refs

  13. Mutations of winter wheat induced by radionuclide contamination resulted from Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a high level of radionuclide contamination has been retained until 1992 in the zone of Chernobyl catastrophe (village Chistogalovka and the town of Pripyat).This causes the increase of the frequency of chromosome aberrations and visible mutations within the winter wheat (2.49 to 6.39 times) and (2.6 to 13.0 times), correspondingly. Chromosome aberrations and visible mutations which effect qualitative and quantitative characteristics, revealed over a long period of time, indicate that the retaining level of radionuclide contamination continues to be an efficient mutagen factor of the environment

  14. Radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneity of contamination of the territory by alpha-, beta- and gamma-radioactive substances with various periods of half-life, presence of radioactive isotopes practically in all components of ecosystems and their involvement in the geochemical and trophic cycles of migration. All this calls forth plurality of ways of the external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. The dynamics of radiation situation in the nearest future and for the perspective will be determined by nuclear decay, radionuclides migration, the transformation of forms of their existence. There is registered the number of radiation-induced changes of flora and fauna, especially on molecular-cellular and organism levels and less marked-on the population and ecosystem levels. The series of consequences for natural complexes and animals is connected with changes in economic activity and nature use. The accumulation of genetic burden and other changes in the systems of organism and metabolic processes may result in the change of plants and animals communities. This demands further study of radiation situation dynamics, the radionuclides behaviour in soil, water, air, inclusion of the radionuclides into the food chains, accumulation in plants and organisms of animals and estimation of biological effects. (authors). 2 tabs., 13 figs

  15. Organization of radiation monitoring in Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There in the network of the stationary stations for radioecological monitoring of the ecosystems, working according to special programs, at the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Presently, the exposure dose rate of gamma-radiation is measured every day at 57 stations. The information enters the Center of Radiation Control and Monitoring of Environment of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology. At 26 stations, located at the whole territory of the Republic, the level of the radioactive depositions from the surface layer of the atmosphere is measured every day. The content of radioactive aerosols in air is measured every day in six cities of Belarus. The continuous control over contamination of the surface water and bottom depositions is carried out at five main rivers of the Republic, following at the contaminated territory: Dnepr, Sozh, Iput and Besed. Monthly control over the content of radionuclides in surface water is carried out: the samples of water are taken with simultaneous measurement of flow rates, the samples of the surface water are analyzed for content of total b-activity, caesium-137 and strontium-90. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology carries out the radioecological monitoring of the soil at the sampling sites, which includes 18 landscape-geochemical areas and 181 sampling sites. Study and forecast of vertical and horizontal migration of radionuclides is carried out at the landscape-geochemical areas with different types and variations of soil in various radioecological and physico-geographical conditions. The results of the control of radionuclides in different media (air, water,soil) are accumulated in the Republican data bank. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology is carrying out the control in the zones of the effect of nuclear power plants, located at the territories of the neighbouring states. (authors)

  16. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  17. The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

  18. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  19. The restoration of radioactive-contaminated territories of Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl catastrophes the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of a environment and prognosis it of restoring. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of a exposure gamma-ray dose in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The numerical prognosis shows, that the restoring of this magnitude lakes before catastrophe is possible to expect approximately in 65 years. The map of contamination of Belarus by Cs-137 was constructed about use Geo Information System based of results of monitoring, which are introduced in an automated data bank. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs-137 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of dynamics of squares of contamination more than 37 kBq/sq.m for period 1986 - 2046 shows: The square of initial contamination (1986) by Cs-137 more than 37 kBq/sq.m was equaled 23,7 %; In 30 years (2016) squares of contamination will make approximately 16 %, i.e. will decrease in 1,5 on a comparison 1986; In 60 years (2046) squares of contamination will make approximately 10 %, i.e. will decrease in 2,4 on a comparison 1986. The prognosis of space distribution of activity Am-241 in Belarus shows, that the high levels of contamination will be in 30-km to a zone Chernobyl NPP and on around territories, where the population lives. Maximum volumes the activity of Am-241 will achieve to 2060 and will exceed activity of Pu-238,239,240 approximately in 2 times

  20. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  1. Distribution of cesium 137 between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigation of distribution of cesium 137 ions between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products are received. Using NH42 and Sr2+ as ousted cations the portion of radionuclide adsorbed by specific (FES) and regular (RES) exchangeable sites have been determined. The distribution of cesium 137 ions and its exchangeable form between soils and liquid phases of water saturated soils have been established. The distribution coefficients have been evaluated. The behavior of cesium 137 in a system 'soil - solution' with different contribution of FES and RES sites into radionuclide adsorption were considered. Effect of solution acidity and cation concentration compete for exchangeable adsorption have been analyzed. Higher cesium 137 mobility during its transfer from solid phase into solution in soils, where content of specific adsorption sites is limited, was revealed

  2. Aromatherapy in complex health improvement of children, suffered from the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatherapy is an effective and safe method widely used last decade for functional disorders treatment. We used this method for health improvement of children, suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe with autonomic system dysfunction. In complex rehabilitation measures we used collar-neck zone massage with Lemon oil (54 children), Aromastress orally (31) and Electro Essence oral receiving (82). As the result normalization of vegetative state (p=0,02) and vegetative reactivity (p=0,03) as well as neurological symptoms reduction (p=0,0001) registered. In children, taking Aromastress, electrocardiography violations disappeared more frequently (p=0,02). Electro Essence promoted deterioration of cumulated in organism radioactivity (p<0,0001). Thus aromatherapy is an effective method in complex health improvement of children, residing in radioactively contaminated regions. (Authors)

  3. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  4. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  5. Experience of the Republic of Belarus in solving the problems of rehabilitation of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of the Chernobyl accident, about a quarter of the Belarussian territory has been contaminated by radionuclides. More than one and a half million of people live on the contaminated territory. The legislation and radiological standards were developed in all spheres related to overcoming of the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Significant range of countermeasures is applied in agriculture. The system of social protection of all population categories is under implementation. Considerable part of work has been done to improve living conditions in the contaminated territories. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories includes a complex of measures aimed at restoration of the economy, social infrastructure, physical and psychological health of people. Although a long time passed since the Chernobyl accident, a lot of problems of rehabilitation of affected areas still remain to be solved. In this regard, both national efforts and international collaboration are very important. (author)

  6. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  7. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    between 1982 and 1992. For special parts of Germany, annual birth statistics and fallout measurements after Chernobyl are available at the administrative district level. Trend models allowing for discontinuities of the male birth proportions are suggested. Superimposed on a downward trend in male proportions there was a 'jump' in 1987 with an odds ratio of 1,0047 (95%-confidence interval: 1,0013-1,0081, p-value: p = 0,0061). A positive association of the male proportion in Germany between 1986 and 1991 with radioactive exposure at the district level is reflected by an odds ratio of 1,0145 per mSv/a (1,0021-1,0271, p = 0,0218). These findings suggest a possible long term chronic effect of influence by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident on the human sex odds at birth in several European countries. (authors)

  8. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Ryo, Haruko; Nomura, Taisei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yeliseeva, K.G.; Piskunov, V.S.; Krupnova, E.V.; Voitovich, A.M.

    2000-07-01

    The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of {sup 137}Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High {sup 137}Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in {sup 137}Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  9. Medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the post-accident period the affected population has more significant, in comparison with the republican indices, morbidity growth practically on all classes of diseases and in the first place, digestive, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, urogenital, otolaryngological, among adult as well as children's population. There continues worsening of the health state of children and adolescents permanently residing radioactive contaminated territories especially accompanied by long-lasting and considerable accumulation of long-living radionuclides by the organism - cesium 137 and strontium 90. The health state of the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences and evacuated from alienation zone, absorbed considerable radiation doses for the whole organism (the growth of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous systems diseases, etc.). In the republic a considerable increase of thyroid cancer morbidity of children and adolescents especially in the Gomel and Brest regions has been registered. This is stipulated by dose burdens on thyroid gland at the expense of iodine-radionuclides in the first period after the accident, goiter endemic, incorrect iodine prophylactics, etc. Alongside with it in Gomel region mainly there is observed the marked increase of oncological diseases morbidity, especially in areas with high radionuclides contamination level and subsequently with larger radiation doses. This in the first place concerns the increase of morbidity of lungs, mammary gland, urine bladder, kidney cancer, etc

  10. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of 137Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High 137Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The 137Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that 137Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in 137Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of 137Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  11. Medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the post-accident period the affected population has more significant, in comparison with the republican indices, morbidity growth practically on all classes of diseases and in the first place, digestive, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, urogenital, otolaryngological, among adult as well as children's population. There continues worsening of the health state of children and adolescents permanently residing radioactive contaminated territories especially accompanied by long-lasting and considerable accumulation of long-living radionuclides by the organism - Cs-137 and Sr-90. The health state of the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences and evacuated from alienation zone, absorbed considerable radiation doses for the whole organism (the growth of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous systems diseases, etc.). In the republic a considerable increase of thyroid cancer morbidity of children and adolescents especially in Gomel and Brest regions has been registered. This is stipulated by dose burdens on thyroid gland at the expense of iodine-radionuclides in the first period after the accident, goiter endemic, incorrect iodine prophylactics, etc. Alongside with it in Gomel region mainly there is observed the marked increase of oncological diseases morbidity, especially in areas with high radionuclides contamination level and subsequently with larger radiation doses. This in the first place concerns the increase of morbidity of lungs, mammary gland, urine bladder, kidney cancer, etc. (authors). 1 tab., 22 figs

  12. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 11 March 2011, a nuclear catastrophe occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in the wake of an earthquake and due to serious safety deficiencies. This resulted in a massive and prolonged release of radioactive fission and decay products. Approximately 20% of the radioactive substances released into the atmosphere have led to the contamination of the landmass of Japan with 17,000 becquerels per square meter of cesium-137 and a comparable quantity of cesium-134. The initial health consequences of the nuclear catastrophe are already now, after only two years, scientifically verifiable. Similar to the case of Chernobyl, a decline in the birth rate was documented nine months after the nuclear catastrophe. Throughout Japan, the total drop in number of births in December 2011 was 4362, with the Fukushima Prefecture registering a decline of 209 births. Japan also experienced a rise in infant mortality, with 75 more children dying in their first year of life than expected statistically. In the Fukushima Prefecture alone, some 55,592 children were diagnosed with thyroid gland nodules or cysts. In contrast to cysts and nodules found in adults, these findings in children must be classified as precancerous. There were also the first documented cases in Fukushima of thyroid cancer in children. The present document undertakes three assessments of the expected incidence of cancer resulting from external exposure to radiation. These are based on publications in scientific journals on soil contamination in 47 prefectures in Japan, the average total soil contamination, and, in the third case, on local dose rate measurements in the fall of 2012. Taking into consideration the shielding effect of buildings, the medical organization IPPNW has calculated the collective lifetime doses for individuals at 94,749 manSv, 206,516 manSv, and 118,171 manSv, respectively. In accordance with the risk factors set by the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) for death

  13. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident provoked a wave of public discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and particularly so in the Federal Republic of Germany. The article in hand discusses some consequences as can be assessed so far, although information on the causes and the course of the accident still is very incomplete. From the information available so far, the possible sequence of events is described. The safety engineering and design of Federal German reactor types is compared with the reactor type installed at Chernobyl, with the result that the Soviet type never would have been licensed in the FRG. The fallout, i.e. the resulting radiation exposure of the population, is expected to remain within the limits of the natural radioactivity; the political effects and possible consequences with regard to further commitments for the advancement of the fast breeder reactor line and the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (orig./RB)

  14. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  15. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  16. Fallout from Chernobyl and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Chernobyl in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results and experience gained so far in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in the light of knowledge obtained from the studies of fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Cesium-137, which was an important radionuclide in the bomb fallout, was still more important after Chernobyl. For most Swedes the external irradiation from deposited Cs-137 was the dominating source of irradiation. Studies of Chernobyl fallout have given new information in the fate of contamination in the forest environment, lakes, urban areas, on shielding factors for houses etc. The releases from Chernobyl gave relatively lower dietary doses than expected form the same amount of Cs-137, released through nuclear weapons testing. However lake fish, moose and forest products have shown to be of greater importance than earlier realized. The main reason for the lower dietary doses from Chernobyl was the seasonal distribution of the fallout with deposition just before the start of the growing season. The various actions taken also reduced the intake of Cs-137 and Cs-134. Otherwise, there are no radical differences in the behaviour of cesium in the environment after the bombs and after Chernobyl. Differences may exist, primarily during the first year, due to different fallout conditions, where also the physical-chemical form of the fallout might have been of some importance. The average Swede will have an effective dose commitment of around 1 mSv from Chernobyl, which is about the same as from the bomb fallout. The highest doses due to Chernobyl area received by people living in high deposition areas (>80 kBq/m2 of CS-137) and consuming larger amounts of game animals, lake fish and reindeer. (66 refs.)

  17. Prophylaxis of radiation-induced thyroid cancers in children after the reactor catastrophe of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in children living in heavily contaminated regions some 100 km away from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant has increased significantly between 1989 and 1993. On the basis of this observation, preparations for iodine blockage of the thyroid in cases of reactor accidents should be made not only near but also far from nuclear power plants. The WHO recommendations on age-related dosage should be followed; the total iodide dose ranging between 15 and 150 mg daily may be split into several portions. In addition, prophylaxis of iodine-deficient goiters with 50-200 μg of iodide daily leads to a significant reduction of the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Consequent elimination of alimentary iodine deficiency should therefore be considered as the basis of precautions against health affects of reactor accidents. Thyroid hormones are indicated only in cases of thyroid enlargement, provided that lesions suspicious for malignancy have been definitely excluded. In the case of thyroid nodules in childhood, the indication for surgery and histological verification of the lesion has to be taken generously. (orig.)

  18. Development of the nuclear safety regime and support programs for Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident of Chernobyl and its consequences continue to be among the most important topics of international politics even now, 25 years after the event. The international community, often with Germany in the lead, takes the concerns caused by the accident seriously and responds realistically to the questions raised by the accident. A comprehensive action program has been initiated. The reactor catastrophe of Chernobyl has shown very clearly that protection from the hazards of the peaceful uses of nuclear power, as defined as a main goal in national atomic energy laws, depends not only on the safety of nuclear power plants operated in the respective country but also on the safety of such plants run in other countries. Decommissioning the nuclear power plants in one's country therefore is not going to remove the risk of potentially becoming a victim of accidents elsewhere. The decision for or against using nuclear power, however, continues to be taken nationally. The risk can be further reduced only by ensuring worldwide the highest possible level of safety of nuclear power plants. The Chernobyl incident de facto initiated the establishment of a comprehensive international safety regime as well as extensive measures strengthening international cooperation in nuclear safety and radiation protection. A whole system of international conventions has since been established. Many multilateral support programs as well as bilateral or trilateral projects with active German participation have helped Ukraine to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl accident on the part of industry and also establish and strengthen, in technical terms, an independent licensing and supervisory authority under nuclear law. (orig.)

  19. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  20. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  1. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control

  2. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control. (authors)

  3. Rehabilitation of the grounds removed from agricultural land tenure after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Strategic task of agricultural manufacture in conditions of radioactive pollution at the initial stage was realization of a complex of protective measures directed on decrease of concentration radionuclide in production and, as consequence, reduction of radiating loadings. One of radical measures was withdrawal from using the grounds and liquidation of the agricultural organizations. In territory of the Mogilev region in connection with Chernobyl catastrophe it is removed from land tenure 39 thousand ha the agricultural grounds. About 23 thousand ha (59%) had density of pollution by Cs-137 more than 40 Ci/km2, 8.1 thousand ha (21%) - from 15 up to 40 Ci/km2, 5.7 thousand ha (15%) - from 5 up to 15 Ci/km2. Only 2.2 thousand or 6% of the areas were polluted with Cs-137 with density from 1 up to 5 Ci/km2. About 20.4 ha (29%) the grounds of a stock have a point of fertility 20.1-25.0, 23.0 thousand ha (33%) - 25.1-30.0, 20.9 thousand ha (30%) - 30.1-35.0 and 5.4 thousand ha (8%) - 35.1-40.0 points. The soil cover of the grounds of a stock is very various, but basically is submitted mineral soils various types. The substantiation of rehabilitation of these grounds should be based on the complex estimation allowing objectively, to judge, a radiological opportunity and productive and economic expediency of this action. The basic criteria of input of the grounds in agricultural use: Density of radioactive pollution soils; The contents radionuclide in production; Genetic fertility soils; Agrotechnical condition of the grounds; Productive and economic efficiency of use; Economic feasibility of realization of protective actions. To rehabilitate expediently the grounds: Suitable for cultivation of agricultural crops on a level of radioactive pollution; Described by high genetic fertility soils; Not demanding significant expenses for realization agrotechnical works; Conveniently located in relation to potential land users. Input of the grounds should be accompanied

  4. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10

  5. Application of catastrophe theory to nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three two-parameter models, one describing an A-body system (the atomic nucleus) and two describing many-body systems (the van der Waals gas and the ferroelectric (perovskite) system) are compared within the framework of catastrophe theory. It is shown that each has a critical point (second-order phase transition) when the two counteracting forces controlling it are in balance; further, each undergoes a first-order phase transition when one of the forces vanishes (the deforming force for the nucleus, the attractive force for the van der Waals gas, and the dielectric constant for the perovskite). Finally, when both parameters are kept constant, a kind of phase transition may occur at a critical angular momentum, critical pressure, and critical electric field. 3 figures, 1 table

  6. Radiation situation and health statistics of the people in the Tula region of Russia after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term programs are necessary in order to minimize the medical consequences and to increase the efficiency of medical assistance to those who have undergone radiation action as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It is also necessary to evaluate objectively the state of health of the sufferers, to obtain scientifically grounded conclusions on effects of 'low' radiation doses on human organism, and to estimate the genetic consequences for future generations. These programs must foresee the implementation of various activities, including: 1. Provision of further monitoring of persons attributed to the groups of risk, especially: those whose thyroid was irradiated when they were children and adolescents; children born by mothers whose thyroid was irradiated in their children-adolescent age; children whose thyroid was irradiated in pre-natal period; pregnant women; liquidators of 1986-1987 and their children born after 1986. 2. Provision of medical-prophylactic institutions on the polluted territories (of district and regional levels) and clinics of research centers with modern medico-diagnostic equipment, as well as regular supply of necessary reagents and medicines to hospitals and clinics. 3. Development of system of rehabilitation medical activities and sanatorium bases for the Chernobyl sufferers, especially for children. 4. Supply of food products with radioprotective properties; fresh vegetables, fruits etc., especially for children in the polluted territories. 5. Scientific study of radiation action combined with action of other carcinogens including chemical pollutants. (J.P.N.)

  7. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  8. Japan's nuclear catastrophe; a shocking calamity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan suffered a massive earthquake which was followed by more disastrous tsunami that led to nuclear crises. The Fukushima nuclear plant faced series of explosions and the water cooling system failed. The nuclear reactor is spreading radioactivity in the atmosphere. This has immensely affected the country's economy and the authorities are still struggling to stop the release of radiation from the quake hit nuclear plant. The professors of various universities are tense with regard to dangerous amount of radiation present in the air. The survivors of the calamity are afraid of cancer and other dire illnesses; who have been exposed to Japan's crippled nuclear plant on march 11, 2011. Though the scientists claim that Tokyo is safe from the radiations but the authorities do not have the sufficient data to prove about its safety. There has been much errors and delay in the proper assessment of the crises and the truth may take 5 to 10 years of time to come out, but this would be too late. This paper is an attempt to delve deep into the reasons of this calamity. It intends to suggest some measures that can be helpful in assessing the damage and improvements that can be taken up with regard to location and design of nuclear power plant so that in such situation of emergency the coping becomes easier and damage minimized. (author)

  9. Catastrophes and nuclear accidents in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the former USSR, the nuclear safety, the environment protection and the preservation of workers and population health were not the first priority for the Soviet Union authorities. The fabrication of nuclear weapons, the construction of nuclear submarines and the production of an abundant energy source were the only goals at that time. This book describes and explains the circumstances of the nuclear catastrophes and accidents that have occurred during this era. It tries to estimate their impacts on populations and environment and their possible consequences in a near or far future. (J.S.)

  10. Initiative for decommissioning of Chernobyl Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the New Safety Confinement (NSC) for the Chernobyl unit 4 started 2010, after about 25 years of Chernobyl accident and will complete summer of 2015. This project is being conducted by assistance of EU, USA and other countries including Japan. NSC can cover the whole facility of unit 4, and is installed various components or tools including big bridge crane for decommissioning unit 4 and has durability over 100 years. In addition to construction of NSC, various activities for preparing the decommissioning including developing the technology of monitoring the inside of destructive building and remote access technologies. The spent fuel storage facility and waste proposal facilities are also constructed.. These activities include many valuable information about how to smoothly conduct the decommissioning and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  11. Chernobyl coverage: how the US media treated the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to uncover whether enough background information about nuclear power and the nuclear industries in the USA, USSR and Eastern and Western Europe had been included during the first two weeks of US coverage of the Chernobyl accident so that Americans would not be misled in their understanding of and attitudes toward nuclear power in general. It also sought to determine if reporters took advantage of the Chernobyl accident to attack nuclear technology or the nuclear industry in general. Coverage was analysed in five US newspapers and on the evening newscasts of the three major US television networks. Despite heavy coverage of the accident, no more than 25% of the coverage was devoted to information on safety records, history of accidents and current status of nuclear industries. Not enough information was provided to help the public's level of understanding of nuclear power or to put the Chernobyl accident in context. However, articles and newscasts generally balanced use of pro- and anti-nuclear statements, and did not include excessive amounts of fear-inducing and negative information. (author)

  12. Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

  13. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  14. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

  15. Lessons of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insensitivity of radiation without measuring apparatus and health outcome observed in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are major sources that make people fear the possible late effects of radiation exposure attributable to nuclear power plant accident. However, the health conditions of people in the last 20 years around Chernobyl indicated the necessity to review the risk assessment suggesting that effects of radiation exposure may considerably be different between the atomic bombing and nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  16. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  17. Underwater studies in the regions of 'Komsomolets' nuclear submarine catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a summary of the results of an expedition in the area of the 'Komsomolets' nuclear submarine catastrophe. The submarine sunk in the Norvegian Sea, 1690 m deep-seated in April 1989. The ecological situation was studied, radioactivity levels onboard the submarine and around it were measured. Visual inspections of the submarine and its parts have shown permissible levels of radioactive contamination. 1 ref., 3 figs

  18. Reconstruction of radioactive contamination of territory the Belarus by an isotope I-131 after the catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first period after the accident of Chernobyl NPP considerable increasing of exposure dose power was registered practically everywhere on the territory of Belarus. The levels of radioactive contamination induced by iodine-131 were so high that the irradiation of millions people caused by it has been qualified by experts as the period of 'iodine blow' by specialists. So reconstruction of iodine doses during the first period after the accident can considerable change current assessments of radionuclides affect upon population of Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Nowadays the assessment of environmental short-lived radionuclides, first of all iodine isotopes, contamination is very important because high levels of iodine contents in soil, atmospheric air, water and food have caused rising of malignant thyroid cancer in the post accident period, especially among children and teenagers everywhere on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Revealed dependence between iodine-131 contamination of soil and space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidence among children on the territory of Belarus allows one to use the reconstruction map for detection the regions of increased risk of cancer incidence. Reconstruction map of space iodine-131 distribution reflects real situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus on the May 10, 1986. Proposed approaches allow one to construct a number of maps of iodine-131 distribution for given data taking into account dynamics of real meteorological conditions formed the radioactive trace.Dose commitments on thyroid cancer caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2,5 months after the accident. The space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of Belarus in the period from 1986 to 1995 map was made. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of

  19. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  20. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  1. 15. Consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for public health and the environment 23 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    More than 50% of Chernobyl's radionuclides were dispersed outside of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia and caused fallout as far away as North America. In 1986 nearly 400 million people lived in areas radioactively contaminated at a level higher than 4 kBq/m(2) and nearly 5 million individuals are still being exposed to dangerous contamination. The increase in morbidity, premature aging, and mutations is seen in all the contaminated territories that have been studied. The increase in the rates of total mortality for the first 17 years in European Russia was up to 3.75% and in Ukraine it was up to 4.0%. Levels of internal irradiation are increasing owing to plants absorbing and recycling Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu, and Am. During recent years, where internal levels of Cs-137 have exceeded 1 mSv/year, which is considered "safe," it must be lowered to 50 Bq/kg in children and to 75 Bq/kg in adults. Useful practices to accomplish this include applying mineral fertilizers on agricultural lands, K and organosoluble lignin on forestlands, and regular individual consumption of natural pectin enterosorbents. Extensive international help is needed to provide radiation protection for children, especially in Belarus, where over the next 25 to 30 years radionuclides will continue to contaminate plants through the root layers in the soil. Irradiated populations of plants and animals exhibit a variety of morphological deformities and have significantly higher levels of mutations that were rare prior to 1986. The Chernobyl zone is a "black hole": some species may persist there only via immigration from uncontaminated areas. PMID:20002059

  2. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  3. Considerations on nuclear safety in France, two years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper, we shall briefly describe the three different categories of actions decided on in the wake of Chernobyl: 1. Research and development: physical phenomena and design features implicated in the accident 2. Measures concerning all nuclear installations 3. Measures specific to pressurized water reactors. In the second part, we shall give more detailed results of an initial re-assessment of PWR reactivity accidents

  4. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  5. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  6. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  7. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the evolution of the area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986-2046 shows, that in 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will decrease to approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease by a factor 1.5 in comparison with 1986; in 60 years (2046) the contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. it will decrease by a factor 2.4. Radioactive contamination of soils by 241Am in Belarus is generally limited to the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. Maximum 241Am levels will be reached in 2060 and will exceed the activity of 238,239,240Pu by approximately a factor of 2. Most of the 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentrations of 137Cs in rivers for the period 1987-2001 have considerably decreased. They are lower than the Republican Permissible Level for drinking water

  8. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  9. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  10. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  11. Nuclear war and climatic catastrophe: Some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apocalyptic prediction require, to be taken seriously, higher standards of evidence than do assertions on other matters where the stakes are not as great. Since the immediate effects of even a single hermonuclear weapon explosion are so devastating, it is natural to assume - even without considering detailed mechanism - that the more or less simultaneous explosion of 10,000 such weapons all over the Northern Hemisphere might have unpredictable and catastrophic consequences. And yet, while it is widely accepted that a full nuclear war might mean the end of civilization at least in the Northern Hemisphere, claims that nuclear war might imply a reversion of the human population to prehistoric levels, or even the extinction of the human species, have, among some policymakers at least, been dismissed as alarmist or, worse, irrelevant

  12. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  13. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  15. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  16. Fright from Chernobyl; Skremselet fra Tsjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Research on nuclear power be defined through catastrophes, said Norwegian experts. The worst of them throwing after 25 years still an equally long and dark shadow. 25 years since the Chernobyl accident. The article has fact boxes on the three major reactor accidents, Chernobyl with RBMK reactor; Three Mile Island with PWR and BWR reactor at Fukushima. Points out the danger by untrained personnel deal with risky situations. (AG)

  17. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  18. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E. (Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion.

