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Sample records for chernobyl npp metodicheskie

  1. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions.

  2. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

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    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  3. Effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M

    2008-08-01

    The area affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 has become a unique test site where long-term ecological and biological consequences of a drastic change in a range of environmental factors as well as trends and intensity of selection are studied in natural settings. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident for biota varied from an enhanced rate of mutagenesis to damage at the ecosystem level. The review comprehensively brings together key data of the long-term studies of biological effects in plants and animals inhabiting over 20 years the Chernobyl NPP zone. The severity of radiation effects was strongly dependent on the dose received in the early period after the accident. The most exposed phytocenoses and soil animals' communities exhibited dose dependent alterations in the species composition and reduction in biological diversity. On the other hand, no decrease in numbers or taxonomic diversity of small mammals even in the most radioactive habitat was shown. In a majority of the studies, in both plant and animal populations from the Chernobyl zone, in the first years after the accident high increases in mutation rates were documented. In most cases the dose-effect relationships were nonlinear and the mutation rates per unit dose were higher at low doses and dose rates. In subsequent years a decline in the radiation background rate occurred faster than reduction in the mutation rate. Plant and animal populations have shown signs of adaptation to chronic exposure. In adaptation to the enhanced level of exposure an essential role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation was shown. Based on the Chernobyl NPP accident studies, in the present review attempts were made to assess minimum doses at which ecological and biological effects were observed.

  4. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

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    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  5. Near-surface final repository for the NPP Chernobyl, Ukraine; Oberflaechennahes Endlager fuer das KKW Tschernobyl, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, Heiko [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    NUKEM Technologies has realized the project of near-surface final radioactive waste storage at the site of the NPP Chernobyl. The complex includes facilities for treatment and processing of solid wastes, interim storage facilities for high-level waste and a near-surface final repository for conditioned radioactive waste. The project is funded by the European Union in the frame of TACIS.

  6. RADIATION SITUATION STATUS OF THE TERRITORY OF OREL REGION, AFFECTED BY THE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

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    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains analysis of activities of Centers of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Inspection in Orel region during the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident and consecutive years. The results of multi-year radiation and hygienic monitoring on the territory of Orel region are presented; efficiency of various measures of exposure dose reduction for the population of Orel region is analyzed.

  7. ON THE ROLE OF MUSHROOMS IN THE INTERNAL DOSE FORMATION TO THE POPULATION IN THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT AFFECTED AREAS

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    A. V. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present overview describes the results of the 25-year studies devoted to the estimation of the contribution of radionuclide containing mushrooms to the internal exposure dose to the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident. A significant increase with the time after the accident is shown for the contribution of mushrooms to the population internal exposure dose. Factors are identified influencing variability in the estimations of radionuclide from the mushroom component contribution to the population internal exposure dose.

  8. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

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    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  9. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

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    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  10. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  11. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Zimina, L.M.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Zimin, V.L.; Vasiliyev, D.V.; Oudalova, A.A.; Blinova, L.D.; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute {gamma}-radiation.

  12. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

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    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  13. {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident: inventories, balance and tracer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, V.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol (Ukraine); Povinec, P.P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quasi Antoine 1 er, BP No. 800, MC-98012 (Monaco); Polikarpov, G.G.; Stokozov, N.A.; Gulin, S.B.; Kulebakina, L.G. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol (Ukraine); Osvath, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quasi Antoine 1 er, BP No. 800, MC-98012 (Monaco)

    1999-04-01

    The paper summarizes studies of the distributions of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the water and sediments of the Black Sea carried out during a 10-year period following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Its goal is to assess the temporal evolution of radionuclide inventories and balances and to evaluate the mixing of water masses and the sedimentation processes using man-made radionuclides as tracers. Using mathematical models and field data, mixing time-scales of 5, 16 and 24 years have been estimated, respectively, for the water layers of depths 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200 m. For the Central Basin the ventilation time of the lower pycnocline is estimated at 15-25 years. {sup 137}Cs has been used to date shelf and deep-basin sediments, providing the history of chemical and radioactive pollution and of eutrophication during the past 50 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  15. Experiences using laser Doppler vibrometers at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovoi, Leonid K.; Robur, Lubomir I.; Siegmund, Georg; Tushev, Dmitry

    2000-05-01

    The implementation of laser vibrometers into various branches of industry solves complex technical problems as well as raising the authority of laser vibrometry as unique measurement tool. From this point of view, the nuclear industry is an interesting and attractive application field with specific and rigorous exploitation conditions of measuring systems. The objective of this work was to evaluate all advantages and disadvantages of the laser Doppler vibrometry with respect to nuclear power plant (NPP) equipment examination. The Chernobyl NPP is the ideal place for these purposes. The diagnostic ability on different Chernobyl NPP systems (e.g. third power unit main circulators, bearing shaft of fifth turbo-generator and various pipelines) has been demonstrated using laser Doppler vibrometers. The measurements performed by laser vibrometers were checked by standard Chernobyl NPP vibration measurement tools. The laser Doppler vibrometers (CLV, Polytec GmbH and LDV, Kiev University) have been tested and have shown full functionality in NPP zone at 0.5 sievert/hour radiation levels, high electromagnetic fields (magnetic component up to 5 kA/m) and significant vibrations.

  16. CHERNOBYL HEALTH RADIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE POPULATION OF RUSSIA: DATA OF THE NATIONAL REGISTRY

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    V. K. Ivanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Summarized radiation-epidemiological data on health effects of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP registered in the follow-up period 1986-2006 on the Russian population are reported. Two groups of population: Chernobyl Emergency accident workers and residents of the most contaminated with radionuclides territories are examined. Impact of radiation-associated risk of solid cancers and leukaemia in these groups is assessed. Prognostic estimates of health effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Russian population are offered in the article.

  17. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

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    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  18. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan.

  19. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  20. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  1. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

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    M. I. Balonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  2. Suomi Npp Products Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environment Data Records (EDRs) is generated from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational environmental satellite system. The products include atmospheric, ocean, land surface and cryospheric products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); atmospheric sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); and ozone products from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These EDRs undergo a rigorous validation process and algorithm updates to achieve a product maturity needed for end user applications. Since the successful launch of Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011, significant progresses have been made on calibration and validation of the SNPP data products. By far all products were publicly available and most products were ready for operational evaluation. Most products also are expected to meet requirements and work is underway to reach validated maturity status and fully operational use. Further developments and improvements of the algorithms for J1 have been planned based on the JPSS requirements and lessons learned from SNPP. Sensitivity and impact studies are performed as sensor test data become available. For the majority of data products, no significant changes in sensor input and corresponding sensor degradation are expected. However, the J1 products will undergo the same rigorous calibration and validation process as the S-NPP products once the on-orbit data are available. The schedule for the maturity of the J1 data products however is expected to be accelerated compared to that for S-NPP as lessons learned from the S-NPP mission will be applied to the J1 satellite data. In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest SNPP data products' quality status and the plan forward for JPSS-1 algorithm updates.

  3. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  4. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  5. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  6. The legacy of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojcun, M.

    1991-04-20

    This article looks at daily life in the Northern Ukraine, where the fallout effects from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident were felt most keenly. High levels of radioactive iodine 131, strontium 90 and caesium 137 are still present five years on and the health of the population, including those evacuated from the exclusion zones, is at risk from leukaemia and thyroid problems, especially among children. Other worrying reports suggest the occurence of a new disease, ''Chernobyl AIDs'', in which sufferers' immune systems are depressed. Other major outstanding problems include the integrity of the concrete sarcophagus enclosing the damaged reactor, and the continued consumption of locally grown contaminated food due to government inadequacies in supplying ''clean'' equivalents. (UK).

  7. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  8. Chernobyl: the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-08-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  9. Lessons from Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The ag...

  10. Lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

  11. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  12. Chernobyl and after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J.; Gittus, J.

    1986-10-01

    The paper contains two reports on the Chernobyl post-accident review meeting. The first is a factual account of the meeting, the topics discussed include: the accident, preventative action, outcome of the accident, and future interactions with the Russians on nuclear power issues. This report also describes two Accident Conventions, drawn up at the time of the meeting, which cover notification, information, and commitment of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident. The second report is by a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency, who reviews the accident, health effects, human factors, man-machine interference, positive void coefficient, and handling of the accident by the Soviet Authorities. (U.K.).

  13. Application of Robotic System for Emergency Response in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Jae Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Increasing energy demand and concerns over climate change make increasing use of nuclear power plant in worldwide. Even though the probability of accident is greatly reduced, safety is the highest priority issue in the nuclear energy industry. Applying highly reliable and conservative 'defense in depth' concepts with the design and construction of NPP, there are very little possibilities with which accidents are occur and radioactive materials are released to environments in NPP. But NPP have prepared with the emergency response procedures and conduct exercises for post-accident circumstance according to the procedures. The application of robots for emergency response task for post-accident in nuclear facilities is not a new concept. Robots have been sent to recover the damaged reactor at Chernobyl where human workers could receive a lifetime dose of radiation in minutes. Based on NRC's TMI-2 Cleanup Program, several robots were built in the 1980s to help gather information and remove debris from a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that partially melted down in 1979. The first robot was lowered into the basement through a hatch and human operators monitoring in a control room drove it through mud, water and debris, capturing the initial post-accident images of the reactor's basement. It was used for several years equipped with various tools allowing it to scour surfaces, scoop samples and vacuum sludge. A second version carried a core sampler to determine the intensity and depth of the radiation that had permeated into the walls. To perform cleanup tasks, they built Workhorse that featured system redundancy and had a boom extendable to reach high places, but it was never used because it had too many complexities and to clean and fix. While remote robotics technology has proven to remove the human from the radioactive environment, it is also difficult to make it useful because it may requires skill about remote control and

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  15. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ADDRESS REHABILITATION STRATEGY FOR THE RURAL TERRITORIES AFFECTED BY THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodological approach for the justification of rational countermeasure options in agricultural production in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented. Settlements and collective farms located on the contaminated territory were divided categories based on the contamination density of 137Cs and in the first case on annual internal doses and on risk of the overestimation of standards, restricting the use of agricultural products (in the second case. For each category of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance were justified and estimated.

  17. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  18. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  19. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11

  20. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  1. Leukemia following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Geoffrey R

    2007-11-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine in 1986 led to a substantial increase of thyroid cancer among those exposed as children. The other cancer that is the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation is leukemia, and this paper evaluates the evidence relating exposure to Chernobyl radioactivity and leukemia risk. Two types of objectives are identified, namely, scientific evidence and public health, and two approaches to addressing such objectives are discussed. Empirical studies in affected populations are summarized, and it is concluded that, possibly apart from Russian cleanup workers, no meaningful evidence of any statistical association between exposure and leukemia risk as yet exists. However, it is important to carry on with such studies to satisfy various public health objectives.

  2. Does climate directly influence NPP globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale.

  3. Wormwood forest: a natural history of Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mycio, Mary

    2005-01-01

    ... of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mycio, Mary. Wormwood forest : a natural history of Chernobyl / Mary Mycio. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-09430-5 (cloth) 1. Radioisotopes- Environmental aspects- Ukraine- Chornobyl Region. 2. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident, Chornobyl, Ukraine, 1986- Environmental aspects. 3. Radioisotopes- Health asp...

  4. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  5. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  6. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  7. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  8. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  9. NPP VIIRS Geometric Performance Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoqing; Wolfe, Robert E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite is scheduled for launch in October, 2011. It is to provide satellite measured radiance/reflectance data for both weather and climate applications. Along with radiometric calibration, geometric characterization and calibration of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) are crucial to the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms and products which are used in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The instrument geometric performance includes: 1) sensor (detector) spatial response, parameterized by the dynamic field of view (DFOV) in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV (IFOV) in the track direction, modulation transfer function (MTF) for the 17 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution (HSR) for the five imagery bands (I-bands); 2) matrices of band-to-band co-registration (BBR) from the corresponding detectors in all band pairs; and 3) pointing knowledge and stability characteristics that includes scan plane tilt, scan rate and scan start position variations, and thermally induced variations in pointing with respect to orbital position. They have been calibrated and characterized through ground testing under ambient and thermal vacuum conditions, numerical modeling and analysis. This paper summarizes the results, which are in general compliance with specifications, along with anomaly investigations, and describes paths forward for characterizing on-orbit BBR and spatial response, and for improving instrument on-orbit performance in pointing and geolocation.

  10. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  11. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  13. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  14. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  15. Integrated ageing management of Atucha NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranalli, Juan M.; Marchena, Martin H.; Zorrilla, Jorge R.; Antonaccio, Elvio E.; Brenna, Pablo; Yllanez, Daniela; Cruz, Gerardo Vera de la; Luraschi, Carlos, E-mail: ranalli@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Coordinacion Proyectos CNEA-NASA, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sabransky, Mario, E-mail: msabransky@na-sa.com.ar [Departamento Gestion de Envejecimiento, Central Nuclear Atucha I-II Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Atucha NPP is a two PHWR unit site located in Lima, Province of Buenos Aires, 120 km north of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Until recent, the site was split in Atucha I NPP, a 350 MW pressure vessel heavy water reactor in operation since 1974; and Atucha II, a similar design reactor, twice as big as Atucha I finishing a delayed construction. With the start-up of Atucha II and aiming to integrate the management of the plants, the Utility (Nucleolectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima - NASA) has reorganized its operation units. Within this reorganization, an Ageing Management Department has been created to cope with all ageing issues of both Atucha I and II units. The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica - CNEA) is a state-owned R and D organization that; among other functions such as designing and building research reactors, developing uranium mining and supplying radioisotopes to the medical market; is in charge of providing support and technological update to all Argentinean NPPs. The Ageing Management Department of Atucha NPP and the Ageing Management Division of CNEA has formed a joint working group in order to set up an Integrated Ageing Management Program for Atucha NPP following IAEA guidelines. In the present work a summary of the activities, documental structure and first outputs of the Integrated Ageing Management Program of Atucha NPP is presented. (author)

  16. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  17. Chernobyl operators: criminals or victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munipov, V M

    1992-10-01

    The blame for the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been variously attributed to the operating personnel, the plant management, the design of the reactor, and the lack of adequate safety information in the Soviet nuclear industry. This paper considers a number of design faults, operational shortcomings and human errors that combined in the accident. It examines the sequence of events leading up to the accident, design problems in the reactor and cooling rods, and the course of the accident itself. It considers the ergonomics aspects, and expresses the view that the main cause of the accident was inadequate human-machine interaction. Finally, it stresses the continuing inadequacies of the Soviet nuclear system, and emphasizes that unless the ergonomics lessons are fully learned, a similar disaster could still occur.

  18. Forest NPP estimation based on MODIS data under cloudless condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LiangFu; GAO YanHua; LI Li; LIU QinHuo; GU XingFa

    2008-01-01

    Based on light-use efficiency model, an MODIS-derived daily net primary production (NPP) model was developed. In this model, a new model for the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) is developed based on leaf area index (LAI) and albedo parameters, and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is calculated from the combination of Bird's model with aerosol optical thickness and water vapor derived from cloud free MODIS images. These two models are integrated into our predicted NPP model, whose most parameters are retrieved from MODIS data. In order to validate our NPP model, the observed NPP in the Qianyanzhou station and the Changbai Mountains station are used to compare with our predicted NPP, showing that they are in good agreement. The NASA NPP products also have been downloaded and compared with the measurements, which shows that the NASA NPP products underestimated NPP in the Qianyanzhou station but overestimated in the Changbai Mountains station in 2004.

  19. Experimental study of radioactive aerosols in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Kudrjashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P

    1999-12-01

    Study of radioactive aerosols in the relocation zone and in the populated areas have been carried out for a number of years. The experiments on modelling resuspension were performed while conducting agricultural work. Nuclear track radiography and alpha spectrometry with radiochemical extraction of plutonium were used as analytical methods for the determination of the transuranium elements contents. The distributions of radioactive particles were obtained as to activity and sizes. Specific activity of 'hot particles' increases with decreasing diameter. In aerosols selected at a distance of more than 10 km from the Chernobyl NPP pure fuel particles with sizes of more than 5 {mu}m were not found. The activity of the finely dispersed fraction of aerosols, which is more dangerous when inhaled by the organism, is comparable with a total activity of large particles.

  20. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  1. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  2. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  3. Analysis list: npp-13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available npp-13 Embryo + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-13....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-13.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp...-13.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/npp-13.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  4. Analysis list: npp-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available npp-3 Embryo + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-3.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-3.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp...-3.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/npp-3.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  5. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2011-02-04

    Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  6. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  7. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  8. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Dikarev, V.G.; Zyablitskaya Ye.Ya.; Oudalova, A.A.; Spirin, Ye. V; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external {beta}- and {gamma}-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute {gamma}-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years.

  9. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  11. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  13. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  14. Integrating Research on Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl — the Chernobyl Tissue Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.A.; Bethel, J.A.; Galpine, A.; Krznaric, M.; Unger, K.

    2011-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated cooperation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. PMID:21345659

  15. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  16. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident.

  17. Knowledge management in the NPP domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Svein; Bisio, Rossella; Ludvigsen, Jan Tore

    2004-03-15

    This report gives an outlook on Knowledge Management (KM) activities within NPP related establishments as of today. There may be less activity in the NPP world as compared to many other industrial sectors. Still there is an awakening within the NPP industry demanding that KM should be attended to at a larger scale. The most notable reason for this is maybe an imminent increase in the number of people going into retirement. The types of establishments involved cover the major kinds such as utilities, research institutes and worldwide nuclear organizations. The report sums up a few of those efforts that are presently being implemented. Moreover the report looks at general advancements within the field of knowledge management. Simply stated the endeavours belong to either one of two classes. The first class emphasize the use of technology to solve knowledge management problems. The second class regard knowledge management as a problem pertaining to human factors and organizational issues. This report maintain that knowledge management initiatives should make due considerations to both perspectives. This report also sums up the Halden Reactor Project short term KM initiative. (Author)

  18. Biochemical observations relating to oxidant stress injury in Chernobyl clean-up workers ("liquidators") from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skesters, Andrejs; Zvagule, T; Silova, A; Rusakova, N; Larmane, L; Reste, J; Eglite, M; Rainsford, K D; Callingham, B A; Bake, M-A; Lece, A

    2010-02-01

    To establish if there is further evidence for the long-term oxidant stress injury (as reported previously--Kumerova et al. in Biol Trace Elem Res 77:1-12, 2000) in surviving Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) workers from Latvia. The overall objectives of this study have been to establish if there have been long-term systemic changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status of clean-up workers that might reflect adaptation to the progression of oxidative stress injury. Biochemical analyses of the circulating levels of endogenous oxidants and anti-oxidants were undertaken over two periods (Stage 1 in 1998-1999 and Stage 2 in 2005-2006) at approximately 6-7 years time interval, in order to establish if there have been time-dependent changes in the parameters that may be important for the health of the clean-up workers. The biochemical analyses included (a) plasma levels of the anti-oxidant, selenium, (b) blood and plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, (c) red blood cell catalase, (d) plasma total oxidant status as lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides, (e) plasma ceruloplasmin, and (f) total blood levels of zinc and copper. The circulating content of lipid peroxides, plasma oxidisability, lipid peroxides, catalase, Zn, and Cu were elevated above normal values at both the stages of this study. Glutathione peroxidase was increased above normal values at Stage 1 but not at Stage 2. The most pronounced changes between Stage 1 and Stage 2 were (a) a reduction by about (1/2) in the content of lipid peroxides and lipid peroxidation, but not in the blood oxidisability and (b) increased plasma selenium. The data show that there may be a partial improvement in the anti-oxidant/oxidant status of the Chernobyl NPP workers over the 7-year period of investigation. The NPP patients may be undergoing progressive reduction in blood oxidants accompanied by adaptation to oxidant stress injury due to the increased anti-oxidant activity measured in their plasma and blood.

  19. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Following the reactor 4 explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), at least 1019 Bq of radionuclides (RN) were released in the environment. In order to protect workers and prevent further atmospheric RN dispersion in the area adjacent to the ChNPP, contaminated wastes including fuel particles, topsoil layer and forest remains were buried in approximately 800 shallow trenches in the sand formation in the Red Forest waste dump site [1]. No containment measures were taken, and since then RN have leaked to the unsaturated zone and to the groundwater. Since 1999, migration of RN in the vicinity of the trench 22 at Red Forest site has been investigated within the frame of the EPIC program carried out by IRSN in collaboration with UIAR and IGS [2, 3]. A plume of 90Sr was shown downgradient from the trench 22 with activites reaching 3750 Bq/L [2]. In 2008, further studies were initiated through the TRASSE research group, based on a collaboration between IRSN and CNRS. These programs aim at combining groundwater dating with RN migration monitoring studies in order to constrain RN transport models [3]. Groundwater residence time was investigated based on 3H/He and CFC. Both tracers led to ages ranging from modern (1-3 y) at 2 m depth below the groundwater table to significantly higher apparent ages of 50-60 y at 27 m below the groundwater table [3]. 36Cl/Cl ratios 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio are measured in groundwater. Similarly, SF6 shows concentrations as high as 1200 pptv while natural concentrations are in the order of 6-7 pptv. Based on apparent groundwater ages, both contaminations are linked to the Chernobyl explosion. Hence those tracers show excellent potential to constrain conservative and reactive transport, respectively. In contrast, 238U/235U ratio down gradient from trench 22 remains similar to the natural ratio. This suggests that either most of the U contained in the trench is in a non soluble form

  20. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  1. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  2. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  3. Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A.P Møller; T.A Mousseau

    2007-01-01

    .... Recent conclusions from the UN Chernobyl forum and reports in the popular media concerning the effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals have left the impression that the Chernobyl exclusion...

  4. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  5. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  6. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  7. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhaud, G. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station.

  8. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  9. Forest NPP estimation based on MODIS data under cloudless condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on light-use efficiency model, an MODIS-derived daily net primary production (NPP) model was developed. In this model, a new model for the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) is developed based on leaf area index (LAI) and albedo parameters, and a pho- tosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is calculated from the combination of Bird’s model with aerosol optical thickness and water vapor derived from cloud free MODIS images. These two models are inte- grated into our predicted NPP model, whose most parameters are retrieved from MODIS data. In order to validate our NPP model, the observed NPP in the Qianyanzhou station and the Changbai Mountains station are used to compare with our predicted NPP, showing that they are in good agreement. The NASA NPP products also have been downloaded and compared with the measurements, which shows that the NASA NPP products underestimated NPP in the Qianyanzhou station but overestimated in the Changbai Mountains station in 2004.

  10. HYGIENIC STANDARDS FOR CS-137 AND SR-90 IN THE FOODSTUFFS: EXPERIENCE OF BELARUS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kenigsberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of analysis for development and implementation of the national permissible levels for Cs-137 and Sr-90 contamination of the foodstuff and water. These permissible levels were introduced in Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP as a protective measure to limit the doses of internal exposure. The article also contains comparison between numerical values of permissible levels introduced in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian as well as between the potential doses of internal exposure which could be formed while consuming the contaminated foodstuff with the levels of contamination equal to the permissible levels. The possibilities for harmonization of the permissible levels in three countries are discussed. The expediency of establishing quotes for doses of internal and external exposure is considered.

  11. Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.

  12. Post-Chernobyl fallout in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osvath, I.; Dovlete, C. [Inst. of Environmental Research and Engineering, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Bucharest (Romania)

    1992-07-01

    As part of the Romanian environmental radioactivity monitoring programme, fallout samples have been systematically collected and analyzed for gamma emitters. Chernobyl fallout space-time patterns. radionuclide concentration ratios and deposition velocities have been determined. The resuspension process has been studied, environmental half-lives for {sup 137}Cs and resuspension factors have been evaluated. Hot particles have been identified in some of the deposition samples. (author)

  13. Airborne Chernobyl radioactivity in College Park, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitto, M.E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) New York State Dept. of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (USA)); Faller, S.H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Anderson, D.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) Food and Drug Administration Lab., National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); McCarthy, L.E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) Gerghty and Miller, Inc., Plainview, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides collected on filters in College Park, Maryland during May, 1986 have been determined by gamma-ray analysis. Measurements indicate that following an extensive wash-out of radioactivity, {sup 103}Ru was enriched in the upper atmosphere relative to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 131}I. Absolute concentrations of particulate and gas-phase radionuclides and the observed enrichment of {sup 103}Ru are in agreement with other studies. (orig.).

  14. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Chernobyl: an unbelievable failure to help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertell, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    The disaster at the Chernobyl power reactor near Kiev, which began on April 26, 1986, was one of the world's worst industrial accidents. Yet the global community, usually most generous in its aid to a stricken community, has been slow to understand the scope of the disaster and reach out to the most devastated people of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. This article probes the causes of this confusion of perception and failure of response; clearly the problem is one of communication. Has the International Atomic Energy Agency betrayed the victims of the Chernobyl disaster because of its plans to promote the "peaceful atom" nuclear program in the developing world? Has the World Health Organization failed to provide clear, reliable information on the health effects resulting from the disaster? Are other historical problems or actors interfering with reasonable handling of the late effects of a nuclear disaster? Most importantly, what can be done to remedy this situation, to assist those most hurt by the late effects of Chernobyl and prevent such injustice in future? With the current promotion of nuclear energy as a "solution" to global climate change, we need to take a sober second look at the nuclear energy experiment and management of its hazards.

  16. Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another.

  18. Lessons from Chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima: radiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Victor K

    2012-03-01

    The following are considered: results of large-scale radiation epidemiological studies of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, radiation risks for emergency workers and the affected population; and verification of ICRP risk models taking into account data on the Chernobyl accident and preliminary prognostic estimates of potential radiological consequences of the Fukushima disaster.

  19. Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

  20. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrada, J. [Almaraz NPP, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  1. Overview of the cooperation between the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory in Slavutych, Ukraine, and U.S. research centers between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Labone, Elizabeth D

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine, was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: 1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); 2) radiation dose assessments; 3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; 4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; 5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; 6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; 7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; 8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; 9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and research methods; 10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and 11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHERNOBYL CENTER'S INTERNATIONAL RADIOECOLOGY LABORATORY IN SLAVUTYCH, UKRAINE AND U.S. RESEARCH CENTERS BETWEEN 2000-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: (1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); (2) radiation dose assessments; (3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; (4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; (5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; (6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; (7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; (8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; (9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and on research methods; (10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and (11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications, and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.

  3. Post-PKS tailoring steps of a disaccharide-containing polyene NPP in Pseudonocardia autotrophica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available A novel polyene compound NPP identified in a rare actinomycetes, Pseudonocardia autotrophica KCTC9441, was shown to contain an aglycone identical to nystatin but to harbor a unique di-sugar moiety, mycosaminyl-(α1-4-N-acetyl-glucosamine, which led to higher solubility and reduced hemolytic activity. Although the nppDI was proved to be responsible for the transfer of first polyene sugar, mycosamine in NPP biosynthesis, the gene responsible for the second sugar extending glycosyltransferase (GT as well as NPP post-PKS tailoring mechanism remained unknown. Here, we identified a NPP-specific second sugar extending GT gene named nppY, located at the edge of the NPP biosynthetic gene cluster. Targeted nppY gene deletion and its complementation proved that nppY is indeed responsible for the transfer of second sugar, N-acetyl-glucosamine in NPP biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis on nppY also revealed several amino acid residues critical for NppY GT function. Moreover, a combination of deletions and complementations of two GT genes (nppDI and nppY and one P450 hydroxylase gene (nppL involved in the NPP post-PKS biosynthesis revealed that NPP aglycone is sequentially modified by the two different GTs encoded by nppDI and nppY, respectively, followed by the nppL-driven regio-specific hydroxylation at the NPP C10 position. These results set the stage for the biotechnological application of sugar diversification for the biosynthesis of novel polyene compounds in actinomycetes.