  19. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima; Atomkatastrophe in Japan. Gesundheitliche Folgen von Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold

    2013-03-06

    On 11 March 2011, a nuclear catastrophe occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in the wake of an earthquake and due to serious safety deficiencies. This resulted in a massive and prolonged release of radioactive fission and decay products. Approximately 20% of the radioactive substances released into the atmosphere have led to the contamination of the landmass of Japan with 17,000 becquerels per square meter of cesium-137 and a comparable quantity of cesium-134. The initial health consequences of the nuclear catastrophe are already now, after only two years, scientifically verifiable. Similar to the case of Chernobyl, a decline in the birth rate was documented nine months after the nuclear catastrophe. Throughout Japan, the total drop in number of births in December 2011 was 4362, with the Fukushima Prefecture registering a decline of 209 births. Japan also experienced a rise in infant mortality, with 75 more children dying in their first year of life than expected statistically. In the Fukushima Prefecture alone, some 55,592 children were diagnosed with thyroid gland nodules or cysts. In contrast to cysts and nodules found in adults, these findings in children must be classified as precancerous. There were also the first documented cases in Fukushima of thyroid cancer in children. The present document undertakes three assessments of the expected incidence of cancer resulting from external exposure to radiation. These are based on publications in scientific journals on soil contamination in 47 prefectures in Japan, the average total soil contamination, and, in the third case, on local dose rate measurements in the fall of 2012. Taking into consideration the shielding effect of buildings, the medical organization IPPNW has calculated the collective lifetime doses for individuals at 94,749 manSv, 206,516 manSv, and 118,171 manSv, respectively. In accordance with the risk factors set by the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) for death

  20. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

  1. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  2. SUBSTANTIAL AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MENTAL STATUS OF THE PERSONS WHO HAVE RECEIVED SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION DURING LIGUIDATION OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the peculiarities of ideas about the catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster at the persons who have suffered from radiation during liquidation of the accident’s consequences. View of the accident was considered as a key element of a person’s mind, in particular the adaptive. There were 30 persons, who took part in the research – participants of Chernobyl disaster’s liquidation, veterans of division of an extra risk. The subjective assessment of mental health at persons who survived in Chernobyl disaster was defined; personal properties of victims were revealed; interrelations between personal properties and subjective assessment of mental health were established. It is possible to assume that in process of moving away from the moment of the accident the content of view of Chernobyl disaster shows concentration of the person on experience of mental health and the personal potential.

  3. Chernobyl and status of nuclear power development in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has seriously affected development of the USSR nuclear power program. But it has not eliminated the basic prerequisites for nuclear power development in the USSR which are: - resources and consumption territorial disproportions; - large share of oil and gas in electricity generation; - negative ecological aspects of coal plants; - high power industry development rate. At the same time it has aggravated the old problems and has given rise to some new-ones of which the most important are: - increased safety requirements; rise in costs; longer construction schedules; public opinion. On the whole for further safe development of nuclear power a detailed analysis of the Chernobyl accident is required, including studies of long-term accident consequences and measures of their mitigation and elimination. A necessary condition for NPP operation to be continued would also be development and rapid implementation of technical approaches which would permit to eliminate the design shortcomings in the RBMK NPPs both operating and those under construction. At the same time we have to ensure their competitiveness with other energy sources and possibility of expansion of their applications. The problem of public opinion should be emphasised. After the Chernobyl accident we have faced a social phenomenon which is quite new in this country. There is almost no site where the population was not opposed to NPP construction. For us these problems are especially difficult as we have had no experience of this kind of interactions with the public. We are planning and begin to realize a program basing on the current world experience. This program includes primarily a wide series of publications on the problems of nuclear energy its ecologic and economic advantages as compared with conventional and alternative energy sources,, using all cur-rent media. Centers of public information discussion clubs, exhibitions etc are being organized. In particular, our Institute has

  4. Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early morning of April 26, 1986, as the culmination of an almost incredible series of errors that began 24 hours earlier, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear complex, a so-called RBMK-1000 reactor, suffered the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. There was an uncontrolled nuclear excursion, release of a large amount of energy, possibly comparable to hundreds of pounds of TNT, blowing the top off the reactor. There was no containment, in the traditional American sense, so the roof of the building was blown out, an unprecedented amount of radioactivity was released to the biosphere, and a graphite fire was ignited, which burned for days. The radiation that was released spread through Eastern Europe (the world first learned of it through Swedish observations), bringing with it both official and unofficial protests that the Soviet Union had made no announcement of the radiation release until they were, in effect, caught. In fact, after a few days, the Soviets seemed to recognize that nuclear safety is a matter of international concern, and became quite open in their search for cooperation. They invited officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to visit the area and to fly over the plant, and agreed, in the end, to make a complete disclosure of the details of the accident at a special meeting of IAEA in Vienna, August 25 to 29, 1986. In preparation for that meeting they distributed a lengthy (400 pages) report on the event. This paper reviews this report

  5. International nuclear third party liability law: The response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of liability and compensation issues, the response of the international community to the accident at Chernobyl has been comprehensive, aimed at modernising two outdated international regimes, linking them together and adopting a brand, new global one - all this in the hope of bettering the situation of victims of a nuclear accident, wherever they may be found. That improvement will be brought about in a number of ways once all of the relevant international instruments have entered into force. Much more money will be available to compensate victims of a nuclear accident and that money will be more readily and easily accessible. More victims will be entitled to compensation, both in terms of the type of damage that they have suffered and where those victims were physically located at the time they suffered it; in some cases, such as under the Supplementary Compensation Convention, victims in states other than that of the liable operator will be in a privileged position as regards a portion of the available compensation. In addition, the period in which claims for compensation can be made in respect of personal injury and loss of life has been extended, in recognition of the fact that some such injuries may not manifest themselves for many years after the accident has occurred. Yet despite the lessons learned from Chernobyl, despite the attempts to make these new or amended instruments as attractive as possible to encourage the broadest possible adherence, their acceptance by individual states has not been overwhelming. This is particularly true in the case of the VC Protocol and the CSC where the required liability amounts and financial security limits were intentionally established at levels deemed to be acceptable to the vast majority of potential parties. It is equally discouraging to see that Ukraine has not ratified either the VC Protocol or the CSC, even though it signed both shortly after their adoption in 1997. Similarly, the Russian Federation has

  6. Medical lessons learned from chernobyl relative to nuclear detonations and failed nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E

    2012-12-01

    The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 involved the largest airborne release of radioactivity in history, more than 100 times as much radioactivity as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs together. The resulting emergency response, administrative blunders, and subsequent patient outcomes from this large-scale radiological disaster provide a wealth of information and valuable lessons for those who may find themselves having to deal with the staggering consequences of nuclear war. Research findings, administrative strategies (successful and otherwise), and resulting clinical procedures from the Chernobyl experience are reviewed to determine a current utility in addressing the appropriate protocols for a medical response to nuclear war. As various myths are still widely associated with radiation exposure, attention is given to the realities of a mass casualty medical response as it would occur with a nuclear detonation. PMID:23241462

  7. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  8. Influences of the atomic catastrophe on wildlife and ecosystems and their consequences to people. Suggestions from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses about the title subject in an ecological aspect to learn socioeconomic consequence from Chernobyl for Fukushima in future, for which there is no ecological attempt to systematically investigate (Sep. 2011). This discussion is essentially based on the references of Consequences (Chernobyl Consequences, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 2009), Legacy (Chernobyl's Legacy, IAEA, 2006) and some other ecological papers published in English. Firstly, the long term dynamics of Chernobyl radio-contamination of mainly Cs-137 is explained from aspects of meteorology, surface and underground water systems and heterogeneity of its spreading for distribution. From data on contamination of fungi and plants, its degrees are different dependent on the local soil, weather, ecological type, season, contaminated states, species and population. The data of contaminated European red pine have resulted in prohibition of its usage as firewood and of access to its forest. Several species of natural blessings like wild berries and fungi/lichens and its eater, reindeer, are also contaminated. These have brought about breaking off of the local traditional food culture. There are botanical and zoological data showing the elevated rate of genetic change and mutation. Contamination of animals and its influences on their life are also evident in mammals (data of deer and boar), small birds, amphibians (frogs), fresh water fishes and invertebrates like Drosophila, earthworm and plankton in the Baltic. There are detailed data of voles and swallows on their fertility, survival and number of individuals. Reduction of soil microorganisms and possible mutation of viruses are suggested. Consideration is taken in perceptions of the truth in two camps, Consequences and Legacy, for ecological validity to conclude for basis of the human health and life to be hurt similarly to those of non-human beings in wide area of Europe as well as Chernobyl and neighboring countries. (T.T.)

  9. Nuclear power station with nuclear reactor accommodated largely secure against catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the nuclear reactor is installed underground near the power station unit, then danger to the environment due to radiation contamination can be largely or nearly completely prevented by a covering of constant thickness or by a covering which can be installed by a catastrophic accident. The extinguishing of a burning reactor is also relatively simple for a reactor accommodated in a pit. The above-mentioned measures can be used individually or combined. (orig./HP)

  10. Research developments of 'Cardiology' scientific and clinical centre (1995-2003) including those directed at reducing to minimum catastrophe effects on Chernobyl atom power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of blood circulation system in Republic of Belarus as well as in the entire world are considered to be an acute problem. This is due to high incidence of this pathology and the leading place these diseases occupy among the cause for labour losses (according to data obtained in the year 2002 - 54% among all fatal outcomes; 41,4%- cause for primary invalidity among the entire population and 27,5% - among able-bodied age population) For the years passed since the catastrophe, work has been performed to assess the possibilities for its consequences' effect on the above-mentioned negative indices. So far there has not been feasibility to present unambiguous treatment of results obtained. Growth in mortality level due to diseases of blood circulation system is observed virtually in all the regions of the republic, however, according to 2000 year data, mortality indices in Mogilev (448, 3) and Gomel (430,2) regions are somewhat higher than average republican one (414,1) The examination of residents in regions under pressure of catastrophe on Chernobyl and liquidators has revealed higher incidence of CHD in old age groups and higher frequency and level for CHD risk factor. The approaches which are common in the entire world for the fight against cardiovascular pathology including the suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe are as follows: target oriented preventive work, detection of diseases during early stages of pathological process, timely and adequate treatment and performance of rehabilitative activities. At the same time, positive results can be obtained only in comprehensive solution of the problems indicated which are applicable to departments of cardiological service and health care in general, different ministries and agencies being involved. As a result of its performance, detectability of arterial hypertensive patients has improved and labour losses due to them have reduced. Standardized index of mortality general in the republic among AH pts has

  11. Efficient prevention and compensation of catastrophic risks. The example of damage by nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the liability for damage due to catastrophic risks. The nuclear liability law serves as an example of such a catastrophic risk. The question that we tried to answer is what an efficient compensation scheme for catastrophic risks should look like. This question is dealt with both from a law and an economic point of view and from a comparative point of view. The main element in comparing the laws in different countries is the comparison between Belgian and Dutch civil (nuclear) liability law. But also American nuclear liability law is part of the analysis (the Price-Anderson Act). The book consists of four parts: (nuclear) civil liability law, legal and economic approach, analysis of other compensation systems and conclusions. The big themes in this book are therefore civil (nuclear) liability law, insurance law and environmental liability law

  12. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

  13. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  14. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed γ-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  15. The nuclear safety account and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the G-7 officially proposed that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development set up the Nuclear Safety Account (NSA) and act as the Account's secretariat. The Bank's Board of Directors approved this proposal and the Rules of the NSA on 22 March 1993 and the NSA became effective on 14 April 1993. The NSA finances, through grants, operational and near-term technical safety improvements for Soviet-designed nuclear reactors in the countries of the former Soviet Union, central and eastern Europe. Priority is given to those reactors which present the highest level of risk that can be significantly reduced by short-term and cost-effective safety improvements, and which are necessary to ensure the continuing electricity supply in the region. Efforts are therefore focused on WWER 440/230 and RBMK types of reactors and on the purchase of equipment as opposed to studies, which a number of donors already fund. Finance from the NSA is not used to extend the operating lifetime of unsafe reactors

  16. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  17. Catastrophe plan for areas surrounding nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the FRG, the federal government is responsible for the construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as defence measures against the 'damaging effect of ionizing radiation'. The responsibility of guarding public safety and order from danger lies with the states. Catastrophe defense is a special part in this scope of duties. It guards against such interferences in public safety and order which, because of their extraordinary consequences and the necessity of specially organized defense, we call catastrophes. The duty of catastrophe defence is to prevent or alleviate immediate consequences for the population from high amounts of released radioactivity. This means that the catastrophe defence is equipped to prevent or aleviate so called non-stochastic damages, especially early damages, and to reduce individual risk

  18. Chernobyl health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986, a few short minutes were not enough to destroy one of the four nuclear reactors at Chernobyl and cause, over the next few weeks, the deaths of 31 people from among the staff, rescuers and firefighters who had dealt with the accident and prevented the spread of the catastrophe to the other three reactors on the site. The experts and the authorities soon recognized that the consequences of this event for the environment and for the surrounding populations would last several decades. Forecast estimates from very diverse sources of the nature and extent of these consequences came thick and fast, particularly in the years 1986 and 1987. Unfortunately, they differed so greatly in both time and space that they lacked all credibility. As the news spread through the public, it could only worsen a social climate which was already seriously upset by the effects of the catastrophe itself. 55 refs

  19. The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

  20. Establishment of nuclear safety regulatory regime in Ukraine. Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of safety of Ukraine's Nuclear Power Plants attracts a particular attention world-wide, and the reasons for that are clearly understood: the memories of the Chernobyl tragedy happened in 1986 will possess the minds of people of the world for years. The international community is aware that the political changes and transient economy crisis the former Soviet Union States are facing today, make the resolution of nuclear facilities safety problems less possible. Nevertheless, the understanding and perception of safety policy in Ukraine underwent drastic changes after the Chernobyl accident, and the policy pursued by the Ukraine's safety authority contributes to turning the changes into good practices

  1. Migration and biological effect of radionuclides in forest biogeocenozes of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of radioecological and radiobiological investigations in forest biogeocenozes of the 30 kilometer zone of failure in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The authors present the quantitative evaluation of the distribution of radionuclei in the main component of the soil-plant layer in landscape areas linked in the drainage flow. The morphophysiological special features and hidden variations of the seeds of certain representatives of woody and herbaceous plants of the 30 kilometer zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station are determined. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Impressions of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years on from the nuclear power plant accident, an inaugural meeting of the Wano (World Association of Nuclear Operators) discusses impressions of the Chernobyl incident on a technical tour through the Chernobyl exclusion zone. (author)

  3. Nuclear winter revisited with a modern climate model and current nuclear arsenals: Still catastrophic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2007-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the results of climate model simulations of the response to smoke and dust from a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers could be summarized as "nuclear winter," with rapid temperature, precipitation, and insolation drops at the surface that would threaten global agriculture for at least a year. The global nuclear arsenal has fallen by a factor of three since then, but there has been an expansion of the number of nuclear weapons states, with additional states trying to develop nuclear arsenals. We use a modern climate model to reexamine the climate response to a range of nuclear wars, producing 50 and 150 Tg of smoke, using moderate and large portions of the current global arsenal, and find that there would be significant climatic responses to all the scenarios. This is the first time that an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model has been used for such a simulation and the first time that 10-year simulations have been conducted. The response to the 150 Tg scenario can still be characterized as "nuclear winter," but both produce global catastrophic consequences. The changes are more long-lasting than previously thought, however, because the new model, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, is able to represent the atmosphere up to 80 km, and simulates plume rise to the middle and upper stratosphere, producing a long aerosol lifetime. The indirect effects of nuclear weapons would have devastating consequences for the planet, and continued nuclear arsenal reductions will be needed before the threat of nuclear winter is removed from the Earth.

  4. Accounting, control and physical protection of nuclear material at the Chernobyl Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing assessments of nuclear material amounts present within the post-accident Chernobyl unit 4 are provided. The system for accounting for and control of Shelter nuclear material is considered. The common nature of the tasks for nuclear material accounting, control and physical protection is demonstrated. The configuration and characteristics of the Shelter physical protection system are described and factors that may adversely affect its effectiveness are identified

  5. Return to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country's electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK)

  6. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, I.; Kovalchuk, O. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy (Ukraine)]|[Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research (Ukraine); Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a {beta}-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km{sup 2}, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems.

  7. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a β-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km2, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems

  8. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  9. Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed from the 7010 m Muztagata ice core record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN LiDe; YAO TanDong; WU GuangJian; LI Zhen; XU BaiQing; LI YueFang

    2007-01-01

    The total activity variation with depth from a 41.6 m Muztagata ice core drilled at 7010 m,recorded not only the 1963 radioactive layer due to the thermonuclear test,but also clearly the radioactive peak released by the Chernobyl accident in 1986.This finding indicates that the Chernobyl nuclear accident was clearly recorded in alpine glaciers in the Pamirs of west China,and the layer can be potentially used for ice core dating in other high alpine glaciers in the surrounding regions.

  10. Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. To the tenth anniversary of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the most significant accidents that occurred in the Soviet nuclear submarines is given. Major reasons giving rise to the accidents and destruction of the K-219 and K-278 submarines are analyzed. The events relating to the Komsomolets submarine destruction are described in detail. It is pointed out that psychological factor plays essential role in occurrence of non-standard situations, fire in particular, in nuclear submarines. Comparative data on accidents involving the US submarines are provided

  12. Terrestrial evidence of a nuclear catastrophe in paleoindian times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common problem at paleoindian sites in the northeastern region of North America is the recovery of radiocarbon dates that are much younger than their western counterparts, sometimes by as much as 10,000 years. Other methods like thermoluminescence, geoarchaeology, and sedimentation suggest that the dates are incorrect. Evidence has been mounting that the peopling of the Americas occurred much earlier than 12,000 bp. The discovery of tracks and micrometeorite-like particles in paleoindian artifacts across North America demonstrates they were bombarded during a cosmic event. Measurements of Uranium 235 (235U), depleted by 17-77%, and enhanced concentrations of Plutonium 239 (239Pu), from neutron capture on Uranium 238 (238U), in artifacts, associated chert types, and sediments at depth indicates that the entire prehistoric North American landscape was bombarded by thermal neutrons. Radiocarbon dating assumes that there is no substantial change in isotopic composition over time. A large thermal neutron event would convert residual Nitrogen 14 (14N) in charcoal to Carbon 14 (14C) thus resetting the radiocarbon date to a younger value and pushing back the date that paleoindians occupied the Americas by thousands of years. Analysis of data from 11 locations across North America indicates there were episodes of cosmic ray bombardments of the prehistoric landscape in Late Glacial times. Examination of the radiocarbon record suggests these events were coupled with geomagnetic excursions at 41,000, 33,000, and 12,500 bp and irradiated the landscape with massive thermal neutron fluxes of the order of approximately1015 neutrons/cm2. These data provide a clear body of terrestrial evidence supporting either one of two longstanding hypotheses for catastrophe in paleoindian times: (1) a giant solar flare during a geomagnetic excursion as explored by Wolfendale and Zook, and (2) a supernova shockwave as forwarded by Brackenridge, Clarke, and Dar. The evidence is reviewed, and

  13. Disaster policy and nuclear liability: insights from post-Chernobyl agriculture in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent events at Chernobyl have again brought the issues of nuclear safety to the forefront of the nuclear power debate. Fortunately, our experience with such incidents has been very limited, but it is important to learn as much as possible from such events so as to minimize the cost and effect of any other nuclear incidents, be they small or large. Much of the discussion about the possible effects of nuclear incidents has centered around the human cost in terms of health. While this is undoubtedly of paramount concern, the effect of the release of radiation from Chernobyl on the agricultural resource base in Europe can provide valuable insights on how to reduce the costs associated with the contamination of agricultural areas. This article outlines some of the lessons that can be learned using the livestock-raising industry in northern Wales as an example

  14. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  15. Characteristics of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in particulate form in surface waters in the exclusion zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Ueno, Takashi; Amano, Hikaru; Tkatchenko, Y.; Kovalyov, A.; Watanabe, Miki; Onuma, Yoshikazu

    1998-12-01

    The distribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river and lake water bodies at 6-40 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was studied. Current levels of radionuclides (Cesium-137, Strontium-90, Plutonium, Americium and Curium isotopes) in water bodies and their relation to the ground contamination are presented. The investigation of the radionuclide composition of aqueous and ground contamination revealed that radionuclides on suspended solids (particulate form) originate mainly from the erosion of the contaminated surface soil layer in the zone. Apparent distribution ratios between particulate and dissolved forms are compared to known distribution coefficients.

  16. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag; Le crime de Tchernobyl. Le goulag nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchertkoff, W

    2006-07-01

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  17. Some problems of invalids of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe caused health disorders of the liquidators, and as a result many of them became handicapped. The rate of health disorders among the invalids of Chernobyl is a few times higher than that of other citizens of the country. The invalids of Chernobyl need constant support, social help, medical rehabilitation and qualified medical care. Invalids of Chernobyl suffered from the consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe most of all. We are turning to foreign charity organizations for help in creating the Center of Psychological Support and organizing working places with flexible hours for Invalids of Chernobyl. (Authors)

  18. International nuclear law in the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is dedicated both to legal developments since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant 25 years ago and possible legal implications of the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi which occurred after Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake on 11 March 2011. Following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986, Fukushima will be remembered as the third major accident in the history of civilian nuclear power reactors. Yet Chernobyl was and remains the worst trauma in this history as a result of which nuclear developments slowed down significantly. Eventually, the industry emerged as a safer and stronger technology, particularly because the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima were marked by an exceptional national and international commitment to nuclear safety and emergency preparedness so as to prevent accidents and minimise potential damages, if such occur. From a legal point of view it is safe to say that the nuclear industry is one of the most strictly regulated. However, it is equally safe to say that there is no zero risk technology and that accidents can happen. For several weeks after the tragic events in Japan the world's focus turned - justifiably so - to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power units. It was nevertheless astonishing to observe that the real tragedy, the terrible loss of lives, swept away villages, and the chaos following the breakdown of all kinds of infrastructure were treated as a sideshow compared with the dramatic images of explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi units and helicopters trying to drop seawater into the spent fuel pools. The live broadcasting of accidents might present one of the first lessons to be learnt in our Internet and 24-hour news channel era which did not exist at the time of Chernobyl. The international legal community will also face challenges as the accident has put 25 years of international co-operation and international nuclear law-making to its first serious test. The

  19. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

  20. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  1. The results of the research and studies concerning the information about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies conducted by the National Board of Psychological Defence after the Chernobyl nuclear accident concern questions of great importance about crisis information. The Chernobyl fallout created problems for the mass media and the authorities. Both lacked individual preparedness. The knowledge necessary to face strong demands for information from the public was lacking. A sign of this lack of knowledge and experience was shown when individual journalists - contrary to their usual behaviour - uncritically accepted the sometimes ambiguous information coming from the central authorities. For the authorities it was very much the same. The expert authority, the National Institute for Radiation Protection, had quite a lot of know-how, but no resources for such extensive information as the situation required. Significant problems must be solved concerning the cooperation between central and regional authorities. Direct contacts must be established so that both types of authorities do not learn through mass media what has been decided. The wordings of the messages conveyed in such critical situations must be a matter of more concern. Facts known by the authorities must be presented in a way comprehensible to the public. Technical terms and units must be used with great care. Negative information must of course be presented but measures should be taken to countermand the negative effect. A special responsibility should rest with the school system. The difficulties of informing the public after the Chernobyl disaster were still more emphasized by the study of how the brochure After Chernobyl was received

  2. Chernobyl today. Impressions and informations from a visit to the nuclear power plant in July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A visit to Chernobyl by Western experts was organized within the 1995 Nuclear Technology Conference. The region, which had been evacuated after the reactor accident in the Chernobyl-4 nuclear generating unit on April 26, 1986, now again offers employment to some 15,000 people. 120 scientific organizations are conducting studies in the protected zone. No indications of any consequences of the accident can be seen in the natural environment. As the manager of the power plant put it: 'This is a good region to live in.' In order to maintain this standard of living, the agencies responsible in Ukraine plan to repair unit 2, which has been down because of a fire in the turbine building since 1991, resynchronize it with the power grid, and run it up until 2002. Unit 1 is to be decommissioned in 1998; unit 3, in 2001. The biggest problem on site is the stability of the sarcophagus around unit 4. (orig./UA)

  3. Radiation safety during construction of the encapsulation at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the main radiation safety problems which were solved during design and construction of the encapsulation for Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant which was destroyed in the accident of 26 April 1986. Information is given on the conditions under which large scale restoration work was performed, and on the design stipulations laid down for construction of the encapsulation for the destroyed unit. The paper discusses the technical, organizational and health measures which were used to ensure that radiation safety regulations and standards were observed during construction. The problems of organizing a radiation safety service inside the construction and assembly organization which built the encapsulation are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn with regard to the experience which has been gained in the area of radiation safety implementation during large scale post-accident restoration work under problematic radiation conditions such as those at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant site. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  4. Chernobyl after five years and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26th 1986 the catastrophe occurred at the nuclear electric power generation system. The first inkling of the accident was known through the Swedish monitoring station about the radioactive fallout. It was also in 1986 that the USSR gave an idea of an earlier accident which happened in 1957. The Chernobyl reactor has pressure tubes and is a pressure vessel reactor. Graphite is used as an industrial material. In western reactors in USA with the increase in heat, power generation comes down. The international AEC discussed the Chernobyl comprehensively and came out with conclusion of deficiency in design which was accepted by the Soviet side without any demur. In 1970, in UK an accident has been reported with pressurized reactor. In 1987, Chernobyl was discussed under the chair of Eugene Volkov by USSR. In 1989, another conference was arranged at Sicily. The first annual nuclear safety met at Minsk in 1990 (June); USSR/USA meet on Chernobyl was also held at Solchin in 1989. A future meeting on Chernobyl was held at Paris in July 1991. In all these meetings, it is emphasized that more training and safety culture establishment was necessary by the international nuclear safety advisory group on safety. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  5. Chernobyl: exclusive investigation. How the French nuclear lobby buries the truth in contaminated areas. The After-Chernobyl or 'Living happy' in contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the results of this inquiry, the CEPN (study centre on assessment of protection in the nuclear sector) has been created by the main actors of the nuclear industrial sector (EFG, Cogema, CEA and IRSN) and is at the origin of the ETHOS and CORE projects. Moreover, these projects have been financed by public funds. It also shows that the FNSEA (farmer trade union) has been allied to the French nuclear lobby for the distribution probably contaminated and radioactive foodstuff. It evokes the case of Belarus researcher who denounced such contamination and the misappropriation of international funds, and who was sent to jail. It comments the collaboration between the French nuclear sector and the Belarus regime, denounces how the truth about Chernobyl has been hidden, the cynical results of the ETOS program which would imply the consumption of contaminated foodstuff in France in case of nuclear accident. Some proposals are made: to dismantle the CEPN, to stop the participation of French organisations to the CORE and FARMING programs, creation of an independent commission on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and so on. For the authors, phasing out nuclear is the only solution o avoid a new Chernobyl

  6. Lessons learned from the TMI-2 accident and Chernobyl nuclear disaster for nuclear safety innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and the Tsunami gave the serious damage to the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The accidents occurred in Unit 1, 2, 3 and 4. It is said that the height of tsunami attacked Fukushima NPP was more than 14m. After 50 minutes from the automatic shut-down, tsunami attacked the NPPs in Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. For example, the Unit 1 lost A/C power caused the loss of water injection function; it made the core meltdown and unusual increase of PCV pressure in the midnight to March 11th to 12th morning. Though the Unit one has the Isolation Condenser Core Cooling system, it was stopped by the operator to keep the cooling rate of 55degC/h. Finally, the isolation signal was transmitted from the control room to the motor driven isolation valves when the control room's battery discharged. It was the initiation of the core meltdown. The lessons from the TMI-2 accident, human error and instrumentation and control system trouble cased the core damage. Though the NPPs in European counties have filtered venting system after the Chernobyl Nuclear disaster, there are not filtered venting system connected the containment vessel in Japanese NPPs. If the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs have filtered venting system, the venting could be much earlier and no nuclear disaster would be occurred. (author)

  7. On the radiological consequences near and far away from the catastrophically damaged Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the radioactive cloud rise at the site on the potential expected post accidental doses, using the WASH-1400 PWR-1A scenario and the CRAC 2 model, was studied. The UNSCEAR 1988 was used to estimate the activity of the cloud that contaminated Slovenia and neighbouring areas. The contamination levels at the J.Stefan Institute were used for comparison (the match was surprisingly good). Some of the expected doses due to early irradiation from the cloud, ground, inhalation and ingestion are also shown. Dose reduction possibilities were estimated. (author)

  8. Radiation management and health management at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the measures taken by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the accident in April 1986 to date, compares them with the situation of the current Fukushima nuclear accident, and introduces the contents of the authors' visit and coverage in October 2013, including the report of radiation damage. At the Chernobyl site, a new sarcophagus is under construction since 2012. The health care of the workers working at the new and old sarcophaguses of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is carried out at a national level of Ukraine, which is an important management for decommissioning work. Health diagnosis is also applied to the workers in the new sarcophagus, and radiation-related disease is not reported at present. The number of the persons who died from acute radiation exposure diseases after the accident was 28. It was reported that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) appeared significantly when the radiation exceeded 100 mSv. The workers who wish to work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant must pass the test and obtain national qualifications, and then they are able to work for the first time. In the check-in medical control, about half of applicants were rejected. Workers who work at the new sarcophagus are subject to comprehensive health management under the Ukrainian law. There were 58 people who reached annual exposure dose limit of 20 mSv or more among 7,529 people, the cause of which may be the work at the areas of high radiation dose. Even in Fukushima, it is important to perform high quality management based on centralized medical examination, and to further analyze the effects of low-dose exposure to radiation. (A.O.)

  9. Distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of the distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (30 km exclusion zone) has been investigated. Research items are, (i) Distribution of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (ii) Speciation of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (iii) Characteristics of the migration in the surface environment, (iv) Characteristics of the uptake into the vegetables, (v) Prediction of future radioecological situation in the environment, respectively. (author)

  10. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  11. Cesium-137 urinary excretion by northeastern (Pordenone) Italian people following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the radiological consequences in humans due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (5 May 1986), we have determined both the 137Cs concentration in food and the 137Cs daily urinary excretion on 198 residents of the Pordenone area. The resulting experimental data have been compared with those estimated from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 10A model (ICRP 1971) using a suitable dietary intake, and they were found to be in reasonable agreement

  12. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  13. Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

  14. Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

  15. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear plus greenhouse effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the argument in favour of nuclear energy is not an economical one nor linked to energy resources but is at the level of climatic change. Nuclear energy is seen as the only energy source without carbon dioxide emissions. A more detailed analysis of greenhouse gases on the life cycle shows that nuclear energy gives as greenhouse gases as big hydroelectric power plants or wind power plants, these emissions are more important than for biogas installations with cogeneration. The strategy of energy efficiency is certainly more competitive than the new reactors in other terms it is more efficiency to reduce the consumption than to increase the nuclear production. (N.C.)

  16. Retrospection of Chernobyl nuclear accident for decision analysis concerning remedial actions in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from 'Krasnoyarsk-26' into Enisey River, releases of radioactive materials from 'Chelabinsk-65' (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial actions are usually developed on the base of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous. For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. Their of-site radiological monitoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made. All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of 137Cs in body (40 measurements in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Chernobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farmland model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine. By means of this model dynamics of 20 radionuclides in pathways and dynamics of doses have been estimated for the early, intermediate and late phases of the Chernobyl accident. The main results are following

  17. Psychological state of the Chernobyl invalids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted an extensive research studying the impact of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe upon the psychological state of the liquidators, evacuees and invalids of Chernobyl. More than 600 people who suffered from the tragedy in Chernobyl have been interviewed face to face. This report presents the unique findings of the survey conducted

  18. Administration of stable iodine to the population around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium iodide was reportedly given to nearly five and a half million persons after the Chernobyl accident. During the International Chernobyl Project, investigators asked the general population in both highly contaminated and control settlements about thyroid prophylaxis. Only 25% of persons currently living in the most contaminated regions reported taking potassium iodide. Sixty-six percent indicated that they did not take potassium iodide and 9% were uncertain. Of those who took stable iodine prophylactically, 44% indicated that it was in solution, 44% that it was in tablets and 12% did not remember. Only about one third of persons were able to indicate the duration of time that they took such medication. The average was 6.2 days. It appears that iodine prophylaxis will not have a major impact on estimated collective thyroid doses to the general population living around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The impact that distribution of KI had upon the plant and emergency accident workers remains unknown to us. (author)

  19. The general public's attitude towards nuclear power after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of three public opinion polls made within two years after the Chernobyl reactor accident revealed a deep feeling of insecurity in the population which did not disappear or diminish in the time from the first to the third survey, but instead was stirred up again by the affairs in the nuclear industry. Other than former accidents in a nuclear facility, as the one at Harrisburg for example, the Chernobyl reactor accident - from the subjective point of view of many citizens - had effects of a dimension exceeding the political level, and reaching into the normal sphere of life of anybody. Torn between two contravening feelings, namely the wish to get rid of the nuclear energy risk as soon as possible, and the fear that this might mean farewell also to the amenities of a life as a free consumer, the population gave into the strategy of suppression, so that there is verbal protest against the hazards of nuclear energy, but no will to really give up the advantages of a comfortable life created by modern technologies. (orig./HP)

  20. Total nuclear phaseout. 30 years after Chernobyl. What still has to be done; Alle aussteigen. 30 Jahre nach Tschernobyl. Was noch zu tun ist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The brochure of the German Federal Environment Ministry on the necessity of total nuclear phaseout 30 years after Chernobyl discusses the following issues that still have to be done: Search for a final repository in deep rocks, building of a steel dome for Chernobyl and the roadmap for nuclear phaseout.

  1. After Chernobyl. Possibilities of phasing out nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the currently applicable Parliamentary decision, the phasing out of nuclear power in Sweden must be completed by the year 2010. The National Energy Administration has analyzed the following questions. If it were to become evident that operating several or all of the Swedish nuclear power plants entailed serious risks, what possibilities would there be of phasing them out in the short term or over a longer period. And what would the consequences be with regard to the national economy and the environment? First we report the consequences of a rapid phase-out. Here, it is assumed that several or all nuclear plants would be taken out of operation within a period of two years. Available compensatory resources would be limited to more intensive utilization of existing hydropower, back-pressure plants, combined power and heating plants and oil-fired plants. The second alternative is a phase-out in ten years. Moreover, a case is discussed in which phase-out is planned and implemented from 1987 to 2005. Such a plan would provide industry more time to adjust, while a number of alternative techniques and fuels could be used to replace nuclear power. The consequences of the different phase-out alternatives can be described only within a framework of certain assumptions regarding the worldwide development. Important factors here include fuel prices and economic trends. Environmental restrictions comprise another important prerequisite

  2. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  3. Radioactive contamination of rivers as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of radioactive contamination of the Belarussian rivers after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is discussed in this manuscript. On the basis of data monitored, the authors analyzed the runoff and transport of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in the Dnieper-Sozh river system. They present the details of the Iput' river monitoring. They have drawn certain conclusions concerning the transport and fate of radionuclides based upon their analysis of the data on the transport of radioactive contamination in these rivers

  4. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  5. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

  6. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP)

  7. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  8. An observation report on the late effects of the disaster of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of international medical cooperation for the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, the authors participated in four fact-finding surveys for the aftermath in May 1990, and May, June, and July 1991. This report gives an outline of the surveys, with the purpose of providing the basic information for the future countermeasures. The focus of this paper is on medical surveys for hematopoietic disease (mainly leukemia), infantile thyroid abnormality, and congenital abnormality. In 8 children undergoing hematopoietic examination, accumulated exposure doses were all one rad or less. Infantile leukemia is discussed in terms of exposure doses, radioactivity, radiation-related leukemic types, and the future management. The results of thyroid examination performed in 40 persons at a hospital in the Ukraine are presented: 17 persons were noted to have sclerosing struma associated with atrophy. Incidence of thyroid cancer, presented from two facilities of the Ukraine and four facilities of the Belorussia, is reported. Thyroid abnormality is discussed in terms of radioiodine, I-131 treatment in Basedow's disease, Bikini nuclear exlosion, Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, and Chernobyl pediatric survivors. The final topic, congenital abnormality, covers the information on fetal and neonatal death and the occurrence of anomaly obtained from reliable physicians in the Belorussia, and is discussed in terms of exposure doses. Finally, problems encountered in surveys for the aftermath are also mentioned. (N.K.)

  9. Thyroid gland state in persons of Kiev region after Chernobyl accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl accident, the growth of thyroid pathology, particularly the children's thyroid cancer, has been noted in Kiev Region. Reconstruction of exposure doses on thyroid gland is one of the major problems on liquidation of medical effects of the Chernobyl accident. While accessing the dose load it is necessary to take into account not only iodine-131 contribution to the radiation load, but also that of other iodine short-living radionuclides as well as radionuclides of other chemical elements inhalated or swallowed into the organism. Analysis of pathological involvement of the thyroid gland is to be performed with regard for the state of other organs and systems, i.e. on the entire organism level, thyroid gland playing the leading role in its functioning

  10. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  11. Non-psychotic mental disorders in persons who had acute radiation sickness as a result of the Chernobyl disaster (10 years after catastrophe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description of non-psychotic mental disorders in the persons who had in 1986 acute radiation sickness of 1-3 severity degree as a result of the Chernobyl disaster was given on the basis of follow up study. Three principal syndromes were distinguished as following: cerebrasthenic, psychopathic-like ('characteropathia') and psycho organic. Principals of therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders in the persons who had been exposed to ionization radiation and suffered from acute radiation sickness are considered

  12. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  13. Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Migration studies of 137Cs from nuclear weapons fallout and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical migration of 137Cs originating from nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) and the Chernobyl accident has been studied at 27 reference sites in western Sweden. An attempt to describe the present depth distribution with an alternative solution of the Convection-Dispersion Equation (CDE) with a pulse-like fallout as initial condition was made. The actual depth profiles in the soil samples were fit to a sum of the CDE for both NWF and Chernobyl debris. The magnitudes of the fallouts were estimated from precipitation calculations and GIS-mapping, leaving two free parameters (convection velocity and effective dispersion constant) for performing the fit of the depth profiles. In some cases using only two parameters is not sufficient to achieve an accurate representation for the depth profile, indicating an over- or underestimate of the magnitude of the fallout. In these cases the magnitude of the fallout is also varied. The fitted depth profiles were used to correct in situ measurements from the same locations for the actual depth distribution, showing good agreement with the accumulated activities in soil samples

  17. The cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant: A groundwater remediation case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugai, Dmitri A.; Waters, Robert D.; Dzhepo, Sergei P.; Skalsk'ij, Alexander S.

    1997-04-01

    The cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was heavily contaminated as a result of the reactor accident in April 1986. From 1989 to 1993 the cooling pond represented one of the major sources of 90Sr migration from the Chernobyl site to the Dnieper River. Several attempts have been made to contain radioactive contamination within the pond. Overestimation of releases via groundwater pathway and design mistakes led to unsuccessful remedial actions in 1986 and in later periods. In addition, remediation criteria based solely on comparison of contaminant concentrations in groundwater with drinking water standards were not effective from the health risk perspective, because the public was not directly exposed to contaminated groundwater; the exclusion zone surrounding the site acted as an institutional control to prevent public access. In light of recent estimates of low risks due to radionuclide transport outside the exclusion zone, a "no action" approach may represent the most reasonable strategy for the near-term management of the cooling pond.

  18. Summary report on the environmental monitoring around Tokai area following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident took place at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR in the early hours of 26 April 1986. The plant caught fire and some degree of reactor inventry was released to the environment. Following the accident, debris of the radioactivity from Chernobyl was detected in all the European countries and countermeasures were taken in some countries. In Japan, many kinds of radionuclides were detected in rain, airbone dust and other environmental samples from 3 May and ''Headquaters for Radioactivity Countermeasure'' was organized in the Japanese Government. Health and Safety Division at the Tokai Works, PNC, performed the environmental monitoring for the Chernobyl accident in addition to the statutory monitoring program. This report presents results of the environmental monitoring performed at Tokai Works. Furthermore, study on the environmental transfer parameters and preliminary estimation of the committed dose equivalent to the public around Tokai area are discussed. (author)

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island Nuclear Accidents on the U.S. Electric Utility Industry

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAR, İsmail

    2005-01-01

    We examined the stock market reaction to two nuclear accidents, the Three Mile Island incident and the Chernobyl disaster. We were interested in determining whether the negative stock market reaction following these events was consistently related to the level of nuclear exposure by each firm and whether the negative reaction was reasonably linked to human safety concerns. Prior research has shown that following TMI, but anomalously not Chernobyl, firms with the more nuclear capacity experien...

  20. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values. PMID:20938234

  1. Radiation contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the effective dose received by the population of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the Chernobyl nuclear accident which led to enhanced deposition of all fission products, contamination of the human environment in the Republic of Croatia was much higher than in the previous two decades. The paper deals with the investigation of deposition and contamination by fission product radionuclides (137Cs and 90Sr, in particular), especially within the human food chain. Its aim was to determine differences in contamination levels resulting from the Chernobyl accident and from large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. For the year following the Chernobyl accident, the radiation doses received from external and internal exposures were estimated for 1-year old infants, children at the age of 10-years and adults. The corresponding annual effective doses were 1·49, 0·93 and 0·83 mSv, respectively. The paper also gives data on the yearly intakes of 137Cs and 90Sr in foods and the corresponding effective doses received by the population of Croatia over many years from the global fallout following nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Dismantling Russia's Northern Fleet Nuclear Submarines: environmental and proliferation risks

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, Benjamin Aaron.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines the 1986 Chernobyl accident and its consequences as the basis for an analysis of the possible dimensions of the nuclear catastrophes that could occur during the dismantlement process of Russia's Northern Fleet nuclear submarines. It assesses the potential demographic, ecological, and economic consequences of a nuclear accident. Given the systemic problems at Russian nuclear facilities, the risks of a catastrophic event in the poorly maintained and operated submarine yards...

  3. Observations on the geology and geohydrology of the Chernobyl' nuclear accident site, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.; Percious, D.J.; Rachlin, J.; Marples, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The most highly contaminated surface areas from cesium-137 fallout from the April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power station in Ukraine occur within the 30-km radius evacuation zone set up around the station, and an 80-km lobe extending to the west-southwest. Lower levels of contamination extend 300 km to the west of the power station. The geology, the presence of surface water, a shallow water table, and leaky aquifers at depth make this an unfavorable environment for the long-term containment and storage of the radioactive debris. An understanding of the general geology and hydrology of the area is important to assess the environmental impact of this unintended waste storage site, and to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration through the soil and rock and into subsurface aquifers and nearby rivers. -from Authors

  4. Behavior of long lived radionuclides in surface environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large part of long lived radionuclides in surface soils sampled in the exclusion zone (30 km zone) around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant are distributed at a depth of few centimeter, but some elements are penetrating into the deep ground. The penetration was different with the kinds of nucleus and soil. More than half of Sr-90 moved easily. Nuclide except Sr-90 are included in humin and insoluble fraction, especially Cs-137 is remarkable. Pu isotopes are included in amorphous iron oxide, fulvic acid and manganese oxide. Cs-137 are kept in hot particles, clay minerals and humin, Am-241 in fulvic acid and clay minerals. DOC is consisted of less than ten thousand of molecular weight. However, most part of transuranic elements have more than ten thousand of molecular weight and they are bonding with fulvic acid, fumic substance, and dissolved. (S.Y.)

  5. Aspects of environmental monitoring by British Nuclear Fuels plc following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident arrived in West Cumbria on 2 May 1986. The environmental monitoring facilities of the British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield reprocessing plant were used to monitor radioactivity in air, deposition on grass and on soil and concentrations in milk. The distribution of deposition between sampled grass and soil was affected by heavy rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud. Measurements of radioactivity in milk at a lowland farm on the coastal plain resulted in a critical group effective dose of 0.64 mSv up to the end of July, but additional doses are expected to result from the use of silage during the winter. Comparisons are made between these doses from milk consumption and those predicted from the data available shortly after the deposition of the radioactivity on the pasture. (author)

  6. Cytogenetic features of leukaemias diagnosed in residents of areas contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domracheva, E.V. E-mail: dom@blood.ru; Aseeva, E.A.; Obukhova, T.N.; Kobzev, Y.N.; Olshanskaya, Y.V.; D' achenko, L.V.; Udovichenko, A.I.; Zakharova, A.V.; Milyutina, G.I.; Nechai, V.V.; Vorobiov, A.I

    2000-05-15

    A comparison of chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow leukaemic cells and of stable and unstable aberrations in lymphocytes of patients with hematological malignancies who live in areas with or without contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear accident has been made using FISH and G-banding. Healthy residents of these areas comprised the control group. No systematic cytogenetic differences of leukaemic cells between patients from contaminated and uncontaminated areas were observed. Lymphocyte aberrations, however, were generally higher in all subjects from contaminated areas. Comparison has been made with specific cytogenetic features of leukaemic cells and a high level of stable aberrations in lymphocytes of patients with secondary leukaemias that had developed after chemo- and/or radio-therapy.

  7. ''Hot'' particles as products of accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and their oncogenic danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic groups of ''hot'' particles, products of accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant which greatly have determined the radioactive contamination of the environment are considered for their properties. The inhalation way of penetration of these particles into the human lungs is noted to be radiation-dangerous. The relation of risks connected with possible yield of oncotransformed cells of the pulmonary tissue due to its irradiation with ionizing radiation from ''hot'' particles or activity - and composition equal set of radionuclides has been estimated. It is shown in the suggested qualitative model that estimation of maximum permissible content of radionuclide in lungs in the approximation of their diffusive distribution is the most conservative one

  8. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3)

  9. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p 137Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  10. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  11. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  12. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 μSv for whole body and 40 μSv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  13. Classification of hot particles from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapons detonations by non-destructive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both after the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon detonations, agglomerates of radioactive material, so-called hot particles, were released or formed which show a behaviour in the environment quite different from the activity released in gaseous or aerosol form. The differences in their characteristic properties, in the radionuclide composition and the uranium and actinide contents are described in detail for these particles. While nuclear bomb hot particles (both from fission and fusion bombs) incorporate well detectable trace amounts of 60Co and 152Eu, these radionuclides are absent in Chernobyl hot particles. In contrast, Chernobyl hot particles contain 125Sb and 144Ce which are absent in atomic bomb HPs. Obvious differences are also observable between fusion and fission bombs' hot particles (significant differences in 152Eu/155Eu, 154Eu/155Eu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios) which facilitate the identification of HPs of unknown provensence. The ratio of 239Pu/240Pu in Chernobyl hot particles could be determined by a non-destructive method at 1:1.5. A non-destructive method to determine the content of non-radioactive elements by Kα-emission measurements was developed by which inactive Zr, Nb, Fe and Ni could be verified in the particles

  14. The Italian debate on nuclear energy in the post Chernobyl age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Italy entered with enthusiasm into the production of nuclear energy for civil use at the end of 50. By 1966 - with an overall output of 3.9 billions kWh - Italy had become the fourth world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactions, the second one in Europe after Great Britain. Chernobyl's 1986 disaster, which so much shook public opinion all over Europe, had particularly important economic and political consequences in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted for the repeal of three laws which promoted the installation of nuclear power plants on the Italian soil and the participation of ENEL (National Institution for the Electrical Energy) to plant constructions abroad. The 1987 referendum was interpreted by the Italian government as an opposition to nuclear power generation - the following year, the four Italian plants (Garigliano, Latina, Trino Vercellese, Caorso) ceased their activity and plans to build new plants were abandoned. This decision marked the ruin of Italian research on nuclear energy, that in the 30 had known a glorious era thanks to Enrico Fermi works. As the 20. Anniversary of Chernobyl's accident is drawing near, the University of Milan and ICS-research group (Innovations in Communication of Science) at SISSA, Trieste, have decided to analyse jointly the reasons which brought Italy to give up its nuclear energy production. In the present scenario of controversies concerning the development of science and technology, in which European countries exchange experiences of best practice to involve the public in decision making processes, Italy reaction to Chernobyl accident can indeed be considered paradigmatic in that it anticipated crucial risks governance issues in today relationship between science and society. The research project draws on methodologies used in media studies and on socio linguistic analysis, as developed by risk perception and risk

  15. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  16. Mobilizing Mothers: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Catastrophe and Environmental Activism in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Freiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The citizens’ and environmental movements of the 1960s and 70s hadgreat political success in Japan, culminating in the Special Session of the Diet in1970 that enacted 14 anti-pollution laws. These activist groups fought denials ofresponsibility on the part of industry and unresponsiveness on the part of localgovernments. Women were at the forefront of this type of activism during the 1960sand 70s, and led many of the citizens’ environmental movements during this time.More recently, during the environmental catastrophe caused by the meltdown of theFukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, women and mothers have been vocal protesters.Environmental movements have particular political salience because of the successwomen have achieved in this area both in policy change and also roles in formalpolitics. Women have consistently achieved these successes at the same time as theyperformed their roles as mothers and home managers; these roles have been usedstrategically to mobilize women with great effect, and also were central to the valueswith which the citizens’ movements defined themselves politically.