  4. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  5. TRAC laboratory monitoring of Chernobyl radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, R.A.

    1986-06-09

    A severe accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant number 4 in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1986. An explosion released large amounts of radioactive debris, primarily fission products, to the atmosphere. As winds carried debris from the Soviet Union, scientists in Europe and the United States reported detecting fission product activities in air samples. Monitoring by the Tracking Radioactive Atmospheric Contaminants (TRAC) mobile laboratory showed concentrations in the Southeastern United States were well below those considered hazardous. This document provides details of this monitoring effort.

  6. Hydrodynamic model of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP Industrial site flooding

    CERN Document Server

    Vaschenko, V N; Gerasimenko, T V; Vachev, B

    2014-01-01

    While the Fukushima-Daiichi was designed and constructed the maximal tsunami height estimate was about 3 m based on analysis of statistical data including Chile earthquake in 1960. The NPP project industrial site height was 10 m. The further deterministic estimates TPCO-JSCE confirmed the impossibility of the industrial site flooding by a tsunami and therefore confirmed ecological safety of the NPP. However, as a result of beyond design earthquake of 11 March 2011 the tsunami height at the shore near the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP reached 15 m. This led to flooding and severe emergencies having catastrophic environmental consequences. This paper proposes hydrodynamic model of tsunami emerging and traveling based on conservative assumptions. The possibility of a tsunami wave reaching 15 m height at the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP shore was confirmed for deduced hydrodynamic resistance coefficient of 1.8. According to the model developed a possibility of flooding is determined not only by the industrial site height, magni...

  7. The Terrestrial NPP Simulation in China since 6ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; DONG Wenjie; JI Jinjun; DAN Li

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the long-term global carbon cycle required estimate of the changes in terrestrial carbon storage after the last glacial period. The results of simulation at mid-Holocene (MH) from PMIP (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project) and the modern data from CRU (Climate Research Unit,East Anglia University, UK) allow us to use the Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model (AVIM) to simulate the Chinese terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) at 6ka BP and present time. The change of NPP and total NPP in China from now to mid-Holocene are about 54 g m-2yr-1 and 0.63 Pg yr-1,respectively, mainly due to the build-up of temperate forest and tropical rainforest. Chinese terrestrial NPP variation from MH to now is closely related to the variation in intensity of Asian monsoon, which controlled the climate-vegetation pattern change.

  8. EPC projects for EPR Flamanville 3 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, J.I.; Polo, J.; Aymerich, E.; Cubian, B. [Nuclear Generation Department, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion, Avda. Manoteras 20, 28050 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion is carrying out a handful of activities in the EPR Flamanville 3 -FA3 NPP- context since 2007 matching oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants Generation III+, whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion leads 5 EPC -Engineering, Procurement and Commissioning- projects for FA3 NPP from the Nuclear Island till Sea Water Pumping Station as follows: - Design, procurement. fabrication, installation and testing of 21 shell and tubes heat-exchangers for the nuclear island. 12 out of these 17 HXs are conventional and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section VIII and have to comply with PED 97/23/CE and ESPN. The remaining 5 HXs are nuclear and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section III and have also to comply with PED and ESPN. - Design, procurement, fabrication and assembly of 9 demineralizers for different plant systems. Three of these Important To Safety (IPS) equipments have been manufactured according with ASME VIII codes and six of them with EN 13445 code plus additional requirements to comply with PED and final client requirements for nuclear island. - Design, fabrication and installation of qualified travelling water screening filters. The equipments furnished will be two nuclear safety qualified filters and associated equipment (cleaning water system and control system). Additionally some auxiliary devices such as grids, automatic trash rakes and stop gates are included in the contract. - Engineering, procurement, fabrication, erection and commissioning for the condensate treatment plant. This system includes a demineralizer tank, 5 filters, reactive injection mixer, pneumatic and manual valves, piping and instrumentation and control systems. - Engineering, procurement erection and commissioning for the electro-chlorination plant to protect the IPS piping for Condensate Water System for FA3. This system

  9. Stade NPP. Dismantling of the reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Daniel; Dziwis, Joachim [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH Nukleartechnik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz-Hagen [KKW Stade GmbH und Co. oHG, Stade (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Within the scope of the 4{sup th} partial decommissioning permission of Stade NPP the activated and contaminated structures of the reactor pool had to be dismantled in order to gain a completely non-radioactive reactor pool area for the subsequent clearance measurement of the reactor building. In order to achieve the aim it was intended to remove the activated pool liner sheets, its activated framework and several contaminated ventilation channels made of stainless steel, the concrete walls of the reactor pool entirely or in parts depending on their activation level, as well as the remaining activated carbon steel structures of the reactor pool bottom. Embedded in the concrete walls there were several highly contaminated excore tubes and the contaminated pool top edge, which were intended to be removed to its full extent. The contract of the Stade NPP initiated reactor pool dismantling project had been awarded to E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH (EAS) and its subsupplier sat. Kerntechnik GmbH for the concrete dismantling works and was performed as follows. In order to minimize the radiation level in the main working area in accordance with the ALARA principle, the liner sheets and middle parts of its framework were removed by means of angle grinders first, as they were the most dose rate relevant parts. As a result the primary average radiation level in the reactor pool (measured in a distance of 500 mm from the walls) was lowered from 40 {mu}Sv/h to less than 2 {mu}Sv/h. After the minimization of the radiation level in the working area the main dismantling step started with the cutting of the reactor pool walls in blocks by means of diamond rope cutters. Once a concrete block was cut out, it was transported into the fuel pool by means of a crane and crane fork, examined radiologically, marked area by area and segmented to debris by means of an electrical excavator with a hydraulic chisel. Afterwards the debris and carbon steel parts were fractioned and packed for further

  10. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  11. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-28

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas.

  12. 5. Nonmalignant diseases after the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed--liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories, as well as in their offspring. Premature cataracts; tooth and mouth abnormalities; and blood, lymphatic, heart, lung, gastrointestinal, urologic, bone, and skin diseases afflict and impair people, young and old alike. Endocrine dysfunction, particularly thyroid disease, is far more common than might be expected, with some 1,000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer, a marked increase after the catastrophe. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. For more than 20 years, overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people.

  13. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) strands post-Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, N P; Kuchma, N D; Askbrant, S; Pasternak, P S; Musica, V V

    1994-12-11

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  14. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  15. Radiation monitoring systems as a tool for assessment of accidental releases at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershakov, Vjacheslav; Bulgakov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    approach was used for assessing the consequences at the Fukushima NPP. These results are also provided in the presentation. References 1. Kelly G.N., Ehrhardt J., Shershakov V.M.. Decision Support for Off-Site Emergency Preparedness in Europe. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 64 Nos. 1-2, 1996, pp. 129-142. 2. Ehrhardt J., Shershakov V.M. Real-time on-line decision support systems (RODOS) for off-site emergency management following a nuclear accident. EUR 16533, 1996 3. Kelly G.N., Shershakov V.M. (Editors). Environmental contamination, radiation doses and health consequences after the ?hernobyl accident. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. Special Commemorative Issue.Vol. 64, 1996 4. Shershakov V.M. Computer information technology for support of radiation monitoring problems. OECD Proceedings of an International Workshop «Nuclear Emergency Data Management», Zurich, Switzerland, 1998, pp. 377-388 5. Pitkevich V.A., Duba V.V., Ivanov V.K., Tsyb A.F., Shershakov V.M., Golubenkov A.V., Borodin R.V., V.A., Kosykh V.S. Reconstruction of External Dose to the Inhabitants Living in the Contaminated Territory of Russia by the Results of the Accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Health Phys., Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 54-68, 1995. 6. Shershakov V., Fesenko S., Kryshev I., Semioshkina T. Decision-Aiding Tools for Remediation Strategies. In: Radioactivity in the Environment, Volume 14, Remediation of Contaminated Environments, 2009, pp 41- 120, Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Condition, Reproduction and Survival of Barn Swallows from Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. P. Møller; T. A. Mousseau; G. Milinevsky; A. Peklo; E. Pysanets; T. Szép

    2005-01-01

    1. We investigated the relationship between radiation arising from the fall-out due to the explosion of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, Ukraine, and body condition, rate of reproduction and survival...

  17. Spent fuel management of Jose Cabrera NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Zurro, J.E.; Garcia Costilla, M. [Area de Generacion - Unidad Nuclear, Gas Natural Fenosa, Avda. de San Luis, 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Lavara Sanz, A. [Division Nuclear, SOCOIN, P. del Club Deportivo, 1 - Edificio 5, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain); Martinez Abad, J.E. [Departamento de Residuos de Alta Actividad, ENRESA, C/ Emilio Vargas, 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The definitive shutdown of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant took place on 30. of April 2006. From this moment, cooperation agreements between ENRESA and GAS NATURAL FENOSA were established to reach, among others objectives, its decommissioning, 3 years after the shutdown of the reactor. In order to accomplish the Spanish nuclear regulation, a spent fuel management plan was developed. This plan determined that the fuel assemblies placed in the spent fuel pool would be managed by means of their storage in an interim installation. For this reason, an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) was built at plant site, pioneer in Spain by its characteristics of design. Different administrative authorizations from the point of view of nuclear safety as well as from the environmental were required for ISFSI licensing process. The transference and storage of spent fuel was carried out using the HI-STORM 100Z Dry Storage System, developed by HOLTEC INTERNATIONAL. This system, designed for the spent fuel storage in casks, supports abnormal and very hard accident conditions. The system has three main components: Storage Cask (HI-STORM), Transfer Cask (HI-TRAC) and Multipurpose Canister (MPC). In addition to this, the system has a specific Transport Cask (HI-STAR) for the future transport out of the Plant. More than 30 Design Modifications to the system and plant were implemented to solve structural problems and to include safety and ALARA improvements. The transfer of the spent fuel and its emplacement in the ISFSI began on January 2009 and finished on September of that year allowing starting the decommissioning process, three years and a half after Jose Cabrera NPP shutdown. (authors)

  18. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  19. Marine dispersion of caesium 137 released from Sellafield and Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandle, D.; Beechey, J.

    1991-09-01

    This modelling study examines the dispersion within the shelf seas surrounding the UK, of 137Cs discharged from Sellafield between 1969 and 1988 together with the atmospheric deposition following Chernobyl (April 1986). The close agreement obtained between computed and observed distributions lends confidence to estimates of flushing times-fundamental parameters in determining pollutant concentrations. Moreover, this study confirms, to first-order, the estimates of Chernobyl fall-out provided by atmospheric dispersion models.

  20. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  2. Psychosocial effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The psychological factors surrounding the Chernobyl disaster include the sudden trauma of evacuation, long-term effects of being a refugee, disruption of social networks, illness, separation and its effects on families, children's perception and effects on their development and the threat of a long-term consequence with an endless future. Added to this was the breakdown of the Soviet Union with consequent collapse of health services, increasing poverty and malnutrition. These complexities made necessary new individual and social treatment methods developed in UNESCO Community Centres, within which some positives have resulted, such as the development of individual and group self help and the professions of counselling, social work and community development, practices which did not previously exist in the Soviet Union.

  3. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  4. Impact of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, University College, Dublin (Ireland); Vidal-Quadras, A. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8{+-}0.2 and 0.27{+-}0.01 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. {sup 137}Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16{+-}0.04 Bq m{sup -3}, which is a 33{+-}2% increase over the previous levels. {sup 137}Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4{+-}0.5 TBq for {sup 137}Cs, of which 4.3{+-}0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00{+-}0.04 TBq for {sup 134}Cs. Activation and fission products such as {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02{+-}0.25 and 0.20{+-}0.03 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs equal to 0.20{+-}0.04 (1987). {sup 137}Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51{+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1}. Therefore, {sup 137}Cs specific activity had increased 100{+-}40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan

  5. Construction prospects of new power units at Khmelnitskij NPP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenyuk, Denys [NNEGC ' Energoatom' , 01032 Vetrova, 3, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2008-07-01

    According to the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for a period up to 2030 it is planned to put into operation power units 3 and 4 of Khmelnitskij NPP by year 2016. In this work considerations are presented on the possible options while selecting reactor unit type for Khmelnitskij NPP power units 3 and 4, which is the main determinant of the cost, construction and commissioning time, and utilization of the existent civil structures. To optimize Khmelnitskij-3 and 4 construction, a survey of the data has been conducted with regard to the possibility of construction of new power units of PWR/VVER type at Khmelnitskij NPP site. The multivariable analysis has been performed based on the projects technical and cost data, construction time and conditions, as well as their compliance with the IAEA and EUR safety requirements for new power units. (author)

  6. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmert Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  7. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  8. Comprehensive radiation survey and public health assessment in the vicinity of NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoilov A.S.

    2015-12-01

    health indicators of the public living around the NPP, general state of the adult and children public is healthy. There is no impact of the NPP on negative trends in some changing indicators of the adult and children public health.

  9. [Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Fifteen years afterwards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, M A; Amor Cabrera, M A; Díaz Mier, F; Cámara Moraño, C

    2002-04-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986 released large quantities of radioactive material causing heavy contamination in widespread areas of the former Soviet Union. Each summer, several hundred children visit Spain from Chernobyl. In this article we describe the accident, the environmental contamination, the mechanisms of radiation injury and the dose-response relationships. We review the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe. We propose guidelines for the medical management and evaluation of children on temporary visits. The health status of adults and especially that of children in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been adversely affected. According to present knowledge, Chernobyl has given rise to a marked increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, psychological consequences and socioeconomic disruption. Many studies report that the incidence of other diseases has increased, but not all health problems seen after the nuclear accident can be attributed to radiation. Given the long latency period for diseases induced by radiation exposure, long-term follow-up of all potentially affected individuals is important. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the international community is still learning scientific, medical and humanitarian lessons.

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  11. Improvement of waste release control in French NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, T.; Lucquin, E.; Dupin, M. [EDF/GDL (France); Florence, D. [EDF/GENV (France); Grisot, M. [EDF/CNPE Saint Laurent (France)

    2002-07-01

    The new waste release control in French NPP is more restrictive than the old one and needs heavy investment to bring plants to compliance with it. The great evolutions are a chemical follow up on more chemicals with a higher measurement frequency and with lower maximum concentrations and a specific measurement of carbon 14. Regarding radioactive releases, a new counting has been settled and activity of carbon 14 release is now measured and no longer calculated. The evolution of the French regulation leads to develop specific procedures and analytical techniques in chemistry and in radiochemistry (UV spectrometric methods, carbon 14 measurements,..) EDF NPP operators have launched a voluntarist process to reduce their releases since the beginning and before the evolution of the regulation. EDF priorities in terms of environment care lead henceforth to implement a global optimisation of the impact for a better control of releases. The new regulation will help EDF to reach its goals because it covers all the aspects in one administrative document: it is seen as a real simplification and a clarification towards public. In addition, this new regulation fits in with international practices which will allow an easier comparison of results between EDF and foreign NPP. These big environmental concerns lead EDF to create a national dedicated laboratory (LAMEN) in charge of developing specific measurement procedures to be implemented either by NPP or by sub-contractor laboratories. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of MODIS NPP and GPP products across multiple biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Stith T. Gower; Steve W. Running; Maosheng Zhao; Marcos H. Costa; Al A. Kirschbaum; Jay M. Ham; Scott R. Saleska; Douglas E. Ahl

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of daily gross primary production (GPP) and annual net primary production (NPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution are now produced operationally for the global terrestrial surface using imagery from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. Ecosystem-level measurements of GPP at eddy covariance flux towers and plot-level measurements of...

  13. Reconsidering Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to major human suffering caused by the evacuation and other counter-measures. However, the direct health consequences of the accident-related radiation exposures, besides the acute effects and small number of thyroid cancers, have not been observed. This absence is challenged by some influential groups affecting public policies who claim that the true extent of radiogenic health consequences is covered up. We consider such claims. The most conservative (in this case - overestimating) linear no-threshold hypothesis was used to calculate excess cancer expectations for cleanup workers, the population of the contaminated areas and the global population. Statistical estimations were performed to verify whether such expected excess was detectable. The calculated cancer excess for each group is much less than uncertainties in number of cancer cases in epidemiological studies. Therefore the absence of detected radiation carcinogenesis is in full correspondence with the most conservative a priori expectations. Regarding the cover-up claims, rational choice analysis was performed. Such analysis shows that these claims are ill-founded. The present overcautious attitude to radiological hazards should be corrected in order to mitigate the present suffering and to avoid such suffering in the future.

  14. Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G

    1988-03-01

    The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries has been measured after the Chernobyl accident. In addition, we paid particular attention to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. Most measurements were performed non-destructively using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. For odd mass radionuclides having low energy lines, such as 125Sb or 141Ce the sensitivity of the planar HPGe detector is better than the coaxial detector. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and in lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agree well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg is found in all samples with the same ratio 110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 +/- 0.2).10(-2) as in the soil deposition.

  15. Radiation damage aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J.C. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1989-01-01

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power stations. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 x 10{sup 4} man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  16. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  17. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated frequency of abnormalities in barn swallows from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A; de Lope, F; Saino, N

    2007-08-22

    Ever since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, that contaminated vast areas in surrounding countries with radiation, abnormalities and birth defects have been reported in human populations. Recently, several studies suggested that the elevated frequency of such abnormalities can be attributed to poverty and stress in affected human populations. Here, we present long-term results for a free-living population of barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, demonstrating the presence of 11 morphological abnormalities in populations around Chernobyl, but much less frequently in an uncontaminated Ukrainian control population and three more distant control populations. The presence of these abnormalities in barn swallows is associated with reduced viability. These findings demonstrate a link between morphological abnormalities and radiation in an animal population that cannot be attributed to poverty and stress. The most parsimonious hypothesis for abnormalities in animal and human populations alike is that the effects are caused by the same underlying cause, viz. radiation derived from the Chernobyl accident.

  19. Aspermy, sperm quality and radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.

  20. Long-term safety assessment of trench-type surface repository at Chernobyl, Ukraine - computer model and comparison with results from simplified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Shybetskyi, I. [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, the surface repository for solid low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Long-existing plans for increasing the capacity of the facility shall be implemented in the framework of the European Commission INSC Programme (Instrument for Nuclear Safety Co-operation). Within the first phase of this project, DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) for a future extended facility based on the planned enlargement. In addition to a detailed mathematical model, also simplified models have been developed to verify results of the former one and enhance confidence in the results. Comparison of the results show that - depending on the boundary conditions - simplifications like modeling the multi trench repository as one generic trench might have very limited influence on the overall results compared to the general uncertainties associated with respective long-term calculations. In addition to their value in regard to verification of more complex models which is important to increase confidence in the overall results, such simplified models can also offer the possibility to carry out time consuming calculations like probabilistic calculations or detailed sensitivity analysis in an economic manner. (authors)

  1. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  2. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  3. Observation and modeling of NPP for Pinus elliottii plantation in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZeQing; LIU QiJing; WANG HuiMin; LI XuanRan; ZENG HuiQing; XU WenJia

    2008-01-01

    Based on the stem analysis of 59 individuals of Pinus elliottii in combination with tree biomass models,we calculated annual biomass increment of forest plots at Qianyanzhou Ecological Station,Chinese Academy of Sciences in subtropical China. In addition,canopy layer and community NPP were calculated based on 12 years' litter fall data. NPP of the 21-year-old forest was estimated by using the BIOME BGC model; and both measured NPP and estimated NPP were compared with flux data. Community lation between annual litter fall and annual biomass increment; and the litter fall was 1.19 times the biomass increment of living trees. From 1985 to 2005,average NPP and GPP values based on BGC simulated tree layer NPP values. NPP accounted for 30.2% (25.6%-32.9%) of GPP,while NEP accounted for 57.5% (48.1%-66.5%) of tree-layer NPP and 41.74% (37%-52%) of stand NPP. Soil respiration accounted for 77.0% of measured tree NPP and 55.9% of the measured stand NPP. NEE based on eddy covariance method was 12.97% higher than the observed NEP.

  4. Mapping and analysing cropland use intensity from a NPP perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas; Fetzel, Tamara; Haberl, Helmut; Kroisleitner, Christine; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Meeting expected surges in global biomass demand while protecting pristine ecosystems likely requires intensification of current croplands. Yet many uncertainties relate to the potentials for cropland intensification, mainly because conceptualizing and measuring land use intensity is intricate, particularly at the global scale. We present a spatially explicit analysis of global cropland use intensity, following an ecological energy flow perspective. We analyze (a) changes of net primary production (NPP) from the potential system (i.e. assuming undisturbed vegetation) to croplands around 2000 and relate these changes to (b) inputs of (N) fertilizer and irrigation and (c) to biomass outputs, allowing for a three dimensional focus on intensification. Globally the actual NPP of croplands, expressed as per cent of their potential NPP (NPPact%), amounts to 77%. A mix of socio-economic and natural factors explains the high spatial variation which ranges from 22.6% to 416.0% within the inner 95 percentiles. NPPact% is well below NPPpot in many developing, (Sub-) Tropical regions, while it massively surpasses NPPpot on irrigated drylands and in many industrialized temperate regions. The interrelations of NPP losses (i.e. the difference between NPPact and NPPpot), agricultural inputs and biomass harvest differ substantially between biogeographical regions. Maintaining NPPpot was particularly N-intensive in forest biomes, as compared to cropland in natural grassland biomes. However, much higher levels of biomass harvest occur in forest biomes. We show that fertilization loads correlate with NPPact% linearly, but the relation gets increasingly blurred beyond a level of 125 kgN ha-1. Thus, large potentials exist to improve N-efficiency at the global scale, as only 10% of global croplands are above this level. Reallocating surplus N could substantially reduce NPP losses by up to 80% below current levels and at the same time increase biomass harvest by almost 30%. However, we

  5. The status of nuclear waste from NPP in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauna, T. [Romanian Nuclear Energy Association Council, Asociatia Romana Energia Nucleara AREN, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: tmauna@nuclearelectrica.ro

    2006-07-01

    AREN founded in 1990 is a Romanian NGO focused to sustain its employees or corporate members to develop all kinds of nuclear activities in connection with environmental protection as a scientific organization, having as the first objective activities with respect to Cernavoda NPP. As the only CANDU type reactor equipped Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Europe, we pay very much attention to all aspects regarding implementation of this concept in our country and the consequences of this implementation. From July 1996 the first unit in operation supplied into the grid around 40 TWh electric power and around 400 Tcal of thermal power for district heating until September 2004. The second unit is still under construction managed also by the Canadian project team, having a finalization target year of 2007. The temporary LILW, and spent fuel dry storage facilities are also on Cernavoda NPP site inside the safety exclusion area boundary of the first unit. The capacity of temporary LILW warehouse concrete building, practically located into the security plant fence, is around 2,400 m{sup 3}. T he occupied capacity is estimated as 140 m{sup 3} until the end of 2004. The spent fuel dry storage MACSTOR type (a Canadian solution for spent fuel storage) with about 12,000 spent fuel bundles capacity is in operation on Cernavoda NPP site, since May 2003. Nuclearelectrica as the owner implemented all the projects based on the licenses and permits granted by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) for each step: the sitting, construction, commissioning and operation. According to the specific Romanian regulations, every project on the site, like the interim dry storage facility, was also subject to the licensing process by the Environmental and Public Health authorities. The public acceptance has been an important step of the licensing procedure. Cernavoda NPP used different legal procedures for public debate including announcements in local and national newspapers

  6. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. V. Baranova; T. M. Koroleva; V. M. Shubik

    2012-01-01

    .... Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  7. How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meieran, H.B.

    1988-04-01

    The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.).

  8. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  9. Metallography and Microanalysis of Qinshan PhaseⅠ NPP Spent Fuel Rods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Jin; BIAN; Wei; GUO; Li-na; GUO; Yi-fan; CHU; Feng-min; LIANG; Zheng-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Qinshan PhaseⅠNPP is a first domestic commercial PWR and its fuel rods and fuel assembly were designed and manufactured by China.In order to assess the irradiation properties of the fuel rods,8spent fuel rods which were drew out from 3fuel assemblies were transferred to CIAE hot cells for post irradiation examination(PIE)in 2014.The cladding material of the fuel

  10. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  11. Integrated tool for NPP lifetime management in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, L. [UNESA, Madrid (Spain); Lopez de Santa Maria, J. [ASCO-Vandellos 2 NPPs l' Hospitalet de l' Infant, Tarragona (Spain); Cardoso, A. [Tecnatom SA, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The project for the Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management System SIGEVI (Sistema Integrado de GEstion de VIda de Centrales Nucleares) was initiated in April 1998 and finalized in December 2000, the main objective of the project being to develop a computer application facilitating the assessment of the condition and lifetime of nuclear power plant components. This constituted the second phase of a further-reaching project on NPP Lifetime Management. During the first phase of this project, carried out between 1992 and 1995, the methodology and strategy for the lifetime management of the Spanish NPP's were developed. Among others, degradation phenomena were assessed and the most adequate methods for their monitoring were defined. The SIGEVI Project has been performed under the management of UNESA (Spanish Electricity Association) and with the collaboration of different engineering firms and research institutes (Tecnatom, Empresarios Agrupados, Ufisa, Initec and IIT), with Vandellos II as the pilot plant. The rest of the Spanish NPP's have also actively participated through the Project Steering Committee. The following sections describe the scope, the structure and the main functionalities of the system SIGEVI. (authors)

  12. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication.

  13. Preparation for Early Termination of Ignalina NPP Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.

    2003-02-26

    Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania) approved updated National Energy strategy where it is indicated that first Unit will be shutdown before the year 2005 and second Unit in 2009 if funding for decommissioning is available from EU and other donors. In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until year 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, o n the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned activities, licensing requirements for decommissioning, progress in preparation of the Final Decommissioning Plan is discussed.

  14. Key Features of the Deployed NPP/NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Grant, K. D.; Mulligan, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather/environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). NPOESS satellites carry sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical data of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)/NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products/records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the US government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with NPP and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command & telemetry segment is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPP/NPOESS missions from control & status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally-distributed ground assets needed to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day satellite commanding & state-of-health monitoring, and delivery of Stored Mission Data to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to system subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health & status and data communications with external systems and between the segments. The C3S & IDPS segments were delivered & transitioned to

  15. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  16. Application of TREECS (trademark) to Strontium 90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    fission product resulting from the accident in 1986, poses a health concern around and down-gradient from Chernobyl due to its high specific...Res., Spec. Issue 1, 48-56. Freed, R., Smith, L., and Bugai, D. 2004. The effective source areas of 90Sr a stream near Chernobyl , Ukraine. J...near Chernobyl , Ukraine by Mark S. Dortch PURPOSE: The Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS™) (http

  17. [Remote effects of the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the maxillodental status of the children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevbitov, A V

    2004-01-01

    Examinations of children exposed to the Chernobyl factor showed deterioration of the maxillodental status, presenting as a decrease in the incidence of normal-for-age status in comparison with children from the control group. The incidence of dental abnormalities in children whose parents participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath is increased by 240,09%. The determination of remote effects of the Chernobyl accident for the health status of Russian children requires a differentiated approach and deserves a special study.