  17. A neutron monitoring system for evaluating nuclear safety at the Chernobyl Unit 4 fuel debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remains of the nuclear fuel that was severely damaged in the 1986 Chernobyl unit 4 accident lie in large masses in the premises under the reactor. The fuel debris exists in the form of dusts, chunks, and lavas, and the quantities are substantial--some rooms contain several tons of fuel. Since there is a possibility of water entering these rooms, there is an obvious concern over criticality safety. Incidents of increased neutron count rates have been noted in the vicinity of nuclear fuel debris. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under a program funded by the US Department of Energy, responded to this safety concern by assembling a new monitoring system to characterize the radiation environment in the vicinity of major fuel deposits. The new monitoring system will measure the gamma and neutron radiation fields in several locations. The measurement data can be tracked over time to determine the characteristics of the radiation fields and better understand the nuclear safety conditions in the vicinity of the fuel. The monitoring system was designed to provide information that will allow a better interpretation of any future events

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  19. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  20. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  1. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  2. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  3. Migration behavior of released radionuclides in the river system in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out for assessment of secondary migration of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides through a river system in terms of their amount and forms of the mobile component. It would contribute: a) to clarify controlling factors which cause remobilization/immobilization of the released radionuclides for the river system in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant; and also, b) to find effective countermeasures to prevent secondary contamination in a river system after a nuclear accident. With the objectives described above, migration behavior of the radionuclides in the river system in the exclusion zone was investigated for suspended solid, bottom sediment and river water. In this paper: i) the result of radiochemical analyses for dissolved radionuclides; and, ii) physical form of 137Cs in river waters are described and discussed

  4. The Chernobyl accident and the Spanish nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the morning of April 26, 1986, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ukraine, USSR) suffered an accident of the greatest magnitude among those which have taken place in nuclear energy installations employed for peaceful uses. The accident reached a degree of severity unknown up to now in nuclear energy generating plants, both with respect to the loss of human lives and the effects caused to the neighboring population (as well as to other nations within a wide radius of radioactivity dispersal), and also with respect to the damage caused in the nuclear plant itself. In the light of the anxiety created internationally, the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy prepared a report (1), based on the conclusions of the Governmental Commission entrusted to study the causes of the accident, which was presented at the international meeting of experts held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarters in Vienna from August 25 to 29, 1986. The present technical report has been prepared by the Spanish nuclear power plants within the framework of UNIDAD ELECTRICA, S.A. (UNESA) - the Association of Spanish electric utilities - in collaboration with EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS, S.A. The report reflects the utilities' analyses of the causes and consequences of the accident and, based on similarities and differences with Spanish plants under construction and in operation, intends to: a. Evaluate the possibility of an accident with similar consequences occurring in a Spanish plant b. Identify possible design and operation modifications indicated by the lessons learned from this accident

  5. Forensic Reconstructions of Radioactive Particulate Releases at the Chernobyl and the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating dispersion of nuclear materials released by accidental, operational, or clandestine means is important to the international community. Our research team has performed forensic reconstructions of radionuclide releases at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine and the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Facility (ATNF) near Baghdad, Iraq. Our objectives at ChNPP were to determine the influences of extant atmospheric conditions on particle size distributions and their depositions in the near-field (less than 12 km) regions surrounding the complex. We derived mathematical models of particulate fluid-flow in varying velocity and turbulence fields to fit with 3000 geographically-referenced measurements. Conformity of predicted and empirical fallout patterns was excellent, enabling accurate reconstructions of the particle size contributions, weather conditions, and release energies from the accident. The objectives at ATNF were to evaluate means of dispersion and characterization of nuclear materials within and outside of the compound. Normal facility operations, military actions, and looting of the facility could have contributed to the release of radioactivity, but would yield quite different geographic and radionuclide profiles. Detailed gamma, alpha, and beta radiation profiles were examined for 400 geographically-referenced soil samples collected from ATNF and the villages of Ishtar and Al Ryhad. Natural uranium clusters were identified in several locations clearly showing that looting of yellowcake was the primary means of dispersion. No dispersion of nuclear materials was shown to result from military operations at the site. Our programs demonstrate the precision of geographic-based forensic reconstructions and show that forecast models are robust.(author)

  6. Radiation monitoring during construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused high levels of surface contamination by radionuclides and gamma radiation exposure dose levels in excess of 400 R/h. Moreover, the radiation fields were uneven and inhomogeneous. This is due to the fact that, in addition to dispersed fuel, fragments of the reactor core were also ejected into the buildings and the area surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The dosimetric monitoring section monitored the radiation situation. Both traditional and specially developed methods were used to monitor the radiation situation, enabling the measurement of radiation risk factors, the determination of space-angular distribution of gamma radiation, and the detection of local contamination sources. Radiation situation monitoring results show that 75-80% of the gamma radiation was coming from nuclear fuel in the plant compound and not 'streamings' from the wreck of the Unit 4 reactor. The area has been covered with a protective layer thus reducing the gamma radiation levels by 7-20 times. After the encapsulation had been erected, gamma radiation levels in the vicinity of Unit 4 decreased by a factor of approximately 100. The concentration of radioactive aerosols at the work sites while the encapsulation was under construction was, at most, ten times the permitted concentration (PCA), and only when certain operations were being performed which raised a lot of dust did it reach 100-300 PCA. Owing to the high levels of gamma radiation, the danger of external irradiation of personnel was significantly greater than the danger from internal irradiation. Therefore staff were monitored individually for gamma radiation. A permissible dose level of 25 R for the whole period of work (1-2 months) was implemented for the purpose of individual dosimetric monitoring, and a control level of 1 R per shift. The mean exposure dose received by personnel directly involved in the construction of the encapsulation was 8.6 R, and 50.6% of

  7. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  8. Chernobyl and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared. (UK)

  9. Learning the hard way: Did the lessons taught by the Chernobyl nuclear accident contribute to improving nuclear law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overview of main international nuclear law features presented in this article provides the proof that the international community is capable of reacting in an effective and adequate way to a disaster of the Chernobyl accident type. States and international organisations joined their legal and political forces to tackle the legal aspects connected with the accident. The efforts were focused on two goals: prevention of possible future nuclear accidents and mitigation of the consequences of an accident should it occur. The legal instruments to achieve these objectives are binding international agreements and conventions, non-binding international recommendations, such as technical codes and standards, and, last but not least, national legislative and regulatory measures. Since public international law is an imperfect and sometimes weak legal regime which has to be accepted by states and which in particular needs the national implementation of its obligations, national law, without prejudice to its far reaching 'internationalisation', still plays the crucial role in obtaining a sound legal nuclear energy and ionising radiation

  10. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  11. Papers submitted to the international forum ''one decade after Chernobyl: nuclear safety aspects''. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the forum is to review the remedial measures taken since the Chernobyl accident for improving the safety of RBMK reactors and the Chernobyl containment structure (sarcophagus). The forum will also serve to exchange information on national, bilateral and multilateral efforts for the enhancement of RBMK safety. The conclusions and recommendations will serve as a basis for a background paper to be prepared for presentation, by the forum chairman, at the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl'' to held in Vienna from 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  13. HYSPLIT's Capability for Radiological Aerial Monitoring in Nuclear Emergencies: Model Validation and Assessment on the Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gunhyo; Kim, Juyoul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyeongki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The Chernobyl accident took place on 25 April 1986 in Ukraine. Consequently large amount of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The release was a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A total of 31 persons died as a consequence of the accident, and about 140 persons suffered various degrees of radiation sickness and health impairment in the acute health impact. The possible increase of cancer incidence has been a real and significant increase of carcinomas of the thyroid among the children living in the contaminated regions as the late health effects. Recently, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models have been developed and used around the world. Among them, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) is being widely used. To verify the HYSPLIT model for radiological aerial monitoring in nuclear emergencies, a case study on the Chernobyl accident is performed.

  14. Mortality studies in children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the district of Gomel, Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the district of Gomel in Belarus has become the most contaminated area within the former USSR. A comparative pilot study conducted by the authros to establish the mortality in that district during the 1984-1992 period has not yet revealed any elevated mortality among children aged 0 to <15 years for the period after the accident. Diseases of the respiratory system and congential anomalies were found to be the principal causes of death in this age group (ICD9: classes VIII and XIV). Owing to the low number of children born during the study period and the concomitant small number of deaths from neoplasms, a clear analysis of changes in the structure of mortality from neoplasma (ICD9: class II) has not yet been possible. The birth rate in the Gomel district where the highest radiation exposure was experienced has dropped: There was an obvious decrease suring 1987, i.e. during the year which immediately followed that of the accident, to rise again in 1992 to levels comparable to those of other study areas. (orig.)

  15. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

  16. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the current situation of internal radiation exposure in the population around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), we examined the 137Cs body burden in six residents of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia in 2002 and 2004 using the whole-body counter (WBC) at Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). The data were compared with those of our previous study performed in 1993-1994 using the same method. In 2002 and 2004, peaks of 137Cs were detected in two residents from Gomel, which was heavily contaminated by the CNPP accident, one from Minsk (Belarus) and one from Kiev (Ukraine), but another resident from Minsk showed no 137Cs peaks. The results of the present study suggests that residents around the CNPP are still exposed to chronic 137Cs internal irradiation, probably due to the daily consumption of contaminated domestic foods, but the risk of any disease by the irradiation is quite low. Long-term follow-up of WBC around the CNPP is useful and may contribute to radiation safety regulation together with a reduction of unnecessary radio-phobia for the residents. (authors)

  17. Short lived radionuclides in food and feed after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of identification and short lived radionuclides (I-131, I(Te)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141, 144, Ru-103, 106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Mo-99, Nb-95, Sb-125) mass activities evaluation in food (milk and dairies, meat, honey, fruits, vegetables) and feeds (oilseed rupe, alfalfa, fresh green mass) after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, in 1986, are presented. The results indicate that in the first month after the accident and afterwards, in the first half of the year, the contribution of the short lived radionuclides in the total activity of the samples ranged from 2-64%, varying with food and feed, locality and time of sampling. Compared to the activity of I-131, the short lived radionuclides contributed from 1.3 to 470%, while compared to the activities of the long term radionuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137, the activity of the short lived radionuclides in the first half of the year after the accident ranged from 12% to more than 300%. The traces of Ag-110m were found in the majority of the samples, too. (1 tab.)

  18. Radioecological estimation of the condition of wild fauna in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of long time of wildlife radioecological monitoring in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear accident the main trends in radioactive contamination of the animals of different taxones, the condition of fauna biodiversity have been shown. After a noticeable decrease of the radionuclide contents observed in the period immediately following the accident which was mainly caused by decay of short-living isotopes, in recent years a tendency of stabilising the radionuclide accumulation was found in the majority of the animal groups. The dynamics and state of the fauna depends more on the secondary effects of human evacuation than on direct radioecological impact. Natural ecological succession may have accelerated due to the post-evacuation removal of human pressure on contaminated habitats. Cessation of economic activity had the greatest effect on the structure and number of ornithocomplexes and populations of commercial game mammals. Changes in aquatic animals are expressed to a smaller extent and follow the laws of natural development to a greater extent. These dynamics processes of transformation of wildlife communities offer a unique opportunity to study the development and conservation of wild animal biodiversity within the context of specific land use and landscape ecological changes. (authors)

  19. Measures taken to improve the safety of nuclear power plants in the USSR after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet delegation to the IAEA experts' meeting (August 25-29, 1986) presented information on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its consequences. Using data obtained through August 1, 1986, this information contained the results of an investigation into the causes of the accident as well as a description and preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of the immediate steps taken to limit and eliminate its consequences. Subsequent efforts were channeled in the following directions: (1) Continuing operations to eliminate the accident's consequences including: (a) completing the design and construction of a protective cover (sarcophagus) to reliably protect the environment from radioactivity and the introduction of radioactive matter from the destroyed unit; (b) further decontamination of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site and inhabited areas within the affected zone; and (c) carrying out required sanitary and medical measures to ensure the safety of the population and to protect their health. (2) Development and implementation of longitudinal studies of the long-term consequences of the accident. (3) Development of introduction of measures to increase the safety of working nuclear power stations. (4) Examination of plans for the future development of the nuclear power industry and prospects for increasing its safety level, including: conceptual development of a new generation of nuclear reactors; and expansion of scientific investigation into all aspects of safety assessment and safety assurance in the nuclear power industry. The present report examines the progress of studies along these lines and the conclusions which have been drawn

  20. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  1. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  2. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made

  3. Severe catastrophes and public reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear opposition. Economical basis of nuclear energy stagnation is in not very successful competition of nuclear engineering with fossil energy production technologies. Much money has been spent for improvement of safety of NPPs. Social roots of the opposition are linked with a bad experience of the public with demonstration of the nuclear energy- The explosion of atomic bombs, some contamination of the territories after nuclear arm tests, misfortunes with TMI-2 and Chernobyl have created a stable enmity and non-acceptance of the all connected with 'atom'. The mass media have strongly promoted the dissemination of the fear of radiation exposures. There is also an influence on that attitude the radiation protection regulation via the declaration of the linear no-threshold dependence of the radiation detriments and dose of exposure. Such concept ignores the adoptive features of all living. But modem studies have showed that protracted irradiation at the same dose is much less dangerous compared with sharp one. It could change public attitude to nuclear energy in the society. Role of nuclear communication for public informing: The reactions of public on various technological and man-made events differ significantly and are being determined not scales of catastrophes but the mental impression and a multiplication of psychological stresses in the society by mass -media. In present situation a nuclear community has to improve the contacts with the pubic, to launch more effective campaign for explanation of real adventures of nuclear power. It needs to compare the risks of climate warming and health detriments from different electricity production technologies and to show that nuclear power is a single alternative all fossil burning techniques of electricity production. It's the truth the nuclear power is a real method of fight for suppression of emission the greenhouse gases, isn't it? (author)

  4. Animal Radioecology in the Exclusion Zone Since the Chernobyl Catastrophe%切尔诺贝利核事故以来隔离区动物生态的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonid Frantsevich

    2006-01-01

    综述了切尔诺贝利核事故以来乌克兰Schmalhausen动物研究所(SIZ)对核工厂周围隔离区(exclusion zone, EZ)的野生动物所进行的长达20年的放射生态学调查研究. 基于乌克兰以往鸟类迁移的观察资料, 评估了137Cs和90 Sr在隔离区候鸟体内的含量. 而且还选择一些动物物种作为环境状况的标准指示生物, 目的是为了阐明: 137 Cs在隔离区脊椎动物体内的污染情况;整个第聂伯河流域、基辅行政区和隔离区软体动物贝壳内90 Sr的β活性. 结果表明不同物种相对放射性核累积、迁移和累积因素呈有规律的季节性和长期性变化趋势, 这些参数的运用可以大大地减少数据的波动和复杂性. 直接辐射毁坏森林后, 营养链的崩溃和病死树昆虫害虫的爆发导致了其次级生态变化. 99%的隔离区并不直接受辐射的影响, 人员撤离、农业和森林管理停止以及大规模排除污染是这些区域生态变化的主要因素. 在初始变化之后, 由于自然资源、捕食者和偷猎者等的限制, 隔离区的动物密度和分布达到一个稳定的极限值. 数年前成功地在隔离区引入了一群蒙古野马, 该群体保持了稳定增长. 重新评估了以前划定的若干自然保护位点目前的保护状况, 并提出了建议扩大这些自然保护区的范围等保护措施.%We review 20 year long investigations by the Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology on radioecological and ecological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for wild animals in the Exclusion Zone (EZ) around the nuclear plant. Using previous observations on bird migrations through Ukraine, we assessed the 137 Cs and 90 Sr carry-out with migrants from the EZ. In addition, we selected animal species as standard indicators of the state of the environment to map: 1) contamination of vertebrates with 137 Cs in the EZ and 2) beta-activity of mollusc shells indicating 90 Sr, in the whole Dnieper drainage

  5. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  6. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  7. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: reporting on nuclear and other hazards in six Swedish newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A European Commission sponsored study (RISKPERCOM) involving France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK, is concerned with surveying public perceptions of radiation related and other risks. This was partly done by distributing a questionnaire in each country at three different times in 1996: before, during and after the expected media attention given to the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A selection of print media were analyzed, during a period of eight weeks - four weeks before the anniversary, and four weeks after - making it possible to contrast any changes between the three waves of the questionnaire with the results of the media study. The present report aims at providing a picture of the Swedish media coverage of different kinds of risks during the period referred to above. The purpose of the analysis is thus primarily of a descriptive nature; explanatory factors are only considered in an ad hoc manner while discussing the results and their possible implications. Naturally, the findings arising from this study cannot alone serve as a basis for making statements about the effects of risk related content on the Swedish newspaper readers. The risk stories included in the analysis were those dealing with one or more of the twenty different hazard items referred to in several of the questions in the RISKPERCOM questionnaire. Radiation and nuclear power energy were not the only issues of concern. The selection covered a wide range of other hazards as well, in order to provide for a wide risk panorama, thus making it possible to compare specific risk qualities etc., as these were presented in the media

  8. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: reporting on nuclear and other hazards in six Swedish newspapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aasa; Sjoeberg, L.; Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-07-01

    A European Commission sponsored study (RISKPERCOM) involving France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK, is concerned with surveying public perceptions of radiation related and other risks. This was partly done by distributing a questionnaire in each country at three different times in 1996: before, during and after the expected media attention given to the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A selection of print media were analyzed, during a period of eight weeks - four weeks before the anniversary, and four weeks after - making it possible to contrast any changes between the three waves of the questionnaire with the results of the media study. The present report aims at providing a picture of the Swedish media coverage of different kinds of risks during the period referred to above. The purpose of the analysis is thus primarily of a descriptive nature; explanatory factors are only considered in an ad hoc manner while discussing the results and their possible implications. Naturally, the findings arising from this study cannot alone serve as a basis for making statements about the effects of risk related content on the Swedish newspaper readers. The risk stories included in the analysis were those dealing with one or more of the twenty different hazard items referred to in several of the questions in the RISKPERCOM questionnaire. Radiation and nuclear power energy were not the only issues of concern. The selection covered a wide range of other hazards as well, in order to provide for a wide risk panorama, thus making it possible to compare specific risk qualities etc., as these were presented in the media 70 refs, 40 refs

  9. German contribution to the assessment of doses and health risks from nuclear catastrophes in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the large scale contaminations from the reactor accident of Tschernobyl-4, the successor states of the Soviet Union are also exposed to considerable environmental contaminations from the nuclear weapon program. Particularly in the region between Cheliabinsk, and Ekatarinenburg in the South Ural, the beginning of the bomb production caused heavy occupational exposures of up to 1 Gy per year in the reprocessing of plutonium and discharges of significant activities of fissile material (1017 Bq (3 MCi)) into the Techa River and the lakes in the catchment basin. Communities situated downriver, which were supplied with drinking water from the Techa in the beginning of the 50s, received doses to the bone marrow of up to 3 Gy, due to 90S ingestion. Significantly increased risks are found for leukemia and solid tumors in the South Ural region whereas childhood thyroid carcinomas are reported around Chernobyl. The body burden for 90Sr and 137Cs was determined

  10. Community response against the nuclear accident. Confusion in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and its features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred in April 1986, became popular in Sweden after two days, and Sweden was hit by a big mess immediately after that. This paper introduces various actions taken in Sweden at that time. The authors analyzed the situation based on the following materials to tell the situation at that time: (1) materials summarized by researchers upon request of the administrative organs of the country, (2) two diaries that were written by Sven Aner, who was a former reporter of a major daily newspaper published after the accident and an activist of antinuclear groups, and Sven Lofvegerg, who handled the accident as a technical officer at Radiation Protection Agency, and (3) newspaper articles at that time. The situations that was revealed after the accident were summarized from the following viewpoints: (1) governmental remarks toward safety standards and effects on residents, and the anxiety of residents, (2) grazing ban on livestock as an important industry and its lifting, (3) correspondence of antinuclear activists, (4) anxiety against the effects of radiation on humans, and counseling on the safety addressed to the Headquarters for Disaster Control, (5) roles of regional radio stations, (6) defects of bureaucracy, (7) criticism against the actions of the Headquarters for Disaster Control, and (8) influence of extreme experts. (A.O.)

  11. OPTIMAL INSURANCE FOR CATASTROPHIC RISK: THEORY AND APPLICATION TO NUCLEAR CORPORATE LIABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Louaas, Alexis; Picard, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the optimal insurance coverage for high severity-low probability accidents, both from theoretical and applied standpoints. Such accidents qualify as catastrophic when their risk premium is a non-negligible proportion of the victims’ wealth, although the probability of occurrence is very small. We show that this may be the case when the individual’s absolute risk aversion is very large in the accident case. We characterize the optimal insurance contract firstly for an individual, an...

  12. Radiation health consequences after the accident of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of divergences in health consequences assessment after Chernobyl accident have been discussed. The average data about the cancer incidence in Poland have been presented. On that background the frequency of thyroid cancer, being considered as a result of iodine radionuclides exposure after Chernobyl accident in May 1986, have been performed. The great geographic differences in cancer incidence have been underlined. The observed differences between the selected group of people of different age and sex have been also discussed. 14 refs, 11 tabs, 3 figs

  13. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  14. The Fukushima nuclear disaster is ongoing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Andrew R

    2016-07-01

    The 5th anniversary of the Fukushima disaster and the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, the two most catastrophic nuclear accidents in history, both occurred recently. Images of Chernobyl are replete with the international sign of radioactive contamination (a circle with three broad spokes radiating outward in a yellow sign). In contrast, ongoing decontamination efforts at Fukushima lack international warnings about radioactivity. Decontamination workers at Fukushima appear to be poorly protected against radiation. It is almost as if the effort is to make the Fukushima problem disappear. A more useful response would be to openly acknowledge the monumental problems inherent in managing a nuclear plant disaster. Lessons from Chernobyl are the best predictors of what the Fukushima region of Japan is coping with in terms of health and environmental problems following a nuclear catastrophe. PMID:27214552

  15. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Stress factors action on the population health evaluation, especially on the emergency workers remains one of the most important problems of the contemporary medicine. In this line the Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) that took place on the 26th April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (NPS) is an eloquent example. Radioactive substances produced in the result of CNA fell out in a significant part of the Europe, including the Republic of Moldova territory, affecting more than 5,000,000 persons. In CNA consequences liquidation participated a lot of military staff including a great number of reservists. Lack of previous experience in the field (it was the first large-scale nuclear accident) made it impossible to prepare specially trained personnel for CNA limitation and liquidation. Consequently a lot of military staff even from the first days presented to medical authorities with a gamma of symptoms, which were henceforth characterized as somatic diseases after detailed investigations. Ionizing radiation influence on the health status of the participants in diminishing of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (PDCCNA) evaluation is difficult enough and so calls for an ample multilateral study applying modern diagnostic techniques. Large studies were yet conducted in the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus. Acquired data suggests the existence of noticeable deteriorating effect of ionizing radiation produced secondary to CNA with the increased incidence of health status disturbances in affected population. Approximately 3500 inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova took part in the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation. Study objective comprises the determination of clinical, immunological and cytogenetic features in PDCCNA from the Republic of Moldova and their descendants. Between 1996 and 2005 period 850 patients - participants in removal of consequences of Chernobyl

  16. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete test of publication follows. Stress factors action on the population health evaluation, especially on the emergency workers remains on e of the most important problems of the contemporary medicine. In this line the Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) that look place on the 26th April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (CNPS) is an eloquent example. Radioactive substances produced in the result of CNA fell out in a significant part of the Europe, including the Republic of Moldova territory, affecting more than 5,000,000 persons. In CNA consequences liquidation participated a lot of military staff including a great number of reservists. Lack of previous experience in the field (it was the first large-scale nuclear accident) made it impossible to prepare specially trained personnel for CNA limitation and liquidation. Consequently a lot of military staff even from the first days presented to medical authorities with a gamma of symptoms, which were henceforth characterized as somatic diseases after detailed investigations. Ionizing radiation influence on the health status of the participants in diminishing of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (PDCCNA) evaluation is difficult enough and so calls for an ample multilateral study applying modern diagnostic techniques. Large studies were yet conducted in the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus. Acquired data suggests the existence of noticeable deteriorating effect of ionizing radiation produced secondary to CNA with the increased incidence of health status disturbances in affected population. Approximately 3500 inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova took part in the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation. Study objective comprises the determination of clinical, immunological and cytogenetic features in PDCCNA from the Republic of Moldova and their descendants. Between 1996 and 2005 period 850 patients - participants in removal of consequences of Chernobyl

  17. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)

  18. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. PMID:22569279

  19. Industrial complex for solid radwaste management (ICSRM) at Chernobyl nuclear power plant functionality of the facilities. Factors of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an international tendering process NUKEM was awarded to build the Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The ICSRM project is one component of an integrated radioactive waste management programme for the entire Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP). The Project includes radioactive waste retrieval, processing and packaging for interim storage or final disposal. Waste management operations performed as part of the ICSRM Project include the following: - Waste volume reduction through compaction and incineration. - Waste solidification through immobilization in concrete, also known as grouting. The immobilization material provides good resistance to external factors, such as water and weather. Also, grouting creates a monolith with few voids, thus ensuring the integrity of the waste form. NUKEM is the first western company who has successfully accomplished a radwaste treatment plant within the ChNPP site. NUKEM has received all payments from the EC due to the final acceptance of the facilities. In addition to the main contract NUKEM has successfully accomplished a contract regarding the ventilation system of LOT 0. Based on the ICSRM success NUKEM is currently executing other projects in Ukraine and is involved in several tenders. (orig.)

  20. Chernobyl 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  1. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  2. Analysis of the reliability of quality assurance of welded nuclear pressure vessels with regard to catastrophic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is described as an analysis of the reliability of quality assurance of welded nuclear pressure vessels with regard to catastrophic failure. Its scope extends both beyond previous statistical evaluations of the risk of catastrophic failure, beyond previous studies of human malfunction, and beyond current studies of probabilistic fracture mechanics. The latter deal only with 'normal' data and 'normal' processes and procedures according to established rules and regulations, where as the present study concerns deficiencies or more or less complete fallacies of normal procedures and processes. Hopefully such events will prove to be rare enough to be characterized as 'unique'; this, in turn, means that the result of the investigation is not a new statistical figure but rather a survey of types and frequencies of errors and error-producing conditions. The emphasis is on the main pressure vessel; related information on the primary circuit is included, only when this can be done without excessive effort or costs. The avenues of approach in terms of technical-academic disciplines are reliability techniques and the psychology of analysis work and control processes

  3. Analysis of nuclear fuel reliability based on Chernobyl NPP operation for validation of fuel element service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of failure intensity of fuel assemblies at Chernobyl-1 and Chernobyl-3 NPP during 10 years are given. Fuel assembly reliability is connected with seal failure reactor operation. Preliminary results are discussed

  4. 8 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

  5. Assessment of status of main structures of unit 4 reactor at Chernobyl nuclear power station from results of visual and television examination 1988-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the assessment of status of main structures of unit 4 reactor at Chernobyl nuclear power station from results of visual and television examination 1988-1992. Descriptions of the examination of the reactor vault by a periscope and by boreholes drilled are given. (O.L.). 8 figs

  6. [Dynamics of tritium content in flood-lands reservoirs of the Pripyat river and cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I

    1999-01-01

    Tritium content in water from natural and artificial reservoirs within 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP has been determined. The increase of Tritium activity in the involved water reserwous has been registered in May 1994 and April 1995. As supposed the source of the increase, nuclear power plants, equipped with WWER reactors and located in catchment area of Pripyat river. PMID:10689425

  7. EXPERIENCE OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE RADIATION CONTROL FOR PEOPLE ARRIVED FROM THE AREAS RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An article considers issues related to the radiological examination of the people arrived in Leningrad from the areas radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. It also describes the experience of creation and functioning of the specialized station for radiation control and sanitary treatment of people and their personal clothes. The article specifies basic requirements for such stations.

  8. Seminar on Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of seminar on comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents (Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl) are divided into 5 parts bearing on: part 1: accident source terms; part 2: atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination; part 3: environmental contamination and transfer; part 4: radiological implications for man and his environment; part 5: countermeasures

  9. Proceedings of the 6rd Radiobiological conference with international participation dedicated to 20th anniversary of nuclear accident in Chernobyl, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific conference deals with problems in radiobiology, photobiology and radio-environmental sciences. Some papers deal with the historical aspects development of reactor accidents (Chernobyl NPP and NPP A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice) as well as history of nuclear sciences in former Czechoslovakia. Proceedings contain forty-seven papers

  10. Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. April 1986-November 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-November 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 43 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Chernobyl nuclear accident: effects on foods. April 1986-October 1988 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and food chains. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 65 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS) pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons), 18-39 (496 persons), 40-60 (458 persons). The data on the individ...

  13. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS) pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons), 18-39 (496 persons), 40-60 (458 persons). The data on the individ...

  14. Dynamics of contents and organic forms of radionuclide compounds in the liquid phase of forest soils in the zone of contamination from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the profile of forest soils in a 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), in areas characterized by different positions in relation to the source of emission, the authors determined the relative contents of long-lived radionuclides 106Ru, 134,137Cs, and 144Ce in soil solutions (as of 1987). On the example of 137Cs, they consider the dynamics (1987-1990) of relative contents and forms in which the radionuclide is found in the liquid phase of soils in the zone of radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl NPP

  15. US perspective on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl catastrophe was impressive and demonstrated an enviable level of radiobiologic competence. It also afforded the first opportunity to test the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation as life saving therapy for heavily irradiated patients under emergency conditions. More than 135,000 persons were at risk of exposure to life-threatening levels of radiation. A remarkably engineered evacuation of this population prevented the medical consequences from becoming worse than they were. Our medical perspective is based on the 40-year history of radiation incidents worldwide and especially in the United States

  16. Effects on environment and humans of accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USSR experts have reported the results of their works on the effects of the Chernobyl plant's accident at IAEA meeting in August. Plant staffs and fire men with acute radiation syndrome were hospitalized and treated with special care including bone marrow transplantation. Whole population (135,000) within the area of 30 km radius from the plant evacuated during a few days after the accident. Collective dose to this population was estimated as 1.6 x 106 person rem. (author)

  17. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated. PMID:11402559

  18. Debris from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster: how it came to the UK, and its consequences to agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the debris from the Chernobyl reactor explosion crossed Britain a week after it had been emitted. Heavy thunderstorms and a northward-moving cold front washed out much of the radioactive iodine and caesium - especially on to the upland areas of North Wales, northern England, SW Scotland and northern Ireland. Several lessons have been learnt, including information on the dry and wet removal rates. Some of these lessons are being incorporated into a new transport and deposition model being developed by the Meteorological Office, with help from other UK centres of expertise, for use in the event of another serious nuclear or chemical accident in Europe. In lowland areas rich in clay minerals, the deposition of Chernobyl debris was of only transient importance to agriculture: in the two weeks following the passage of debris over the country the levels of iodine-131 in milk were readily detected, even though they were well below Government limits, and fell to insignificance thereafter. In upland sheep-rearing areas, by contrast, the caesium has remained mobile in the acidic soils; in many places the levels in sheep have exceeded Government limits, and since 1986 have been falling only slowly. (author)

  19. Radioactive contamination levels in China and health evaluation following radioactive release from Soviet Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating radiological effects in China and protecting population from possible consequences of Soviet Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, the national network of environmental radioactive monitoring stations in China started emergency monitoring since May 1st, 1986. From May 1st to the end of July, 131I, 137Cs and other man-made radionuclides in some environmental media were found in large amounts. 131I was detected obviously in daily deposition, surface water, growing leafy vegetables, fresh milk and sheep thyroid samples. It is proved that radioactive fallout from Soviet Chernobyl accident has spreaded in atmosphere over the territory of China; so, the environment has been contaminated. Thyroid dose for individuals of general public in China was estimated. The effective dose equivalents for adults are lower than 2 μSv, for infants lower than 30 μSv; they are low as compared with 'Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection' in China. The emergency sanitary protective measures were considered unnecessary

  20. To avoid catastrophe: a study in future nuclear weapons policy. [10 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, M.P. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: an unfinished history of the atomic age; the United States-Soviet Union arms competition; the competitive character of the nuclear policies in these countries; the proliferation of nuclear reactors and weapons; the method for acquiring the materials for the construction of bombs; the state of nuclear technology globally; energy and the conquest of fear; the merits of nuclear power for the generation of electric power; scenarios of disaster and hope; nuclear war comes to the Middle East; sabotage at a nuclear power plant; holocaust by accident; facts, morals, and the bomb; and what can be done: some practical steps. Actions which can be taken to reduce the likelihood of the fictional scenarios actually occurring are summarized. (MCW)

  1. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  2. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  3. Reflections on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl and Three Mile Island reactor accidents are revealing some of the social costs of such failures, widespread opposition to nuclear power. As far as mortality and morbidity go, Chernobyl was probably a smaller incident than the chemical disaster at Bhopal. But nuclear people must accept the idea that a nuclear hazard is perceived as somehow different. Since nuclear energy will be needed to replace oil eventually, and the environmental impacts of properly operating nuclear power plants are far less than those of fossil fuelled power plants, this appears to be an appropriate time for the United States and other interested countries to start developing inherently safe nuclear power plants which will be acceptable to the public

  4. Karyopathological Traits of Thyrocytes and Exposure to Radioiodines in Belarusian Children and Adolescents following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen; Nakamura, Nori; Nikonovich, Sergey; Aleksanin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) Thyroid Study cohort consists of persons 0–18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioiodines from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 50 BelAm subjects with thyroid nodules and 43 control patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Ch...

  5. From Chernobyl to Chernobyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book aims to explain the challenges of the civil but also military Nuclear. Facing the terrorism and the nuclear weapons proliferation many courageous decisions have to be taken by politicians, soldiers and industrialists for the international safety and peace. In this framework this book presents how all the energies come from the same source, the nuclear reaction, the nuclear weapons, the radiations and living organisms, the civil Nuclear, the safety the nuclear accidents and the industrial risks, the nuclear energy resources and needs, the nuclear weapons and the weapons mastership, the scientists and the citizens. (A.L.B.)

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  7. The biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation: Chernobyl nuclear accident and spreading of hemoblastoses in Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of morbidity by hematologic neoplasms before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident in regions of Moldova differently affected by radiation and some immuno- metabolic disturbances in people from these regions was the object of the present work. An increase of standardized (world) incidence of hemoblastoses during the 10 years after the Accident, especially in children under 10 years old and in persons over 60 years old, was registered. A decrease of immunologic indices and the alterations of the amino acids content in blood serum and erythrocytes of healthy persons from the regions with higher radioactive impact after the Accident were established as well. A possible correlation between mentioned modifications are discussed. (author)

  8. Reflections on liability and radiological or nuclear accidents: the accidents at Goiania, Forbach, three mile Island and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the lessons learned today from, amongst others, the radiological accidents of Goiania in 1987 and Forbach in 1991, as well as the nuclear accident at Three Miles Island (T.M.I.) in 1979, this article tries to make a distinction between problems of liability linked, on the one hand, to the sanctioning of the absence of prevention implied by the occurrence of non-stochastic effects and, on the other hand, to the judicial sanctioning of the failure of precautionary measures taken, as regard stochastic effects. Lastly, over and above the type of damage compensated, liability also gives rise to some thoughts, in light of the experience of Chernobyl, about the impact of modes of compensation on the management of post-accident situations in areas affected over the long term by persisting contamination and the radiological risk associated with it. (N.C.)

  9. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  10. The nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, the Austrian druggist and some thoughts on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, a countryside druggist, made about 3000 radioactivity measurements on vegetable and fruit samples on the request of rural populations within 4 months after the Chernobyl accident. The author had the equipment and know-how necessary for this work due to his private interests. He suggests that other druggists should in future be equipped for and able to do similar work on a voluntary basis. As an equipment, a 600$ Geiger-Mueller counter does the job, and courses are also available. 2 figs. (qui)

  11. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echocardiography was used for the study of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 839 liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular myocardial mass 134 g/m2) was 10.3, 13.4 and 22.5 % in liquidators with normal blood pressure, borderline hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Liquidators with normal blood pressure had significantly greater left ventricular myocardial mass than normotensive men from general population while liquidators and non liquidators with hypertension had equal values of this parameter

  12. Climate catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budyko, Mikhail

    1999-05-01

    Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

  13. Chernobyl and our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.)

  14. Chernobyl - the government reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmers' Union of Wales submitted this memorandum to the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons giving its interpretation of the Government's reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. The primary aim of the paper is to provide an objective assessment of the impact of the disaster and the Government's handling of it, for future reference. The subject is dealt with under the following headings:- Chernobyl nuclear fallout in Wales, monitoring of milk and fresh vegetables, silage contamination, the North Wales Sheep Sector, soil, herbage and genetic implications, recommendations for the future. (UK)

  15. Prognosis for tumor morbidity among the salvaging personnel of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preduction of oncological disease rate in persons participating in the Chernobyl accident response for Russia group of liquidators (100000 persons) worked in 1986 is presented based on the assumption that neoplasm development period will consists subsequent 15 years (up to 2015). According to the official data in 1986, radiation doses to liquidators did not exceed 25 h. But real radiation doses to liquidators in most cases were not determined because of the absence of personal dosemeters. Radiation dose due to radionuclides inhalation was not accounted. Average dose to liquidators worked at the destroyed unit of Chernobyl NPP was 0.40 Sv in Summer, 1986, with the account of internal exposure. Data on the oncological disease rate, 12 years later the disaster, show that the neoplasms of respiratory organs and digestive organs are the most spread (36.2 and 28.3% correspondingly). Further, in the order of decreasing, the neoplasms follow of hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, urinary system and brain. Preventive therapy combination including A, C, E vitamins, provitamin A, selenium with lecithin in nut oil is recommended

  16. Proposed radiation hardened mobile vehicle for Chernobyl dismantlement and nuclear accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers are developing a radiation hardened, Telerobotic Dismantling System (TDS) to remediate the Chernobyl facility. To withstand the severe radiation fields, the robotic system, will rely on electrical motors, actuators, and relays proven in the Chernobyl power station. Due to its dust suppression characteristics and ability to cut arbitrary materials the authors propose using a water knife as the principle tool to slice up the large fuel containing masses. The front end of the robot will use a minimum number of moving parts by locating most of the susceptible and bulky components outside the work area. Hardened and shielded video cameras will be designed for remote control and viewing of the robotic functions. Operators will supervise and control robot movements based on feedback from a suite of sensory systems that would include vision systems, radiation detection and measurement systems and force reflection systems. A gripper will be instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. force, torque, or tactile), allowing varying debris surface properties to be grasped. The gripper will allow the operator to manipulate and segregate debris items without entering the radiologically and physically dangerous dismantlement operations area. The robots will initially size reduce the FCM's to reduce the primary sources of the airborne radionuclides. The robot will then remove the high level waste for packaging or decontamination, and storage nearby

  17. Resounding Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses specific aesthetic strategies for articulating and describing the catastrophic event of 9/11 by focusing on its auditory aspects. This is done through a reading of the American media- and sound artist Stephen Vitiello’s work and novelist Don DeLillo’s Falling Man....

  18. ENGINEERED NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR SOLID RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the turnkey project ''Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP)'' an Engineered Near Surface Disposal Facility (ENSDF, LOT 3) will be built on the VEKTOR site within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the ChNPP. This will be performed by RWE NUKEM GmbH, Germany, and it governs the design, licensing support, fabrication, assembly, testing, inspection, delivery, erection, installation and commissioning of the ENSDF. The ENSDF will receive low to intermediate level, short lived, processed/conditioned wastes from the ICSRM Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, LOT 2), the ChNPP Liquid Radwaste Treatment Plant (LRTP) and the ChNPP Interim Storage Facility for RBMK Fuel Assemblies (ISF). The ENSDF has a capacity of 55,000 m3. The primary functions of the ENSDF are: to receive, monitor and record waste packages, to load the waste packages into concrete disposal units, to enable capping and closure of the disposal unit s, to allow monitoring following closure. The ENSDF comprises the turnkey installation of a near surface repository in the form of an engineered facility for the final disposal of LILW-SL conditioned in the ICSRM SWPF and other sources of Chernobyl waste. The project has to deal with the challenges of the Chernobyl environment, the fulfillment of both Western and Ukrainian standards, and the installation and coordination of an international project team. It will be shown that proven technologies and processes can be assembled into a unique Management Concept dealing with all the necessary demands and requirements of a turnkey project. The paper emphasizes the proposed concepts for the ENSDF and their integration into existing infrastructure and installations of the VEKTOR site. Further, the paper will consider the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations

  19. Study of a cohort of Latvian workers having participated to the decontamination of the nuclear site of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the consequences attributable to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it is debated whether post-disaster psycho-pathology is related to the perception of the level of contamination or the level of contamination itself. To address this issue, the authors have assessed the association of various exposure mental and psychosomatic distress, on a sample of 1,1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers registry. The outcome considered was a mixed mental/psychosomatic disorder occurring during the time period 1986-1995. Comparisons between subgroups of the cohort, classified according to exposure type or level, were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (≥ 28 days) in a 10 km radius from the reactor (relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR 1.46, 95 percent CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR 1.41,95 percent CI 1.19-1.68), and fresh fruits consumption (≥ 1 time/day) (RR 1.72,95 percent CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental/ psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR 1.82, 95 percent CI 0.89-3.72), is also associated with this outcome, although non significantly. These findings confirm that some exposure variables represent risk factors for mental disorders and suggest some radiation-induced consequences although surely overweight by stress-related effects. (author)

  20. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Alexander; Mironov, Vladislav [International Sakharov Environmental University. Box 220070, 23 Dolgobrodskaya Street, Minsk, 220070 (Belarus)

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 239}Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year ({sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides {sup 241}Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and {sup 239+240}Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of {sup 241}Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of {sup 241}Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg{sup -1}, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of {sup 241}Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of {sup 241}Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg{sup -1}, and the

  1. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides 131I, 239Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year (144Ce, 106Ru, 134Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by 90Sr and 137Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides 241Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and 239+240Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of 241Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, 241Am, 239+240Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of 241Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg-1, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of 241Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of 241Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg-1, and the activity of 241Am in macrophytes of the Perstok Lake at the same year was 1,0 - 3,7 Bq.kg-1. In

  2. Radiocontamination patterns and possible health consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main hazard in the early phase after Chernobyl was radioiodine. Thyroid doses were esimated separately for (i) zones of strict control, (ii) most contaminated provinces (iii) the whole central European region of the USSR. Distinction was made between children under the age of 7 years at the time of the accident and the rest of the population. In the later phase the main concern is whole-body exposure to radiocaesium. Doses were calculated for the same areas and age groups as radioiodine. The following were considered: thyroid malignancies, leukaemia, other types of cancer, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. A stastistically significant excess over the spontaneous level is unlikely to be detectable for these effects, with the possible exception of thyroid disorders. The risk was greatly reduced by preventive measures, in particular lifetime doses have been restricted by establishment of a limit of 0.35 Sv. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl nuclear accident: environmental radioactivity monitoring at the LENA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pumping and filtration stations nearby the LENA site, routinely active for air radioactivity monitoring, were alerted on April 28, 1986 to look for fission products coming from U.S.S.R. after the Chernobyl accident according to weather forecast. Air filters were submitted to direct gamma ray spectrometry and fission products detected. After May 1st 1986, when the maximum radionuclide concentration in air was observed, an environmental radioactivity monitoring program was started. Several matrices such as milk, soil, grass, vegetables, tap and rain water, were systematically analyzed. At the moment the program is still active but only air, milk, vegetables and meat are periodically analyzed by gamma ray spectrometry. Results, distributions and correlations are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  5. Health examination of residents and its task after the Chernobyl Nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the outline of health effects after the Chernobyl Accident (CA, Apr. 26, 1986) and of health examination/its future task, for learning to make use of means for the recent Fukushima Accident (FA). Total released radioactivity of the Level 7 CA is estimated to amount to 5.20 million TBq, 6-10 times as high as the same level of FA. Different from the Fukushima, no rapid means were taken by old Soviet Union to restrict the distribution and ingestion of contaminated foods, which was the major cause of internal radioiodine exposure. Afterward, in 1990s, WHO, European and other countries began to investigate CA, and markedly increased incidence of thyroid cancer was shown by health examination of 160 thousands children by a project of Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation. In 2006, WHO and IAEA evaluated published literatures to summarize health effects related directly or possibly unrelated to CA: as for thyroid cancer, its prevalence tended to move in adolescence or older, and surgery and therapy for metastasis with radioiodine were significantly effective to improve their prognosis; however, their long term follow-up and treatment are continuously needed. Not observed was the increased incidence of leukemia, which is different from A-bomb survivors, and other cancers as well as benign diseases, but resident's concern about their health and effects on the next generation is increasing. Currently, systems of self-monitoring of foods are being established by residents around Chernobyl. Instructions and means learned from CA and A-bomb experiences are applied to this FA, but assurance of health of all these concerned people should be a future task against its fading with time. (T.T.)

  6. Nuclear power plant accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi. Effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents in the title are compared from medical aspect. Chernobyl accident in April 1986 released enormous amounts of radioactive materials to cause the contamination of extensive areas around the southern east of Belarus Republic by rainfall afterward. At the contaminated areas, medical studies had been conducted on the internal exposure-induced malformation, psychomotor retardation, pediatric cancers and others in consideration of thyroid cancer by I-131, leukemia by Cs-137 and Sr-90, and lung cancer by Pu, among which an increase of pediatric thyroid cancer incidence was observed. The amount of radio-materials released by Fukushima accident (Mar. 2011) was at the level of about 11% of Chernobyl. The accumulated dose was estimated to be the maximal 508 mSv/y in Ohkuma and 224 in Namie towns, both of which were in the zone of 20 km distance from the plant, and the doses exceeded 100 mSv/y at which the probability to form cancer was 1.05. Internal exposure dose by radio-cesium in some residents of Namie exceeded 3,000 Bq. The internal dose in residents of Ukraine Republic, which was not defined to be a highly contaminated area, is still now above 50 thousands Bq, which was caused by their lives with self-sufficiency in the forest mushrooms and beasts. This indicates that food management is the most important for reduction of the internal exposure. In April 2012, Japan defined the standard limits of radioactivity in food, which, Japan Pediatric Society thinks, is valid. However, a part of food is sometimes found above the limit, and the system to detect a small amount of radioactive substance should be hopefully established and maintained for keeping the safety. (T.T.)

  7. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

  8. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons, 18-39 (496 persons, 40-60 (458 persons. The data on the individual radiation doses which affected thyroid gland were selected at the State Register of Ukraine on persons affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Morbidity rate was estimated per 103 man-year for 5-years periods of monitoring. The main results: Time from the moment of Chernobyl accident affected the formation of morbidity structure of evacuated population. It was fixed two peaks of morbidity incidence - initial and in 12 years. The most essential changes in CS morbidity of evacuated population were fixed 26 years later mainly in cere¬brovascular diseases. The coronary artery disease takes the first place in the morbidity structure. Significant dif¬ferences were detected at age-specific aspect. The evacuated adult population aged 18-39 years was the most vulnerable for the development of CS diseases. Adverse health effects confirmed the necessity of further research of CS morbidity with the differentiation of doses affected thyroid gland.

  9. Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 μSv/kBq m-2. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m-2. (au)

  10. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  11. I. Federal Order of 18 December 1987 and II. Ordinance of 13 April 1988 on compensation from the Confederation to persons having suffered damage due to the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Order and Ordinance provide for the indemnification by the State of farmers, herb-growers, market-gardeners and fishermen in Lake Lugano for economic damage suffered due to the Chernobyl accident. Both entered into force on 15 April 1988. (NEA)

  12. Nuclear-reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI, and Windscale. January 1974-September 1988 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1974-September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear-reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout, the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, and the sea, the radiation effects on people, and the transfrontier radioactive contamination of the environment. (Contains 105 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  13. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Walter

    2012-05-01

    The recent claim made in this journal that nuclear bomb tests and the Chernobyl disaster caused distortions in the secondary sex ratio is shown to be a likely artifact of data mining, misused statistics, and misreading of the evidence. In particular, the concept of statistical "significance" and its limitations do not seem to be fully understood, and important confounding factors have not been accounted for. PMID:22076251

  14. Status of the organs of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the status of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident. Morphological and functional changes suffered by the digestive organs on exposure to ionizing radiation in doses leading to the development of acute radiation sickness are described. The effect of small doses ionizing radiation on the human body is indicated too. (O.L.). 15 refs., 1 tab

  15. The intensities of exposure doses to gamma radiation: - At the whole territory of SAP Kosovo, measured after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident there have been done measurements of the intensities of the exposure doses to gamma radiation through the territorial communities of SAP Kosovo and that was at the soil surface and at 1,5m. from the soil surface. The results were shown chartly and graphically for the period of May - December 1986 for every community and finally for all territory of SAP Kosovo. (author) 1 tab.; 1 fig

  16. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura Shinzo; Sahoo Sarata K.; Shiraishi Kunio; Watanabe Yoshito; Ban-Nai Tadaaki; Los Ivan P.; Korzun Vitaly N.; Tsygankov Nikolay Y.; Zamostyan Pavlo V.; Shevchuk Valery E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L) and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff) plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface con...

  17. Survey of thyroid diseases among inhabitants exposed to fallout radiation from the nuclear power station explosion at Chernobyl, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term medical surveys at Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Marshal Islands have revealed that the frequency of thyroid diseases increases year by year after nuclear explosions. Although about 5 years have passed since the nuclear power station explosion at Chernobyl in 1986, there have been no detailed reports of thyroid surveys. We had an opportunity to examine the inhabits of Chechelsk, Byelorussia who were exposed to high levels of fallout radiation after the accident. The survey was carried out only by palpation of the anterior neck. Three-hundred and six unselected individuals were examined, ranging in age from 9 months to 68 years, 64% being under 20 years. Goiter was found in 92 of the 306 (30.1%) with the highest incidence in individuals aged between 10 and 20 years. Most of these cases were diffuse goiter. As Chechelsk is located far inland from the sea, endemic goiter is a possibility. This study will be continued to clarify the etiology of the goiter and to detect thyroid diseases with the aim of starting treatment earlier. (author)

  18. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)

  19. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800

  20. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lelieveld, J.; KUNKEL, D.; M. G. Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous ...

  1. Differences in the ecological half-time of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident and from nuclear weapons fallout as measured in a south Swedish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1964 and 1994 the whole-body content of 134Cs and 137Cs was measured in a south-Swedish population living in the city of Lund, the so-called Lund reference group, in order to investigate the effective ecological half-time of 137Cs in that area and to assess the committed effective dose. The Lund area was subjected to a total deposition of about 2 kBq/m2 of 137Cs from the nuclear weapons fallout during the 1950s and 60s and an additional deposition of 2 kBq/m2 of 137Cs from Chernobyl in May 1986. The effective ecological half-time for Chernobyl 137Cs was found to be 1.8 ± 0.2 years, which would correspond to an approximate average individual committed effective dose of 0.033 mSv. The time pattern of pre-Chernobyl 137Cs was however best described by a double exponential function, with a short term effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years between 1965 and 1970, and a corresponding long term component of about 10 to 20 years. The committed internal effective dose to an average individual from pre-Chernobyl 137Cs in the Lund reference group was calculated to be 0.20 mSv. The aggregate transfer factor, Tag, was estimated to be 2.5 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2, compared to a value of 10 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2 in 1965 at the time when peak activity concentration values were observed in the Lund reference group. An alternative way of describing the aggregate transfer of 137Cs to man, is by time integration of both the average whole-body burden and the deposition level during a certain time span. Integrating over a 50 y time span, it was found that pre-Chernobyl radiocaesium was transferred to man at least ten time more efficiently than Chernobyl caesium in the Lund region. Since the global fall-out in the sixties and seventies was more or less continuously deposited during the years, the uptake of the substance in agricultural crops during the growth season led to a more efficient transfer of 137Cs through foodstuff to man than the deposition from Chernobyl, which occurred just

  2. Catastrophe medicine; Medecine de catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, A. [Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages (STEEGB), (France)

    1996-12-31

    The `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 was devoted to the assessment and management of risks and hazards in natural and artificial systems. The methods of risk evaluation and prevision were discussed in the context of dams accidents with the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained from the organisation of emergency plans. Three round table conferences were devoted to the importance of psychological aspects during such major crises. (J.S.)

  3. Accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant. From rumors to the reports of international organizations. WHO, IAEA and others summary reports of one and two decades after and UNSCEAR 2008 of 25 years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    False rumor was circulating at a disaster, Nuclear disaster was not an exception. The author could visit the spot in 1990 after Chernobyl accident when the old USSR started international exchange, take part in various research projects with countless visits till ten years after and attend international organization's summary report conference of one and two decades after. Scientific investigation on radiation hazards became possible and results of various investigations had been reported. Evaluation of scientific credibility of reports came to a big job, which required the author's great effort to give an international scientific consent such that thyroid cancer in childhood was caused by the consequences of the accident with chronological and geographical strong circumstantial evidence. This article reviewed chronological definite information and experiences of radiation hazards that the author got from initial false rumor age to the publication of summary reports of international organizations, and presented problems for emergency response at nuclear disaster. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Morbidity of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Clean - up Workers with Oncological Diseases from 1990 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's largest ever radiation accident involving a nuclear reactor occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP). More than 6 000 Latvian inhabitants worked to clean-up CNPP accident in 1986-1991. The duration of accident clean-up workers exposure was from few weeks to 6 months, including external as well as internal radiation. The estimated external radiation doses were 0,01-0,5 Gy. Latvian CNPP accident clean-up workers State register was created on the basis of the Center of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P. Stradins Clinical University hospital in 1994 but examination of clean-up workers was started in 1986. Our aim was to analyse oncological morbidity in clean-up workers in comparison with oncological morbidity in Latvian men population. Materials and methods. For analysis of oncological morbidity in NPP accident clean-up workers, the data of Latvian CNPP accident clean-up workers State Register were used. The group for investigation includes 4053 males what were examined regularly (in average 1600 persons every year) from 1998 to 2004. From these groups of clean-up workers we have revealed 177 persons with oncological diseases over the observation period. Among them only two women but others were men. We have used for the comparison of oncological morbidity data of Latvian Cancer registry and Central bureau of statistics. Summary morbidity with oncological diseases and morbidity with oncological diseases of prostata, stomach, lungs and thyroid for men who have taken part in clean-up works were analysed. Oncological morbidity in age group 35-69 years over the observation period 1998-2004 were compared With age-matched non-exposed population morbidity. Results and discussion. In the structure of oncological morbidity of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers over the period 1990-2004 in the first place was lung cancer, in the second place -stomach cancer, in the third place -prostate cancer. CNPP clean-up worker's common

  5. Evacuation zone changes in Belarussian wildlife populations following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine years of wildlife monitoring in the 30-km Chernobyl evacuation zone documented effects on faunal biodiversity at various levels of ecosystem integration, helping to focus future investigations needed to distinguish radioecological impacts from those caused by reduced human activity within this zone. Following the direct, aucte radiation effects on the fauna, some long-term stabilization appears in the radionuclide content of animal tissues. The recovery of faunal populations seems to depend more on the secondary effects of human evacuation than on direct radioecological impacts. Natural ecological succession may have accelerated due to the post-evacuation removal of human pressure on contaminated habitats. Cessation of human activity has most benefited the commercially hunted bird and mammal populations. Wild boar, elk, and roe deer populations also have increased to new levels of post-accident equilibrium whereas the recovery of other animal populations is less pronounced. While the number of some rare wildlife species increased in the affected communities, many of those wildlife populations normally associated with human activity have disappeared. In abandoned settlements, the succession of plant communities dominated by trees and shrubs now promotes recolonization by those wildlife communities that are more typical of woodland habitats undisturbed by human activity. These dynamic processes of transformation of wildlife communities offer a unique opportunity to study the development and conservation of wild animal biodiversity within the context of specific land use and landscape ecological changes

  6. Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February

  7. Seizing Catastrophes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Based on fieldwork among Palestinians in Denmark the article investigates the Palestinian temporality of Nakba that is equivalent to a time of security in the sense that it is concerned with existential threats and emergency action. The Arabic term Nakba literally means catastrophe and is in...... Palestinian national discourse used to designate the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when more than half of the Palestinian population were expelled from their homeland – a reverse national myth about how Palestine failed to come into being. Yet, according to Palestinians in Denmark, the Nakba cannot be relegated...