  18. Time changes in radiocesium wash-off from various land uses after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-05-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to monitor and model the time series change of radiocesium transfer through aquatic systems after significant fallout, especially from the Chernobyl disaster. However, no data is available for the temporal changes of radiocesium concentration in environmental materials such as soil and water after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Our research team has been monitoring the environmental consequences of radioactive contamination just after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. Research items are listed below. 1. Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use. 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope. 3. Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water. 4. Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment. 5.Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide important insights into the future prediction of the radiocesium wash-off from catchments with different land uses.

  19. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Global pattern and differentiation by major biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bondeau, A.; Schloss, A.L.; Kaduk, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Annual and seasonal net primary productivity estimates (NPP) of 15 global models across latitudinal zones and biomes are compared. The models simulated NPP for contemporary climate using common, spatially explicit data sets for climate, soil texture, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Differences among NPP estimates varied over space and time. The largest differences occur during the summer months in boreal forests (50??to 60??N) and during the dry seasons of tropical evergreen forests. Differences in NPP estimates are related to model assumptions about vegetation structure, model parameterizations, and input data sets.

  20. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve to twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, liquidators that have been exposed to a wide range of doses (200-890 mSv show radiophobia. The achieved level of adaptation to life is associated with overstrain in emotional and somatic spheres. At relatively higher exposure levels, morbidity is increased, specially pathology of the cardiovascular system. Growth in the number of cataracts is absent, but involutional changes of retina vessels are increased. Suppression of innate and acquired humoral and cellular immunity and autoallergic shifts play significant role in the identified health problems. Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  1. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-04-01

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  3. Characterization of neutron field in a NPP workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breznik, B; Pochat, J L; Muller, H; Asselineau, B; Pavlin, M

    2007-01-01

    At the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), albedo dosimeters are used for personal neutron dosimetry. Spectrometric measurements allow determination of reference dosimetric values of realistic neutron fields to be used for calibration of albedo dosimeters. The Laboratory for Neutron Metrology and Dosimetry from the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) was in charge of characterising neutron fields in the plant at two representative points with high neutron and gamma dose rate. Calibration of the dosimeters in the workplace used to be performed only by a spherical survey meter. Based on the reference dosimetric values, the Plant Dosimetry Laboratory has verified the response of albedo dosimeters.

  4. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepcek, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  5. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  6. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  7. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  8. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  9. Aspermy, sperm quality and radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.

  10. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  11. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  12. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  13. Development of NPP Monitoring and Operation Support Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-04-15

    During the first stage (2001.7.1-2004.6.30), we developed general human factors design guidelines VDU-based workstations, PMAS alarm display design guidelines, PMAS SPADES display design guidelines, and the revision of KHNP HFE guidelines (HF-010), which have been applied to domestic NPP designs. We also supported other KNICS projects by performing RPS COM design reviews, development of RPS COM Style Guide, and a review of CEDMCS cabinet operator module display design. We developed the ADIOS prototype, NPP performance analysis systems for YGN No.1, 2 plants and Kori No. 2 plant, alarm cause tracking systems for Kori No. 2 plant and OPR1000, and signal fault detection and diagnosis methods for deaerators and steam generators. During the second stage(2004.7.1-2008.4.30), we supported other KNICS projects by reviewing RPS COM display designs three times, developing ESF-CCS COM style guides and reviewing ESF-CCS COM display design, reviewing CRCS LOM and PCS MTP display designs, and developing requirements for DCS GUI components. We also developed integrated style guide for I and C cabinet operator module display designs. In cooperative research with KOPEC-AE, we developed basic technologies for advanced HSI design including task analysis methods, an information and control requirements database, display design criteria, a HSI prototype with its evaluation, and methods for human factors engineering verification and validation.

  14. Experience Practices on Decontamination Activity in NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jeongju; Sohn, Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP) involves various technical and administrative activities for a utility to terminate its license, which allows the plant site to be released from the regulatory control (site release). Decontamination activity in NPP decommissioning is one of the main technical activities to be performed during the decommissioning. The decontamination at decommissioning sites is usually performed due to several reasons such as reducing personnel dose and disposal costs, and cleanup to meet license termination requirements by using physical or chemical removal techniques proven through the previous experience practices. This paper introduces the best and worst practices for the decontamination activities collected from the decommissioning operational experiences through the implementation of nuclear decommissioning projects around the world. Review of the experiences of decontamination shows that it is important to conduct an advanced planning for optimized implementation of decontamination taking into considering site specific conditions such as operating time, reactor type, system, and so on. Also, a review of newer decontamination methods is necessary to safely and economically decommission the nuclear facility.

  15. Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Operational Calibration Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Blonski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration coefficients for the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands have been reprocessed from the beginning of the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission until present. An automated calibration procedure, implemented in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System operational data production system, was applied to reprocess onboard solar calibration data and solar diffuser degradation measurements. The latest processing parameters from the operational system were used to include corrected solar vectors, optimized directional dependence of attenuation screens transmittance and solar diffuser reflectance, updated prelaunch calibration coefficients without an offset term, and optimized Robust Holt-Winters filter parameters. The parameters were consistently used to generate a complete set of the radiometric calibration coefficients for the entire duration of the Suomi NPP mission. The reprocessing has demonstrated that the automated calibration procedure can be successfully applied to all solar measurements acquired from the beginning of the mission until the full deployment of the automated procedure in the operational processing system. The reprocessed calibration coefficients can be further used to reprocess VIIRS SDR (Sensor Data Record and other data products. The reprocessing has also demonstrated how the automated calibration procedure can be used during activation of the VIIRS instruments on the future JPSS satellites.

  16. Modernization and power upgrading of the Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, A. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In 1995, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) started a project for modernization and power upgrading of the Loviisa NPP. The main objectives of the project are to ensure plant safety, to increase electricity production and to improve the expertise of the IVO staff. The total electricity output of Loviisa 1 and 2 units is planned to be increased by about 100 MW. This will be achieved through renovation of the steam turbines and through gradual increase in the thermal reactor power up to 1,500 MW from the present level of 1,375 MW. The Loviisa NPP Final Safety Analysis Report has been revised to a great extent in connection with the licensing process of the reactor power upgrading. The project also includes certain improvements in the primary and safety systems to ensure plant safety. The total cost estimate of the project is around 200 million FIM. The project implementation started in 1995 and in accordance with the plans in 2000 after several phases the last measures at power plant will be completed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  17. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137

  18. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Bryophytes and lichens abound in many arctic ecosystems and can contribute substantially to the ecosystem net primary production (NPP). Because of their growth seasonality and their potential for growth out of the growing season peak, bryophyte and lichen contribution to NPP may be particularly...

  19. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  20. Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondel, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Peter; Hardell, Lennart; Carlsson, Göran; Axelson, Olav

    2004-12-01

    Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden? A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988-1996. In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: accident.

  1. Comparative analysis of NPP changes in global tropical forests from 2001 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Li, X.; Wu, W.

    2017-02-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is the difference between total photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP) and total plant respiration in an ecosystem. NPP is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is important in global climate research. Tropical forests, distributed mainly in Central Africa, Central and South America, and Southeast Asia, are among the most important ecosystems on earth. They are very important to analyses of the global carbon budget and to the projection of future climatic changes. In this study, we analyzed and compared the temporal and spatial changes of NPP within the three dominant areas of tropical forest from 2001 to 2013 by using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We found that Central and South America has the highest annual mean NPP, statistically, while the average NPP shows an increasing trend both in Central and South America and Central Africa but a decreasing trend in Southeast Asia.

  2. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

  3. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  4. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  5. NPP VIIRS Early On-Orbit Geometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna; Montano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was launched in October, 2011. The instrument geometric performance includes sensor spatial response, band-to-band co-registration (BBR), and geolocation accuracy and precision. The geometric performance is an important aspect of sensor data record (SDR) calibration and validation. In this paper we will discuss geometric performance parameter characterization using the first seven-month of VIIRS' earth and lunar data, and compare with the at-launch performance using ground testing data and analysis of numerical modeling results as the first step in on-orbit geometric calibration and validation.

  6. Development of NPP personnel training system in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarykin, V. [Operation Personnel Training Department, Khmelnitsky NPP, Training Center, Neteshin 30100, Khmelnitsky region (Ukraine)]. E-mail: tarykinv@ukr.net

    2005-07-01

    Modern personnel training and retraining system is a guarantee of NPPs safe reliable operation. Since the time when independence of Ukraine was proclaimed personnel training system was created directly at NPPs. This system is based on the latest legislation framework, developed subject to IAEA recommendations, gained international experience in the field of personnel training in view of increased demands to personnel qualification. Training Centers, formed at each plant, form one of the main components of NPP personnel training. Personnel training at Training Centers is performed in accordance with standard programmes. Simulator training base was created by joint efforts of specialists from the USA, Russia and Ukraine. Establishing manager training system and replacement reserves for National Nuclear Energy Generating Company 'ENERGOATOM' (NNEGC 'ENERGOATOM') managerial personnel, including training programme and training materials development, teacher selection and training, is under way. (author)

  7. MORE: Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. (Inst. for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway)); Valkonen, J. (Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE (Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2005-47) project. This report also provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, and discusses possible application areas. The project has aimed at the industrial utilisation of the results from the TACO: (Traceability and Communication of Requirements in Digital I and C Systems Development) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2002-16, completed June, 2005) project, and practical application of improved approaches and methods for requirements engineering and change management. Finally, the report provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (author)

  8. South Ukraine NPP: Safety improvements through Plant Computer upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenman, O. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 4350 Northern Pike, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Chernyshov, M. A. [Westron, LLC, 1 Acad. Proskura St., Kharkiv 61070 (Ukraine); Denning, R. S. [Battelle, 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Kolesov, S. A. [NAEK Energoatom, 3 Vetrov Str., Kiev, 01032 (Ukraine); Balakan, H. H.; Bilyk, B. I.; Kuznetsov, V. I. [PO South Ukraine NPP, NAEK Energoatom, Mylolayv Region, 55000 (Ukraine); Trosman, G. [US Dept. of Energy, International Nuclear Safety Program, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes some results of the Plant Computer upgrade at the Units 2 and 3 of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A Plant Computer, which is also called the Computer Information System (CIS), is one of the key safety-related systems at VVER-1000 nuclear plants. The main function of the CIS is information support for the plant operators during normal and emergency operational modes. Before this upgrade, South Ukraine NPP operated out-of-date and obsolete systems. This upgrade project wax founded by the U.S. DOE in the framework of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP). The most efficient way to improve the quality and reliability of information provided to the plant operator is to upgrade the Human-System Interface (HSI), which is the Upper Level (UL) CIS. The upgrade of the CIS data-acquisition system (DAS), which is the Lower Level (LL) CIS, would have less effect on the unit safety. Generally speaking, the lifetime of the LL CIS is much higher than one of the UL CIS. Unlike Plant Computers at the Western-designed plants, the functionality of the WER-1000 CISs includes a control function (Centralized Protection Testing) and a number of the plant equipment monitoring functions, for example, Protection and Interlock Monitoring and Turbo-Generator Temperature Monitoring. The new system is consistent with a historical migration of the format by which information is presented to the operator away from the traditional graphic displays, for example, Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P and ID's), toward Integral Data displays. The cognitive approach to information presentation is currently limited by some licensing issues, but is adapted to a greater degree with each new system. The paper provides some lessons learned on the management of the international team. (authors)

  9. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy on corrosion products of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekan, J., E-mail: julius.dekan@stuba.sk; Lipka, J.; Slugen, V. [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, SUT (Slovakia)

    2013-04-15

    Steam generator (SG) is generally one of the most important components at all nuclear power plants (NPP) with close impact to safe and long-term operation. Material degradation and corrosion/erosion processes are serious risks for long-term reliable operation. Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original 'Bohunice' design in period 1994-1998, in order to improve corrosion resistance of SGs. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Moessbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filters deposits. Newest results in our long-term corrosion study confirm good operational experiences and suitable chemical regimes (reduction environment) which results mostly in creation of magnetite (on the level 70 % or higher) and small portions of hematite, goethite or hydrooxides. Regular observation of corrosion/erosion processes is essential for keeping NPP operation on high safety level. The output from performed material analyses influences the optimisation of operating chemical regimes and it can be used in optimisation of regimes at decontamination and passivation of pipelines or secondary circuit components. It can be concluded that a longer passivation time leads more to magnetite fraction in the corrosion products composition.

  10. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E

    2009-11-19

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident consisted of fuel and condensation components. An important radioecological task associated with the late phase of the accident is to evaluate the dynamics of radionuclide mobility in soils. Identification of the variability (or invariability) in the radionuclide transfer parameters makes it possible to (1) accurately predict migration patterns and biological availability of radionuclides and (2) evaluate long-term exposure trends for the population who may reoccupy the remediated abandoned areas. In 1986-1987, a number of experimental plots were established within various tracts of the fallout plume to assist with the determination of the long-term dynamics of radionuclide vertical migration in the soils. The transfer parameters for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil profile, as well as their ecological half-time of the radionuclide residence (T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol}) values in the upper 5-cm thick soil layers of different grasslands were estimated at various times since the accident. Migration characteristics in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: {sup 90}Sr > {sup 137}Cs {ge} {sup 239,240}Pu. It was found that the {sup 137}Cs absolute T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values are 3-7 times higher than its radioactive decay half-life value. Therefore, changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited {sup 137}Cs now depend only on its radioactive decay. The {sup 90}Sr T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values for the 21st year after the fallout tend to decrease, indicating an intensification of its migration capabilities. This trend appears consistent with a pool of mobile {sup 90}Sr forms that grows over time due to destruction of the fuel particles.

  11. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  12. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  13. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  14. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity...... on the aircraft. By using simple assumptions on the build-up of contamination it has been possible to separate the signals from contamination and from plume. The analysis further showed that even a detector/spectrometer with low energy resolution is able to identify a contamination with iodine....

  15. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH (TWO POINTS OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  16. Chernobyl radioactivity in surface air over Washington D. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.); Krask, D.J. (District of Columbia Dept. of Consumer, and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, DC (USA). Air Monitoring Section)

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in airborne particulate matter over Washington D.C. have been determined by gamma-ray analysis of air filter samples collected during the months of May, June, and July 1986. The results indicate that long-lived nuclides were present in levels comparable to those measured previously at other eastern locations. Extensive washout of radioactivity occurred apparently as a result of heavy rainfall on May 20, and was followed by the arrival of airborne debris with elevated {sup 103}Ru/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios. (orig.).

  17. Radiophobia: long-term psychological consequences of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H

    2002-02-01

    The primary health effect of Chernobyl has been widespread psychological distress in liquidators (workers brought in for cleanup), evacuees, residents of contaminated areas, and residents of adjacent noncontaminated areas. Several psychoneurological syndromes characterized by multiple unexplained physical symptoms including fatigue, sleep and mood disturbances, impaired memory and concentration, and muscle and/or joint pain have been reported in the Russian literature. These syndromes, which resemble chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, are probably not due to direct effects of radiation because they do not appear to be dose related to radiation exposure and because they occur in areas of both high and low contamination.

  18. Chernobyl, fifteen years after; Tchernobyl, 15 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  19. Suggestion of a Framework to Analyze Failure Modes and Effect of Cyber Attacks in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Young; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The cyber security issue on NPP is inevitable issue. Unlike general cyber security, cyber-physical system like NPP can induce serious consequences such as core damage by cyber-attack. So in this paper, to find how hacker can attack the NPP, (1) PSA results were utilized to find the relationship between physical system and cyber-attack and (2) vulnerabilities on digital control systems were investigated to find how hacker can implement the possible attack. It is expected that these steps are utilized when establishing penetration test plans or cyber security drill plans.

  20. Information theory-based approach for modeling the cognitive behavior of NPP operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    An NPP system consists of three important components: the machine system, operators, and MMI. Through the MMI, operators monitor and control the plant system. The cognitive model of NPP operators has become a target of modeling by cognitive engineers due to their work environment: complex, uncertain, and safe critical. We suggested the contextual model for the cognitive behavior of NPP operator and the mathematical fundamentals based on information theory which can quantify the model. The demerit of the methodology using the information theory is that it cannot evaluate the correctness and quality of information. Therefore, the validation through the experiment is needed.

  1. Porcine ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1/CD203a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Cathrine Bie; Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Viuff, Birgitte;

    2007-01-01

    /phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1/CD203a). The porcine NPP1/CD203a encoding gene was mapped to chromosome 1 using a radiation hybrid panel, and transcription was investigated by RT-PCR analysis of several tissues. The cDNA was cloned and introduced into COS7 cells resulting in expression of functionally active enzyme...... and verification of the specificity of an SWC9 reacting monoclonal antibody. The antibody was used for immunohistochemical examination of various porcine tissues. Most prominent expression of NPP1/CD203a was found in lung macrophages and liver sinusoids....

  2. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  4. Historical mutation rates predict susceptibility to radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J; Karadas, F; Mousseau, T A

    2010-10-01

    Extreme environmental perturbations are rare, but may have important evolutionary consequences. Responses to current perturbations may provide important information about the ability of living organisms to cope with similar conditions in the evolutionary past. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl constitutes one such extreme perturbation, with significant but highly variable impact on local population density and mutation rates of different species of animals and plants. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that species with strong impacts of radiation on abundance were those with high rates of historical mutation accumulation as reflected by cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates during past environmental perturbations. Using a dataset of 32 species of birds, we show higher historical mitochondrial substitution rates in species with the strongest negative impact of local levels of radiation on local population density. These effects were robust to different estimates of impact of radiation on abundance, weighting of estimates of abundance by sample size, statistical control for similarity in the response among species because of common phylogenetic descent, and effects of population size and longevity. Therefore, species that respond strongly to the impact of radiation from Chernobyl are also the species that in the past have been most susceptible to factors that have caused high substitution rates in mitochondrial DNA. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. 8. Atmospheric, water, and soil contamination after Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    Air particulate activity over all of the Northern Hemisphere reached its highest levels since the termination of nuclear weapons testing--sometimes up to 1 million times higher than before the Chernobyl contamination. There were essential changes in the ionic, aerosol, and gas structure of the surface air in the heavily contaminated territories, as measured by electroconductivity and air radiolysis. Many years after the catastrophe aerosols from forest fires have dispersed hundreds of kilometers away. The Chernobyl radionuclides concentrate in sediments, water, plants, and animals, sometimes 100,000 times more than the local background level. The consequences of such a shock on aquatic ecosystems is largely unclear. Secondary contamination of freshwater ecosystems occurs as a result of Cs-137 and Sr-90 washout by the high waters of spring. The speed of vertical migration of different radionuclides in floodplains, lowland moors, peat bogs, etc., is about 2-4 cm/year. As a result of this vertical migration of radionuclides in soil, plants with deep root systems absorb them and carry the ones that are buried to the surface again. This transfer is one of the important mechanisms, observed in recent years, that leads to increased doses of internal irradiation among people in the contaminated territories.

  6. Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish spruce forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Johanson, K.J.; Fawaris, B.H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.; Veresoglou, D.S.; Dawson, D.E.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T

    2000-03-01

    An assessment of the distribution of Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish forest was carried out and showed more than 95% of the {sup 137}Cs in the system to be of Chernobyl origin. The data show that approximately 87% of total fallout is found in soils, 6% in the bryophyte layer and 7% in standing biomass of trees. The mean deposition of {sup 137}Cs in the system (including soils, bryophytes, understorey vegetation, fungi, trees, moose and roe deer) was 54 kBq m{sup -2}. Fungi, understorey vegetation and ruminant populations collectively contained approximately 1% of total radiocaesium in the system. However, actual concentrations in these sample types were higher than in any other category, mostly exceeding the limit of 1500 Bq kg{sup -1} for consumption of wild produce in Sweden. These categories represent the principal foodstuffs responsible for radiation transfer to man from the system and though negligible in total biomass there is potential for significant dose transfer to individuals who are regular consumers of wild forest produce.

  7. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  8. Chernobyl-what do we need to know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor No.4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes on April 26, 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols, and gases (including iodine and caesium) are ejected into the atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant (Belarus, Ukraine) but deposits are very uneven, producing a 'leopard spot' type of pattern (Russian Federation). In Europe, propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives over France. The eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. For the contamination, ground, water, and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. In France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. It is hard to assess the impact on health in the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant; among children in southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. The doses delivered in France represent generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor No.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provide for december 2000. (N.C.)

  9. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  10. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  11. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  12. VIIRS Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) from Suomi NPP, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Suomi NPP Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) developed at the NOAA NCDC is an intermediate product processing level (NOAA Level 1b) between a Raw Data Record (RDR)...

  13. Seismic site evaluation practice and seismic design guide for NPP in Continent of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yuxian [State Seismological Bureau, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Geophysics

    1997-03-01

    Energy resources, seismicity, NPP and related regulations of the Continent of China are briefly introduced in the beginning and two codes related to the seismic design of NPP, one on siting and another on design, are discussed in some detail. The one on siting is an official code of the State Seismological Bureau, which specifies the seismic safety evaluation requirements of various kinds of structures, from the most critic and important structures such as NPP to ordinary buildings, and including also engineering works in big cities. The one on seismic design of NPP is a draft subjected to publication now, which will be an official national code. The first one is somewhat unique but the second one is quite similar to those in the world. (author)

  14. Assessment of NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Products: Hope and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Gene; Barnes, Robert A.; Franz, Bryan; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne d.; McClain, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) provided substantial scientific input to the NPP project regarding the use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to create science quality ocean color data products. This work has culminated into an assessment of the NPP project and the VIIRS instrument's capability to produce science quality Ocean Color data products. The VOST concluded that many characteristics were similar to earlier instruments, including SeaWiFS or MODIS Aqua. Though instrument performance and calibration risks do exist, it was concluded that programmatic and algorithm issues dominate concerns. Keywords: NPP, VIIRS, Ocean Color, satellite remote sensing, climate data record.

  15. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-01

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal-hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal-hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  16. Problems of NPP construction project standardization and operational safety increase in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Main causes of slackening paces of the USA nuclear power engineering development are considered using the experience of the USA NPP design, construction and operation. Data on increase in capital investments for the NPP construction and variation of their structure to enhancing waste of capital are given. Problems of improvement of operational safety of water-cooled and water-moderated reactors as well as NPP separate assemblies are considered. Ways for reducing periods of NPP design realization are described taking as an example the USA leading power, construction and reactor construction companies. It is shown that the optimization of existing methods for designing NPPs and nuclear reactor structures, systems for construction management and control as well as complex standartization of equipment, construction methods and operational procedures for NPPs are main factors.

  17. Observation and modeling of NPP for Pinus elliottii plantation in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the stem analysis of 59 individuals of Pinus elliottii in combination with tree biomass models, we calculated annual biomass increment of forest plots at Qianyanzhou Ecological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences in subtropical China. In addition, canopy layer and community NPP were calcu- lated based on 12 years’ litter fall data. NPP of the 21-year-old forest was estimated by using the BIOME BGC model; and both measured NPP and estimated NPP were compared with flux data. Community biomass was 10574 g·m-2; its distribution patterns in tree layer, shrub layer, herbaceous layer, tree root, herbaceous and shrub roots and fine roots were 7542, 480, 239, 1810, 230, 274 and 239 g·m-2, respectively. From 1999 to 2004, the average annual growth rate and litter fall were 741 g·m-2·a-1 (381.31 gC·m-2·a-1) and 849 g·m?2·a?1 (463 gC·m-2·a-1), respectively. There was a significant corre- lation between annual litter fall and annual biomass increment; and the litter fall was 1.19 times the biomass increment of living trees. From 1985 to 2005, average NPP and GPP values based on BGC modeling were 630.88 (343.31 - 906.42 gC·m-2·a-1) and 1 800 gC·m-2·a-1 (1351.62 - 2318.26 gC·m-2·a-1). Regression analysis showed a linear relationship (R2=0.48) between the measured and simulated tree layer NPP values. NPP accounted for 30.2% (25.6%-32.9%) of GPP, while NEP ac- counted for 57.5% (48.1%-66.5%) of tree-layer NPP and 41.74% (37%-52%) of stand NPP. Soil respi- ration accounted for 77.0% of measured tree NPP and 55.9% of the measured stand NPP. NEE based on eddy covariance method was 12.97% higher than the observed NEP.

  18. Observed half-lives of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in hydrosphere in the Vltava River basin and impact of NPP Temelin (Bohemia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslik, E.J.; Ivanovova, D.; Sedlarova, B.; Simonek, P. [T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Krizova-Jedinakova, V. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 6, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    Observation of reference conditions on the Upper Vltava River in the period before construction of Temel Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was focused on examination of concentrations of artificial radionuclides {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in components of the hydrosphere. Concentrations of these radionuclides were observed in water from tributaries to Orl Reservoir, which will be a receiving water body of waste waters from the NPP, and also in the water at outflow from the reservoir. Concentrations of radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were examined in samples of sediments, biomass of aquatic flora and fish species. Concentrations of {sup 3}H were also analysed in samples of precipitation water collected at three stations located in the vicinity of the NPP. For ensuring complete information, the observation of the radionuclides included also resources of drinking water and sludge from water treatment plants sited close to the NPP [1]. The observation has been continued [2]. The tritium concentrations were determined by using LSC method on Quantulus device, gamma spectrometric method on Canberra device was used for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr was determined by a standard method after radiochemical separation like {sup 90}Y. The results of the observation were used for derivation of decreasing trends in the concentrations of the radionuclides. It was demonstrated that kinetic equation of the 1. order can provide good description of the process. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in surface water exhibited two phases of decrease. The first one, which lasted until 1994, was faster. The observed half-life values were in the range between 1.1 and 2.2 years. The half-life values during the slower second phase, which began in 1995, are between 8.6 and 32.2 years. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in the water were monotonously decreasing with half-lives of 6.8 years in the period 1963 - 1968 and 6.7 years in the period 1993 - 2001. Gradient of a

  19. Monitoring Bio-Optical Processes Using NPP-VIIRS and MODIS-Aqua Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Same day ocean color products from the S-NPP and MODIS provide for a new capability to monitor changes in the bio - optical processes occurring in...coastal waters. The combined use of multiple looks per day from several sensors can be used to follow the water mass changes of bio -optical properties...day to resolve bio - optical processes. We examine how these changes in bio -optical properties can be monitored using the NPP and MODIS ocean color

  20. Development of NPP Safety Requirements into Kenya's Grid Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndirangu, Nguni James; Koo, Chang Choong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As presently drafted, Kenya's grid codes do not contain any NPP requirements. Through case studies of selected grid codes, this paper will study frequency, voltage and fault ride through requirements for NPP connection and operation, and offer recommendation of how these requirements can be incorporated in the Kenya's grid codes. Voltage and frequency excursions in Kenya's grid are notably frequently outside the generic requirement and the values observed by the German and UK grid codes. Kenya's grid codes require continuous operation for ±10% of nominal voltage and 45.0 to 52Hz on the grid which poses safety issues for an NPP. Considering stringent NPP connection to grid and operational safety requirements, and the importance of the TSO to NPP safety, more elaborate requirements need to be documented in the Kenya's grid codes. UK and Germany have a history of meeting high standards of nuclear safety and it is therefore recommended that format like the one in Table 1 to 3 should be adopted. Kenya's Grid code considering NPP should have: • Strict rules for voltage variation, that is, -5% to +10% of the nominal voltage • Strict rules for frequency variation, that is, 48Hz to 52Hz of the nominal frequencyand.

  1. Analysis of Steam Generators Corrosion Products from Slovak NPP Bohunice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Degmová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the nuclear industry is to increase the nuclear safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs. As the steam generator (SG is the most corrosion sensitive component of NPPs, it is important to analyze the corrosion process and optimize its construction materials to avoid damages like corrosion cracking. For this purpose two different kinds of SGs and its feed water distributing systems from the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice were studied by nondestructive Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were scraped from the surface and analyzed in transmission geometry. Magnetite and hematite were found to be the main components in the corrosion layers of both SGs. Dependant of the material the SG consisted of, and the location in the system where the samples were taken, the ratios between magnetite and hematite and the paramagnetic components were different. The obtained results can be used to improve corrosion safety of the VVER-440 secondary circuit as well as to optimize its water chemistry regime.

  2. Derived Land Surface Emissivity From Suomi NPP CrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Presented here is the land surface IR spectral emissivity retrieved from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) measurements. The CrIS is aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched on October 28, 2011. We describe the retrieval algorithm, demonstrate the surface emissivity retrieved with CrIS measurements, and inter-comparison with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) emissivity. We also demonstrate that surface emissivity from satellite measurements can be used in assistance of monitoring global surface climate change, as a long-term measurement of IASI and CrIS will be provided by the series of EUMETSAT MetOp and US Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites. Monthly mean surface properties are produced using last 5-year IASI measurements. A temporal variation indicates seasonal diversity and El Nino/La Nina effects not only shown on the water but also on the land. Surface spectral emissivity and skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth's environment. CrIS spectral emissivity are retrieved and compared with IASI. The difference is small and could be within expected retrieval error; however it is under investigation.

  3. [The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonenberg, Anna; Leoniak, Marcin; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to "epidemic" of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.

  4. WDC-A Meteorological and Oceanographic Data from Chernobyl for 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WDCA Chernobyl Data consists of digital data set DSI-9681, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). World Data Center for Meteorology...

  5. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions; Tchernobyl. Des reponses a vos questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  6. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  7. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  9. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  10. Chernobyl vis-à-vis the nuclear future: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abel J

    2007-11-01

    The paper aims to provide an international perspective on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident vis-à-vis the future development of the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It describes the major international initiatives that were undertaken over the years in order to quantify the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and also analyzes the impact of the accident on the development of nuclear energy taking account of the perception of its consequences. The paper revisits the historical saga flowing since the fateful explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukraine 20 y ago. It looks at some of the misunderstandings about the consequences of the accident and explores the worldwide nuclear stagnation that followed Chernobyl, surveying the negative public reaction and also the possibilities of a nuclear revival. It finally searches for a way forward, concluding that an effective international nuclear safety regime is urgently needed with the purpose of preventing catastrophes like Chernobyl from occurring and also that the Chernobyl consequences need to be readdressed properly. The paper concludes with an appeal to the radiation protection community to resolve once and for all the difficult issues of attributing health effects to low-level radiation exposure.

  11. Chernobyl: 25 years later; Tchernobyl: 25 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Carlos

    2011-11-24

    On April 26, 1986, the reactor no.4 of the Chernobyl power plant exploded. The power plant is located in northern Ukraine at 3 km of Pripyat (the 'atom town'), a new city which counted 50.000 habitants at the time of the accident. The evacuation of the city was decided on April 27 only and finally 250.000 people from Bielorussia, Russia and Ukraine were relocated between April and December 1986 with no return back for most of them. This book is a collection of pictures taken in the Pripyat area, in buildings of a ghost town abandoned for 25 years and left to the wear of time and to pillaging. (J.S.)

  12. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, G. E-mail: gianni@fismedw2.univaq.it; Colacicchi, S.; Sgattoni, R.; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  13. Unusual nuclide concentrations in air after the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of 1.0-year {sup 106}Ru, 2.8-year {sup 125}Sb, 2.1-year {sup 134}Cs, and 30-year {sup 137}Cs were measured for a total of 39 air filter samples collected at Chico, California, and Reno, Nevada, during the month of May 1986. Radioactive debris in which {sup 106}Ru, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 134}Cs were enriched relative to {sup 137}Cs reached the west coast of the United States during the first week of May 1986. The air mass that carried this debris seems to have circled the world and reached the west coast for the second time 3 weeks later during the last week of May 1986. Results obtained in this study indicate that the initial release of nuclear debris from the Chernobyl reactor took place in a manner similar to the atmospheric injection of radionuclides from a nuclear weapon's test. (orig.).

  14. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, G; Colacicchi, S; Sgattoni, R; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  15. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University; McMurtrie, Ross [University of New South Wales; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  16. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R. J.; Warren, J. M.; Iversen, C. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  17. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  18. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  19. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  20. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature Retrieved from NAVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguang Tu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The validation of sea surface temperature (SST retrieved from the new sensor Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Satellite is essential for the interpretation, use, and improvement of the new generation SST product. In this study, the magnitude and characteristics of uncertainties in S-NPP VIIRS SST produced by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO are investigated. The NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST and eight types of quality-controlled in situ SST from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam are condensed into a Taylor diagram. Considering these comparisons and their spatial coverage, the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST is then validated using collocated drifters measured SST via a three-way error analysis which also includes SST derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS onboard AQUA. The analysis shows that the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST is of high accuracy, which lies between the drifters measured SST and AQUA MODIS SST. The histogram of NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST root-mean-square error (RMSE shows normality in the range of 0–0.6 °C with a median of ~0.31 °C. Global distribution of NAVO VIIRS SST shows pronounced warm biases up to 0.5 °C in the Southern Hemisphere at high latitudes with respect to the drifters measured SST, while near-zero biases are observed in AQUA MODIS. It means that these biases may be caused by the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST retrieval algorithm rather than the nature of the SST. The reasons and correction for this bias need to be further studied.

  1. Handling of damaged spent fuel at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Ronny [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany); Bechtel, Sascha [Hoefer und Bechtel GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is situated in the north-eastern part of Lithuania close to the borders with Latvia and Belarus and on the shore of Lake Druksiai. It is approximately 120 km from the capital city Vilnius. The power plant has two RMBK type water cooled graphite moderated pressure tube reactors each of design capacity 1500MW(e). The start of operation of the Unit 1 was in 1983 and of the Unit 2 in 1987. In the period 1987 - 1991 (i.e. Soviet period) a small proportion of the existing spent nuclear fuel suffered minor to major damages. In the frame of decommissioning of INPP it is necessary that this damaged fuel is retrieved from the storage pools and stored in an interim spent fuel store. NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany) as part of a consortium with GNS mbH (Germany) was awarded the contract for an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (B1- ISFSF). This contract includes the design, procurement, manufacturing, supply and installation of a damaged fuel handling system (DFHS). Objective of this DFHS is the safe handling of spent nuclear fuel with major damages, which result in rupture of the cladding and potential loss of fuel pellets from within the cladding. Typical damages are bent fuel bundle skeletons, broken fuel rods, missing or damaged end plugs, very small gaps between fuel bundles, bent central rods between fuel bundles. The presented concept is designed for Ignalina NPP. However, the design is developed more generally to solve these problems with damaged fuel at other nuclear power plants applying these proven techniques. (orig.)

  2. An overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS calibration maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-09-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). Onorbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multiorbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper provides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  3. Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; Efremova, Boryana; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    When illuminated by the Sun, the onboard solar diffuser (SD) panel provides a known spectral radiance source to calibrate the reflective solar bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite on the Suomi-NPP satellite. The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) degrades over time due to solar exposure, and this degradation is measured using the SD stability monitor (SDSM). The SDSM acts as a ratioing radiometer, comparing solar irradiance measurements off the SD panel to those from a direct Sun view. We discuss the design and operations of the SDSM, the SDSM data analysis, including improvements incorporated since launch, and present the results through 1000 days after launch. After 1000 days, the band-dependent H-factors, a quantity describing the relative degradation of the BRDF of the SD panel since launch, range from 0.716 at 412 nanometers to 0.989 at 926 nanometers. The random uncertainty of these H-factors is about 0.1 percent, which is confirmed by the similar standard deviation values computed from the residuals of quadratic exponential fits to the H-factor time trends. The SDSM detector gains have temperature sensitivity of up to about 0.36 percent per kelvin, but this does not affect the derived H-factors. An initial error in the solar vector caused a seasonal bias to the H-factors of up to 0.5 percent. The total exposure of the SD panel to UV light after 1000 orbits is equivalent to about 100 hours of direct sunlight illumination perpendicular to the SD panel surface.

  4. An initial assessment of Suomi NPP VIIRS vegetation index EDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M.; Miura, T.; Shabanov, N.; Kato, A.

    2013-11-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite with Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard was launched in October 2011. VIIRS is the primary instrument for a suite of Environmental Data Records (EDR), including Vegetation Index (VI) EDR, for weather forecasting and climate research. The VIIRS VI EDR operational product consists of the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Top of the Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and per-pixel product quality information. In this paper, we report results of our assessment of the early VIIRS VI EDR (beta quality) using Aqua MODIS and NOAA-18 AVHRR/3 as a reference for May 2012 to March 2013. We conducted two types of analyses focused on an assessment of physical (global scale) and radiometric (regional scale) performances of VIIRS VI EDR. Both TOA NDVI and TOC EVI of VIIRS showed spatial and temporal trends consistent with the MODIS counterparts, whereas VIIRS TOA NDVI was systematically higher than that of AVHRR. Performance of the early VIIRS VI EDR was limited by a lack of adequate per-pixel quality information, commission/omission errors of the cloud mask, and uncertainties associated with the surface reflectance retrievals. A number of enhancements to the VI EDR are planned, including: (1) implementation of a TOC EVI back-up algorithm, (2) addition of more detailed quality flags on aerosols, clouds, and snow cover, and (3) implementation of gridding and temporal compositing. A web-based, product quality monitoring tool has been developed and automated product validation protocols are being prototyped.

  5. RADIATION RISKS ASSESSMENT DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF THE FAR EAST FOOD FISH AFTER THE ACCIDENT ON “FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishсhenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the data on radioactivity releases to thePacific Oceanlevels after the Fukushima NPP accident. It is shown that the potential risk of of the seafood contamination with the long-living radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs, which continue to be released to the Pacific Ocean up to the present time. Contribution of 90Sr to the total radioactive contamination does not exceed 3%. Review of the literature data on the modeling of radioactivity spot diffusion showed that due to the flows in the Pacific Ocean the radioactivity transfer toKamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, and the ingress into theOkhotskSeawas expected in 2014. It is expected a slight increase of the cesium concentration in water and sea biota in the area of Russia fishing zone FAO 61, but not higher than the concentrations in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl accident. Data on measurements of the pollution of fish caught in the Pacific Ocean,JapanandOkhotskSeasin 2011–2014 years during the sea expeditions organized by the Russian Geographical Society, yet showed that the total content of cesium isotopes in any fish sample have not eceeded the value of 0.7 Bq/kg. The prognose risk assessment carried out for the conservative scenario of water contamination in fishing zones ofRussiaand seafood consumption characteristic for the region showed that this risk is minimal according to the WHO scale and does not exceed the risk from fish caughed in Black Sea and Baltic Sea, contaminated after theChernobylaccident, consumption. 

  6. Variations and trends of terrestrial NPP and its relation to climate change in the 10 CMIP5 models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suosuo Li; Shihua Lü; Yuanpu Liu; Yanhong Gao; Yinhuan Ao

    2015-03-01

    Using global terrestrial ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) data, we validated the simulated multi-model ensemble (MME) NPP, analyzed the spatial distribution of global NPP and explored the relationship between NPP and climate variations in historical scenarios of 10 CMIP5 models. The results show that the global spatial pattern of simulated terrestrial ecosystem NPP, is consistent with IGBP NPP, but the values have some differences and there is a huge uncertainty. Considering global climate change, near surface temperature is the major factor affecting the terrestrial ecosystem, followed by the precipitation. This means terrestrial ecosystem NPP is more closely related to near surface temperature than precipitation. Between 1976 and 2005, NPP shows an obvious increasing temporal trend, indicating the terrestrial ecosystem has had a positive response to climate change. MME NPP has increased 3.647PgC during historical period, which shows an increasing temporal trend of 3.9 gCm−2∙100 yr−2 in the past 150 years, also indicating that the terrestrial ecosystem has shown a positive response to climate change in past 150 years.

  7. Development of Information Datasheets of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Equipment using cfiXLM schema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaiho; Song, Eunhye [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In 2009, EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute) published a new NPP information handover guide to provide NPP owners and operators with data handover templates in consistent format for effective delivery of information during all stages of the handover process. Another difficult concern for NPP data information management is to exchange the data information among many organizations such as NPP owners, operators, engineering companies, suppliers, and vendors. As a matter of fact, the improperly formatted handover of information sometimes occurs due to the discrepancy of data format (e. g., data description language type). This improper delivery can make negative effects on NPP integrity and safety. Thus, the lack of proper exchange for different data information systems of organizations should be resolved by using an international standard data format. The standard data format can reduce the cost and time for data exchange in each phase for design, procurement, delivery, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment. The AEX(automating equipment information exchange) pilot implementation project team under EPRI advanced nuclear technology (ANT) program has been conducted a research for the use of XML equipment schemas for electronic data exchange(EDE). They applied XML equipment schema for the design, selection, quotation, purchase and mock install of a safety injection centrifugal pump using EDE standard HI(hydraulic institute) 50.7. For data exchange, FIATECH, an industry consortium, has equally developed library of templates and reference data for ISO-15926, which is an international standard capable of reducing data-error and delivery time for exchanging data among different organizations. KHNP as an only owner/operator company has not experienced much difficulty in data interoperability with other organizations, but continued its unremitting exertions to develop a robust system capable of managing data information generated in all the stages of NPP

  8. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors.

  9. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of carbon (C taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years and seasonal (for 1 year scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique.

    The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr−1, 29% yr−1 and 39% yr−1, respectively was significant among years with up to 12% yr−1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the

  10. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  11. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  12. Operating and mathematical representation of resonances between flow parameters oscillations and structure vibrations of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, K.N.; Yang Shan Afshar, E.; Polyakov, N.I. [Nuclear Power Plant Department of Moscow Power Engineering Institute Technical Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The experimental data that have been obtained from the measurements of noise signals in primary circuit of NPP with reactor of WWER-1000 are presented. The causes of resonant interaction between Eigen-Frequencies of Oscillations of the Coolant Pressure (EFOCP) and structure vibrations are discussed. An application-oriented approach to the problem of identification of abnormal phenomena of thermal-hydraulic parameters is proposed. Logarithmic Decrement {delta} is determined. The bigger damping ratio {zeta} provides bigger {delta} and correspondingly smaller values of Q-factor and amplitude X(t)max. All experimental units intended for NPP severe accident investigation must satisfy to the NPP Q-factor criterion of similarity. (authors)

  13. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  14. Comparing the impacts of 2003 and 2010 heatwaves in NPP over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bastos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, Europe was stricken by two outstanding heatwaves, the 2003 event in Western Europe and the recent 2010 episode over Russia. Both extreme events were characterised by record-breaking temperatures, and widespread socio-economic impacts, including significant increments on mortality rates, decreases in crop production and in hydroelectric production. This work aims to assess the influence of both mega-heatwaves on vegetation carbon uptake, using yearly Net Primary Production (NPP and monthly Net Photosynthesis (PsN data derived from satellite imagery obtained from MODIS for the period 2000–2011. In 2010, markedly low productivity was observed over a very large area in Russia, at monthly, seasonal and yearly scales, falling below 50% of average NPP. This decrease in NPP in 2010 was far more intense than the one affecting Western Europe in 2003, which corresponded to 20–30% of the average, and affected a~much larger extent. Total NPP anomalies reached −19 Tg C for the selected regions in France during 2003 and −94 Tg C for western Russia in 2010, which corresponds almost to the magnitude of total NPP anomaly during 2010 for the whole Europe. Overall, the widespread negative PsN anomalies in both regions match the patterns of very high temperature values preceded by a long period of below-average precipitation, leading to strong soil moisture deficits, stressing the role of soil-atmosphere coupling. In the case of 2003 heatwave, results indicate a strong influence of moisture deficits coupled with high temperatures in the response of vegetation, while for the 2010 event very high temperatures appear to be the main driver of very low NPP.

  15. Counter-regulatory phosphatases TNAP and NPP1 temporally regulate tooth root cementogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura E Zweifler; Mudita K Patel; Francisco H Nociti Jr; Helen F Wimer; Jose L Milla n; Martha J Somerman; Brian L Foster

    2015-01-01

    Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is regulated by the ratio of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi), where local Pi and PPi concentrations are controlled by phosphatases including tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). The focus of this study was to define the roles of these phosphatases in cementogenesis. TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. In vitro, cementoblasts expressed Alpl gene/protein early, whereas Enpp1 gene/protein expression was significantly induced only under mineralization conditions. These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PPi environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PPi, restricting acellular cementum apposition. Alterations in PPi have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected.

  16. The chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths ; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects, such as mini-satellite instability, which is potentially important. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment of Chernobyl's future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties over the dose from and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. Because of the problems with the international response to Chernobyl, the United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

  17. Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, A P; Mousseau, T A

    2007-10-22

    The effects of low-level radiation on the abundance of animals are poorly known, as are the effects on ecosystems and their functioning. Recent conclusions from the UN Chernobyl forum and reports in the popular media concerning the effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals have left the impression that the Chernobyl exclusion zone is a thriving ecosystem, filled with an increasing number of rare species. Surprisingly, there are no standardized censuses of common animals in relation to radiation, leaving the question about the ecological effects of radiation unresolved. We conducted standardized point counts of breeding birds at forest sites around Chernobyl differing in level of background radiation by over three orders of magnitude. Species richness, abundance and population density of breeding birds decreased with increasing level of radiation, even after controlling statistically for the effects of potentially confounding factors such as soil type, habitat and height of the vegetation. This effect was differential for birds eating soil invertebrates living in the most contaminated top soil layer. These results imply that the ecological effects of Chernobyl on animals are considerably greater than previously assumed.

  18. Radiation-induced effects on plants and animals: findings of the United Nations Chernobyl Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Thomas G; Alexakhin, Rudolph; Balonov, Mikhail; Gentner, Norman; Hendry, Jolyn; Prister, Boris; Strand, Per; Woodhead, Dennis

    2007-11-01

    Several United Nations organizations sought to dispel the uncertainties and controversy that still exist concerning the effects of the Chernobyl accident. A Chernobyl Forum of international expertise was established to reach consensus on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident. This review is a synopsis of the subgroup that examined the radiological effects to nonhuman biota within the 30-km Exclusion Zone. The response of biota to Chernobyl irradiation was a complex interaction among radiation dose, dose rate, temporal and spatial variation, varying radiation sensitivities of the different taxons, and indirect effects from other events. The radiation-induced effects to plants and animals within the 30-km Exclusion Zone around Chernobyl can be framed in three broad time periods relative to the accident: an intense exposure period during the first 30 d following the accident of 26 April 1986; a second phase that extended through the first year of exposure during which time the short-lived radionuclides decayed and longer-lived radionuclides were transported to different components of the environment by physical, chemical and biological processes; and the third and continuing long-term phase of chronic exposure with dose ratesChernobyl area, are placed in context of what was known about radioecological effects prior to the accident.

  19. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    . A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment...

  20. An information theory-based approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task. The focus will be on i) developing a model for information processing of NPP operators and ii) quantifying the model. To resolve the problems of the previous approaches based on the information theory, i.e. the problems of single channel approaches, we primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flows. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory.

  1. MODIS GPP/NPP for complex land use area: a case study of comparison between MODIS GPP/NPP and ground-based measurements over Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)/Net Primary Productivity (NPP) has been widely used for the study on global terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle. The current MODIS product with ~ 1 km spatial resolution, however, has limitation on the information on local scale environment (Pinus densiflora) agreed well with -0.2% of bias (1.6 gCm-2yr-1). The fairly comparable values of the MODIS here however, cannot assure the quality of the MOD17 over the complex vegetation area of Korea since the ground measurements except the eddy covariance tower flux measurements are highly inconsistent. Therefore, the comprehensive experiments to represents GPP/NPP over diverse vegetation types for a comparable scale of MODIS with a consistent measurement technique are necessary in order to evaluate the MODIS vegetation productivity data over Korea, which contains a large portion of highly heterogeneous vegetation area.

  2. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Mammad Oglu Rashydov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011. The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  3. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  4. A compartmental model for post-Chernobyl resuspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovlete, C. [Institute of Environmental Research and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Osvath, I. [Institute of Environmental Research and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    1993-12-31

    A simple compartmental model is proposed to describe the transfer of Cs-137 between the lower (boundary) layer of the atmosphere and the ground for short and long term. The experimental basis for the evaluation of the model parameters (the exchange rates between the compartments), consists of the monthly deposition data sequences between 1986 - 1992 for 16 sampling stations on Romanian territory, as well as the data regarding the immediate impact (May 1986) of the Chernobyl accident on the atmosphere in Romania As a result of fitting the experimental data, the model parameters have been estimated and an analytical expression has been found for Cs-137 concentration in air as a function of these parameters and time. The site dependence of each parameter (exchange rate) has been studied. As a conclusion a new analytic expression for the resuspension factor is proposed, containing its dependence on initial conditions and the exchange rates between the model compartments. The theoretical predictions regarding the resuspension factor are in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using air concentration data from the respective sites. (orig.)

  5. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

    1998-08-01

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

  6. Strong effects of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl on mutation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we use a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between radiation and mutation rates in Chernobyl across 45 published studies, covering 30 species. Overall effect size of radiation on mutation rates estimated as Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was very large (E = 0.67; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.59 to 0.73), accounting for 44.3% of the total variance in an unstructured random-effects model. Fail-safe calculations reflecting the number of unpublished null results needed to eliminate this average effect size showed the extreme robustness of this finding (Rosenberg's method: 4135 at p = 0.05). Indirect tests did not provide any evidence of publication bias. The effect of radiation on mutations varied among taxa, with plants showing a larger effect than animals. Humans were shown to have intermediate sensitivity of mutations to radiation compared to other species. Effect size did not decrease over time, providing no evidence for an improvement in environmental conditions. The surprisingly high mean effect size suggests a strong impact of radioactive contamination on individual fitness in current and future generations, with potentially significant population-level consequences, even beyond the area contaminated with radioactive material.

  7. Radioactivity: lessons learned from Chernobyl; Radioactivite: les lecons de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.; Rouat, S.; Mulot, R.; Chauveau, L.; Khalatbari, A.; Riou-Milliot, S.

    2011-05-15

    A set of articles draws lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident and indicates how they can be applied to the Fukushima accident. Notably, it describes contamination mechanisms and how food, milk, vegetables, water organisms become hazardous. It highlights the influence of the initial contamination concentration. Then, it addresses soil contamination where caesium 137 reveals itself not much mobile and concentrated in surface layers. As far as oceans are concerned, they are said to be able to absorb radioactivity: 60 years of anthropic radioactive releases apparently did not have any obvious negative impact on sea environment. Underground waters are affected with some delay, and radioactive dusts which are present in the atmosphere fall with the rain and may appear again later in case of forest fires as it has been noticed. A brief article presents the French radioactivity detection network. The lack of knowledge on the effect of low doses is also commented. The technological aspect is addressed, with the development of automatic means of intervention. A last article gives an overview of the situation in the Fukushima area, indicates and comments contamination levels

  8. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  9. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  10. Vegetation NPP Distribution Based on MODIS Data and CASA Model——A Case Study of Northern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jinguo; NIU Zheng; WANG Chenli

    2006-01-01

    Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is one of the important biophysical variables of vegetation activity, and it plays an important role in studying global carbon cycle, carbon source and sink of ecosystem, and spatial and temporal distribution of CO2. Remote sensing can provide broad view quickly, timely and multi-temporally, which makes it an attractive and powerful tool for studying ecosystem primary productivity, at scales ranging from local to global. This paper aims to use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to estimate and analyze spatial and temporal distribution of NPP of the northern Hebei Province in 2001 based on Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model.The spatial distribution of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (APAR) of vegetation and light use efficiency in three geographical subregions, that is, Bashang Plateau Region, Basin Region in the northwestern Hebei Province and Yanshan Mountainous Region in the Northern Hebei Province were analyzed, and total NPP spatial distribution of the study area in 2001 was discussed. Based on 16-day MODIS Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) product, 16-day composite NPP dynamics were calculated using CASA model; the seasonal dyamics of vegetation NPP in three subregions were also analyzed. Result reveals that the total NPP of the study area in 2001 was 25.1877×106 gC/(m2·a), and NPP in 2001 ranged from 2 to 608 gC/(m2·a), with an average of 337.516 gC/(m2·a). NPP of the study area in 2001 accumulated mainly from May to September (DOY 129-272), high NPP values appeared from June to August (DOY 177-204), and the maximum NPP appeared from late July to mid-August (DOY 209-224).

  11. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single

  12. An Analysis of Cyber-Attack on NPP Considering Physical Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyo; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joonbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some research teams performed related works on cyber-physical system which is a system that cyber-attack can lead to serious consequences including product loss, damage, injury and death when it is attacked. They investigated the physical impact on cyber-physical system due to the cyber-attack. But it is hard to find the research about NPP cyber security considering the physical impact or safety. In this paper, to investigate the relationship between physical impact and cyber-attack, level 1 PSA results are utilized in chapter 2 and cyber-attack analysis is performed in chapter 3. The cyber security issue on NPP is inevitable issue. Unlike general cyber security, cyber-physical system like NPP can induce serious consequences such as core damage by cyber-attack. So in this paper, to find how hacker can attack the NPP, (1) PSA results were utilized to find the relationship between physical system and cyber-attack and (2) vulnerabilities on digital control systems were investigated to find how hacker can implement the possible attack. It is expected that these steps are utilized when establishing penetration test plans or cyber security drill plans.

  13. Filtration Algorithms of Untrustworthy Analogous Information in APCS at TPP and NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nazarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers filtration algorithms of untrustworthy analogous information in APCS at TTP and NPP that make it possible to identify credibility of information transmitted through communication channels in the form of signals and which are continuously changeable in the regime of real time.

  14. Assessing deposition levels of 55Fe, 60Co and 63Ni in the Ignalina NPP environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudelis, A.; Druteikienė, R.; Lukšienė, B.

    2010-01-01

    Two RBMK-1500 reactor units operated in Lithuania in the 1987–2004 period (one of them was stopped for decommissioning in 2004). This study presents a preliminary investigation of surface deposition density levels of 55Fe and 63Ni in moss samples collected in the close vicinity of the Ignalina NPP...