  8. Grey Literature Matters: The Role of Grey Literature as a Public Communication Tool in Risk Management Practices of Nuclear Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Blaaij, Cees de (Library of Zealand); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 about 60 countries expressed interest to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in launching nuclear programs. 29 countries with existing programs are planning to expand their nuclear capacity. With the Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents it has been shown that the consequences of a catastrophic nuclear accident are huge and therefore adequate risk management is crucial. The general objective of risk management in relation to nuclear power plants...

  9. Micro-analytical uranium isotope and chemical investigations of zircon crystals from the Chernobyl “lava” and their nuclear fuel inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pöml, P., E-mail: Philipp.POEML@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Burakov, B. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2-nd Murinskiy Ave., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Geisler, T. [Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Walker, C.T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grange, M.L.; Nemchin, A.A. [Department of Applied Geology, Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Berndt, J. [Institut für Mineralogie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Corrensstraße 24, 48149 Münster (Germany); Fonseca, R.O.C. [Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Bottomley, P.D.W.; Hasnaoui, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    U isotope data measured on real fragments of the Chernobyl nuclear fuel included in zircon crystals crystallised from the Chernobyl “lava” are presented for the first time. The U isotope data show no anomalies and lie within the expected burnup values for the Chernobyl nuclear fuel. However, the U concentration, the U isotopic composition, and the Ti concentration in the host zircon vary significantly within single crystals as well as between single crystals. Our results indicate that during the time of melt activity temperature and melt composition likely varied considerably. New melt was formed progressively (and solidified) during the accident that reacted and mixed with pre-existing melt that never fully equilibrated. In such an environment zircon crystals crystallised at temperatures below 1250 °C, as estimated from thermodynamic considerations along with the observation that the centre of the investigated zircon crystal contains monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} inclusions. Since the zircon crystals crystallised before the silicate melt spread out into the reactor block basement, the flow of the melt into the basement must also have occurred at temperatures below 1250 °C.

  10. Micro-analytical uranium isotope and chemical investigations of zircon crystals from the Chernobyl “lava” and their nuclear fuel inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U isotope data measured on real fragments of the Chernobyl nuclear fuel included in zircon crystals crystallised from the Chernobyl “lava” are presented for the first time. The U isotope data show no anomalies and lie within the expected burnup values for the Chernobyl nuclear fuel. However, the U concentration, the U isotopic composition, and the Ti concentration in the host zircon vary significantly within single crystals as well as between single crystals. Our results indicate that during the time of melt activity temperature and melt composition likely varied considerably. New melt was formed progressively (and solidified) during the accident that reacted and mixed with pre-existing melt that never fully equilibrated. In such an environment zircon crystals crystallised at temperatures below 1250 °C, as estimated from thermodynamic considerations along with the observation that the centre of the investigated zircon crystal contains monoclinic ZrO2 inclusions. Since the zircon crystals crystallised before the silicate melt spread out into the reactor block basement, the flow of the melt into the basement must also have occurred at temperatures below 1250 °C

  11. The characterization and risk assessment of the `Red Forest` radioactive waste burial site at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bungai, D.A.; Skalskij, A.S.; Dzhepo, S.P. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk; Waters, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The `Red Forest` radioactive waste burials created during emergency clean-up activities at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant represent a serious source of radioactive contamination of the local ground water system with 9OSr concentration in ground water exceeding the drinking water standard by 3-4 orders of magnitude. In this paper we present results of our hydrogeological and radiological `Red Forest` site characterization studies, which allow us to estimate 9OSr subsurface migration parameters. We use then these parameters to assess long terrain radionuclide transport to groundwater and surface water, and to analyze associated health risks. Our analyses indicate that 9OSr transport via ground water pathway from `Red Forest` burials to the adjacent Pripyat River is relatively insignificant due to slow release of 9OSr from the waste burials (less than 1% of inventory per year) and due to long enough ground water residence time in the subsurface, which allows substantial decay of the radioactive contaminant. Tins result and our previous analyses indicate, that though conditions of radioactive waste storage in burials do not satisfy Ukrainian regulation on radiation protection, health risks caused by radionuclide migration to ground water from `Red Forest` burials do not justify application of expensive countermeasures.

  12. The long-term risk of cancer development with thyroid nodules in irradiated individuals around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with ultrasonically (US) diagnosed thyroid nodules were followed up by this clinical epidemiological study for seeing their long term prognosis, relationship with radiation exposure, and possible risk of cancer development. N group (M/F 15/145, average age of 29 y) were 160 residents of age 0-10 y at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident (1986) who had been diagnosed to have the nodules, and C group were age- and sex-matched residents without thyroid diseases at the Accident. They underwent US examination, and blood analysis of fT4, TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody. Subjects diagnosed to have nodules by US were recommended to receive the US-guided cytological examination. Tg level alone was found significantly higher in N group than C in blood analysis. In N group, 12/160 cases were suspicious of malignancy in cytological diagnosis, of whose 3 cases had thyroid papillocarcinoma, but C group had no such abnormality (0/160). As above, higher frequency of thyroid cancer was observed in residents with thyroid nodules of age 0-10 y at the Accident, and those nodules was conceived to be of high risk of the cancer. (T.T.)

  13. Effects of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents on atmospheric electricity parameters recorded at Polish observation stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Marek; Baranski, Piotr; Odzimek, Anna; Michnowski, Stanislaw; Myslek-Laurikainen, Bogna

    2013-04-01

    We analyse the atmospheric electricity parameters, measured at Polish geophysical stations in Swider, Poland, and Hornsund, Spitsbergen, in connection with the radioactive incident in Fukushima, Japan, beginning on 11 March 2011, following the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami. We compare our results with the situation during and after the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, when the radioactive fallout detected at Swider increased in the last week of April 1986, from 4.111 to 238.7 Bq/m2 and up to 967.0 Bq/m2 in the second week of May 1986 - what was more than 235 times greater than the values measured prior to that accident. Besides the electric field especially the electric conductivity is very sensitive to the radioactive contamination of the air. Thus we postulate that these two measurements should be run at geophysical stations over the world and used as a relatively simple and low-cost tool for continuous monitoring of possible hazard caused by nuclear power plant accidents.

  14. Ensuring radiation safety during construction of the facility ''Ukrytie'' and restoration of unit 3 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPS (ChNPS) destroyed the reactor core and part of the power unit building, whereby sizeable amounts of radioactive materials, stored in reactor at operation, were released into the environment, and there were also highly active fragments of fuel elements and pieces of graphite from reactor spread on ChNPS site near to safety block. Information on the accident at ChNPS, including its cause and consequences, was considered at special meeting, conducted by IAEA on August 25-29, 1986, in Vienna. In final report of International Advisory Group for Nuclear Safety (IAGNS), prepared by results of meeting activities, the main stages of the accident effects elimination (AEE) immediately on the station site according to the data, received before August 1, 1986, were discussed. In 1987-1990 the published materials on the later period of AEE, completed by building ''Ukrytie'' installation at the fourth power unit of ChNPS

  15. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs ((134Cs + 137Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  16. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the 137Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986–1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticable between 1986–1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  17. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the 137Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986-1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticeable between 1986-1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  18. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  19. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. PMID:25413928

  20. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no death or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious disease. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. (author)

  1. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  2. Prospects of nuclear power in the USSR after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is an integral part of the USSR power industry. At present, about 12% of the country's electricity is produced by nuclear power plants, saving about 70 million tons per year of equivalent fossil fuel. The FEC analysis reveals that any acceptable solution of the energy supply problem and limitation hazardous ecological effects cannot be achieved without appropriate development of nuclear energy capacities, with the necessary safety levels ensured. The thorough comparative analysis of nuclear power development in the USSR, taking into account the economic factors and ecological consequences of power development shows that nuclear power capacity has to be systematically increased - up to 56 million kW by the year 2000, and 95-150 million kW by 2010. The main condition for this expansion is the enhanced nuclear power safety. This development has to be competitive with the ecologically acceptable coal power plants operating in the european part of the country. (authors)

  3. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  4. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  5. Caesium radionuclides migration in an alluvial soil of the Po River Valley (Northern Italy) after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation was carried out to study the migration of Cs-137 and Cs-134 deposited by the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl. Distribution depth profiles and diffusion coefficients are reported and correlated to soil quality parameters. (orig./HP)

  6. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  7. The chernobyl experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschki, Wolfgang

    Numerous articles have been published about the events which occurred at Chernobyl and the radiological impact on the environment and the public. This article tries to find out which experience can be, should be or has already been gained from that accident. The fields which have been studied are: nuclear safety; radiation protection of rescue workers; medical treatment of overexposed persons; decontamination of agricultural land, buildings and cities; behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems; effects of low doses on human beings.

  8. Project Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the follow-up after the Chernobyl fallout is to obtain the best possible information about the environmental and dose commitment consequences in Sweden. The essential part of the work by the institute to improve the state of readiness is described. (G.B.)

  9. Chernobyl fantasy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

  10. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  11. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lelieveld, J.; KUNKEL, D.; M. G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of ma...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Remediation Strategies and Experience After the Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl Nuclear Accidents. Annex IV of Technical Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant environmental contamination by radioactive materials has occurred in some parts of the world due to industrial and military activities, such as nuclear weapon testing, uranium mining and nuclear and radiological accidents. The most well-known sites where large scale remediation has been implemented include: the nuclear test sites in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (USA) and Maralinga (Australia); areas contaminated by nuclear accidents at Kyshtym, Chernobyl (former Soviet Union) and Fukushima (Japan); Goiânia (Brazil), following the loss of a radioactive source; and Palomares (Spain), after the B-52 bomber accident. These sites differed in terms of contamination levels, the main dose forming radionuclides and environmental characteristics. Consequently, different remediation criteria and strategies were used to protect the affected population and remediate the environment

  13. Coherent catastrophism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, D. J.; Clube, S. V. M.; Napier, W. M.; Steel, D. I.

    We review the theoretical and observational evidence that, on timescales relevant to mankind, the prime collision hazard is posed by temporally correlated impacts (coherent catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 2-10 4 yr) rather than random ones (stochastic catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 5-10 8 yr). The mechanism whereby coherent incursions into and through the terrestrial atmosphere occur is described as being the result of giant cometary bodies arriving in orbits with perihelia in the inner solar system. Hierarchical fragmentation of such large (100 km-plus) bodies — due to thermal stresses near perihelion, collisions in the asteroid belt, or passages through the Jovian Roche radius — results in numerous ˜kilometre-sized objects being left in short-period orbits, and appearing in telescopic searches as Apollo-type asteroids. Many more smaller objects, in the 10-100 metre size range and only recently observed, by the Spacewatch team, are expected to be in replenished clusters in particular orbits as a result of continuing disintegrations of large, differentiated, cometary objects. Gravitational perturbations by Jupiter bring these clusters around to have a node at 1 AU in a cyclic fashion, leading to impacts at certain times of year every few years during active periods lasting a few centuries, such periods being separated by intervals of a few millennia. Furthermore, fragmentations within the hierarchy result in significant bombardment commensurabilities ( Δt ˜ 10-10 2 yr) during active periods occurring at random intervals ( Δt ˜ 10 2-10 3 yr). It appears that the Earth has been subject to such impacts since the break-up of such a comet ˜2×10 4 years ago; currently we are not passing through a high-risk epoch, although some phenomena originating in the products of this break-up have been observed in the 20th century. This most recent hierarchical disintegration, associated with four well-known meteor showers and termed the Taurid Complex, is now recognized as resulting

  14. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  15. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E

    2009-11-19

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident consisted of fuel and condensation components. An important radioecological task associated with the late phase of the accident is to evaluate the dynamics of radionuclide mobility in soils. Identification of the variability (or invariability) in the radionuclide transfer parameters makes it possible to (1) accurately predict migration patterns and biological availability of radionuclides and (2) evaluate long-term exposure trends for the population who may reoccupy the remediated abandoned areas. In 1986-1987, a number of experimental plots were established within various tracts of the fallout plume to assist with the determination of the long-term dynamics of radionuclide vertical migration in the soils. The transfer parameters for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil profile, as well as their ecological half-time of the radionuclide residence (T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol}) values in the upper 5-cm thick soil layers of different grasslands were estimated at various times since the accident. Migration characteristics in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: {sup 90}Sr > {sup 137}Cs {ge} {sup 239,240}Pu. It was found that the {sup 137}Cs absolute T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values are 3-7 times higher than its radioactive decay half-life value. Therefore, changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited {sup 137}Cs now depend only on its radioactive decay. The {sup 90}Sr T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values for the 21st year after the fallout tend to decrease, indicating an intensification of its migration capabilities. This trend appears consistent with a pool of mobile {sup 90}Sr forms that grows over time due to destruction of the fuel particles.

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  17. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.)

  18. Byelorussia's Chernobyl legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 radioactive fall-out was widely distributed over the eastern territories of the Soviet Union and over Europe. While the effects in Europe have been well documented and have received widespread media attention, less is known about the effects within the Soviet Union. The general picture that has been painted is that while the accident was serious, it wasn't that bad and the resulting contamination is something that can be lived with. In reality many people are living in contaminated zones which would be regarded as completely unacceptable in the United Kingdom. However, the USSR Ministry of Public Health has argued that relocation is not necessary. The Ministry and other agencies including the Red Cross do not recognize the contamination as serious and feel the main side effect of Chernobyl is psychological. In Byelorussia however, 100,000 people are still living in areas of major contamination. (author)

  19. Internuclear chromosome bridges in thyrocytes of papillary thyroid cancer in patients, subjected to radioactive iodine isotopes during first months after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsov V.Iu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fallout from Chernobyl accident was primarily to iodine radioisotopes, with Iodine-131 (I-131 being the most predominant. Radioiodines accumulated following the accident could induce pathologic changes in thyrocytes. Internuclear chromatine bridges and ‘‘tailed’’nuclei - broken bridge fragments - are considered like cytopathological effects of radiation exposure as these abnormalities are formed from dicentric chromosomes, which are established markers of radiation exposure. Objective. To test the possibility that internuclear bridges and tailed nuclei are cytological markers of radiation exposure of the thyroid. Methods. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from fine-needle aspiration biopsy in papillary thyroid cancer patients exposed to radioiodine after Chernobyl accident (35 subjects from Gomel region, Belarus and in papillary thyroid cancer of unexposed patients (25 subjects from Leningrad region, Russia. Nuclear abnormalities included internuclear bridges and ‘‘tailed’’ nuclei were examined. Results. Cells in papillary thyroid cancer of irradiated patients are characterized by the high frequency of appearance of hole nucleoplasmic bridges as well as broken bridges in comparison with the control group. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges in irradiated patients was almost 4 times higher than that in the unexposed group (4,69±0,69‰ vs. 1,10±0,23 ‰, p<0.001. The same contrast was observed in parameter “frequency of thyrocytes with “tailed” nuclei” (12,40±1,82 ‰ vs 3,68±0,39 ‰, (p<0.001. Conclusion. Thyrocytes with internuclear bridges may be considered as markers of radiation effects on the thyroid gland. Citation: Kravtsov VIu, Ibragimova NV, Nikonovich SN, Nadyrov EA, Rozhko AV. [Internuclear chromosome bridges in thyrocytes of papillary thyroid cancer in patients, subjected to radioactive iodine isotopes during first months after the accident at

  20. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  1. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public. PMID:23469013

  2. Reverse Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Czapliński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal notion of the article–a “backward catastrophe”– stands for a catastrophe which occurs unseen until it becomes recognized and which broadens its destructive activity until it has been recognized. This concept in the article has been referred to the Shoah. The main thesis is that the recognition of the actual influence of the Holocaust began in Polish culture in the mid-1980s (largely it started with the film by Claude Lanzmann Shoah and the essay by Jan Błoński Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto [“The Poor Poles Look at the Ghetto”], that is when the question: “What happened to the Jews”, assumes the form: “Did the things that happened to the Jews, also happened to the Poles?”. Cognitive and ethical reorientation leads to the revealing of the hidden consequences of the Holocaust reaching as far as the present day and undermining the foundations of collective identity. In order to understand this situation (and adopt potentially preventive actions Polish society should be recognized as a postcatastrophic one.

  3. Catastrophic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  4. Chernobyl - and then?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

  5. Thyroid irradiation doses and organization of endocrinological monitoring for the population in the Ukrainian SSR after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to one of the most important aspects of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station: thyroid irradiation in the residents of 8 areas in the Ukrainian SSSR and the town of Pripyat, affected with radioactive iodine. Irradiation doses, prognosis of medical effects of endocrinological monitoring of the affected population were thoroughly considered. The authors proposed a scheme of health care of the population in these areas. They also discussed the structure of data bases for analysis of medicodosimetric information of iodine effects of the accident. The main trends in medicodosimetric problems of the effects of thyroid irradiation were outlined

  6. Environmental monitoring data around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant used in the cooperative research project between JAERI and CHESCIR (Ukraine). Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Takashi; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tkachenko, Yuri; Kovalyov, Alexandr; Sukhoruchkin, Andrei; Derevets, Varely [The State Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control (Ukraine)

    2003-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the shared data derived from the environmental monitoring by RADEK (The state Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control of Ukraine) and the record of environmental characteristics derived from field observations during a research project (1992-1999) between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CHESCIR (Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research). The compiled data in this report are especially related to one particular research subject (Subject-3) of the project on the migration of radionuclides released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments after a nuclear accident. The present report shows the basis of published works concerning Subject-3. (author)

  7. Nuclear reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI (Three Mile Island), and Windscale. January 1974-September 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1974-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout, the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, the sea, the radiation effects on people, and the transfrontier radio ative contamination of the environment. (This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Hydrotechnical facilities within the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone: impacts on hydrologic regime and plant growth patterns of floodplain water bodies of the Pripyat River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Zub, L N; Savitsky, A L

    2003-01-01

    As result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident the territory of the left-bank flood-lands of the Pripyat River have undergone intensive radionuclide contamination. With the purpose of preventing the washing away of radioactive substances, a complex of flood protection dams was constructed. This construction changed the hydrological regime of these territories and caused overgrowth by higher aquatic plants. Absence of a flowing mode of reservoirs, the stagnant phenomena during spring and seasonal high waters on the embank site have caused amplification of eutrophication processes, swamping and, connected with it, increase of water-marsh floristic complex in the structure of the vegetative cover. PMID:14653638

  9. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krasnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  10. Environmental monitoring data around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant used in the cooperative research project between JAERI and CHESCIR (Ukraine). Cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of the shared data derived from the environmental monitoring by RADEK (The state Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control of Ukraine) and the record of environmental characteristics derived from field observations during a research project (1992-1999) between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CHESCIR (Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research). The compiled data in this report are especially related to one particular research subject (Subject-3) of the project on the migration of radionuclides released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments after a nuclear accident. The present report shows the basis of published works concerning Subject-3. (author)

  11. Mental health of liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical and psychological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster-related mental disorders. We evaluated both clinically and psychologically four hundred and fifty patients who were exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. They did not suffer from radiation sickness. The investigations started four years after the catastrophe took place in 1990 and continue to the present day. (orig.)

  12. Organization of fire protection services and fire fighting tactics in nuclear power plants taking into account conclusions from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the problems of organizing fire services to protect nuclear power plants, and gives an overview of their structure and the basic tasks they perform. Operational documentation on the extinguishing of fires and the elimination of the consequences of accidents is examined, as are the principles governing co-operation between plant operating personnel and other services drawn on for such work (dosimetric, health, etc.). The problems of training firemen to combat fires under conditions specific to nuclear power plants are reviewed, as are those relating to the organization and carrying out of joint fire fighting training work with plant service personnel, and to the psychological aspects of firemen's training. The paper discusses the most characteristic types of fire, where they occur and how they develop, together with fire fighting conditions under high levels of radiation. In the light of the experience gained while extinguishing the fire and eliminating the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, a description is given of the special technical equipment and resources used for the personal monitoring of firemen and for their protection against the effects of radioactive substances. The fire extinguishing techniques and methods used at the Chernobyl plant are described, as well as the measures which have been implemented in fire service as a result of the experience accumulated during this accident. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  13. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites

  14. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: Volume 1, Main report: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report (NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  15. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United Sates: Volume 2, Appendix - Public comments and their disposition: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report(NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  16. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  17. General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

  18. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine

  19. Diastolic left ventricular function in patients with mild and moderate hypertension - liquidators of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diastolic left ventricular function was studied by doppler-echocardiography in 25 healthy persons (control group) and 50 patients with mild and moderate hypertension including 28 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. Patients with hypertension including liquidators had such manifestations of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. These manifestations were more pronounced in liquidators who also had greater left ventricular myocardial mass

  20. PRIORITIES IN CONCEPT OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN IRRADIATED PATIENTS AT DISTANT PERIOD AFTER CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR DISASTER BASED ON PROSPECTIVE COHORT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Oganov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study pathogenetic mechanisms and cardiovascular risk factors prospective cohort study in liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster 13-20 years after an accident.Material and methods. 409 irradiated patients and 224 control patients comparable on the age and gender were involved into two-stage cohort prospective study with 4,5years period of observation. Database included results of standard questionnaires, social and demographic description, education, family status, smoking and alcohol habits, anthropometry, fasting lipids and glucose, blood pressure, ECG, arrhythmias on ECG monitoring, heart rhythm variability, Echocardiography, thyroid ultrasound image, spirometry, transesophageal electrophysiological study of heart conduction system, exercise tests, functional class of ischemic heart disease, stage of arterial hypertension, fatal/nonfatal end-points, as well as neurologist, endocrinologist and cardiologist conclusions. Totally 267 variables were included in the analysis.Results. Spectrum of active cardiovascular risk factors in cohort of irradiated patients was entirely different from this in control patients. Determinative value for irradiated patients was related with night hypersympathetic activity, ANDS syndrome (Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction on hyperSympathetic type and less related with decreased airway conductance in small bronchial tubes.Conclusion. Comparative prospective cohort study in liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster 13-20 years after an accident revealed highly significant new and permanently acting cardiovascular risk factors. These data let to work out appropriate approaches to therapy and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Chernobyl: the long shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl: the Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are. It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries, and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world. It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailed scientific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reactions to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context, and will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems. (author)

  2. Simulation of 137Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 (137Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30 years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to 137Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of 137Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of 137Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the ‘Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident’ and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on 137Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2–3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m−2 and 100 kBq m−2. Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - Highlights: • Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident simulation with WRF-HYSPLIT models. • Analysis

  3. Simulation of {sup 137}Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, V.; Pozzoli, L.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T., E-mail: kindap@itu.edu.tr; Karaca, M.