  15. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  16. Replacement of battery in Asco NPP Chargers; Sustitucion de cargadores de baterias en C. N. Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Lansanc, J.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the project to replace battery chargers at NPP Asco. It describes the reasons for the replacement, the project approach, the development to date and current status of the project, the economics, and some lessons learned during the process.

  17. Post-Launch Calibration Support for VIIRS Onboard NASA NPP Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxion; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Schwaller, Matthew; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    The NPP Instrument Calibration Support Element (NICSE) is one of the elements within the NASA NPP Science Data Segment (SDS). The primary responsibility of NICSE is to independently monitor and evaluate on-orbit radiometric and geometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument and to validate its Sensor Data Record (SDR) [1]. The NICSE interacts and works closely with other SDS Product Evaluation and Analysis Tools Elements (PEATE) and the NPP Science Team (ST) and supports their on-orbit data product calibration and validation efforts. The NICSE also works closely with the NPP Instrument Calibration Support Team (NICST) during sensor pre-launch testing in ambient and thermal vacuum environment [2]. This paper provides an overview of NICSE VIIRS sensor post-launch calibration support with a focus on the use of sensor on-board calibrators (OBC) for the radiometric calibration and characterization. It presents the current status of NICSE post-launch radiometric calibration tool development effort based on its design requirements

  18. Forward alliance. AREVA's initiative for NPP's LTO projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergholz, Steffen; Heinz, Benedikt; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Quist, Perry [EPZ - Elektriciteits-Productiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland N.V., Borssele (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, the abbreviation LTO (Long Term Operation) is well known in the NPP's world. No other kind of projects can ensure the actual economic and environmental questions of the world of energy production with this high efficiency. Two-thirds of the actual international NPP fleet in operation has reached an age of more than 25 years. The former NPP's design life of normally 40 years has changed to 60 years for new plants. Furthermore, the existing fleet is nominally prepared for an operational period of more the 40 years. AREVA had launched the Forward Alliance initiative which offers different activities to ensure a support of customer's LTO projects. This article will give an overview on the Forward Alliance initiative followed by a technical example how the AREVA Fatigue Concept (AFC) can fulfill the fatigue monitoring topic within potential LTO projects. The successfully realized LTO project for NPP Borssele (Netherlands) shows as a customer example how the Forward Alliance blocks can work.

  19. Nuclear power debate and public opinion in Belarus: From Chernobyl to Ostrovets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikau, Aliaksandr

    2016-05-05

    The Belarusian government's decision of the last decade to build a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets, in northern Belarus, has proven to be controversial, resulting in a great deal of debate about nuclear energy in the country. The debate was inevitably shaped by the traumatic event that affected Belarus - the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. The Belarusian authorities have consistently promoted a positive view of nuclear energy to the population in order to overcome the so-called 'Chernobyl syndrome' and deliberately shaped nuclear risk communication. As a result, the issue of trust remains crucial in all nuclear debates in Belarus.

  20. Reduced abundance of insects and spiders linked to radiation at Chernobyl 20 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2009-06-23

    Effects of low-level radiation on abundance of animals are poorly known. We conducted standardized point counts and line transects of bumble-bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies and spider webs at forest sites around Chernobyl differing in background radiation by over four orders of magnitude. Abundance of invertebrates decreased with increasing radiation, even after controlling for factors such as soil type, habitat and height of vegetation. These effects were stronger when comparing plots differing in radiation within rather than among sites, implying that the ecological effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals are greater than previously assumed.

  1. Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed from the 7010 m Muztagata ice core record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN LiDe; YAO TanDong; WU GuangJian; LI Zhen; XU BaiQing; LI YueFang

    2007-01-01

    The total activity variation with depth from a 41.6 m Muztagata ice core drilled at 7010 m,recorded not only the 1963 radioactive layer due to the thermonuclear test,but also clearly the radioactive peak released by the Chernobyl accident in 1986.This finding indicates that the Chernobyl nuclear accident was clearly recorded in alpine glaciers in the Pamirs of west China,and the layer can be potentially used for ice core dating in other high alpine glaciers in the surrounding regions.

  2. Chernobyl. Tsjernobyl; Sluttrapport fra NINA's radiooekologiprogram 1986-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaare, E.; Jonsson, B.; Skogland, T. (eds.)

    1991-04-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  4. Local network deployed around the Kozloduy NPP - a useful tool for seismological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study.

  6. Effect of dietary NPP level and phytase supplementation on the laying performance over one year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Tischler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our trial was aimed to study the effect of different dietary non-phytin phosphorus (NPP levels with and without phytase enzyme supplementation on laying performance and eggshell quality of Tetra SL-LL in the last 25 weeks of the long-term (17 months egg production. A total of 69 Tetra SL-LL layers were allocated into 3 dietary treatments. Two diets with different levels of NPP (2.45 or 2.15 g/kg, HP and LP, respectively were formulated, and 0 or 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme was added to low NPP feed (LP and LP+E, respectively. Dietary Ca was uniformly adjusted (38.2 g/kg to feed in each treatment. In the course of the trial, intensity of egg production (%, egg weight (g/egg, number of the broken eggs and feed intake (g/d/bird were recorded. Every 2 weeks 20 eggs per treatment were broken to determine the shell strength and thickness. Our results show that low NPP diet had detrimental effect on the intensity of egg production (P<0.05 and phytase added to the LP diet resulted the lowest number of broken eggs (P<0.05. In conclusion, NPP content of the layer diet can be reduced from 2.45 to 2.15 g/kg in the last 25 weeks of the elongated laying term (12-17 month of laying, if supplemented with 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme without compromising the egg production, and in the same time it can improve eggshell quality and reduce the number of broken eggs.

  7. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garger, E.; Lev, T.; Talerko, N. [Inst. of Radioecology UAAS, Kiev (Ukraine); Galeriu, D. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Garland, J. [Consultant (United Kingdom); Hoffman, O.; Nair, S.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, C. [Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States); Mueller, H. [GSF - Inst. fuer Strahlenschultz, Neuherberg (Germany); Kryshev, A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of

  8. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is crucial for the nuclear power plant project decision makers and management personnel to identify the actual factors of construction delay and their ranking in order to take preventive actions. NPP project is complex in nature and the construction phase is one of the most key phase which is subject to many factors result from many sources. From experience, nuclear projects have faced challenges similar to other complex mega projects with additional nuclear specific issues and life time cost of nuclear reactor is concentrated upfront as capital cost, and therefore delays in construction may become intolerable in terms of both lost revenues and interest on the capital. Budget over-runs and delays on next generation new build nuclear projects in recent years clearly demonstrate that the nuclear industry continues to repeat its failed management and project control processes of the past. Similar to major infra-structure projects, actual completion times can vary substantially from initial estimates but this uncertainty is too crucial to the nuclear industry due to high levels of capital at risk, for every year a project is delayed the levelized cost of electricity increases by approximately 8-10%. causes of delay, to develop a generalized AHP model for delay factors, and to prioritize the risk in different factors in various levels of construction phase in international turnkey NPP project. This paper describes and prioritizes Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay factor for turnkey international project. This study also determines the different party's importance in percentage behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), financial and country factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%). Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected

  9. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Mousseau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804, which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  10. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape

    2013-01-01

    Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  11. Measurement of the stressed state of welded joints in the NPP process components and circulation pipelines based on acoustoelasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Trofimov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical justification and an experimental research for a method to measure the stressed state of welded joints in the nuclear power plant (NPP process components and circulation pipelines based on acoustoelasticity theory, as well as for ways to implement them technically. Devices for measuring the stressed state of welded joints in the NPP process components and circulation pipelines based on acoustoelasticity theory allow online measurement of residual stresses along the weld height and detection of crack formation points. The use of such devices will enable early crack detection in welded joints for an increased safety of the NPP operation.

  12. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  13. Fukushima and Chernobyl. A first comparison of health hazards; Fukushima et Tchernobyl. Une 1. comparaison des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R.

    2011-07-15

    After having evoked the heavy consequences of the Fukushima accident as an industrial disaster (destructions and reconstruction, dismantling costs), the author discusses the classification of this accident in comparison with that of Chernobyl in terms of radioactive releases and levels. He outlines the quality of decisions regarding emergency response regarding population rescue, protection and care. He discusses the medical and health consequences. He outlines the differences with the situation met on the Chernobyl site, comments the results of different health and epidemiological surveys performed about Chernobyl

  14. Differences and similarities between behavior of Fukushima-derived and Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Golosov, Valentin; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Takase, Tsugiko; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium (r-Cs) of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of its chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation-remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). R-Cs in the environment is strongly bound to soil and sediment particles containing micaceous clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, etc.). This is associated with two basic processes - high selective reversible sorption and fixation. Climate and geographical conditions for Fukushima Prefecture of Japan and Chernobyl zone differ. For example, the catchments of the Chernobyl zone are flat and characterized by low slopes, while Fukushima's watersheds are hilly with steep slopes. Annual precipitation also differs substantially, with annual average for Fukushima about 3 times higher than at Chernobyl. The soils on the north-east coast of the Honshu island that were primarily affected by the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident differ significantly from the Chernobyl zone soils. The proportion of clays such as illite, vermiculite etc. is 20-30% at Fukushima, which is higher than in the sandy loam soils of the Chernobyl zone. In addition to the landscape differences, the speciation of r-Cs in fallout was also different between Fukushima and Chernobyl. It is a challenge to compare r-Cs behavior in FDNPP and Chernobyl zones. Comparative analysis has been carried out for r-Cs wash-off parameters and the distribution coefficient Kd in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. The r-Cs distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. This suggests higher ability of Fukushima soils and sediments to bind r-Cs. The normalized

  15. [Effects on health of the Chernobyl accident: 30 years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, N; Steiner, Dr M; Grosche, B

    2016-09-01

    This paper reflects the current state of research into the short- and long-term effects on health in the former Soviet Union and Europe of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. It discusses the latest results of epidemiological studies and presents future research perspectives.

  16. Chernobyl Nuclear Catastrophe and the High Risk Potential for Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

    1993-01-01

    This report considers potential effects of the 1986 nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl (Ukraine) nuclear reactor. Approximately 17 million people, of whom 2.5 million were below the age of 5, are thought to have suffered some radioactive contamination. Many of these children are at high risk for mental retardation and learning disorders.…

  17. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs.

  18. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  19. Refractive properties of separate erythrocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers at different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Bruvere, Ruta; Gabruseva, Natalija; Leice, Alevtine; Zvagule, Tija

    2000-04-01

    This study is focused on the modifications in erythrocytes of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up workers as a late health effect of short-term impact of high level radioactive contamination. As a result, a new method based on erythrocyte refractive index properties at different pH has been elaborated.

  20. A Pedagogical Chernobyl: Can It Be Overcome in the Next Few Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the effects of "pedagogical Chernobyl" in Belarus schools, which stem from the Soviet model, that carry the same defects and shortcomings as the schools of Russia, and the deterioration of the state of health of their children and adolescents. Furthermore, he evaluates the sizes of schoolbooks, in the…

  1. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); D.M. Dick (Danielle); E. Sihvola; L. Pulkkinen (Lea); R.J. Rose (Richard); J. Kaprio (Jaakko)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Research in animals has shown that exposure to stressors during pregnancy is associated with offspring behavioural disorders. We aimed to study the effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and maternal anxiety presumably associated with that exposure, on

  2. Fitness loss and germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegren, Hans; Lindgren, Gabriella; Primmer, C.R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Animal Breeding and Genetics Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Moeller, A.P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris, 75 (France)

    1997-10-09

    The severe nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 resulted in the worst reported accidental exposure of radioactive material to free-living organisms. Short-term effects on human populations inhabiting polluted areas include increased incidence of thyroid cancer, infant leukaemia, and congenital malformations in newborns. Two recent studies have reported, although with some controversy, that germline mutation rates were increased in humans and voles living close to Chernobyl, but little is known about the viability of the organisms affected. Here we report an increased frequency of partial albinism, a morphological aberration associated with a loss of fitness, among barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, breeding close to Chernobyl. Heretability estimates indicate that mutations causing albinism were at least partly of germline origin. Furthermore, evidence for an increased germline mutation rate was obtained from segregation analysis at two hypervariable microsatellite loci, indicating that mutation events in barn swallows from Chernobyl were two- to tenfold higher than in birds from control areas in Ukraine and Italy. (author).

  3. Has fallout from the Chernobyl accident caused childhood leukaemia in Europe? An update on epidemiologic evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, W. [Bremen Inst. for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS), Bremen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Background: According to radiation risk estimates uniformly adopted by various official organizations, exposure to Chernobyl fallout is unlikely to have caused any measurable health risk in central Europe. Methods and Results: A reevaluation of ECLIS (European Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma Incidence Study), a large IARC-coordinated project revealed a slightly higher leukaemia incidence in the most contaminated European regions, and an increasing trend with estimated cumulative excess radiation dose. The excess corresponds to 20 cases of childhood leukaemia in the study area until 1991. Recent evidence from Greece and Germany indicate significantly higher risks in the cohort of children in utero at the time of the initial fallout. In Greece, a positive trend was observed over three regions of increasing average fallout contamination (p=0.005). Conclusion: Chernobyl fallout could well have caused a small, but significant excess of childhood leukaemia cases in Europe. The etiologic mechanism might include an induction of chromosome aberrations in early pregnancy. Increased risks in the birth cohort exposed in utero correspond to 11 excess cases in Greece and another 11.4 excess cases in Germany alone. Exposure misclassification and underascertainment of incident cases render post-Chernobyl risk estimates probably too low. If indeed Chernobyl fallout has caused childhood leukaemia cases in Europe, we would also expect an increased incidence for other childhood cancers and excess malignancies in adults as well as non-malignant diseases of all ages. Neither of these endpoints have as yet been systematically studied. (orig.)

  4. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); D.M. Dick (Danielle); E. Sihvola; L. Pulkkinen (Lea); R.J. Rose (Richard); J. Kaprio (Jaakko)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Research in animals has shown that exposure to stressors during pregnancy is associated with offspring behavioural disorders. We aimed to study the effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and maternal anxiety presumably associated with that exposure, on

  5. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Dick, D.M.; Sihvola, E.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research in animals has shown that exposure to stressors during pregnancy is associated with offspring behavioural disorders. We aimed to study the effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and maternal anxiety presumably associated with that exposure, on behaviour

  6. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  8. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  9. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...

  10. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity.

  11. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity. Des

  12. EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn. of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka' grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rusts, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. ‘Saratovskaya’ kernels, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the grass stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers. was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen–plant system. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.

  13. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M. [Enviros, 61 The Shore, Leith, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C. [Liverpool Univ., Environmental Research and Consultancy (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 137}Cs and 2x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 90}Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10{sup 6} TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} to 140 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. Corresponding mean concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10{sup 2} to 3.10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup -1} dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and

  14. Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, G H; Lochard, J; Girard, P; Guyonnet, J F; Le Cardinal, G; Lepicard, S; Livolsi, P; Monroy, M; Ollagnon, H; Pena-Vega, A; Pupin, V; Rigby, J; Rolevitch, I; Schneider, T

    1999-10-01

    ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into

  15. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  16. Radioactive compounds in Norwegian nutrition after the Chernobyl accident; Radioaktive stoffer i norske matvarer etter Tsjernobyl ulykken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The newsletter presents results from studies of various nutrients produced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. The focus is on caesium in milk, cattle, sheep, goats, reindeer and fresh water fish. Some agricultural aspects are mentioned.

  17. Development of requirements tracking and verification technology for the NPP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Dong Young; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-12-30

    Searched and analyzed the technology of requirements engineering in the areas of aerospace and defense industry, medical industry and nuclear industry. Summarized the status of tools for the software design and requirements management. Analyzed the software design methodology for the safety software of NPP. Development of the design requirements for the requirements tracking and verification system. Development of the background technology to design the prototype tool for the requirements tracking and verification.

  18. Floor response spectra for seismic qualification of Kozloduy VVER 440-230 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, M.K. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (BG). Central Lab. for Seismic Mechanics and Earthquake Engineering; Ma, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Prato, C.A. [Univ. of Cordoba (AR); Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (US)

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the floor response spectra generation methodology for Kozloduy NPP, Unit 1-2 of VVER 440-230 is presented. The 2D coupled soil-structure interaction models are used combined with a simplified correction of the final results for accounting of torsional effects. Both time history and direct approach for in-structure spectra generation are used and discussion of results is made.

  19. Optimization of the energy complex “NPP-accumulator” in case of force majeure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzhnaya, G.; Zagrebaev, A.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a problem of optimization of NPP with accumulator operation mode in case of force majeure. A mathematical formulation and solving of problem of energy output’s time behavior is provided. A mathematical formulation and solving of problem of energy’s optimum allocation to consumers with different priorities. Mathematically, the problem reduces to linear programming problem. We received that optimal time behavior is uniform energy output, and one should start with consumer with highest priority.

  20. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences from the deterministic and probability analysis of the reliability of communication bridge structure resistance due to extreme loads - wind and earthquake. On the example of the steel bridge between two NPP buildings is considered the efficiency of the bracing systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the structure resistance are discussed. The advantages of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the safety and reliability of the structures is presented

  1. Computer modeling and simulators as part of university training for NPP operating personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers aspects of a program for training future nuclear power plant personnel developed by the NPP Department of Ivanovo State Power Engineering University. Computer modeling is used for numerical experiments on the kinetics of nuclear reactors in Mathcad. Simulation modeling is carried out on the computer and full-scale simulator of water-cooled power reactor for the simulation of neutron-physical reactor measurements and the start-up - shutdown process.

  2. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  3. Integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites—A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C. Senthil, E-mail: cskumar@igcar.gov.in [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Hassija, Varun; Velusamy, K. [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Balasubramaniyan, V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Framework for integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites. • Categorization of external and internal events. • Modelling of key issues: mission time, cliff-edge, common cause failures, etc. • Safety goals for multi-unit NPP sites. • Comparison of site core damage frequency in one, two, three and four unit sites. - Abstract: Most of the nuclear power producing sites in the world houses multiple units. Such sites are faced with hazards generated from external events: earthquake, tsunami, flood, etc. and can threaten the safety of nuclear power plants. Further, risk from a multiple unit site and its impact on the public and environment was evident during the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. It is therefore important to evolve a methodology to systematically assess the risk from multi-unit site. For a single unit site, probabilistic risk assessment technique identifies the potential accident scenarios, their consequences, and estimates the core damage frequency that arise due to internal and external hazards. This challenging task becomes even more complex for a multiple unit site, especially when the external hazards that has the potential to generate one or more correlated hazards or a combination of non-correlated hazards are to be modelled. This paper presents an approach to evaluate risk for multiple NPP sites and also compare the risk for sites housing single, double and multiple nuclear plants.

  4. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident crisis and its influence on energy policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Fossil fuel power plants (FPPs) and nuclear power plants (NPPs) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan experienced a mega earthquake and resulting tsunamis on March 11, 2011, which resulted in serious damage. More than half of the FPPs have returned to supplying electricity, while all NPPs are still shut down. In particular, Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Co. experienced a nuclear accident crisis unprecedented in both scale and timeframe. This paper gives a brief overview of the events and their propagation based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report and the authors' studies on accident analysis, and offers considerations on root causes of the propagation, e.g., problems in hardware, software and accident management, by comparing the responses of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP with those of other reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ni, Tokai, Onagawa and Higashidori NPPs, where cold shutdowns were successfully maintained even though they had also been affected by the earthquake and tsunamis. Future technical subjects for safe NPP operation and the influence of the events on Japanese energy policy are presented. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of radiation safety for storage o high integrity container in Yonggwang NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Soo; Park, Seung Chil; Ha, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byung Tae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, KEPCO, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    In order to reduce the generation of radioactive waste in Yonggwang NPP, the spent resin dry system(SRDS) will be used for treatment of spent resin. According to operation of SRD, a different container will be required for containment of spent resin instead of DOT-17H drum. Therefore, the high integrity container (HIC) which is manufactured for disposal will be used for containment of spent resin generated from SRDS. Because the HIC contained with spent resin as high radioactivity and high radiation dose rate, a special attention in handling of HIC and storage of HIC in radioactive waste storage building should be paid. Accordingly, it is necessary to prepare the program for safe storage of HIC. Several options on storage of HIC into the radioactive waste storage building in Yonggwang NPP were established. Depending on the field conditions, it can be of help to the choice of pertinent method for safe and effective storage of HIC. In this report, the radiation safety of each option on the storage of HIC was evaluated and it shows that any option can be adapted as an effective storage method for Younggwang NPP if some problems appeared through the radiation safety evaluation are resolved. (author)

  6. Numerical Methods for an Analysis of Hydrogen Behaviors Coupled with Thermal Hydraulics in a NPP Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongtae; Park, Rae-Joon; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Gun-Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In a containment safety analysis, multi-dimensional characteristics in thermal hydraulics are very important because the flow paths are not confined in a large free volume of the containment. The analysis is difficult because of a difference in length scales between a characteristic length of the flow and representative length of the containment. In order to simulate hydrogen and steam behaviors in a containment during postulated severe accidents, the GASFLOW code as a multi-dimensional analysis tool for NPP containment has been used for years because of its computational efficiency. Though GASFLOW is well developed for a real NPP containment analysis, there exist shortcomings in nodalization, two-phase and turbulence models. It is based on a Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate mesh, so it is impractical to refine a mesh locally in a region with a physical or geometrical complication. In this paper, the importance of the hydrogen safety in an NPP containment and requirements of the analysis tool was described. And physical models necessary for the hydrogen safety analysis code were listed. As a member of international collaborative project HYMERES for containment thermal hydraulics, KAERI is actively participating in an analytic working group. As an analysis tool for blind benchmarkes, the analysis code described in this paper was used. From the blind benchmark analyses, it was found that the code is very promising for hydrogen safety analysis. Currently, it is proposed to develop the code collaboratively in a hydrogen safety community based on an open-source strategy.

  7. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-15

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments.

  8. Development of seismic safety reevaluation procedure considering the ageing of NPP facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Kue [Jeonju Univ., Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. M. [Cheonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S.; Cheong, S. H.; Kim, I. S.; Lee, M. G.; Kim, D. O. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G. H. [Mokpo National Maritime Univ., Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    There are three of Nuclear Power Plants subject to the USI A-46 in Korea, including Kori No 1 and No 2 and Wolsung No 1. For the sake of resolution of the issue the possibility of adopting the GIP developed by the SQUG in USA is very high. In relation to the issue, this study addresses some technical improvements of the GIP including sloshing analysis based on multiple modes, seismic retrofit of cabinet for reduction of ICRS and modification of IRS depending on damping ratio. Dominant degradation factor and its affects NPP concrete elements are reviewed : chloride induced corrosion, carbonation of concrete elements, freezing and thawing of concrete elements, chemical and biological process, crack affect on concrete degradation. Various technical reports and papers about age-related degradation are reviewed for identification of degradation properties of NPP structures and components and degradation trend in NPP structures and components. This report summarizes numerical model for concrete degradation and development procedure of numerical models for concrete degradation. This report proposes the research necessity for performance evaluation of degraded concrete structure and selection of element for further study.

  9. Conformity Between LR0 Mock-Ups and Vvers Npp Rpv Neutron Flux Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira; Kirilova, Desislava

    2009-08-01

    The conformity of the mock-up results and those for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of nuclear power plants (NPP) has been evaluated in order to qualify if the mock-ups data could be used for benchmark's purpose only, or/and for simulating of the NPP irradiation conditions. Neutron transport through the vessel has been calculated by the three-dimensional discrete ordinate code TORT with problem oriented multigroup energy neutron cross-section library BGL. Neutron flux/fluence and spectrum shape represented by normalized group neutron fluxes in the multigroup energy structure, for neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV, have been used for conformity analysis. It has been demonstrated that the relative difference of the attenuation factor as well as the group neutron fluxes did not exceed 10% at all considered positions for VVER-440. For VVER-1000, it has been obtained the same consistency, except for the location behind the RPV. The neutron flux attenuation behind the RPV is 18% higher than the mock-up attenuation. It has been shown that this difference arises from the dissimilarity of the biological shielding. The obtained results have demonstrated that the VVERs' mock-ups are appropriate for simulating the NPP irradiation conditions. The mock-up results for VVER-1000 have to be applied more carefully i.e. taking into account the existing peculiarity of the biological shielding and RPV attenuation azimuthal dependence.

  10. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  11. Chernobyl, 25 years later... Fukushima: what future for nuclear energy?; Tchernobyl, 25 ans apres... Fukushima: Quel avenir pour le nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouha, M.; Reuss, P.

    2011-07-01

    Starting from a precise analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of its consequences, this book follows with a general analysis of: the present day worldwide energy context and of its projections, the physical and technical aspects of nuclear energy, the place it can share with the other energy sources and its perspectives of development. Content: Introduction; man and energy; nuclear energy; RBMK-type reactors; the Chernobyl accident; the nuclear energy renaissance; conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general

  13. Downward migration of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in soils in Poland and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matisoff, Gerald, E-mail: gerald.matisoff@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Vitko, Lauren F. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 (United States); Persson, Henning [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Lokas, Edyta [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu move down into the soil profile. {yields} {sup 137}Cs is from Chernobyl fallout; {sup 239,240}Pu is from stratospheric fallout from the 1960s. {yields} Solute transport and bioturbation models describe some but not all of the radionuclide profiles. - Abstract: Vertical profiles of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu were measured in soils collected from two sites in southern Sweden and three sites in southern Poland and were modeled using both a solute transport model and a bioturbation model to better understand their downward migration. A time series of measured {sup 137}Cs profiles indicates that {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl was found at the soil surface in 1986 but it has migrated progressively downward into the soil 4.5-25.5 cm since. However, because of dispersion during the migration and mixing following Chernobyl deposition and the much higher activities of {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl, stratospheric fallout of {sup 137}Cs from the 1960s cannot be identified as a second {sup 137}Cs activity maximum lower in the soil column at any of the sites. Conversely, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio indicates that no Chernobyl-derived Pu is present in any of the cores with the exception of one sample in Sweden. This difference may be attributed to the nature of the release from Chernobyl. Cesium volatilized at the reactor temperature during the accident, and was released as a vapor whereas Pu was not volatile and was only released in the form of minute fuel particles that traveled regionally. Both the solute diffusion and the bioturbation models accurately simulate the downward migration of the radionuclides at some sites but poorly describe the distributions at other sites. The distribution coefficients required by the solute transport model are about 100 times lower than reported values from the literature indicating that even though the solute transport model can simulate the profile shapes, transport as a

  14. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  15. 浅议福岛核电事故对我国核电发展的影响及借鉴%Lessons from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accident and Effect on NPP Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金钊

    2012-01-01

    Although the Fukushima NPP accident caused no serious environmental problem in China, but it does have great effect on the future NPP development in China. The NPP development plan in China is so uniquely huge in the world energy field that great challenge has already arisen to the Chinese NPP constructors and operators. This paper analyzes the sequence of the Fukushima NPP, which can be referred to in the improvement of the NPP development plan and the NPP accident emergency plan.%日本福岛核电事故虽然未对我国的环境造成严重影响,但是该事故的发生对我国后续核电的发展必然产生重大影响.我国庞大、密集的核电发展规划在世界能源发展领域是绝无仅有的,无论是在技术路线、标准制订还是在建造、运行的组织管理上,我国核电建设者和管理者都将面临巨大考验.通过分析和借鉴本次日本福岛核电事故的发生、处理过程,将对我国核电发展在多方面提供重要参考,从而促进我国核电规划及核电事故应急体系的持续完善.

  16. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  17. Fluctuations of the Concentration of Cs-137 Aerosol in Chernobyl,Fukushima and Kawasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yohei; Hatano, Yuko; Okada, Yukiko; Hirose, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Statistical analysis is applied to a time series of the airborne concentration of Cs-137. In order to extract fractal characteristics of the fluctuations, we employed the Hurst analysis. Interestingly, the Hurst index is around 1/3, which is common to the Chernobyl data, Fukushima data, and Kawasaki data. The Kawasaki data is measured by the Tokyo City University, located at 40km south to Tokyo. We proposed a stochastic differential equation, based on an advection equation with winds fluctuating probabilistically. The averaged solution of the equation is compared with measured data. We found that the index of the power of the time is -4/3, which is common to the three cases, Chernobyl, Fukushima and Kawasaki.

  18. Disaster policy and nuclear liability: Insights from post-Chernobyl agriculture in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William A.; Kwaczek, Adrienne S.; Mooney, Sian

    1989-09-01

    The recent events at Chernobyl have again brought the issues of nuclear safety to the forefront of the nuclear power debate. Fortunately, our experience with such incidents has been very limited, but it is important to learn as much as possible from such events so as to minimize the cost and effect of any other nuclear incidents, be they small or large. Much of the discussion about the possible effects of nuclear incidents has centered around the human cost in terms of health. While this is undoubtedly of paramount concern, the effect of the release of radiation from Chernobyl on the agricultural resource base in Europe can provide valuable insights on how to reduce the costs associated with the contamination of agricultural areas. This article outlines some of the lessons that can be learned using the livestock-raising industry in northern Wales as an example.

  19. Medical lessons learned from chernobyl relative to nuclear detonations and failed nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E

    2012-12-01

    The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 involved the largest airborne release of radioactivity in history, more than 100 times as much radioactivity as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs together. The resulting emergency response, administrative blunders, and subsequent patient outcomes from this large-scale radiological disaster provide a wealth of information and valuable lessons for those who may find themselves having to deal with the staggering consequences of nuclear war. Research findings, administrative strategies (successful and otherwise), and resulting clinical procedures from the Chernobyl experience are reviewed to determine a current utility in addressing the appropriate protocols for a medical response to nuclear war. As various myths are still widely associated with radiation exposure, attention is given to the realities of a mass casualty medical response as it would occur with a nuclear detonation.

  20. Thyroid Cancer in Ukrainian Population Groups Affected by the Chernobyl Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prysyazhnyuk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study goal was to investigate thyroid cancer morbidity in population groups affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The study period comprised 1994-2006 for clean-up workers and 1990-2006 for Chernobyl evacuees and residents of contaminated territories. A significant increase of thyroid cancer incidence was registered in all observed population groups. The most significant excess over the national level was identified in clean-up workers. This amounted to a factor of 5.9, while it was 5.5 for the evacuees and 1.7 for the residents. The highest thyroid cancer risk was observed in persons exposed to radioiodine in childhood and adolescence.

  1. Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the deposition of 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations. The performance, compared to measurements, of different combinations of parameterizations of wet and dry deposition schemes has been evaluated, using different statistical tests.

  2. Will we ever know for Chernobyl?; Saura-t-on un jour pour Tchernobyl?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, C.

    2012-01-15

    Millions of people have been living near the Chernobyl power plant and as a consequence have been submitted to low radiation doses for 26 years principally through food ingestion. A recent survey of scientific studies about the radiation effects shows that most research work is dedicated to thyroid while the long-term follow-up of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors have shown that other organs are likely to be concerned with an increase of different cancers and of no-cancerous pathologies like cardio-vascular diseases. The European project ARCH (Agenda for Research on Chernobyl Health) recommends to perform a broader range of studies than focusing on the thyroid and to set a collaborative platform to assure the financing and the coordination of these new topics of research. (A.C.)

  3. An arch to deal with Chernobyl; Une arche pour liquider Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    The preliminary works for the construction of a giant arch to cover the old sarcophagus of Chernobyl's ex-reactor No.4 are in progress. This building will have two functions: a safety barrier around the sarcophagus and a protection against bad weather in order to prepare the future dismantling of the inside using robots. The main contractor of the project is Novarka, a Bouygues-Vinci consortium who won the contract on September 18, 2007 in front of the US CH2M Hill. The end of the works is planned to March 31, 2012. 430 million euros have been invested for the improvement of Chernobyl's site safety. (J.S.)

  4. Chernobyl: the true, the possible and the false; TCHERNOBYL Le vrai, le probable et le faux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report discusses the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It also highlights the misunderstanding associated with the use by the media of different radioactivity measurement units. It comments some figures about casualties, and the fact that some much higher figures are often stated. It evokes the issue of thyroid cancer in children of the region, discusses other possible public health consequences, the issue of congenital anomalies, the opinion of French physicists on the increase of thyroid cancers in France, and the question of the discrimination between spontaneous and radio-induced cancers. A second part discusses the risk of cancer and its perception in France: validity of the soil contamination assessment, possibility of an accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima in France

  5. Ruthenium-103, iodine-131, tellurium-132, and cesium-137 in air after the Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.K.; Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne fission products during the month following the Chernobyl event, were analyzed by gamma-ray counting of 283 air filter samples that were collected at 20 different locations in the western United States. While the presence of {sup 103}Ru, {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was detected in many of the air filter samples, 78.2-hour {sup 132}Te was detected in only 19 samples all from the sampling stations located in the State of Nevada. The results obtained in this study indicate that the release of {sup 131}I from the Chernobyl reactor was roughly 50 percent greater than that of {sup 137}Cs, while the release of {sup 137}Cs was about 8 times that of {sup 103}Ru and 25 percent greater than that of {sup 132}Te. (orig.).

  6. Distribution of radionuclides in the environment in Northern Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzero, A. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Lab. Energia Nucleare Applicata); Borroni, P.A.; Oddone, M. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica Generale); Crespi, V.C.; Genova, N.; Meloni, S. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia (Italy). Centro di Radiochimica ed Analisi per Attivazione)

    1992-03-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the air-pumping stations in Pavia (northern Italy) were alerted. In a few days, a rapid increase in radionuclide concentration in air particulates was observed. Consequently, an environmental radioactivity monitoring programme was started in which several matrices such as soil, grass, vegetables and cows' milk were subjected to direct gamma-ray spectrometry. The radioactivity distribution and its variation with time is presented, discussed and compared with other available data. Detection limits, precision and accuracy are also reported, and depth profiles in soils for {sup 137}Cs are presented and correlated with soil quality parameters. A survey of environmental radioactivity in soil, in a search for residual Chernobyl fallout, was carried out and a map of the {sup 137}Cs distribution over a large area in northern Italy is presented and discussed. (author).

  7. International cooperation mass screening. Whole body cesium-137 measurements for the residents in Chernobyl area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1997-03-01

    The level of radiation exposure in children in the former Soviet Union area caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body {sup 137}Cs count. The subjects were totally 87,430 (42,114 boys and 45,316 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel Belarus, Bryansk Russian Federation and Kiev and Zhitomir Ukraine. They received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project Health examinations for May 1991 to December 1994 and were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body {sup 137}Cs count per body weight varied from 20 to 50 Bq kg{sup -1} except several cases in Gomel and Bryansk oblast. (The `oblast` is the largest administrative district constituting the country.) Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  8. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  9. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  10. On the possible physical mechanism of Chernobyl catastrophe and the unsoundness of official conclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A; Filippov, D V

    2003-01-01

    The official conclusion about the origin and mechanism of the Chernobyl catastrophe is shown to essentially contradict experimental facts available from the accident. In the frame of existing physical models of nuclear fission reactor, it is shown analytically that under conditions of the accident the period of runaway of reactor at the fourth power generating unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) should be either 10 times slower or 100 times faster than that observed. A self-consistent hypothesis is suggested for the probable birth of magnetic charges, during the turbine generator test under it's own momentum test, at the fourth power generating unit of CNPP, and for the impact of these charges on the reactivity coefficient.

  11. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  12. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity ...

  13. The mental health of clean-up workers 18 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K; Havenaar, J M; Tintle, N L; Guey, L T; Kotov, R; Bromet, E J

    2008-04-01

    The psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl accident is regarded as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. Yet the mental health of the clean-up workers, who faced the greatest radiation exposure and threat to life, has not been systematically evaluated. This study describes the long-term psychological effects of Chernobyl in a sample of clean-up workers in Ukraine. The cohorts were 295 male clean-up workers sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1990 interviewed 18 years after the accident (71% participation rate) and 397 geographically matched controls interviewed as part of the Ukraine World Mental Health (WMS) Survey 16 years after the accident. The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. We examined group differences in common psychiatric disorders, suicide ideation and severe headaches, differential effects of disorder on days lost from work, and in the clean-up workers, the relationship of exposure severity to disorder and current trauma and somatic symptoms. Analyses were adjusted for age in 1986 and mental health prior to the accident. Relatively more clean-up workers than controls experienced depression (18.0% v. 13.1%) and suicide ideation (9.2% v. 4.1%) after the accident. In the year preceding interview, the rates of depression (14.9% v. 7.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (4.1% v. 1.0%) and headaches (69.2% v. 12.4%) were elevated. Affected workers lost more work days than affected controls. Exposure level was associated with current somatic and PTSD symptom severity. Long-term mental health consequences of Chernobyl were observed in clean-up workers.

  14. Cancer risk among Chernobyl cleanup workers in Estonia and Latvia, 1986-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati; Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Tekkel, Mare; Stengrevics, Aivars; Hakulinen, Timo; Boice, John D; Inskip, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    Two cohorts of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia (4,786 men) and Latvia (5,546 men) were followed from 1986 to 1998 to investigate cancer incidence among persons exposed to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Each cohort was identified from various independent sources and followed using nationwide population and mortality registries. Cancers were ascertained by linkage with nationwide cancer registries. Overall, 75 incident cancers were identified in the Estonian cohort and 80 in the Latvian cohort. The combined-cohort standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.34) and for leukemia, 1.53 (95% CI = 0.62-3.17; n = 7). Statistically significant excess cases of thyroid (SIR = 7.06, 95% CI = 2.84-14.55; n = 7) and brain cancer (SIR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.07-3.83; n = 11) were found, mainly based on Latvian data. However, there was no evidence of a dose response for any of these sites, and the relationship to radiation exposure remains to be established. Excess of thyroid cancer cases observed may have been due to screening, the leukemia cases included 2 unconfirmed diagnoses, and the excess cases of brain tumors may have been a chance finding. There was an indication of increased risk associated with early entry to the Chernobyl area and late follow-up, though not statistically significant. Further follow-up of Chernobyl cleanup workers is warranted to clarify the possible health effects of radiation exposure.

  15. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  16. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

  17. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. METHODOLOGY OF INTERNAL DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE RUSSIAN POPULATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology of the internal dose reconstruction from I-131 and caesium radionuclides received by population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident. The direct measurements of radionuclides content in a human body were the most relevant data for internal dose reconstruction. Assessment of radionuclides intake with food products was considered as the second priority and application of radioecological models as the third priority when measurement data were absent.

  19. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Srobarova (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more eimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  20. Distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Ueno, Takashi; Nagao, Seiya; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Miki; Hanzawa, Yukiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Characteristics of the distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (30 km exclusion zone) has been investigated. Research items are, (i) Distribution of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (ii) Speciation of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (iii) Characteristics of the migration in the surface environment, (iv) Characteristics of the uptake into the vegetables, (v) Prediction of future radioecological situation in the environment, respectively. (author)

  1. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  2. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, M.; Ostroumova, E.; Brenner, A.; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Tronko, M.; Mabuchi, K

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium – heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well-established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much les...

  3. [The genetic sequelae for plant populations of radioactive environmental pollution in connection with the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Kal'chenko, V A; Fedotov, I S; Rubanovich, A V

    1996-01-01

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and Pinus sylvestris L., growing within 30 km of Chernobyl and Bryansk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on Arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophyll mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. On pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. Dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed.

  4. Does Chernobyl-derived radiation impact the developmental stability of Asellus aquaticus 30years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Neil; Smith, Jim T; Nagorskaya, Liubov L; Gudkov, Dmitri I; Ford, Alex T

    2017-01-15

    Effects of long-term, environmentally relevant doses of radiation on biota remain unclear due to a lack of studies following chronic exposure in contaminated environments. The 1986 Chernobyl accident dispersed vast amounts of radioactivity into the environment which persists to date. Despite three decades of research, impacts of the incident on non-human organisms continues to be contested within the scientific literature. The present study assessed the impact of chronic radiation exposure from Chernobyl on the developmental stability of the model aquatic isopod, Asellus aquaticus using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as an indicator. Fluctuating asymmetry, defined as random deviations from the expected perfect bilateral symmetry of an organism, has gained prominence as an indicator of developmental stability in ecotoxicology. Organisms were collected from six lakes along a gradient of radionuclide contamination in Belarus and the Ukraine. Calculated total dose rates ranged from 0.06-27.1μGy/h. Fluctuating asymmetry was assessed in four meristic and one metrical trait. Significant differences in levels of pooled asymmetry were recorded between sample sites independent of sex and specific trait measured. However, there was no correlation of asymmetry with radiation doses, suggesting that differences in asymmetry were not attributed to radionuclide contamination and were driven by elevated asymmetry at a single site. No correlation between FA and measured environmental parameters suggested a biotic factor driving observed FA differences. This study appears to be the first to record no evident increase in developmental stability of biota from the Chernobyl region. These findings will aid in understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long term effects of large scale nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima.

  5. Post-Chernobyl investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic Sea pilchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Branica, Gina; Marović, Gordana; Kubelka, Dragan; Franić, Zrinka

    2012-08-01

    Investigations in the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2009) of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic pilchards are presented. Compared with pre-Chernobyl period, the Chernobyl nuclear accident caused increase of (137)Cs activity concentrations in pilchards. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve was estimated to be 1.5±0.4 y for 1986-90 and 5.8±0.4 y for 1991-2009 and the bimodal behaviour for the ecological half-life of (137)Cs in pilchards has been observed. Estimated annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption for an adult member of Croatian population are small. Collective dose for the 1986-2009 period was 4.9+0.3 person-Sv. The observed (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in pilchards was similar to the ratio that has been found in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for pilchards was roughly estimated to be 93.7±39.2 l kg(-1), which is consistent with the values observed elsewhere.

  6. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati

    2003-02-01

    The impact of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 is reviewed within a framework of a triad of fear, rumour and truth. The scope of the accident, Soviet secrecy about it, and the lack of general awareness of, or disregard for, the effects of radiation created a fertile ground for persistent fears and rumours attributing any health problem to Chernobyl. Scientifically correct answers to health issues have been the means to combat disinformation, and to replace interconnected fears, misconceptions and rumours. To date, according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological studies, the main radiation-related effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer. In addition, the accident has had serious non-radiation-related psychological consequences on the residents of the contaminated territories, resettled populations and clean-up workers. Researchers in search of the truth through epidemiological reasoning are facing serious challenges which are reviewed within this article.

  7. Abundance of adult ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A

    2012-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  8. Carotenoids, sexual signals and immune function in barn swallows from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplani, A; Saino, N; Møller, A P

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids have been hypothesized to facilitate immune function and act as free-radical scavengers, thereby minimizing the frequency of mutations. Populations of animals exposed to higher levels of free radicals are thus expected to demonstrate reduced sexual coloration if use of carotenoids for free-radical scavenging is traded against use for sexual signals. The intensity of carotenoid-based sexual coloration was compared among three populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in exposure to radioactive contamination. Lymphocyte and immunoglobulin concentrations were depressed, whereas the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an index of stress, was enhanced in Chernobyl swallows compared to controls. Spleen size was reduced in Chernobyl compared to that of two control populations. Sexual coloration varied significantly among populations, with the size of a secondary sexual character (the length of the outermost tail feathers) being positively related to coloration in the two control populations, but not in the Chernobyl population. Thus the positive covariation between coloration and sexual signalling disappeared in the population subject to intense radioactive contamination. These findings suggest that the reliable signalling function of secondary sexual characters breaks down under extreme environmental conditions, no longer providing reliable information about the health status of males. PMID:10406129

  9. Monitoring of Individual Doses of Populations Residing in the Territories Contaminated after Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, V.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Pavlenko, J.V. [Acad of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    To provide instrumental validation of radioecological dosimetric models used for estimation of external doses to the Chernobyl population, about 1000 direct dose measurements were conducted in 1996-1997 in 54 settlements in contaminated territories of Ukraine. The areas covered by the measurements have {sup 137}Cs contamination density ranging from 55 to 491 kBq.m{sup -2}. Individual dose measurements were conducted using standard LiF dosemeters, type Harshaw 8814 (TLD-100), and automated TLD system Harshaw 8800. Relatively low contamination and, thus, an unfavourable 'Chernobyl/natural background' dose ratio, called for sophisticated analysis of experimental results. Linear regression of dose relative to {sup 137}Cs contamination density which was conducted in two different ways provided consistent results. Annual background dose, as derived from the results of individual dose measurements, is about 1.1 mSv per annum; the Chernobyl related component is expressed by the rate of 1.24-1.3 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum. These results are in reasonable agreement with somewhat conservative modelling parameters which are assumed to be 1.91 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum for the case of the rural population. (author)

  10. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF TRINUCLEOTIDE TTC MOTIFS IN COMMON FLAX PLANTED IN THE CHERNOBYL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the oldest domesticated plants — it was cultivated as early as in ancient Egypt and Samaria 10,000 years ago to serve as a source of fiber and oil, whence it later spread around the world. Compared with other plants, the flax genome consists of a high number of repetitive sequences, middle repetitive sequences and small repetitive sequences of nucleotides. The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the existing trinucleotides motifs of microsatellite DNA of the flax genome (genotype Kyivskyi, growing in the Chernobyl conditions. The Chernobyl area is the most extensive “natural” laboratory suitable for the study of radiation effects. Over the last 20 years, the researches collected important knowledge about the effects of low and high radiation doses on the DNA isolated from the plant material growing on the remediated fields near Chernobyl and the plant material from fields contaminated by radioactive cesium 137Cs and strontium 90Sr. Using eight pairs of microsatellite primers, we successfully amplified the samples from the remediated fields. For each primer in the control samples and remediated samples, we detected 1 to 3 fragments per locus, each in size up to 120 to 250 base pairs. The applied microsatellite primers confirmed the monomorphic condition of microsatellite loci.

  11. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  12. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy.

  13. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  14. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Lunar BRDF Correction of Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Time Series Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Kalb, V.; Stokes, E.; Miller, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first-light images from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS low-light visible Day/Night Band (DNB) sensor were received in November 2011, the NASA Suomi-NPP Land Science Investigator Processing System (SIPS) has focused on evaluating this new capability for quantitative science applications, as well as developing and testing refined algorithms to meet operational and Land science research needs. While many promising DNB applications have been developed since the Suomi-NPP launch, most studies to-date have been limited by the traditional qualitative image display and spatial-temporal aggregated statistical analysis methods inherent in current heritage algorithms. This has resulted in strong interest for a new generation of science-quality products that can be used to monitor both the magnitude and signature of nighttime phenomena and anthropogenic sources of light emissions. In one particular case study, Román and Stokes (2015) demonstrated that tracking daily dynamic DNB radiances can provide valuable information about the character of the human activities and behaviors that influence energy, consumption, and vulnerability. Here we develop and evaluate a new suite of DNB science-quality algorithms that can exclude a primary source of background noise: i.e., the Lunar BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) effect. Every day, the operational NASA Land SIPS DNB algorithm makes use of 16 days worth of DNB-derived surface reflectances (SR) (based on the heritage MODIS SR algorithm) and a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to determine a global set of parameters describing the BRDF of the land surface. The nighttime period of interest is heavily weighted as a function of observation coverage. These gridded parameters, combined with Miller and Turner's [2009] top-of-atmosphere spectral irradiance model, are then used to determine the DNB's lunar radiance contribution at any point in time and under specific illumination conditions.

  16. MetEd Resources for Embracing Advances with S-NPP and JPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2014-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. For many years COMET's satellite education programs have focused on developing self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. This presentation provides a tour of COMET's satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Over 90 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Satellite" topic area. Quite a few polar-orbiting-related lessons are available in both English, Spanish, and French. Additionally, S-NPP and JPSS relevant information can also be found on the the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc) that is maintained by COMET. The ESRC is a searchable, database-driven Web site that provides access to

  17. COMET Program Training Offerings to Support S-NPP and JPSS Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Are you up to speed on how to exploit new S-NPP capabilities and products? If not, don't worry, because UCAR's COMET program has self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites. The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) has long received funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. By partnering with experts from NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, the Naval Research Laboratory and others, COMET's self-paced training stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. Right now, over 70 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available in English via the MetEd Web site at http://meted.ucar.edu/topics/satellite. Additionally, quite a few lessons are also available in Spanish and French making training more easily accessible to an international audience. This presentation will focus on COMET's latest satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Finally, new relevant training initiatives will also be presented.

  18. OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2007-04-01

    A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil.

  19. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    specific activities of radionuclides within the ChEZ, external exposure doses from radioactive clouds and from fallout to the ground surface, as well as internal doses due to radionuclides inhalation. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am as main dose-forming ones within the ChEZ presently are considered. In addition, the list of nuclides includes {sup 131}I which may be released in the case of a radiation accident at the ISF-1. The system enables to calculate the atmospheric transport of releases from multiple sources of the same or different types (up to three ones) simultaneously for the period up to 24 hours. The software package is providing by the input meteorological information from sodar, 3 automatic meteorological stations and rain gauges network within the Zone. It enables calculations in on-line and off-line modes. The latter is used for retrospective simulations or modeling of possible emergencies consequences using meteorological parameters stored in the measurements database as well as source parameters from the release scenarios database previously formed. With the aim of emergency preparedness several possible radiological emergencies consequences are examined, including the radioactive dust releases from the 'Shelter' object and accidental releases out of the ISF-1. The consequences of the drainage of the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond, which is planned in the future, are assessed, including radionuclides resuspension caused by possible dust storms and tornadoes in the ChEZ. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  1. Impact of thicker cladding on the nuclear parameters of the NPP Krsko fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromar, Marjan, E-mail: marjan.kromar@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kurincic, Bojan [Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, Engineering Division, Nuclear Fuel and Reactor Core, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia)

    2011-04-15

    To make fuel rods more resistant to grid-to-rod fretting or other cladding penetration failures, the cladding thickness could be increased or strengthened. Implementation of thicker fuel rod cladding was evaluated for the NPP Krsko that uses 16 x 16 fuel design. Cladding thickness of the Westinghouse standard fuel design (STD) and optimized fuel design (OFA) is increased. The reactivity effect during the fuel burnup is determined. To obtain a complete realistic view of the fuel behaviour a typical, near equilibrium, 18-month fuel cycle is investigated. The most important nuclear core parameters such as critical boron concentrations, isothermal temperature coefficient and rod worth are determined and compared.

  2. Inter-Comparison of NPP/CrIS with AIRS and IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Weng, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the newly-launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a Fourier transform spectrometer that provides soundings of the atmosphere with 1305 spectral channels, over 3 wavelength ranges: LWIR (9.14 - 15.38 μm); MWIR (5.71 - 8.26 μm); and SWIR (3.92 - 4.64 μm). An accurate spectral and radiometric calibration as well as geolocation is fundamental for CrIS radiance Sensor Data Records (SDRs). In this study, through inter- and intra-satellite calibration efforts, we focus on assessment of NPP/CrIS post-launch radiometric and spectral calibration. The purpose of this study is to use inter-calibration technologies to quantify the CrIS calibration bias and uncertainties. We will compare CrIS hyperspectral radiance measurements with the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Metop-A and -B to examine spectral and radiometric consistence and difference among three hyperspectral IR sounders. The newly-launched CrIS on Suomi NPP, combined with AIRS and IASI, provide the first-ever inter-calibration opportunity because three hyperspectral IR sounders can observe the Earth and Atmosphere at the same spectral regions from different satellites. We will directly compare CrIS with AIRS and IASI at orbital crossing points of satellites occurring at high latitudes, the so-called simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO). The CrIS, AIRS, and IASI spectra will be processed at common grids and then the spectral differences will be computed. In addition, an accurate collocation algorithm has been developed to collocate high spatial resolution measurements from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) within each CrIS Field of View (FOV). The collocated VIIRS radiances will be used to characterize the homogeneity of CrIS FOVs to further reduce comparison uncertainties

  3. MORE: Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. [Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway); Valkonen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2008-03-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE project in the period January 1 - December 31 in 2007. The focus of this report is on improvements of the former project results, to identify and apply a couple of case studies from NPP projects, and activities in order to initiate and implement the industrial take-up and utilisation of the research results in real modernisation projects. The report also provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  4. Procedure and method of Equipment Qualification(EQ) for EPA in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Chul; Bhang, Keug Jin; Kang, Pil Sun [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Electric Penetration Assemblies(EPAs) for NPP are usually used for medium voltage power, low voltage power, low voltage control and instrumentation. Field cables either interface with the EPAs using electrical connectors or are terminated to penetration lead wires using splices or terminal blocks. These EPAs provide two critical and distinct functions, which are the electrical continuity, insulation and the containment pressure integrity. EPAs insulation resistance or impedance characteristics may be critical in instrument applications. The following design shows a typical modular unit design. In this paper, we analyze the codes and procedures of the equipment qualification test and propose test items, conditions, and acceptance criteria more specifically.