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30 years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to {sup 137}Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of {sup 137}Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of {sup 137}Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the ‘Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident’ and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on {sup 137}Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2–3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m{sup −2} and 100 kBq m{sup −2}. Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - Highlights: • Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

  4. Chernobyl assessed (Report of NEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern state of knowledge about Chernobyl accident effect on men's health as well as radiological and social-economic impacts for population of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation is presented in the report of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Accepted estimations of absorbed radiation dose of population suggest that except the thyroid disease it is improbable that irradiation causes radiation effects among population

  5. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  6. Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  7. Constructive criterion of catastrophe inevitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical procedure is proposed for the constructive criteria of nuclear catastrophe inevitability. It was concluded that the procedure can fulfill the objective set, and it allows to make a full formal safety classification of object states. (N.T.). 1 ref., 1 fig

  8. Chernobyl - considerations of an insurer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author underlines the insurers' reactions after the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, their reactions as providers of security for loss and destruction in power plants and for third party liability: offers of financial cover have not been affected - quite the contrary - since 26 April 1986. He then refers to their consideration of the detrimental consequences: Chernobyl has revealed a new aspect of nuclear incidents - the addition of various types of expenditure quite apart from compensation of personal injury or property may considerably increase their economic impact (NEA)

  9. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  10. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  11. Projected global health impacts from severe nuclear accidents: Conversion of projected doses to risks on a global scale: Experience from Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of projected collective dose and average individual dose commitments from Chernobyl releases were made for various regions. Consideration was given to the possible effectiveness of protective actions taken by various countries to reduce projected doses to their populations. Although some preliminary data indicate possible mean reductions of about 25% in total collective doses over the first year, and of about 55% in collective dose to the thyroid, no corrections were made to these dose estimates because of the variable nature of the data. A new combined set of dose-effect models recently published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission was then applied to estimate the ranges of possible future additional health effects due to the Chernobyl accident. In this method possible health effects are estimated on an individual site basis and the results are then summed. Both absolute and relative risk projection models are used. By use of these methods, ''best'' estimates of possible additional health effects were projected for the Northern Hemisphere as follows: 1) over the next 50 years, up to 28 thousand radiation-induced fatal cancers, compared to an expected 600 million cancer deaths from natural or spontaneous causes; 2) over the next year, up to 700 additional cases of severe mental retardation, compared to a normal expectation of 340 thousand cases; and 3) in the first generation, up to 1.9 thousand radiation-induced genetic disorders, compared to 180 million naturally-occurring cases. The possibility of zero health effects at very low doses and dose rates cannot be excluded. Owing to the very large numbers of naturally-occurring health effects, it is unlikely that any additional health effects will be demonstrable except, perhaps, for the more highly exposed population in the immediate vicinity of Chernobyl. 13 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Chernobyl: an early report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview and assessment of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl is presented. The authors have assembled data from throughout Europe to estimate upper bounds for the possible radiation releases from the accident, the exposures these may produce in humans, and the health consequences that may follow. Measurements of radioactivity in air, fallout, and milk and other food are included. Doses from the accident are compared with those from other sources of radiation exposure and a comparison is made of the annual risk of cancer from this and other causes

  13. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  14. Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

  15. Improving public acceptance of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, public acceptance of nuclear energy decreased dramatically. In order to prevent such catastrophic events, major safety improvements have been achieved both in the operating nuclear power plants and in the future advanced projects as well. Nowadays, the nuclear energy problem was totally modified by the complete mastery and control of nuclear power generation as well as of radioactive waste management. It become a solution to the global climatic challenges and equally to the ever increasing world energy demand. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy: obscure, dangerous and not sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has become a true economic, technological, environmental and social failure. It has already caused serious problems to the public health and the environment, such as nuclear accidents, like the catastrophe of Chernobyl, the generation of radioactive wastes with which is not known what to do. The nuclear industry (protected by the regulator body, the Nuclear Safety Council, whose real and effective independence is being pursued by means of legal reforms) takes refuge in the secrecy to try to avoid that citizens could be aware of its safety problems, its negative environmental impact and its unsubstantiality. (Author)

  17. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the U.S has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident, The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements, for example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with U.S Environmental Protection agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is contrasted with typical U.S. evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training

  18. The nuclear suicide. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, one of the most consistent opponents of nuclear power, strikes a balance after the Chernobyl catastrophe. He relentlessly analyses the 'German nuclear situation', developments to be expected from risks and catastrophic events. He exposes statements offered by the owners of power plants and by politicians as attempts to play risks down, and hopes to achieve a turnabout yet. The conjunction of technical and physical arguments with a fundamental criticism of the ideology of economic growth is what distinguishes this book from other publications critical of nuclear energy. But the author does not content himself with criticism, he goes on to point out realistic measures for opting out of nuclear energy. (orig./HSCH) With 10 figs. and maps

  19. Origin of a signal detected with the LSD detector after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N. Yu.; Malgin, A. S.; Fulgione, W.

    2013-08-01

    A rare signal was detected at 23:53 Moscow time on April 27, 1986 with the LSD low-background scintillation detector located under Mont Blanc at a distance of 1820 km from Chernobyl. To reveal the origin of this signal, we discuss the results obtained with other instruments operating within a similar program, as well as analyze the characteristics of the pulses of the signal and facts referring to the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. A hypothesis based on detection with the LSD of gamma-quanta from β decays of 135I nuclei ejected into atmosphere by the reactor explosion and carried in the underground detector camera with air of positive ventilation is considered. The explosion origin of the LSD signal indicates a new technogenic source of the background in the search for neutrino bursts from cores of collapsing stars.

  20. Origin of a signal detected with the LSD detector after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare signal was detected at 23:53 Moscow time on April 27, 1986 with the LSD low-background scintillation detector located under Mont Blanc at a distance of 1820 km from Chernobyl. To reveal the origin of this signal, we discuss the results obtained with other instruments operating within a similar program, as well as analyze the characteristics of the pulses of the signal and facts referring to the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. A hypothesis based on detection with the LSD of gamma-quanta from β decays of 135I nuclei ejected into atmosphere by the reactor explosion and carried in the underground detector camera with air of positive ventilation is considered. The explosion origin of the LSD signal indicates a new technogenic source of the background in the search for neutrino bursts from cores of collapsing stars

  1. Origin of a signal detected with the LSD detector after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N. Yu., E-mail: natagafonova@gmail.com; Malgin, A. S., E-mail: malgin@lngs.infn.it [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Fulgione, W. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A rare signal was detected at 23:53 Moscow time on April 27, 1986 with the LSD low-background scintillation detector located under Mont Blanc at a distance of 1820 km from Chernobyl. To reveal the origin of this signal, we discuss the results obtained with other instruments operating within a similar program, as well as analyze the characteristics of the pulses of the signal and facts referring to the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. A hypothesis based on detection with the LSD of gamma-quanta from {beta} decays of {sup 135}I nuclei ejected into atmosphere by the reactor explosion and carried in the underground detector camera with air of positive ventilation is considered. The explosion origin of the LSD signal indicates a new technogenic source of the background in the search for neutrino bursts from cores of collapsing stars.

  2. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. PMID:22920877

  3. Influence of the radiation on cytogenetic parameters mouselike rodents from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radioecological and cytogenetic studies are presented. The soil contamination on the testing experimental sites of Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. The correlation between the concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in the carcasses of animals and the level of soil contamination was revealed. The chronic exposure to radioecological conditions of the exclusion zone is shown to increase the pathological changes in bone marrow cells, which is determinate micro-nucleus test using

  4. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  5. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: a case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff) plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radionuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested. (author)

  6. Health effects of low dose exposure to fission products from Chernobyl and the Fermi nuclear reactor in the population of the Detroit metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the results of the exposure of a very large population in the Detroit, Michigan, area to fallout from Chernobyl measured in 1986, followed by the reported releases from the start-up of the Fermi-II nuclear plant in 1988 located 20 miles from the city that receives its drinking water from Lake St. Clair downwind to the north-east of the plant. Due to the prior existence of a local cancer registry for a total population of about 4 million, and the availability of reliable public-heath statistics by age, race and sex, combined with the absence of an accident known to produce population movement and stress, highly significant rises and declines of the incidence of early childhood leukemia and other cancers could be related both geographically and temporally to the observed rises and declines of fission products in the milk as well as releases from the reactor. Furthermore, surprisingly rapid rises in the incidence of breast cancer also took place in Monroe County where the reactor is located and in Macomb County downwind on Lake St. Clair to the northeast, presumably due to weakening of the immune defenses by the mix of fission products not seen so rapidly after exposure in the case of external X-rays or gamma rays. For Michigan as a whole, for which incidence of thyroid cancer at all ages combined became available after 1985, rapid rises were observed after Chernobyl and the start of the Fermi plant, using as rapidly as in the case of Belarus and Connecticut. Additionally, highly significant synchronous rises in low birth weight, infant mortality, fetal deaths, asthma and infectious disease mortality were also observed consistent with the known action of bone-seeking fission products on the immune system, following reported nuclear tests, nuclear accidents and the start-up of the Fermi plant. (orig.)

  7. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen; Nakamura, Nori; Nikonovich, Sergey; Aleksanin, Sergey

    2012-05-01

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) thyroid study cohort consists of persons who were 0-18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioactive iodine fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 75 BelAm subjects with single and multiple thyroid nodules and 47 nodular goiter patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities examined included internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., "tailed" nuclei), which are formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes and thus may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. Among subjects with single-nodular goiter, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 86.8% of the exposed BelAm cohort compared with 27.0% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges and with tailed nuclei was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls. Among subjects with multinodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.7% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls; thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 40% of controls, and the mean frequencies of bridges and tailed nuclei were significantly higher in the exposed group. Unusually, long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of those with multinodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed among patients from the Leningrad region. In the exposed subjects from BelAm, we also found positive correlations between their estimated dose of Iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and the frequency of tailed nuclei (p = 0.008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent consequences of radiation

  8. Nuclear power, a foundation of future energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy supply is still an urgent problem throughout the world. After the alarm caused by the Chernobyl accident, the author proposes to make nuclear power 'non-catastrophic' by making it intrinsically safe. Particular interest is taken in the HTR technology. HTR heat can be utilized for processing fossil energy sources and thus, together with the utilisation of hydrogen carriers, will help to solve the CO2 problem. The development work has now reached the pilot phase. (orig.)

  9. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

  10. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half time, Teff,eco of fallout radiocaesium, and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half times, Te of 137Cs and 40K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of 137Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of 137Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for 137Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average 66±3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81±4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated. The 137Cs from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s still gave a significant contribution to the total 137Cs levels in man during the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994). About 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of 137Cs (3.5-4 Bq/kg) in 1987, was attributed to pre-Chernobyl 137Cs. The effective ecological half-time for 137Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8±0.2 y. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 0.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m2. These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the Lund reference group in the 1960s, and in time-integrated aggregate transfer factor of 4.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m2. The average

  11. Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

  12. Radioactive contamination of the service water in Niigata City due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the experiment of radioactivity removal with active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of radioactive contamination in the waterworks of Niigata City due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described, and also the 131I removal with active carbon powder made experimentally. Following are the results (1) Radioactive nuclides detected-determined in airborne dust, rainwater and Shinano River water in Niigata City are total of 11 in number. In the filtered water, the contaminant is only 131I. (2) Even in this contamination state, i.e., of short duration, low radioactive concentration, etc., radioactive contamination of the source water (river surface water) can be estimated from radioactive concentration of the rainwater and the amount of precipitation. (3) In this level of radioactive contamination, the soluble 131I can be removed about 40% with the injection of active carbon powder 30 mg-l. (Mori, K.)

  13. 15 years after Chernobyl, nuclear power plant safety improved world-wide, but regional strains on health, economy and environment remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, exhaustive studies by the IAEA and others provide a solid understanding of the causes and consequences of the accident, which stemmed from design deficiencies in the reactor compounded by violation of operating procedures. These deficiencies and the lack of an international notification mechanism led to the speedy adoption of early Notification and Assistance Conventions as well as later establishment of the landmark Convention on Nuclear Safety. Lessons learned from the accident were also a significant driving force behind a decade of IAEA assistance to the countries of Central and eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Much of this work was focused on identifying the weaknesses in and improving the design safety of WWER and RBMK reactors

  14. Contribution of the short lived radionuclides in food to the total radiation burden of man after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the short lived radionuclides (I-131, Te(I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141,144, Ru-103,106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Mo-99, Nb-95, Sb-125) mass activities estimation in some foodstuff (milk and milk products), immediately after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, in May 1986. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on Ge(Li) detector by standard gamma spectrometry, with the total error less than 20%. The results enabled the evaluation of the short lived radionuclides contribution in the total dose due to ingestion of milk and milk products, in the first month after the accident, compared to the contribution of I-131 and to the contribution of the main long lived radionuclides: Ce-134 and Cs-137 (author)

  15. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  16. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V. [Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Inst., Kiev (Ukraine); Zheleznyak, M.J. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Cybernetics Center; Onishi, Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

  17. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ''Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,'' of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising 90Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum 90Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak 90Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, 90Sr concentrations in Kiev's drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike 90Sr, 137Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated 137Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for 137Cs

  18. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

  19. Blood picture alternations in persons after liquidating the consequences of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of haemogram examination in 90 men who worked in Chernobyl in 1986 are reported. In 58 cases alterations were found in red blood in the form of oxy phil norm o- and/or macrocytes and half moon erythrocytes. Ovalocytes, stomatocytes or acanthocytes were found in ten persons. White blood picture was characterized by relative lymphosytosis, but also by appearance of lymphoid and plasmatic cells, what may be interpreted as activation of immune response. The results of reexamination after six to twelve months in 25 men demonstrated increased frequency or deepening of alterations in blood picture. (author). 12 refs

  20. Frequency of dicentrics in Ukrainian children and teenagers from areas near Chernobyl 20 years after the nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, frequency of dicentrics in the peripheral blood of 55 children and teenagers from Ukrainian areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are studied, in order to assess the possible existence of chromosomal damage due to radiation, and to estimate absorbed dose through biological dosimetry. A total of 36 dicentric chromosomes found in 53477 analyzed cells reflected a low dicentric frequency (below the baseline limit). From these results, it can be concluded that, within the detection limits of the used technique, no overexposure to radiation was detected in these children. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Electric spin resonance and instrumental neutron activation element analyses of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up worker teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Se, Zn, Co) in teeth of Chernobyl's NPP accident clean-up workers examined in the Centre of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P.Stradins Clinical Hospital, Medicine Academy of Latvia. The strontium concentration was high in teeth of clean-up that in control teeth. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the absorption dose. The absorbed dose reconstruction was achieved by additive dose method. The absorbed dose measured by ESR in teeth was always higher than the documented exposure doses. (author)

  2. Nuclear research between fascination and terror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the names of Hiroshima and Chernobyl evoke visions of nuclear catastrophe, other fields of nuclear research are viewed with fascination. This book is a thorough, topical and gripping description of the complexity and political two-sidedness of nuclear physics. The author shows how man has step by step, in the course of time, acquired knowledge of the building blocks of which the world is made. He connects often seemingly abstract physical relationships with historical events and human fate: Hiroshima, the run for the bomb during World War II, and even the age determination of the sindon of Christ kept at Turin by means of radioactive carbon. (orig./HP)

  3. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Chernobyl revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations made on a visit to the Chernobyl area in July 1990 are reported. Although the main purpose of the visit was to try out thermoluminescence techniques on materials exposed to radiation during the accident, the observations reported here are of a more general nature covering the variations in dose rate and contamination of surfaces within the 30 km exclusion zone and in the deserted tow of Pripyat, and plant, animal and bird life. The most ubiquitous contamination in Pripyat is caesium, which has penetrated all porous surfaces and would probably be very difficult to remove from brick structures if rehabitation were ever contemplated. Recorded dose-rates varied considerably on and in different parts of buildings. Radiation measurements of external surfaces were typically in the range 1-10 μSv/h and an order of magnitude less within buildings. Grass verges were particularly badly contaminated; measurements up to 110 μSv/h were noted in the most polluted area of Pripyat. Ecologically, the area seems to have benefited from having been allowed to return to nature. Many birds and a wide variety of plants and trees were flourishing; some older pine trees showed evidence of damage, however. The only insects observed were peacock butterflies. (Author)

  5. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer

  6. Dispersion modelling after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the Chernobyl accident, little was known about the magnitude and time pattern of the release from the damaged reactor. This paper describes the detective work done in the weeks following the accident to assess the release and its dispersal across Europe; also new calculations done since the USSR presentations in Vienna at the end of August 1986 and some estimates of longer term collective dose commitment are given. The MESOS computer model developed at Imperial College to simulate the dispersal of hypothetical accidental releases of important radionuclides, out to distances of several hundred kilometers, and estimate levels of contamination in the air and deposited on the ground, was adapted for real time use. Combined with meteorological data and measurements of radionuclides collected from miscellaneous sources across Europe, it was possible to estimate how much had been released. To conclude, some general remarks are made about the implications of the Chernobyl accident for technical support in emergency procedures for any future nuclear accident. (UK)

  7. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  8. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  9. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system

  10. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  11. Tracking the cloud from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the accident at Chernobul nuclear power station, many scientists are studying how the radionuclides from the reactor's core dispersed across Europe and became deposited on the ground. A group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College have developed a computer model, MESOS, specifically to study the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere over very large distances. In the past, this model has been used to study the potential consequences of hypothetical accidents at nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries. Now it has been used to estimate where the radioactivity from Chernobyl went. The Chernobyl model is explained and some estimates from the MESOS model are presented. By comparing the model estimates with observations a full assessment of the environmental consequences of the accident will be possible. It should be possible to find out the way in which pollutants travel long distances, how they are deposited on the ground and their transport through food chains. (U.K.)

  12. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  13. The study of the dynamics of migration main radiologically significant isotopes in the near and far field Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the migration of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and Pu isotopes in soil near Chernobyl nuclear power plant area, as well as the Chernigov region, Ukraine is described. Experiments were conducted using a semiconductor spectrometry and radiochemical separation of isotopes needed. The experimental data obtained were processed using a mathematical model that takes into account in convective component (fit parameter V-- linear velocity of radionuclide movement dependent upon soil moisture) and diffusive one (fit parameter D- diffusion coefficient) migration of isotopes. The parameter values in V and D of migration, in turn, allow us to estimate halftime of decontamination top five-centimeter layer of soil. The results obtained in this paper halftime of decontamination for the various isotopes and their comparison with those obtained by us and by other authors in the past 10-20 years, confirms the trend previously noticed by a significant speeding migration Radiostrontium compared with Radiocesium. It is shown that for all the types studied soils in the late phase of Chernobyl accident halftime of decontamination of the top 5 - cm soil layer for radiostrontium, and for radioactive cesium in the order of magnitude or more greater than the period of the physical half-life of the radionuclide that is, matching in the late phase of the accident change the exposure dose of radiation is mainly determined by the physical decay of the radionuclide. According to the estimated periods decontamination upper soil horizons of different migration mobility of radionuclides in soils exclusion zone reduced in number: 90Sr> 137Cs> 241Am ≥ 238-240Pu, migration mobility of isotopes of transuranic elements is very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  15. A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 μSv, 1 year old child - 500 μSv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

  16. Numerical simulation of regional scale dispersion and deposition of radioactive pollutants from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomura, Takehiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The dispersion and deposition of radioactive pollutants from the Chernobyl accident was simulated according to a transfer model for air pollutants, which was made by Meteorological Research Institute. The observation data and the data of emission source used here were obtained from the document distributed by ATMES (Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study). The numerical model used consisted of two parts. One is an atmospheric estimation model which allows to predict meteorological factors and the other is a part to calculate the advection diffusion based on the predicted meteorological factors. The time-course changes in {sup 137}Cs concentration in the air determined in Stockholm, Mol, Budapest and Attikis were well coincident with the calculated {sup 137}Cs levels for the respective cities. For atmospheric {sup 137}Cs concentrations at Bilthoven and Berlin, the estimation was also satisfactory, but the calculated deposition levels in both cities did not agree with the respective observation levels. (M.N.)

  17. The Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

  18. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  19. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  20. Chernobyl - Could it happen here? [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station at Chernobyl in April 1986, the CEGB produced this video which has now been updated in the light of the information provided by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference in Vienna. At this conference it was made clear that the Chernobyl accident would have been impossible in any nuclear reactor operational outside the USSR. This video explains why. It examines the main reasons for the failure of the reactor at Chernobyl and the two fundamental design flaws which resulted in the sequence of events leading up to the accident. It shows how British reactors have built-in protection to compensate for failure in any part of the system, and how the reactors are tolerant to operator error. The programme also explains the safety standards and regulations which are enforced in CEGB nuclear power stations and the rigorous training that reactor operators have to undergo

  1. Collection, documentation and assessment of data measured in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative for the Federal Republic of Germany, regions were selected that showed a lesser (Hesse) and higher (Bavaria) contamination. The contamination in individual environmental media (milk, i.a.) was demonstrated by values measured and assessed on a prognostic model and subsequently compared with each other. The intake was then evaluated on the basis of food basket and total body measurement data for determining the dose for various age groups and regions. Against those from food baskets, the doses derived from total body measurements were generally lower by 20-60%. This indicates change in consumption habits, adherence to recommendations and the effect of countermeasures, particularly in the higher contaminated southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The intake and dose assessments were compared to those measured during the time of contamination from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests. External radiation exposure and cumulative dose from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident were calculated. In 1986, the radiation exposure from external sources and from ingestion in consequence of the reactor accident had reached in the region of highest contamination (County of Berchtesgaden) 40%, in the lesser contaminated region (Hesse) about 5% of the average natural radiation exposure. (orig./HP)

  2. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2016-01-01

    as camps. Based on fieldwork among Palestinians in the Danish camps, this article explores why my interlocutors describe their current lives as a catastrophe. Al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and, in Palestinian national discourse, it is used to designate the event of 1948, when the Palestinians...

  3. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  4. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  5. Understanding Atmospheric Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2009-01-01

    The atmosphere, as in other parts of nature, is full of phenomena that involve rapid transitions from one (quasi-) equilibrium state to another--- i.e. catastrophes. These (quasi-) equilibria are the multiple solutions of the same dynamical system. Unlocking the mystery behind a catastrophe reveals not only the physical mechanism responsible for the transition, but also how the (quasi-) equilibria before and after the transition are maintained. Each catastrophe is different, but they do have some common traits. Understanding these common traits is the first step in studying these catastrophes. In this seminar, three examples chosen based on the speaker's research interest--tropical cyclogenesis, stratospheric sudden warming, and monsoon onset--are given to illustrate how atmospheric catastrophes can be studied.

  6. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  7. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed

  8. An ill wind from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the effects that the poisonous dust emanating from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor explosion of 1986 had on human, animal and plant population in the Soviet Union and across Europe. One of the chief criticisms raised is of governments, inside and outside the Soviet Block restricting information about danger to people or, in some cases, denying any consequences. This has led to widespread public opinion against nuclear programmes for power generation, and calls for adequate and appropriate compensation for victims of the accident. (UK)

  9. Plutonium, 137Cs and 90Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for 137Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 ± 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for 90Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  10. Survey of thyroid diseases among inhabitants exposed to fallout radiation from the nuclear power station explosion at Chernobyl, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the prevalence of diffuse goiter and thyroid nodules in children aged 10-15 years living at Chechelsk city, Byelorussia, which is one of the high radioactive fallout areas after the Chernobyl accident. Seven hundred thirteen children (330 males and 383 females) were enrolled in the study. The goiter staging was defined according to the WHO classification. Those who showed apparent goiter from Grade I to III were additionally examined by ultrasonography. The prevalence of palpable goiter was 41.5% in males and 56.9% in females. The incidence in females was significantly higher than that in males (p<0.01). In the ultrasonography survey, 9 (3 males and 6 females) of 196 children revealed one or several small nodules in diffuse goiter, which were less than 1 cm in size and appeared as irregular hypoechoic lesions. These school children with nodular lesions require further medical examination for defined diagnosis and proper treatment. Future investigation regarding both the endemic goiter of this district and goiter prevalence in non-affected neighboring areas is crucial for evaluating the effects of radioactive fallout correctly. (author)

  11. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  12. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 105) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well

  13. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  14. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, N.; Zibtsev, S.; Myroniuk, V.; Zhurba, M.; Hamburger, T.; Stohl, A.; Balkanski, Y.; Paugam, R.; Mousseau, T. A.; Møller, A. P.; Kireev, S. I.

    2016-05-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y‑1 in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray.

  15. Impact of the Chernobylsk nuclear disaster on health; Impact de la catastrophe nucleaire de Tchernobyl sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, E

    2007-12-15

    The accident arisen to the power plant of Chernobylsk on April 26., 1986 is the gravest accident of the history of the civil nuclear power. For more than 20 years, the French opinion and more widely world, continues to maintain a strong concern on the real sanitary consequences of this accident. In the countries of the ex-USSR, the major impact was the increase of the thyroid cancers at the children but also at the adults. In France, we know now that the radioactive cloud did not stop on the border as it had been said in the time. Now the incidence of the cancer of the thyroid did not stop increasing for these last twenty years in our country. We cannot exclude that the accident of Chernobylsk contributed to a certainly weak fraction of this evolution. Indeed, an increase of the incidence of the cancer of the thyroid comparable to that observed in France is also noticed in the other countries which were not got by the disaster. (N.C.)