  5. Consideration of MAAP 5.0.2 ESF Model Characteristics for APR1400 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    After the Fukushima accident, EPRI has developed the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) version 5 that is expected to make up the limitation of MAAP4, that is to say, the appropriateness of the model for the severe accident phenomena and the applicability to the phenomena in the spent fuel pool and the halfloop operation. Up to now, the newest version of MAAP is 5.0.2 (Build 5020000) that was released officially in December, 2013. In addition to this, it is expected that MAAP 5.0.3 version will be published sooner or later. As a kind of post-Fukushima measures, KHNP is developing the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and severe accident management guideline (SAMG) for low power and shutdown (LPSD) mode and MAAP 5.0.2 should be used in these projects as a major analysis program. So, first of all, it is necessary that the parameter file for domestic NPP should be upgraded as current Ver. MAAP4 to Ver. MAAP 5.0.2. KHNP has developed the draft version of parameter file for APR1400 type NPP and is being upgraded continuously. The Engineering Safety Features (ESF) model is one of the unique features of MAAP. In this study, we try to share the general information of the MAAP ESF model and the specific characteristics of APR1400 ESF model based on the newly developed MAAP 5.0.2 parameter file. Currently, while developing the LPSD PSA and LPSD SAMG as a kind of post-Fukushima measures, KHNP have the plan in order to upgrade the old parameter file based on MAAP4 to that based on MAAP5.0.2 for all domestic nuclear power plants. And, as the first effort, we are developing the MAAP 5.0.2 parameter file for APR1400 type NPP. In this study, we tried to develop the more accurate and reasonable ESF model of APR1400. In this process, we can find the distinctions and characteristics of specific ESF model and generalized ESF model of MAAP5.0.2. Also, we can eliminate the confusing concepts existed in the two models. So, it is judged that the newly developed MAAP5

  6. Radionuclide Distribution in the Soil on the Stabatishkes Site in the Vicinity of the Ignalina NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Aliončik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A near surface repository for low and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste will be built on the Stabatiškės site in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP during decommissioning works. The reservoir can also be used for the waste stored in the temporary repositories of the Ignalina NPP. Engineering and nature protective barriers are used in the repository for radioactive waste, however, radionuclides can spread into the environment, extend in the biosphere and cause (define the external power light exposure of the environment due to the natural and premature (prescheduled degradation of the engineering barriers of the repository. The properties of the soil (acidity, quantity of organic substances, humidity are being investigated for estimating the possible migration and dispersion of radionuclides. The activity of radionuclides in the soil is also estimated before building the repository. Natural and artificial radionuclides make the pollution of the soil, and therefore the accumulation and vertical migration of artificial (137Cs, 60Co and natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40K radionuclides are being researched in the soil on the Stabatiškės site.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Modeling the critical safety functions status tree of a NPP using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Marcos Santana; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Jaime, Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro, E-mail: msantana@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br, E-mail: gdjaime@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: silas@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based systems and equipment are beginning to appear in new plants I and C applications, as well as in retrofits for operating plants, in particular for safety applications due to their capability to face the systems obsolescence since they are circuit independent. The circuits implemented can be portable to different FPGAs architectures. Moreover, they reduce complexity for regulatory approval as compared to conventional microprocessor-based systems. Critical safety function (CSF) is the most significant design concept for prioritize operator actions for NPP based on the potential threat to the three barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system boundary, and containment) and allows the operator to respond to these threats prior to event diagnosis. CSF has a hierarchical information structure that organizes the system variables affecting the plant safety in terms of goal-means relations. This paper describes the application of FPGA in the implementation of the CSFs status tree logic for a Westinghouse 3-loops NPP simulator. (author)

  8. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolnay Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  9. NPP atucha I. 40 years of commercial operation of the heavy-water reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzantini, Oscar A. [Nuclearelectrica Argentina SA, Atucha (Argentina); Fabian, Hermann O.

    2014-08-15

    The nuclear power plant (NPP) Atucha I in Argentina - a heavy-water reactor with pressure vessel technology operated with natural uranium - accomplished a remarkable anniversary on 26 June 2014: 40 years of commercial operation. State-run Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NA SA), being today the plant owner and operator commemorated this anniversary, as only few NPP exist which can refer to such long operating time with good performance. With a limited operating licence to 40 years (or rather 32 full load years) by the National Atomic Energy Agency (Comision National de Energia Atomica/CNEA) the plant had been handed over to CNEA on 24 June 1974 by the general contractor, Siemens AG, after release of the works contract on 1. June 1968. The site is located to the north-west of Buenos Aires upstream on the Rio Parana. The plant has an output of 345 MW; it has been continuously, reliable and successfully operated. Atucha I supplied overall 82.4 TWh of electricity into the national grid (220 kV) with an integral operating availability of 76.5 %.

  10. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Safety Features for NPP by Utilizing Solar Updraft Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sub Lee [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Yong Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyo Chan; Park, Youn Won [BEES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, hybrid safety features for NPP with solar updraft tower (SUT) is conceptually suggested to cope with loss of ultimate heat sink accident. The hybrid safety features utilizing SUT target NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf. Usually NPPs are constructed near seashore to utilize sea water as an ultimate heat sink. Residual heat or decay heat of nuclear reactor will diffuse into the ocean through the condenser. NPPs in Middle East are expected to be placed in seashore of Arabian Gulf. The NPP site of Barakah is an actual example. For NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf, an additional safety concern should be considered. Arabian Gulf is the largest oil transporting route in the world. The oil spill risk in Arabian Gulf will be the largest simultaneously. Unfortunately, not like other oceans, Arabian Gulf is a kind of closed ocean which does not have strong ocean currents connected to out of the gulf. If once oil spill is occurred, its influence can be propagated more than our expectation. The spilled oil also can affect to NPPs in seashore by covering surfaces of condenser. It will directly cause loss of ultimate heat sink. The hybrid safety features of SUT system are expected to aid normal operation of safety system and mitigate consequence of severe accident. Detail analysis and technology development is ongoing now.

  11. Modelling the current and future spatial distribution of NPP in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Cenk; Berberoglu, Suha; Curran, Paul J.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to use full spatial resolution Envisat MERIS data to drive an ecosystem productivity model for pine forests along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The Carnegie, Ames, Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial biogeochemical model, designed to simulate the terrestrial carbon cycle using satellite sensor and meteorological data, was used to estimate annual regional fluxes in terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP). At its core this model is based on light-use efficiency, influenced by temperature, rainfall and solar radiation. Present climate data was generated from 50 climate stations within the watershed using co-kriging. Regional scale pseudo-warming data for year 2070 were derived using a Regional Climate Model (RCM) these data were used to downscale the GCM General Circulation Model for the research area as part of an international research project called Impact of Climate Changes on Agricultural Production Systems in Arid Areas (ICCAP). Outputs of climate data can be moderated using the four variables of percent tree cover, land cover, soil texture and NDVI. This study employed 47 MERIS images recorded between March 2003 and September 2005 to derive percent tree cover, land cover and NDVI. Envisat MERIS data hold great potential for estimating NPP with the CASA model because of the appropriateness of both its spatial and its spectral resolution.

  12. Information technologies in radioactive waste management, applied in NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeliazkov, J.; Jeliazkova, L.; Atanasov, Sv. [BALBOK Co., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive waste (RAW) management in NPP is a complex problem, that can be considered as a combination of sub problems, for example scientific, administrative, social, economical, etc. The separate examination of these sub problems does not lead to creation of overall system for optimal RAW management. There`s no doubt that such an administrative system, supported by information technologies, should present in every one existing and planned nuclear power plant to optimize its operation as a whole, not only separate elements. The aim is to avoid the fallacy of the single and the complex. This paper presents a basic part of the whole information management system as defined above that concerns RAW management. The information management system is prepared for NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria by means of modern concepts and technological schemes and is aimed to help the administrative personnel in this very important activity - RAW management. On the base of objective data about the available waste and prognoses about arisings in the future, on the base of chosen technologies and equipment the system gives multi-variant plan for treatment, processing and disposal of waste, after the choice of a variant it monitors its application in the practice.

  13. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  14. Segmentation of the internal of the Reactor Jose Cabrera NPP; Segmentacion de los Internos del Reactor CN Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez silva, M.; Borque Linan, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Plan of dismantling and decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera NPP represents the first total dismantling of a nuclear power station in Spain (level 3 of the IAEA). Complete disassembly of the different components of the primary circuit (internal reactor vessel, pusher, generator of steam, etc.) represents a differential activity against previous projects of dismantling The segmentation of the inmates of the reactor under water using tele operators cutting tools in the spent fuel pit, has been a challenge from the technological point of view as well as a critical activity in the framework of the radiological dis-assemblies associated to the Plan of dismantling and Decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera NPP.

  15. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kanisch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC and from the Baltic Sea (BS have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg−1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150–400 m of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1% pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.

  16. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses; De Tchernobyl a Fukushima. L'effet des faibles doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A.

    2011-07-01

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  17. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weiwei; Randerson, James T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-09-01

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth system models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2-16 % and EP by 7-18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative declines in NPP and EP) also show the largest positive biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting overestimation of climate change impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface-ocean warming and freshening, which is accompanied by decreases in surface nutrients, NPP and EP. There is considerable variability across the models in the magnitudes of NPP, EP, surface nutrient concentrations and their perturbations by climate change. The negative response of NPP and EP to increasing stratification reflects primarily a bottom-up control, as upward nutrient flux declines at the global scale. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This pattern is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with reductions in productivity by large phytoplankton as smaller phytoplankton (which export less efficiently) are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, the projections of the NPP response to climate change are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the resulting levels of regenerated production, which vary widely across the models. Community structure is represented simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the spatial patterns and climate-driven changes in export

  18. The potential use of Chernobyl fallout data to test and evaluate the predictions of environmental radiological assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Blaylock, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Lesslie, P.A.; Miller, C.W.; Ng, Y.C.; Till, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of the Model Validation Committee were to collaborate with US and foreign scientists to collect, manage, and evaluate data for identifying critical research issues and data needs to support an integrated assessment of the Chernobyl nuclear accident; test environmental transport, human dosimetric, and health effects models against measured data to determine their efficacy in guiding decisions on protective actions and in estimating exposures to populations and individuals following a nuclear accident; and apply Chernobyl data to quantifications of key processes governing the environmental transport, fate and effects of radionuclides and other trace substances. 55 refs.

  19. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.

  20. Thyroid cancer incidence among people living in areas contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, massive amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and large numbers of individuals living in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to radioactive iodines, primarily 131I. Iodine-131 concentrated in the thyroid gland of residents of the contaminated areas, with children and adolescents being particularly affected. In the decade after the accident, a substantial increase in thyroid cancer incidence was observed among exposed children in the three affected countries, and compelling evidence of an association between pediatric thyroid cancer incidence and radiation exposure to the thyroid gland accumulated. The data currently available suggest that both the magnitude and patterns of thyroid cancer risk are generally consistent with those reported following external exposure. Based on data from case-control studies, iodine deficiency appeared to enhance the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure from Chernobyl. Results from a recent large cohort study, however, did not support these findings. Data on adult exposure are limited and not entirely consistent. Similarly, information on thyroid cancer risks associated with in utero exposure is insufficient to draw conclusions. The lack of information on these two population groups indicates an important gap that needs to be filled. Twenty years after the accident, excess thyroid cancers are still occurring among persons exposed as children or adolescents, and, if external radiation can be used as a guide, we can expect an excess of radiation-associated thyroid cancers for several more decades. Since considerable uncertainties about the long-term health effects from Chernobyl remain, continued follow-up of the exposed populations should provide valuable information.

  1. Validation of biokinetic models for strontium. Analysis of the Techa River and Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Repin, V.S.; Novak, N.Y.; Berkovski, V.; Nosske, D.

    2000-05-01

    The ICRP models used in radiation protection to estimate doses resulting from internal irradiation are based on biokinetic models for different radionuclides. Strontium-90 was one of the main sources of environmental contamination due to accidents in the ''Mayak'' plutonium production complex (Southern Urals, 1949-1956) and the Chernobyl accident (1986). Over 800 measurements of bone-autopsy, and 31,000 Whole body Counter {sup 90}Sr measurements for Techa River population were made at URCRM (Chelyabinsk). Measurements of {sup 90}Sr contents in skeleton were performed for residents of the area contaminated due to Chernobyl accident (RPI, Kiev). These unique data allowed to validate the predictions of {sup 90}Sr biokinetic models at different times after ingestion, and in the case of complicated rate of intake. Model validation can be considered as best approach for quantifying the reliability of the model's predictions. Available data on {sup 90}Sr content in human skeleton were analyzed. {sup 90}Sr measurements cover the long period after start of intake: from 2 to 45 years after contamination (Techa River data). Model predictions for all age groups were compared with Techa River and Chernobyl data. For adult persons calculated and measured values of {sup 90}Sr body content were found to be very close, especially over the first 15 years after the major intake. After the majority of measured people had attained the age of 45 years and changes of calcium metabolism resulted in a significant increase of strontium elimination rate. The particularities of bone mineral turnover in old persons are not considered in the framework of the ICRP model. The latter feature resulted in a divergence between the model curve and the results of {sup 90}Sr measurements for old persons. For children and adolescents the differences between calculated values and measured {sup 90}Sr body contents are more significant. The comparison of different strontium

  2. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 3 study of the health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.; Pott-Born, R. [Munich Univ., Radiobiological Institute (Germany); Gagniere, B. [CIRE Ouest, 35 - Rennes (France); Mansoux, H.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Valenty, M.; Calmont, I.; Brun-Yaba, Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Verger, P. [ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Franc, B. [Hopital Ambroise-Pare, 92 - Boulogne (France); Robert-Gnansia, E. [European Instituteof Genomutations, 69 - Lyon (France); Briend, A. [Scientific and Technical Institute of Nutrition and Alimentation/CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    The results of the French-German Initiative Health Effects project, conducted over a period of four years, were presented to the international authorities at a congress held in October 2004 in Kiev and are summarised below. Thyroid cancer increase in children and young adults seems clearly related to exposure at young ages in 1986. For the other cancers sites, the observed results do not add any decisive elements that would make it possible to quantify the impact of post-Chernobyl irradiation: the trend observed in time is similar in both exposed and non-exposed areas in most situations. These observations do not exclude the fact that an increase of leukaemia may exist for those exposed as children; it may be too low to be detectable in a statistically significant way. Similarly, the higher rate of congenital malformations observed during recent years cannot be attributed to radiation, because the same trend over time is observed both in contaminated and non-contaminated areas in Belarus. Reliable and up-to-date knowledge has been collected in a H.E.D.A.C. database, it should facilitate communication concerning the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The main results published at national or international level, will be made available to the public and the international scientific community via modern distribution methods and will contribute to the development of a necessary cohesion between international research programmes and work carried out locally. Contact the web site: www.fgi.icc.gov.ua For detailed information, final reports are available: contact with mentioned investigators is proposed (see authors of final reports) or contact scientific coordinator M. Tirmarche at I.R.S.N. (France) D. Bazyka at R.C.R.M., Kiev in charge of the database and communication of scientific results at Chernobyl Center.

  3. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  5. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, G

    1998-12-31

    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia`s indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder`s supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a `backward-bending` supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident 8 refs, 10 figs. Arbetsrapport 268

  6. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  7. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  8. Land and Cryosphere Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, M. O.; Justice, C. O.; Csiszar, I. A.; Vermote, E.; Wolfe, R. E.; Hook, S. J.; Friedl, M. A.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Miura, T.; Tschudi, M. A.; Riggs, G. A.; Hall, D. K.; Lyapustin, A.; Devadiga, S.; Davidson, C.; Masuoka, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA and NOAA funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products which would meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use and developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs and provide MODIS data product continuity. This paper will present the findings to-date of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. To achieve the stated goal of MODIS data continuity and the establishment of long-term data records through VIIRS, it is important to start now to use S-NPP to establish a pathway to science use of VIIRS data in the JPSS era. One year after launch, initial instrument and operational product evaluations are now ending and the next step is to build on the success of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) and the Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element (PEATE) data processing and generate and distribute high

  9. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  10. Contamination of North- and Baltic Sea as a result of the accident of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, H.; Wedekind, C.

    1987-01-01

    The input from 'Chernobyl' can be distinguished from other sources of artificial radionuclides, such as the reprocessing plants at La Hague and Sellafield, by its characteristic nuclide spectrum. The input occurred to quite different strength of activity in the different areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea; a rapid vertical dilution within the water column resulted in a rapid decrease of the initial activity concentration. The sediments are contaminated by the vertical transport of sinking suspended particulate matter, which adsorb the activity from the surrounding water.

  11. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  12. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  13. Sources of contradictions in the evaluation of population genetic consequences after the chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazko, V I; Glazko, T T

    2013-01-01

    The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive "success" of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed.

  14. Chernobyl 30 years on. Key remediation and safety projects are 'on track'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Thirty years after the accident at Chernobyl, key remediation and safety projects are on track and construction of the vital Euro 1.5 bn (US Dollars 1.6 bn) New Safe Confinement (NSC) is almost finished with commissioning scheduled for November 2017, the company in charge of construction and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) told NucNet. The NSC is the most high profile and expensive element of the US Dollars 2.15 bn Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP), a framework developed to overcome the consequences of the accident.

  15. Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, K.S.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Nuclear Environmental Research Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of {sup 137}Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric

  16. The monitoring of herbaceous seeds in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Frolova, N.P.; Popova, O.N.; Shevchenko, V.A. (AN SSSR, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation). Komi Filial AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Obshchej Genetiki)

    1992-02-01

    Species of wild herbaceous plants growing over a period of 3 years under chronic irradiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident were studied. Examining the mass of 1000 seeds and their germination did not yield any significant differences between groups of seeds of the same species collected from the different contaminated zones. Nor did the frequency of aberrant cells in roots of germinated seeds reveal any significant differences between the zones. Seeds of Plantago lanceolata growing in areas with higher levels of radiation, did appear to be more sensitive to additional gamma-irradiation. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs.

  17. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag; Le crime de Tchernobyl. Le goulag nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchertkoff, W

    2006-07-01

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  18. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-07-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  19. Selection of optimal treatment procedures for non-standard radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of NPP after accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strážovec, Roman, E-mail: strazovec.roman@javys.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); JAVYS, a.s., Tomášikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hrnčíř, Tomáš [DECOM, a.s., Sibírska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lištjak, Martin [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); VUJE, a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is becoming a standard industrial activity where the optimization processes of partial activities are inevitable mainly for technical and economic reasons. In Slovakia, the decommissioning of A1 NPP is very specific case because A1 NPP is rare type of NPP (prototype) and furthermore its operation was affected by the accident. A large number of specific non-standard radioactive waste, such as long-time storage cases (hereinafter LSC), that is not usually present within the decommissioning projects of NPP with a regular termination of operation, represent one of the significant consequences of the accident and issues arisen from follow-up activities. The presented article describes the proposal of processing and conditioning of non-standard radioactive waste (such as LSC), together with description of methodology applied in the proposal for update of waste acceptance criteria for the processing and conditioning of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW) within Bohunice Radioactive waste Treatment and Conditioning Centre (hereinafter RWTC). The results of performed detailed analysis are summarized into new waste acceptance criteria for technological lines keeping in mind safety principles and requirements for protection of operating personnel, the public and the environment.

  20. 76 FR 46330 - NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft... for public comment a document entitled, NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling... pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling...

  1. Study of Degradation Processes in Dielectric Materials Used in Electronic Control Equipment Operated in ``Kozloduy'' NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Nayden; Popov, Angel

    2007-04-01

    The electronic equipment for control of different systems of Units 5 and 6 is studied for presence of degradation processes occurring in result of continuous usage in conditions of controlled radiation background in compliance with ``Kozloduy'' NPP safety codes. Systems, operated in a continuous mode in the course of about 10 years were chosen - separate units containing different dielectric materials (varnish coating, circuit board bases, cable insulations, electro protective elements, etc.) were extrapolated. Series of test samples were prepared which were connected with flat or coaxial condensers and their characteristic parameters were measured: tgδ, ɛ, low voltage conductivity and leak currents at voltages that exceed the working ones several times. When comparing the obtained data with the reference ones, a conclusion is made about the effectiveness of electric ageing during operation in the course of time.

  2. Development of Rainfall-Discharge Model for Future NPP candidate Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji-hong; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    By this study, most suitable model for future nuclear power plant site in Yeongdeok to be used to predict peak amount of riverine flooding was developed by examining historical rainfall and discharge data from the nearest gage station which is Jodong water level gage station in Taehwa basin. Sitting a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires safety analyses that include the effects of extreme events such as flooding or earthquake. In light of South Korean government's 15-year power supply plan that calls for the construction of new nuclear power station in Yeongdeok, it becomes more important to site new station in a safe area from flooding. Because flooding or flooding related accidents mostly happen due to extremely intense rainfall, it is necessary to find out the relationship between rainfall and run-off by setting up feasible model to figure out the peak flow of the river around nuclear related facilities.

  3. Sulfate and Chloride Resistance of High Fluidity Concrete including Fly Ash and GGBS for NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jea Myoung; Cho, Myung Sug [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Fly ash mixed concrete has been used for NPP concrete structures in Korea in order to prevent aging and improve durability since the Shin.Kori no.1,2 in 2005. Concentrated efforts to develop technology for the streamlining of construction work and to affect labor savings have been conducted in construction. The application of high fluidity concrete for nuclear power plants has been the research subject with the aim of further rationalization of construction works. Since high fluidity concrete can have the characteristics of high density and high strength without compaction. However, high fluidity concrete can cause thermal cracking by heat of hydration. For this reason, the amount of pozzolan binder should be increased in high fluidity concrete for nuclear power plants. In this study, the resistance of high fluidity concrete on sulfate and chloride was compared with that of the concrete currently using for nuclear power plants

  4. Photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells grown by OMVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S.; Singh, K.; Bhimnathwala, H.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)/p/p(+) homojunction InP solar cells fabricated by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) are described. The cells are characterized by I-V, C-V and quantum efficiency measurements, and simulations are used to obtain various device and material parameters. The I-V characteristics show a high recombination rate in the depletion region; this is shown to be independent of the impurity used. It is shown that cadmium is easier to use as an acceptor for the p base and p(+) buffer and is therefore beneficial. The high quantum efficiency of 98 percent at long wavelengths measured in these cells indicates a very good collection efficiency in the base. The short-wavelength quantum efficiency is poor, indicating a high surface recombination.

  5. Automatic system for air flow control in air-tight chambers of the NPP primary circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersenev, V.L.; Bagautdinov, Z.S.; Panov, S.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A system for automatic control of air flows is briefly described which is based on a tensometric flow rate sensor. A sensitive element of the sensor, made of paper-based laminate, under the effect of incoming air flow travels, causing a bending of an elastic element, made of stainless steel. The deformation causes changes in the electric resistance of tensoresistors, the degree of a change being proportional to the air flow rate. A 400 Ohm tensoresistor is used in the sensor. Errors in the flow rate measurement using the tensometric sensor does not exceed +-3% even in the low rate air flow range. The system, tested at the Beloyarsk NPP, has shown a high reliability and accuracy of measurements, which permits to recommend it for the use in technological ventilation of NPPs.

  6. Developing Land Surface Type Map with Biome Classification Scheme Using Suomi NPP/JPSS VIIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Chengquan; Zhan, Xiwu; Jin, Huiran

    2016-08-01

    Accurate representation of actual terrestrial surface types at regional to global scales is an important element for a wide range of applications, such as land surface parameterization, modeling of biogeochemical cycles, and carbon cycle studies. In this study, in order to meet the requirement of the retrieval of global leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation (fPAR) and other studies, a global map generated from Suomi National Polar- orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) surface reflectance data in six major biome classes based on their canopy structures, which include: Grass/Cereal Crops, Shrubs, Broadleaf Crops, Savannas, Broadleaf Forests, and Needleleaf Forests, was created. The primary biome classes were converted from an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) legend global surface type data that was created in previous study, and the separation of two crop types are based on a secondary classification.

  7. Chemical mode in secondary circuit of the Dukovany NPP units after TG condensers replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopriva, M.; Shejbal, J.; Petrecky, I. [Dukovany NPP (Czech Republic)

    2002-07-01

    The increase of the pH of SG feedwater on the 1. unit of Dukovany NPP led to enhancement of chemical mode of secondary circuit, what was identified in particular by the following: Reduction of concentration of iron in SG feedwater, Reduction of concentration of Sodium and Sulfates in SG blowdown water. This reduction is caused by shutdown of CPS thus by elimination of release of Na ions and SO{sub 4} from wrong operated ion-exchangers and their subsequent regeneration (part of cation exchanger in Na form and part of anion exchanger in SO{sub 4} form). Reduction of the WANO SG chemical index to the minimum theoretical value. It will be necessary to change criteria characterizing this index or to introduce our own modified index. In relation to CPS shutdown the costs for operating chemicals and for demineralized flushing water were reduced. (authors)

  8. Surface pathway of radioactive plume of TEPCO Fukushima NPP1 released 134Cs and 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aoyama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 134Cs and 137Cs were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High density observations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 cruises of cargo ships and several research vessel cruises from March 2011 till March 2012. The main body of radioactive surface plume of which activity exceeded 10 Bq m−3 travelled along 40° N and reached the International Date Line on March 2012, one year after the accident. A distinct feature of the radioactive plume was that it stayed confined along 40° N when the plume reached the International Date Line. A zonal speed of the radioactive plume was estimated to be about 8 cm s−1 which was consistent with zonal speeds derived by Argo floats at the region.

  9. Radiation safety control on Ulchin NPP Unit 1 s/g sleeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. T.; Jang, Y. S. [KEPCO Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 1, 2, Kyongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Ulchin NPP unit 1 has been entered its tenth operation year. As the operation years went by, S/G tubes' defects have been reported, which was analyzed mainly due to PWSCC through ECT and various studies. In the ninth overhaul, technical staffs of Ulchin unit 1 decided to do sleeve installation for defected tubes. This sleeve installation was a second experience on our plant in KEPCO. The sleeving tubes were estimated to 600 pieces, but increased to 987 pieces by ECT results. As the sleeve installation was performed in high radiation level, we have considered various radiation safety, i e. protection of radiation source and internal exposure. The collective radiation exposure dose was recorded to 142.32 man-mSv and no internal exposed person was discovered. But there are some requirements to improve radiation safety for reducing exposure dose to radiation. PWSCC : Primary Water Side Stress Corrosion Crack (author)

  10. Retrospective Dosimetry of Vver 440 Reactor Pressure Vessel at the 3RD Unit of Dukovany Npp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Sus, F.; Klupak, V.; Rataj, J.; Hogel, J.

    2009-08-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) residual lifetime of the Czech VVER-440 is currently monitored under Surveillance Specimens Programs (SSP) focused on reactor pressure vessel materials. Neutron fluence in the samples and its distribution in the RPV are determined by a combination of calculation results and the experimental data coming from the reactor dosimetry measurements both in the specimen containers and in the reactor cavity. The direct experimental assessment of the neutron flux density incident onto RPV and neutron fluence for the entire period of nuclear power plant unit operation can be based on the evaluation of the samples taken from the inner RPV cladding. The Retrospective Dosimetry was also used at Dukovany NPP at its 3rd unit after the 18th cycle. The paper describes methodology, experimental setup for sample extraction, measurement of activities, and the determination of the neutron flux and fluence averaged over the samples.

  11. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE OF NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ENVELOPE WALLS TECHNICAL CONDITION OF NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. Enveloped concrete wall type structures of localizing safety systems for restaint and localization of radioactive decay products or in the case of special natural or man-made impacts on the power unit is one of the most important components to ensure the safety of nuclear power. The promising direction for the development of the NPP technical system monitoring is to use conductive nanocomposites as primary elements of information. The purpose of the article is to review the theoretical background and experience in the conductive nanocomposites creating for diagnostics of localizing nuclear safety systems. Conclusions. A promising area for the development of diagnostic systems of localizing nuclear safety systems is the use of electrically conductive nanocomposites (conductive concrete - bethels, plasters, paint coatings. A mechanism for conductive nanocomposites creating is the use of the filler metal and carbon nanoparticles. As binders is promising to use nanocomposites of the mineral binders (cement and water glass.