  16. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L

    2000-05-01

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half time, T{sub eff,eco} of fallout radiocaesium, and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half times, T{sub e} of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of {sup 137}Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for {sup 137}Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average 66{+-}3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81{+-}4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated. The {sup 137}Cs from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s still gave a significant contribution to the total {sup 137}Cs levels in man during the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994). About 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of {sup 137}Cs (3.5-4 Bq/kg) in 1987, was attributed to pre-Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs. The effective ecological half-time for {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8{+-}0.2 y. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 0.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m{sup 2}. These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the Lund reference group in

  17. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these

  18. Review and Analysis of Solid Long-lived and High Level Radioactive Waste arising at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Restricted Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study characterised potential waste arisings in the Exclusion Zone surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studied sites include the Industrial Zone outside the Sarcophagus, three engineered disposal sites (the so-called PZRO), non-engineered near surface trench dumps (PVLRO), contaminated soil and sites of ''unauthorized'' disposal within the Exclusion Zone. Analysis of the previous methodology used for waste characterisation and inventory estimates identified a number of errors. A new database was established, which contains the most up-to date information on radwaste in the Exclusion Zone. Based on the analysis of the available information and potential radiological consequences, a judgement was taken regarding the priority of waste retrieval. In a number of cases it is necessary to carry out risk assessment to ensure that in-situ disposal would satisfy the Ukrainian regulations. Assessments of waste stream volumes for subsequent incineration, encapsulation, storage and disposal in the planned near-surface facilities have been made. It is judged that throughput and capacity of the planned waste management facilities specified by OSAT is, in general, appropriate to the likely waste arisings. (author)

  19. The assessment of the influence of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on the incidence of thyroid diseases among children in Poland. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was attempted to assess the incidence of thyroid diseases in Polish children born between 1980 - 1986, who at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster were 0 - 6 years old, or whose mothers were in the third trimester of pregnancy. 3071 children have been examined, 1772 girls and 1299 boys. The following were assessed in each child : the health status, the development level, the thyroid ultrasound examination, and the level of TSH, FT4, antithyroid antibodies ATM and ATGL in the blood serum. Disorders in thyroid morphology have been found in 462 children (15%), almost twice as much in girls than in boys. Goiter has been recognized in 4,6% of all children, an abnormal echogenity in 5,4% and focal changes in 4,8%. 3,9% of children have been found to have a high level of ATM antibodies, and 8,7% - a high level of ATGL antibodies. Among 6 children, who had thyroidectomy, 2 children have been diagnosed to have carcinoma papillare and 4 children - adenoma. (author)

  20. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  1. Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  2. Dynamics of 137Cs concentration in agricultural products in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of 137Cs concentration in the main types of agricultural products obtained in regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 1986, have been analysed. The rate of decline of 137Cs contamination in agricultural products during the period under study (1987-1992) was not uniform. Reductions of the 137Cs content of produce was most rapid during the early years after the accident, as a consequence of the intensive application of countermeasures at that time. Half-life periods for 137Cs content in milk (the basic dose-forming product) and the decrease in products for areas in Russia subjected to the most intensive contamination amounted to 1.6 to 4.8 years, depending on the scale of countermeasures carried out. Half-life periods of decrease of 137Cs content in other types of agricultural products (grain, potato) were within the range of 2 to 7 years. Based on the comparison of the dynamics of 137Cs levels in agricultural products of the regions where the countermeasures scales differed, the contribution of countermeasures and of natural biogeochemical processes to the decrease of 137Cs contamination levels of the main types of agricultural products that determine the dose from internal irradiation of local population has been estimated. (author)

  3. Changes in the forms of 137Cs and its availability for plants as dependent on properties of fallout after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of exchangeable and acid soluble 137Cs content in soils, as well as 137Cs transfer factors for natural vegetation were studied for different sites within a 50-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after the 1986 accident. Changes in 137Cs forms in soils during the 6 years after the accidental release of radioactive substances and availability of this radionuclide to plants at that time were dependent on the character of radioactive fallout (fuel particles, aerosols of different dispersion) and soil type. Transformation of different 137Cs species in soils with time after the accident was observed (destruction of fuel particles, ageing of 137Cs and changes in the 137Cs sorption strength of the soil solid phase). Behaviour of 137Cs in the 'near' and 'remote' zones was different. The content of exchangeable 137Cs in soils was found to have decreased after the accident. The average half-life of 137Cs in grass stand in dry meadow in the 'remote' zone is 3.5 years, and in the second (slower) period after the accident, this half-life for 137Cs will amount to about 17 years. The 137Cs transfer factors for peaty swamped soils were 3.7-6.6 times as high as for soils of automorphous series

  4. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1996-2004, 850 patients - Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) with nervous, cardiovascular and digestive system morbidity and their children were investigated, inclusively the clinical, immunological and cytogenetic analysis. The clinical investigations indicates that the CACCP patients compared to patients of a control group, were more susceptible to infectious and noninfectious diseases, with the prevalence of large polymorphism of nervous, cardiovascular and digestive system, which were accompanied by with circulatory disorder of the vegetative nervous system. The immunological analysis elucidates alterations in the immune system of the CACCP, expressed through the increase of the activity of humeral indices of immunity and decrease of the cell immunity system expressed through the decrease of total T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. The correlation and simple regression analysis demonstrated the linear negative dependence between some immunological indices and dose level r=-0.54. The hyper compensatory intensity of humoral immunity and natural resistance and clear tendency to T-cell immunity insufficiency are revealed with monoclonal antibodies to CD-19, CD-3, CD-4, CD-8, CD-16 and rosette forming reactions. Cytogenetic research of the lymphocyte cultures of peripheral blood of CACCP living in the Republic of Moldova in the 10-12 years after the accident and their children, elucidated the deterioration of the hereditary system, being expressed through high level of genomic, chromosomal, and chromatid type aberration. In the adults populations dominated the chromosomal type of aberrations, and in the children populations prevailed the chromatid type. On the base of cytogenetic markers, it has been determined that the radiation affection of CACCP indicated by the official physical doses not always coincided with the data of the biological indicators

  5. Estimates of radiation dose and health risks to the United States population following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of both individual and collective doses received by the United States population following the Chernobyl accident have been made by using the data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System. Radionuclides associated with the debris first were measured in precipitation and surface air particulates at Portland, OR and Olympia, WA on 5 May 1986. Iodine-131 was the most consistently measured nuclide in all media, although several Cs and Ru isotopes also were observed. Strontium and any actinides notably were absent from the samples at the lower level of detection. The highest calculated individual-organ dose due to intake during May and June 1986 was 0.52 mSv to the infant thyroid in the state of Washington. This was predominantly (98%) from the ingestion of milk. The maximum U.S. collective dose equivalent to any organ was calculated to be 3,300 person-Sv to the thyroid. Risk estimates project three excess lung cancer deaths and an additional four deaths due to cancers of thyroid, breast and leukemia in the U.S. population over the next 45 y from exposure during the May-June 1986 interval. The only long-lived radionuclide measured in milk samples following the accident was 137Cs. We estimate 20 excess fatalities from the ingestion of 137Cs in milk during all subsequent years, with six of these due to lung cancer and the majority of the remainder distributed approximately equally among cancers of the thyroid, breast, liver and leukemia. A total of 100 excess fatalities from all dietary components was estimated. Because of the uncertainty of risk estimates from data such as those available for this study, all calculated values carry a range of uncertainty from a minimum of one-half the calculated value to a maximum of two times the calculated value

  6. Habitability and cosmic catastrophes

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold; McKay, Christopher P

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic cosmic events such as asteroid impacts appear in the range of some 100 million years and have drastically affected evolution. The author discusses whether and how such events could have occurred in recently found extrasolar planetary systems.

  7. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shereef, Rawhya R; El-Abedin, Zein; Abdel Aziz, Rashad; Talat, Ibrahim; Saleh, Mohammed; Abdel-Samia, Hanna; Sameh, Amro; Sharha, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports one case of successfully treated patients suffering from a rare entity, the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). Management of this patient is discussed in detail. PMID:27375916

  8. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawhya R. El-Shereef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports one case of successfully treated patients suffering from a rare entity, the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS. Management of this patient is discussed in detail.

  9. Averting Catastrophes: The Strange Economics of Scylla and Charybdis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Ian; Pindyck, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    How should we evaluate public policies or projects to avert, or reduce the likelihood of, a catastrophic event? Examples might include inspection and surveillance programs to avert nuclear terrorism, investments in vaccine technologies to help respond to a "mega-virus," or the construction of levees to avert major flooding. A policy to avert a particular catastrophe considered in isolation might be evaluated in a cost-benefit framework. But because society faces multiple potential catastrophe...

  10. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pligt, van der, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  11. Entanglement in quantum catastrophes

    CERN Document Server

    Emary, C; Brandes, T; Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Brandes, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    We classify entanglement singularities for various two-mode bosonic systems in terms of catastrophe theory. Employing an abstract phase-space representation, we obtain exact results in limiting cases for the entropy in cusp, butterfly, and two-dimensional catastrophes. We furthermore use numerical results to extract the scaling of the entropy with the non-linearity parameter, and discuss the role of mixing entropies in more complex systems.

  12. Catastrophes in surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental studies concerning atom-surface interactions in the energy range from hyperthermal to approximately 100 eV are reported. An extended study of the interaction of low energetic alkalis (sodium and potassium) with a silver crystal is presented. Finally the ultimate experimental result in this research, the first observation of catastrophes in surface scattering, is shown. The results clearly indicate the strength of the catastrophe analysis in gas-surface scattering. 218 refs.; 40 figs.; 170 schemes; 4 tabs

  13. Urinary bladder lesions after the chernobyl accident. Immunohistochemical assessment of p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/Cip1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 11-year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium-137 (137Cs) accounts for 80-90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucosa of 55 males (49-92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so-called ''clean'' areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addition, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21WAF1/Cip1, was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. (author)

  14. Activities of Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia - Belgrade, during the case of radioactive pollution of environment caused by the accident of nuclear power plant 'Chernobyl' in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of 'Systematic testing of water quality' performed by Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia - Belgrade includes the measurement of total beta radioactivity on 33 sampling points. The measurement of total beta radioactivity is performed with instrument 'Lola - 4' produced by 'Institute for Nuclear Science - Vinca'. During the accident of Nuclear Power Plant 'Chernobyl' in 1986 arose the need to investigate the influence of this case on the environment of Belgrade and Serbia. In that respect a series of measurement of total beta radioactivity of rain water, surface waters, tap water and air were performed. Those measurements showed an increase of radioactivity of river waters. River Sava had radioactivity of 3,4 Bq/l (0,08 Bq/l in 1 9850 and river Danube 3-5 Bq/l (0,09 Bq/l in 1 985). High values of radioactivity were measured in the waters of highland accumulation lakes over 30 Bq/l. Rain water showed it's maximum of 52 Bq/l on 1 st and 2nd May l986 and it drooped to 0,3 Bq/l until 5th of June. Tap water showed it's maximum of 35,2 Bq/l on 12th May and it was reduced to 1 ,0 Bq/l on 2nd of June. Radioactivity of air showed it's maximum of 2,64 Bq/m3 in the period 1 -3 May and in the period 5-8 May, 1 . - 1 ,57 Bq/m3 . Measurement of river water radioactivity on 33 regular sampling points at the end of the year 1 986 showed that was no increase in comparison with the same measurements in 1 985. All mentioned results of the radioactivity of river waters and the waters of highland accumulations used to fall into ranges predicted by the model of the radioactive pollution distribution developed on the Imperial College -London. (author)

  15. Catastrophes: sociological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various types of accidents - natural, ecological, technological and social are analysed. Consequences of accidents and co-operation of the people in extreme conditions of crises and accidents are considered. It is shown the social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident and ways of a decrease of negative consequences on the person

  16. Chernobyl - A chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area, are shown

  17. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  18. The psychological effects of Chernobyl on the victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social and psychological post-effects of Chernobyl disaster have turned out one of the most unpredicted unexpectedness by scale and extent in the post-catastrophe period. Mass socio-psychological interviewing of all categories of the victims has been conducted by questionnaire. Survey method is the interview. There has been fixed the ''psychological tiredness'' due to permanent stress situation. Methods of mass and socio-psychological rehabilitation are limited effectiveness, without improving political and economical situation in the country

  19. Chernobyl; Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  20. 10th anniversary of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means

  1. Ethical aspects of the effects of the Chernobyl accident: lessons and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different aspects of observing of eco- and bioethics principles and requirements upon the attitude to human in the situations of emergency are discussed basing on the tragic lessons of the Chernobyl catastrophe. They are attitude to population located in the region influenced by the catastrophe, attitude to the liquidators, and attitude to the subjects of biomedical researches. The characteristics of the moral and psychological factors of radioecological stress are given. Ethical issues of estimation of low dose radiation effects are analyzed

  2. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the Chernobyl fallout of 137 reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles. In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant happened together with fire lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Impressions of Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international delegation touring Russia and Ukraine was demonstrated the consequences of the accidents at the nuclear installations of Chelvabinsk and Chernobyl. On the site in Russia, an explosion of a tank filled with high level radioactive waste in 1957 released a radioactive cloud of approx. 20 million Ci, of which 90% rained down in the immediate vicinity, while 10% spread over an area of 23,000 square kilometers. 10,200 persons were resettled for this reason within two years. Among the population in the contaminated area, the cancer rate rose, but is still said to be lower than at other industrialized sites. At a distance of 44 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plants, the new city of Pripyat has been established for 23,000 inhabitants. Planning work on additional nuclear generating units was stopped after the accident of unit 4. The complete loss of unit 4 has been felt by the USSR as a bigger economic disaster than the radioactive contamination of the environment. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to (131)I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal (131)I radiation. The associations between internal (131)I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of (131)I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0-5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the (131)I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26-27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to (131)I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid. PMID:27019779

  5. Assessment of the effectiveness of mechanical decontamination technologies and technical devices used at the damaged unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant instantly transformed the problem of decontamination from a theoretical to a real problem. The solution to the problem was complicated first of all by the differences in the nature of the surface of the territory which had to be decontaminated. Obviously, the decontamination methods also had to differ correspondingly for the various components of the terrain: asphalt, concrete, public gardens, shrubs and thickets, woods, water bodies, roofs and walls of buildings and structures and also technological equipment located in open places. Even in the case of roofs of different structural types, the decontamination methods had to be different, for example, for iron and prepared roofing paper, slate and tiles. Other factors influencing the choice of methods and technical means of decontamination were: the density of building structure distribution on the ground, position and configuration of equipment, construction materials, factors determining the practicability of applying machines or manual methods, mechanical or chemical decontamination. A very important criterion in the choice of methods and devices for decontaminating roofs was the load bearing capacity of girder structures and roof type coverings. Still more important was the exposure dose level in the decontamination area, which determined the type of technique selected: use of robots, remote controlled devices, biological protection or conventional equipment. In all cases, account was taken of the possible occurrence of unexpected circumstances which could endanger the life of the operator: appearance of gases, dust, possibility of collapse, flooding, failure and jamming of equipment. These criteria were important for the practical evaluation of the suitability of the methods and the technical means for carrying out work during the mechanical decontamination of the territory and the building structures around the damaged unit. (author)

  6. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid. PMID:27019779

  7. Chernobyl - Ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decade later, in April 1996, more than 800 experts from 71 countries and 20 organizations, observed by over 200 journalists, met to review the Chernobyl accident's actual and possible future consequences, and to put these into proper perspective. They came together at the international conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, held at the Austria Center in Vienna. The Chernobyl Conference was a model of international co-operation: six organizations of the UN family, including the IAEA, and two important regional agencies were involved in its organization

  8. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 1 real-time emergency response systems post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 1 of this report covers the development of numerical models, in the form of software packages, to simulate atmospheric transport and deposition over various distances, and techniques for estimation of the resulting doses

  9. Estatus de parámetros oxidativos y del gen p53 en sangre de niños en edad escolar de zonas afectadas por el accidente nuclear de Chernobyl.

    OpenAIRE

    García Mora, Mª Carmen

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN Tras el accidente nuclear de Chernobyl producido el 26 de abril de 1986 se liberaron muchos radioisótopos, produciendo la contaminación del medio ambiente, con la consiguiente implicación sobre la salud de las personas afectadas. La irradiación produce su efecto sobre el material biológico de manera directa, como consecuencia inmediata de la ionización inducida por la irradiación y de manera indirecta, que al interaccionar sobre cualquier estructura celular, esencialmente el agua t...

  10. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 2 the Rade-Aid system post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 2 describes the RADE-AID project to develop a computer system which can be used to support the formulation of decisions on countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides. The system is intended as an aid following an actual accident and a tool for assistance in planning and training

  11. Chernobyl: fourteen years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

  12. Chernobyl: a documentary story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

  13. Chernobyl 25 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  14. Chernobyl 25 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  15. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  16. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  17. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  18. Health disturbance tendencies in Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up workers from Latvia and Lithuania (17 years observation period, 1987-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 12000 Latvian and Lithuanian inhabitants worked to clean-up Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in 1986-1991. The duration of clean-up workers exposure was 1-6 months, including external as well as internal radiation. The estimated external radiation doses were 0,01-0,5 Gy. Our aim was to analyze changes in clean-up workers health over the observation period 1987-2003. Materials and methods: For analysis of health disturbances in NPP accident clean-up workers, the data of Latvian and Lithuanian Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers State registers were used (12,000 males, mean age 44,20±0,99 yr old in 2001 for Latvian and 45,20±0,91 for Lithuanian clean-up workers). Register includes passport data, questionnaire with 60 points, and clinical examination results. Control group includes 237 males (servicemen, policemen, drivers, firemen), mean age 46,07±0,98 yr old in 2001. Results and discussion: The monitoring of over 12,000 clean-up workers health condition made it possible to obtain unique data on quantitative and qualitative changes in the morbidity structure and health disturbances in these patients. Their morbidity exceeds age- and sex-matched non-exposed population morbidity, and there is a trend for progression of this tendency. The number of diseases diagnosed per person was 2,5 in 1996, compared with 10,5 in 2002 (p0,05). Even taking into account more frequent examination of clean-up workers, that could be a sign of premature aging in this group. Clean-up workers have more disturbances of following systems (including functional disorders), compared with control group (number of cases per 100 individuals, 1996-2001): diseases of nervous system and organs of sense - 57,1±2,7 vs. 5,9±3,3 (p<0,001), mental disorders - 61,2±3,0 vs. 5,6±3,4 (p<0,001), thyroid diseases - 019,8±2,4 vs. 5,I±l,6 (p<0,001), disorders of respiratory tract - 29,3±2,6 vs. 9,7±2,4 (p<0,001), disorders of digestive system - 40,9±3,5 vs. 20,6±2,9 (p<0

  19. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  20. Radioactive iodine-131 over Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two weeks after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, a substantial increase in radioactivity above normal background levels was observed in various samples taken in Taiwan, which is 7600 km from Chernobyl. The 131I concentrations in grass, rainwater, and milk were monitored continuously in succeeding weeks and correlations with weather conditions are discussed. Levels of radiation fallout over Taiwan due to the Chernobyl accident are much lower than the response levels recommended by local authorities and pose no danger to the public. (author)

  1. Catastrophic Crop Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Beginning in 1995 farmers were offered the chance to carry a minimum level of Multiple Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI) coverage at very little cost. This catastrophic or CAT insurance coverage replaces the protection offered to crop producers under federal disaster programs in recent years.

  2. Catastrophic Medical Expenditure Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Flores (Gabriela); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMedical expenditure risk can pose a major threat to living standards. We derive decomposable measures of catastrophic medical expenditure risk from reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. We propose a quantile regression based method of estimating risk exposure from cross-section

  3. International cooperation on technical support for regulation of safety-related activities on the transformation of the destroyed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Power Unit into an ecologically safe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's most severe nuclear accident destroyed the fourth unit at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. In the six months following the accident, a localizing building was erected over the unit to contain the nuclear materials and provide support services for managing the destroyed reactor. Since 1997, an international project which includes both urgent measures for stabilization and safety upgrading as well as long-term measures for transforming the facility into an ecologically safe system has been under way. This paper discusses an important aspect of this project which has been the cooperation amongst the technical support organizations of the Ukrainian regulatory authorities and the technical support from international organizations. (author)

  4. Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

  5. Medical preparedness: Chernobyl as a model for southeastern Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detroit Chapter of Physicians for Social Responsibility developed a project to evaluate the potential response of the local medical community to a small nuclear disaster involving radiation injuries. The model was patterned after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster of April 26, 1986. They surveyed the potential response to a hypothetical disaster at the Enrico Fermi II nuclear reactor located south of Detroit

  6. Assisting the Return to Normal Life in Chernobyl-Affected Regions: The International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) project, a programme designed to meet the priority information needs of communities in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine which were affected by the 1986 nuclear accident. Its aim is to empower Chernobyl affected communities through targeted delivery of the most recent scientific information on the accident’s impacts, translated into practical advice, including recommendations on healthy lifestyles. Supported by a United Nations General Assembly resolution, the project is part of a broader effort by all United Nations agencies to help local communities return to normal life, under the United Nations Action Plan on Chernobyl to 2016. (author)

  7. The effect of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the USSR on the export of milk products from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper exposes the problems experienced by exporters of milk products resulting essentially from the confusion of acceptable levels of radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident, the development of limits in the ensuing six months and the recommended action which should be taken internationally for the future. (author)

  8. Field and laboratory nuclear techniques in radionuclide transport studies: Methodology, technology and case studies in the territory of the Russian Federation exposed to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear techniques used in studying migration mechanisms and characteristics of radionuclides released into the environment as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are described and evaluated. These include nuclear well logging in profiling soil density, moisture and clay particle content; artificial isotope tracer (including multitracer) technology for simultaneous in situ determination of the velocity of tritiated water and injected/released radionuclide (90Sr, 137Cs) movement; their diffusion/dispersion coefficients and Kd and retardation factors (R); a Chernobyl radionuclide survey of soils, sediments, surface waters and groundwaters to estimate the radioecological conditions and consequences; natural stable (D, 18O, 13C) and radioactive (T, 14C, 226Ra, 228Ra) isotope methods for evaluating the genesis and mean residence times of groundwaters (MRTw) and contaminants (radionuclides) (MRTc). For the assessment of the vulnerability and the prediction of possible contamination of exploited shallow and deeper groundwaters by the reactor radionuclides (mainly, 137Cs and 90Sr), two approaches were applied: (1) determination of the mean residence time of groundwater by means of the environmental tritium data and the retardation factor (determined by laboratory and field tracer experiments); (2) direct experimental determination of the recharge rate and the migration characteristics of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone. (author). 17 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  9. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 1. Lessons to Learn from Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Tokaimura and the New Era of the European Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the reasons, the progression, and the improvements made in the aftermath of the world's three most disastrous and publicized nuclear accidents, as well as the lessons still to be learned. At present, the entire European electrical grid is integrated, and reactor manufacturers have become fewer and bigger. Until now, largely only the operators were accused of committing human errors. This contradicts the claim that later technological improvements offset the possibility of a repetition of the accident. To improve the safety culture, new complementary views are presented that previously had been overlooked. Technological improvements and safety culture deficiencies at the managerial level are still missing. Although the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl, and Tokaimura occurred on different continents at entirely different plants, these accidents share many common features in terms of precursors, progression, and succession. In the actual work, these common features are analyzed, and as a result, some recommendations are made. The results of the analyses show the following deficiencies in safety culture: 1. The precursors were not properly evaluated, and consequently, the correct conclusions were not deduced and applied. 2. The operators need much improved information about the status of the process that they control to be able to make the right decisions. 3. Operators must improve their awareness of observing deviations at an early stage to avoid accidents, and they also must improve their preparedness to meet the challenges of unexpected occurrences. 4. Management must learn to see the activities at the plant through the operators' eyes. 5. The price of the 'profit' of meeting time schedules by pressuring people is all to high for these practices to continue. The significance of the results is that they give direction to an improved safety culture, as follows: 1. Industry and management authority must assume

  10. Catastrophic primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPLS) was diagnosed in a 64-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea. The clinical and radiological examinations showed pulmonary thromboembolism, and so thromboembolectomy was performed. Abdominal distension rapidly developed several days later, and the abdominal computed tomography (CT) abdominal scan revealed thrombus within the superior mesenteric artery with small bowel and gall bladder distension. Cholecystectomy and jejunoileostomy were performed, and gall bladder necrosis and small bowel infarction were confirmed. The anticardiolipin antibody was positive. Anticoagulant agents and steroids were administered, but the patient expired 4 weeks after surgery due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We report here on a case of catastrophic APLS with manifestations of pulmonary thromboembolism, rapidly progressing GB necrosis and bowel infarction

  11. Catastrophic primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Byun, Joo Nam [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sang Wan [Miraero21 Medical Center, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPLS) was diagnosed in a 64-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea. The clinical and radiological examinations showed pulmonary thromboembolism, and so thromboembolectomy was performed. Abdominal distension rapidly developed several days later, and the abdominal computed tomography (CT) abdominal scan revealed thrombus within the superior mesenteric artery with small bowel and gall bladder distension. Cholecystectomy and jejunoileostomy were performed, and gall bladder necrosis and small bowel infarction were confirmed. The anticardiolipin antibody was positive. Anticoagulant agents and steroids were administered, but the patient expired 4 weeks after surgery due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We report here on a case of catastrophic APLS with manifestations of pulmonary thromboembolism, rapidly progressing GB necrosis and bowel infarction.

  12. Catastrophic Medical Expenditure Risk

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Owen; Flores, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMedical expenditure risk can pose a major threat to living standards. We derive decomposable measures of catastrophic medical expenditure risk from reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. We propose a quantile regression based method of estimating risk exposure from cross-section data containing information on the means of financing health payments. We estimate medical expenditure risk in seven Asian countries and find it is highest in Laos and China, and is lowest in Mala...

  13. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  14. The limits of catastrophe aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Martin

    2002-06-01

    We discuss the management of catastrophe-risks from a theoretical point of view. The concept of a catastrophe is informally and formally defined, and a number of desiderata for catastrophe-averse decision rules are introduced. However, the proposed desiderata turn out to be mutually inconsistent. As a consequence of this result, it is argued that the "rigid" form of catastrophe aversion articulated by, for example, the maximin rule, the maximum probable loss rule, (some versions of) the precautionary principle, and the rule proposed in Ekenberg et al. (1997, 2000) should be given up. An alternative form of "non-rigid" catastrophe aversion is considered. PMID:12088231

  15. My Good, what have we done. From Hiroshima to Chernobyl - our way into nuclear disaster. Mein Gott, was haben wir getan. Von Hiroshima nach Tschernobyl - der Weg in das atomare Verhaengnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaenecke, H.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic energy debate has become the life-and-death question of ouer times. But there is great uncertainty, and confusion is increasing. This book leads the reader back to the origin of the atomic age. It describes the progression from a scientific discovery, nuclear fission, to the dropping of the atom bomb - and from the bomb to the supposed blessing of 'peaceful' utilisation of atomic energy. But the bomb and the reactor pose the same threat. After Chernobyl, we know that the apocalypse can happen even without a war. The book is to be read as a narrative in which human personalities play the major roles: Madame Curie, who discovered radioactivity, Edward Teller, the inventor of the hydrogen bomb, the nameless engineers in the control rooms of nuclear power stations who now hold the fate of all of us in their hands. The Appendix contains an interview with Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker.

  16. Investigation on the differences of parameter values for external dose assessment from 137Cs due to soil types by using the monitoring data around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external exposure from 137Cs deposited on the surface soil is one of the important exposure pathways after an accident in a nuclear facility. In our previous study, it was found that the ratio of rapid component to total activity was most important parameter for dose estimation by using a 2-component removal model from surface soil. In this study, the differences of the probability density functions of the ratios of rapid components due to soil types was investigated by using the monitoring data on the concentration of 137Cs in the surface soil layers around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It was discovered that the probability density functions of the ratios of rapid components vary with the soil types and these differences cause the differences in estimated values of integrated dose. This result indicated that information on soil types was useful for the reduction of uncertainty of dose estimation. (author)

  17. Chernobyl: A first-hand account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, living in Moscow at the time, was traveling by night train to visit family in Kiev at the time of the chernobyl accident. He recalls a passenger in his compartment asking if anyone had noticed in the morning press about the explosion in Chernobyl. In Kiev, about 50 mi from Chernobyl by air, he noted on arrival that everyone was calm - the city quiet with no rumors or gossip. He contrasts this with the world being alert, in despair, full of alarm. On failure to reach old friends by phone, he thought they had left the city for at least 4-day vacations - May 1 and 2 holidays plus Saturday and Sunday. He continues to recount the life as usual situation aided and abetted by the governments lack of information and misinformation on the perilously dangerous radioactivity and extent of the disaster. He notes friends showing him a January 1986 copy of Izvestia with an article about the Chernobyl unit, several months before, being named winner in a competition among all nuclear power stations in the USSR

  18. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that fallout of 137Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

  19. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  20. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.