  12. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  13. Analysis of World Nuclear Market and Strategy of Korean NPP's Competitiveness Improvement for Exportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    China, India and USA (nuclear adopted countries) are planning tremendous number of NPPs to meet their increasing electricity demand and Saudi Arabia, Vietnam (nuclear adopting countries) are also planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix as a long-term plan. Korea has exported 4 units of APR1400 to the UAE in December, 2009. Korea became sixth NPP supplier country and our economic feasibility and safety features were started to evaluate worldwide. Nuclear industries became a new driver of Korea’s export and nuclear industries in Korea are now expecting another NPP export to Middle-eastern countries, including UAE and Saudi Arabia, based on the first-mover’s advantage at the UAE. In 2000s, five countries (Japan, USA, France, Russia and Korea), which are able to build NPP, focused on NPP export more than domestic construction. Global trend of world nuclear market changed rapidly, especially after NPP export to the UAE. By the global trend, hegemony of nuclear market migrated from supplier country to buyer country. Nuclear companies started cooperating rather than competing. Financing to developing countries become more important. In general, one of the considerable combinations is Korea-Japan-USA alliance. Korea is in charge of EPC, Japan supports financing and deficient technology (with USA partner), and Japan-USA handles fuel supply and back-end fuel cycle based on new agreed terms of ROK-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement. This combination was judged to best way to collaborate with global companies. Paying attention to many delayed (or potentially delayed) constructions from Russia, intercepting the construction work will be available in case of contracted countries. Korea can emphasize the short construction time, high responsiveness and mild/equal diplomatic position to the target countries.

  14. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 >  alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Modeling the dynamics of distribution, extent, and NPP of global terrestrial ecosystems in response to future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Yang, Yue; Li, Jianlong; Cheng, Jimin; Qi, Jiaguo; Odeh, Inakwu

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how terrestrial ecosystems would respond to future climate change can substantially contribute to scientific evaluation of the interactions between vegetation and climate. To reveal the future climate impacts might on the nature and magnitude of global vegetation, the spatiotemporal distribution and net primary productivity (NPP) of global terrestrial biomes and their dynamics in this century were quantitatively simulated and compared by using the improved Comprehensive and Sequential Classification System and the segmentation model. The 33 general circulation models under the four scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were utilized to simulate the future climate change. The multi-model ensemble results showed that at the global scale, the distribution of forests and deserts would expand by more than 2% and 4% over this century, respectively. By contrast, more than 11% of grassland regions would shrink. Despite the considerable differences in the simulated responses of the biomes, the poleward movement or expansion of temperate forest were prominent features across all the scenarios. Meanwhile, the terrestrial NPP was projected to increase by 7.44, 9.51, 9.46, and 12.02 Pg DW·a- 1 in 2070s relative to 1970s in the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5, respectively. The largest NPP decrease would occur in tundra & alpine steppe. NPP in the Tropical Zone, the North Temperate Zone, and the North Frigid Zone was estimated to increase in this century, whereas NPP in the South Temperate Zone was projected to decrease slightly across all scenarios. Overall, ecosystems in the mid-/high latitudes would be more vulnerable to future climate change in terms of distribution ranges and primary productivity despite the existing uncertainties. Some vegetation would benefit from the warmer and wetter climate. However, most of these plants would suffer and experience irreversible changes, particularly in the northern hemisphere.

  16. Failure Forewarning in NPP Equipment NERI2000-109 Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM

    2004-03-26

    The objective of this project is forewarning of machine failures in critical equipment at next-generation nuclear power plants (NPP). Test data were provided by two collaborating institutions: Duke Engineering and Services (first project year), and the Pennsylvania State University (Applied Research Laboratory) during the second and third project years. New nonlinear methods were developed and applied successfully to extract forewarning trends from process-indicative, time-serial data for timely, condition-based maintenance. Anticipation of failures in critical equipment at next-generation NPP will improve the scheduling of maintenance activities to minimize safety concerns, unscheduled non-productive downtime, and collateral damage due to unexpected failures. This approach provides significant economic benefit, and is expected to improve public acceptance of nuclear power. The approach is a multi-tiered, model-independent, and data-driven analysis that uses ORNL's novel nonlinear method to extract forewarning of machine failures from appropriate data. The first tier of the analysis provides a robust choice for the process-indicative data. The second tier rejects data of inadequate quality. The third tier removes signal artifacts that would otherwise confound the analysis, while retaining the relevant nonlinear dynamics. The fourth tier converts the artifact-filtered time-serial data into a geometric representation, that is then transformed to a discrete distribution function (DF). This method allows for noisy, finite-length datasets. The fifth tier obtains dissimilarity measures (DM) between the nominal-state DF and subsequent test-state DFs. Forewarning of a machine failure is indicated by several successive occurrences of the DM above a threshold, or by a statistically significant trend in the DM. This paradigm yields robust nonlinear signatures of degradation and its progression, allowing earlier and more accurate detection of the machine failure.

  17. Patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP During Boreal Forest Succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulden, Michael L.; McMillan, Andrew; Winston, Greg; Rocha, Adrian; Manies, Kristen; Harden, Jennifer W.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    We deployed a mesonet of year-round eddy covariance towers in boreal forest stands that last burned in ~1850, ~1930, 1964, 1981, 1989, 1998, and 2003 to understand how CO2 exchange changes during secondary succession.The strategy of using multiple methods, including biometry and micrometeorology, worked well. In particular, the three independent measures of NEP during succession gave similar results. A stratified and tiered approach to deploying eddy covariance systems that combines many lightweight and portable towers with a few permanent ones is likely to maximize the science return for a fixed investment. The existing conceptual models did a good job of capturing the dominant patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP during succession. The initial loss of carbon following disturbance was neither as protracted nor large as predicted. This muted response reflects both the rapid regrowth of vegetation following fire and the prevalence of standing coarse woody debris following the fire, which is thought to decay slowly. In general, the patterns of forest recovery from disturbance should be expected to vary as a function of climate, ecosystem type and disturbance type. The NPP decline at the older stands appears related to increased Rauto rather than decreased GPP. The increase in Rauto in the older stands does not appear to be caused by accelerated maintenance respiration with increased biomass, and more likely involves increased allocation to fine root turnover, root metabolism, alternative forms of respiration, mycorrhizal relationships, or root exudates, possibly associated with progressive nutrient limitation. Several studies have now described a similar pattern of NEP following boreal fire, with 10-to-15 years of modest carbon loss followed by 50-to-100 years of modest carbon gain. This trend has been sufficiently replicated and evaluated using independent techniques that it can be used to quantify the likely effects of changes in boreal fire frequency and

  18. Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy on corrosion products of NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekan, J.; Lipka, J.; Slugeň, V.

    2013-04-01

    Steam generator (SG) is generally one of the most important components at all nuclear power plants (NPP) with close impact to safe and long-term operation. Material degradation and corrosion/erosion processes are serious risks for long-term reliable operation. Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998, in order to improve corrosion resistance of SGs. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filters deposits. Newest results in our long-term corrosion study confirm good operational experiences and suitable chemical regimes (reduction environment) which results mostly in creation of magnetite (on the level 70 % or higher) and small portions of hematite, goethite or hydrooxides. Regular observation of corrosion/erosion processes is essential for keeping NPP operation on high safety level. The output from performed material analyses influences the optimisation of operating chemical regimes and it can be used in optimisation of regimes at decontamination and passivation of pipelines or secondary circuit components. It can be concluded that a longer passivation time leads more to magnetite fraction in the corrosion products composition.

  19. The Use of Tritiated Wastewater from NPP Cernavoda in Agigea Black Sea Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Vagner, I.; Dobrinescu, D.

    2009-04-01

    Danube-Black Sea Channel is situated in the south east part of Romania. It takes its waters from Danube upstream of Cernavoda town, and flows into the Black Sea at Agigea. The main uses of the channel are numerous, but it can be mentioned navigation and nuclear power generation - Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. Maximum weigh carrying of the canal is 70 million t/year. Agigea is the most important harbor of the Channel and due to intensive activity the accidents can happened any time. In this study we propose to use tritiated liquid effluents from CANDU type NPP Cernavoda as a tracer, to study dilution factor between fresh water of the canal and the Black Sea waters. Tritiated water can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of solutes in Danube-Black Sea Channel because they have the same physical characteristics as water. Measured tracer-response curves produced from injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer provide an efficient method of obtaining necessary data. We established tritium level in monitored zone Agigea-Black Sea by monthly samples and precipitation during may 2005- may 2006. The average tritium concentration for Black Sea near Agigea location was 12.5 +/- 2.2 TU. During the NPP evacuation we establish inside Agigea canal lock a well mixed tritium concentration of 174.07 +/- 6.2 TU. Using waters lock as a tracer we establish dilution factor of 1: 4.28 inside Agigea harbor, and dilution factor of 1:2.17 in open sea. This experimental parameter can be used in dispersion simulation for Agigea - Black Sea area.

  20. TRITIUM IN URINE OF PEOPLE LIVING IN THE AREA OF INFLUENCE OF THE BELOYARSKAYA NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Chebotina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to determine relationship between tritium concentration in the body fluid (urine of people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP and tritium concentration in drinking water.Materials and methods. Studed population (men and women. Urine samples were collected in the clinical laboratory of a medical unit in Zarechny town. There were 50 individuals in the studied group. Patients were different on age and weight. Water samples were collected in an arbitrary way, through the all study period, from October to November in 2015 year. Tritium concentrations were determined with the ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus-1220 (USA. The facility developed by L.G. Bondareva was used for tritium extraction. The method allowes to separate the template, which significantly effects determination of tritium.Results. The urine samples from people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP in Zarechny town were analyzed in the study. There was positive relationship between tritium concentration in drinking water and tritium concentration in urine. Statistically significant correlation between analyzed parameters was found (correlation coefficient 0.98; significance level 0,007. Individual doses were estimated according to Harrison, Khursheed, Lambert. The Doses vary from 0,32 to 1,12 with an allowance for consumption of drinking water 100 l y–1 (according to the consumption standard for the analyzed region, which amounts 0,032–0,12 % from dose limit for population (1 mSv y–1. It was determined what drinking water is the main source of the radionuclide in human body in this region. The determined values of tritium concentration in drinking water are significantly lower than the intervention level for tritium of 7600 Bq l–1 ( Radiation Safety Standards-99/2009, Appendix 2a.

  1. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  2. The Role of Suomi NPP VIIRS Data in Land Science and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Csiszar, I. A.; Roman, M. O.; Vermote, E.

    2014-12-01

    The current Suomi-NPP mission was designed as a bridging mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) next-generation, operational satellites. The VIIRS instrument on-board Suomi-NPP provides continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations and a much-needed replacement of the long-serving, operational NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) system, to meet the expanding needs of Earth Science and Applications of Societal Benefit. Post-launch evaluation has proven the instrument to be excellent for land observations and capable of providing measurement continuity with MODIS. This provides a critical contribution to the scientific study of global change. Several regions of the World are undergoing rapid land transformations, driven by economic development and population growth. In addition, changes in climate conditions are resulting in ecosystem responses and changes in land cover and land use. Long-term, systematic observations of the global land surface at coarse resolution enable detection, monitoring and characterization of such changes to the land surface. A suite of Land environmental data records (EDRs) from the VIIRS, are being developed by NOAA to meet operational data needs, primarily for the National Weather Service (e.g., Albedo, Land Surface Temperature, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Surface Type, Snow and Ice Monitoring). Scientists funded by NOAA and NASA, have been evaluating and validating these products. Based on these evaluations, NASA is embarking on a program to develop enhanced and additional products to provide continuity with MODIS to meet the needs of the global change science community. In addition, and as with MODIS, data from the VIIRS can be used as input to a number of practical applications of societal benefit and the associated decision support systems. For example, progress with VIIRS data is being made in the areas of fire and agricultural monitoring

  3. Development of the regulatory guide on the management of aging for the operating NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Myung; Lee, Jae Kyung; Byeon, Chang Soo; Kim, Hyo Soo [Chungju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ryul; Eun, Hui Kwang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    this is the first final report, and it includes the analysis of PSR regulation status for the operating NPP of foreign countries and thus established scope and method of Korean PSR. The detailed requirements of aging management, as one of the most important factors, is planned to be dealt in the second final report, The result of study so far can be summarized as below, The necessity and feasibility of domestic PSR application is confirmed through the investigation, comparison and review of PSR implementation and regulation status in foreign countries, And, detailed analysis of vaseline guidelines of IAEA performed to establish a skeleton of desirable safety review guideline for Korean NPP. Our own objectives, scope and strategy of review for PWR are roughly set up form factor by factor analysis of PSR implementation experience in foreign countries and background of IAEA guidelines. The essential elements of review for each PSR safety factors are classified and proposed. For efficient review of proposed safety factors and elements, three different option of framework for PSR guidelines are proposed and compared. Through analysis of strength safety factors and elements, three different options of framework for PSR guidelines are proposed and compared. Through analysis of strength and weakness of the three optional frameworks proposed for Korean PSR guideline, the third one is recommended as the best for both owner and regulator. By maintaining the current framework of SAR at maximum and, at the same time, referring the basic concept of IAEA PSR guide, the detailed contents and its review elements are chosen. The standards on the aging was proposed preliminarily for the application of aging evaluation in PSR.

  4. NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Characterization Using the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2011. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56 deg to -55 deg in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5 deg to -50.5 deg, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14 deg, 0 deg] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  5. The International Cooperation and Partnership, Keystones for Engineering and Procurement for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Vatamanu, Mariana; Bucur, Cristina [Nuclearelectrica SA, 65 Polona Street, 010494 Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    Romania is starting the second year as a MS of the EU, and is crossing a crucial year in implementing the national energy strategy. The EC documents from last year, as an energy policy for Europe or the nuclear illustrative programme provided the guidelines for the new Romanian energy strategy, based on the principles of security of supply, competitiveness, environment protection and optimization of the use of domestic natural resources. In the line with the right of each European state to choose the proper energy mix, in order to face the predicted deployment of natural gas and oil resources, Romania has to redirect its strategy to improve the energy efficiency, develop the renewable energies and to extend the use of nuclear. Romania has developed the national infrastructure for implementation, management and supervision of the nuclear power projects, including the environment protection aspects. The Ministry of Economy and Finance is responsible for the national strategy in the energy field, including NPP projects implementation and operation. Other important actors are the Ministry of the Environment, the Nuclear Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Body - CNCAN and the National Agency for Radioactive Waste - ANDRAD. For Romania, the nuclear energy represents an obvious reality, strongly proved by good performances registered by Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 during over 12 years of commercial operation: High quality of the nuclear fuel produced by Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti - as demonstrated by the 7 consecutive years of operation of Cernavoda Unit 1 without detecting a single fuel bundle with nuclear defect, the very good quality of heavy water produced in Romania based on Romanian concept and technology and, by the most recently success of the Romanian nuclear industry: commissioning of the second Unit at Cernavoda NPP on October 5. 2007. All those represent achievements of entire Romanian society for which the education, research, design engineering and operation of

  6. A process model for simulating net primary productivity (NPP) based on the interaction of water-heat process and nitrogen: a case study in Lantsang valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-long; LIU Gao-huan; FENG Xian-feng

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle and the global atmospheric CO2 budget are important foci in global climate change research. Simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is important for carbon cycle research. In this study, a plant-atmosphere-soil continuum nitrogen (N) cycling model was developed and incorporated into the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model. With the established database (leaf area index, land cover, daily meteorology data,vegetation and soil) at a 1 km resolution, daily maps of NPP for Lantsang valley in 2007 were produced, and the spatial-temporal patterns of NPP and mechanisms of its responses to soil N level were further explored.The total NPP and mean NPP of Lantsang valley in 2007 were 66.5 Tg C and 416 g·m-2·a-1 C, respectively. In addition, statistical analysis of NPP of different land cover types was conducted and investigated. Compared with BEPS model (without considering nitrogen effect), it was inferred that the plant carbon fixing for the upstream of Lantsang valley was also limited by soil available nitrogen besides temperature and precipitation.However, nitrogen has no evident limitation to NPP accumulation of broadleaf forest, which mainly distributed in the downstream of Lantsang valley.

  7. Doses to members of the general public and observed effects on biota: Chernobyl Forum update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, Lynn R

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl Forum was organized by the United Nations to examine the health and environmental effects of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. This paper is concerned with the environmental effects, as determined by Expert Group Environment. The accident resulted in release of a large amount of radioactive materials over a period of 10 days. These materials were deposited throughout Europe with the three more affected countries being Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. More than 5 million persons lived on territories in these countries judged to be contaminated at >37kBqm(-2). Many countermeasures were employed to mitigate the effects of the accident. The collective effective dose to the residents of the contaminated territories is estimated to be about 55,000 person-Sv. Effects on non-human biota were observed that ranged from minor to lethal; the current increase in the number and diversity of species in the most contaminated area is due to absence of human pressure.

  8. A multilevel analysis of long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B

    2008-11-01

    Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.

  9. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  10. Phytoremediation of radiocesium-contaminated soil in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushenkov, S. [Phytotech, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States); Mikheev, A.; Prokhnevsky, A.; Ruchko, M.; Sorochinsky, B. [National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering

    1999-02-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs remains one of the most challenging tasks after the Chernobyl 1986 accident. The objectives of this research were to (1) identify extractants that may be used to solubilize {sup 137}Cs in soil solution, (2) study the effect of soil amendments on {sup 137}Cs accumulation by plants, and (3) evaluate the applicability of phytoextraction for environmental restoration of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. The availability of {sup 137}Cs to the plants in Chernobyl soil was limited, because this radionuclide was tightly bound to exchange sites of soil particles or incorporated into the crystalline structure of primary and secondary minerals. Out of 20 soil amendments tested to increase {sup 137}Cs desorption/solubility in the soil, ammonium salts were found to be the most practical soil amendment that can potentially increase {sup 137}Cs bioavailability. Among the screened plants, Amaranth cultivars had the highest {sup 137}Cs accumulation. Three sequential crops of Indian mustard grown in one vegetation season at the experimental plot resulted in a small decrease of {sup 137}Cs specific activity within the top 15 cm of soil. Further improvements are necessary to make phytoremediation technology a feasible option for restoration of {sup 137}Cs-contaminated territories.

  11. Radiocaesium Activity Concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl Accident and Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z; Marovic, G; Petrinec, B

    2007-01-01

    Systematic investigations of 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2005) in the Republic of Croatia are summarized. The correlation between 137Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 18 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.8 +/- 1.1 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. Thi...

  12. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  13. Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-08

    The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury.

  14. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, Nikolai [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, 53 Melnikov Street, Kyiv 04050 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nick@rpi.kiev.ua

    2005-03-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available {sup 137}Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The {sup 137}Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  15. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.

    1996-05-01

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

  16. Caesium 137 in northern Swedish moose: The first year after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K.; Nelin, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Wildlife Ecology); Wickman, G. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Radiation Physics Dept.)

    1989-01-01

    Levels of /sup 137/ caesium were monitored in northern Sweden during the first year after the Chernobyl accident (April 1986). Samples were collected from 3661 moose in an area where the deposited /sup 137/ caesium ranged from two to 60 kilo-becquerel per m/sup 2/. Concentrations of caesium in moose muscle correlated positively with the ground deposition of caesium. On average, the caesium levels found in moose after Chernobyl were about 470 Bq per kg fresh mass for calves and close to 300 for older animals. The average level in moose before the accident was 33 Bq per kg. Among moose older than one year, higher concentrations were found in females than in the males. There was a pronounced seasonal variation in the /sup 137/ caesium concentration found in moose. Within the investigation area the presence of caesium in moose resulted in a minor proportion of the hunters discarding the animals shot and/or terminating the hunt before the end of the season.

  17. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored.

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 1 safety state of the sarcophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, G.; Roloff, R.; Roloff, R.; Artmann, A. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagenund Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) (Germany); Lhomme, V. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Berberich, G. [Erftstadt-Gymnich (Germany); Selesnew, A

    2005-07-01

    The data collected and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative are an excellent basis for the intended specialist application at the Chernobyl Centre as well as for an extended use in connection with the restoration of the Sarcophagus as part of the 'Shelter Implementation Plan' performed under the auspices of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The major goals of the S.I.P. are the stabilisation of the existing Sarcophagus and the erection of a New Safe Confinement (N.S.C.) around the already existing Sarcophagus, the degasifier wing and the turbine building.This N.S.C. is to safely confine the radioactive materials for at least 100 years and is to allow their retrieval from inside if need be as well as the dismantling of the old structure.In addition, the database can be used for obtaining information needed for project descriptions, safety analysis reports, etc. The Ukrainian safety authority S.N.R.C.U. (State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine) and its technical safety organisation, the State Scientific-Technical Center (S.S.T.C.), have also signaled their interest in using the database.Further information on the F.G.I. and on the 'Radioecology and Health Programmes' can be found at: www.fgi1-chernobyl.de.vu; www.grs.de, www.irsn.fr; www.fgi.icc.gov.ua. (N.C.)

  19. [Genetic effects in populations of plants growing in the zone of Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A; Kal'chenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Rubanovich, A V; Shevchenko, V V; Grinikh, L I

    1999-01-01

    Studies to analyze the genetic processes in natural populations of plants were started on the territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) in 1962 and in the zone of the Chernobyl accident in May 1986. The main directions of the genetic studies in both radioactive areas were similar: 1) study of the mutation process intensity depending on the dose and dose rate and analysis of dose-effect relationships for different genetic changes (point mutations, chromosome aberrations in mitosis and meiosis) in irradiated plant populations; 2) study of the mutation process dynamics in generations of chronically (prolongly) irradiated populations of plants; 3) analysis of microevolutionary processes in irradiated plant populations. The report presents an analysis of observed dose-effect relationships under the action of radiation on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, Pinus sylvestris and a number of other plant species. Analysis of the mutation processes dynamics in 8 Arabidopsis populations growing in the zone of the Chernobyl catastrophe has demonstrated that the level of the embryo lethal mutations 10 years after the accident in the irradiated populations significantly exceeds the control level. The following phenomena observed in chronically irradiated populations have also been considered: increased radioresistance of irradiated populations (radioadaptation), the appearance of abnormal karyotypes and selective markers upon chronic irradiation. The authors call attention to the high importance of monitoring of genetic processes in irradiated plant populations for understanding of the action of radiation on human populations.

  20. Distribution of pre- and post-Chernobyl radiocaesium with particle size fractions of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spezzano, Pasquale [ENEA, Sezione Metodi di Analisi e Prevenzione del Rischio Antropico, Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The association of radiocaesium with particle size fractions separated by sieving and settling from soils sampled eight years after the Chernobyl accident has been determined. The three size fractions were: <2 {mu}m, 2-63 {mu}m and >63 {mu}m. {sup 137}Cs in the soil samples was associated essentially with the finer size fractions, which generally showed specific activities 3-5 times higher than the bulk samples. Activity ratios of {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs in the clay-sized fractions appear to be lower with respect to the corresponding values in bulk soil samples. This result indicates that some differences still exists in the particle size distribution between {sup 137}Cs originating from nuclear weapons, which has been in the soil for decades after fallout, and {sup 137}Cs coming from the Chernobyl accident, eight years after the deposition event. This behaviour could be related to 'ageing' processes of radiocaesium in soils.

  1. Leukemia and Thyroid Tumour in an East-Slovakian District after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icso, J.; Szoelloesova, M

    1998-07-01

    The incidence of leukaemia and thyroid gland tumour in the 10 year period after the Chernobyl accident has been investigated in Roznava-district with {gamma}86,000 inhabitants (east Slovakia, 1600 km SW of Chernobyl), and compared with a control period before the accident. A 2.1 times higher cumulative incidence of acute lymphatic leukaemia (median age: 11 y) and 1.3 times higher of thyroid gland tumour (median age: 47 y) was found compared with the same period before the accident. There was no increase in acute myeloid leukaemia, nor in chronic cases. A statistical analysis using the {gamma}{sup 2}-test, however, showed the results were not significant. Most of all the cases were in 1990-95 (45% of all cases), thyroid tumours were cumulating in 1992 and 1994 (53%). Although an association with an exposure to radiation was not proved, the results could support a hypothesis of a positive correlation even in such a relatively distant area of east Slovakia. (author)

  2. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra, E-mail: oleksandra.kuchma@googlemail.com [Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Buesgen Institute, Georg-August University Goettingen, Buesgenweg 2, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Finkeldey, Reiner, E-mail: rfinkel@gwdg.de [Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Buesgen Institute, Georg-August University Goettingen, Buesgenweg 2, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: > Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. > Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. > AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. > 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. > Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  3. Classification of hot particles from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapons detonations by non-destructive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltonozhsky, V; Mück, K; Bondarkov, M

    2001-01-01

    Both after the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon detonations, agglomerates of radioactive material, so-called hot particles, were released or formed which show a behaviour in the environment quite different from the activity released in gaseous or aerosol form. The differences in their characteristic properties, in the radionuclide composition and the uranium and actinide contents are described in detail for these particles. While nuclear bomb hot particles (both from fission and fusion bombs) incorporate well detectable trace amounts of 60Co and 152Eu, these radionuclides are absent in Chernobyl hot particles. In contrast, Chernobyl hot particles contain 125Sb and 144Ce which are absent in atomic bomb HPs. Obvious differences are also observable between fusion and fission bombs' hot particles (significant differences in 152Eu/l55Eu, 154Eu/155Eu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios) which facilitate the identification of HPs of unknown provensence. The ratio of 239Pu/240Pu in Chernobyl hot particles could be determined by a non-destructive method at 1:1.5. A non-destructive method to determine the content of non-radioactive elements by Kalpha-emission measurements was developed by which inactive Zr, Nb, Fe and Ni could be verified in the particles.

  4. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  6. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p < 0.001) associated with all studied concomitant diseases. The incidence of CeVD has revealed a statistically significant dose response with the lack of a latent period and with the average ERR/Gy = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.62), p < 0.001. Radiation risks of CeVD statistically significantly (p = 0.03) varied with the duration of liquidators' stay in the Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29.

  7. Indicators for Forecasting Ship Icing (Metodicheskie Ukazaniia po Preduprezhdeniiu Ugrozy Obledeneniia Sudov)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    corresponding occlusion fronts. These cases are most typical for the regions of the Barents and Norwegian Seas. If the ships enter the forward part of a...corresponding occlusion fronts hold second place in frequency of occurrence. These cases are most typical for the region of the Barents and Norwegian...pressure^ water a XI at air temperature of the water surface (Appendix 6) tmd at air temperature of icing .face (Appendix 7); *■,< ,■« 0

  8. Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenkova L.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc. carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses.

  9. Beyond designed functional margins in CANDU type NPP. Radioactive nuclei assessment in an LOCA type accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budu Andrei Razvan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union's energy roadmap up to year 2050 states that in order to have an efficient and sustainable economy, with minimum or decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, along with use of renewable resources, each constituent state has the option for nuclear energy production as one desirable option. Every scenario considered for tackling climate change issues, along with security of supply positions the nuclear energy as a recommended option, an option that is highly competitive with respect to others. Nuclear energy, along with other renewable power sources are considered to be the main pillars in the energy sector for greenhouse gas emission mitigation at European level. European Union considers that nuclear energy must be treated as a highly recommended option since it can contribute to security of energy supply. Romania showed excellent track-records in operating in a safe and economically sound manner of Cernavoda NPP Units 1&2. Both Units are in top 10 worldwide in terms of capacity factor. Due to Romania's need to ensure the security of electricity supply, to meet the environmental targets and to move to low carbon generation technologies, Cernavoda Units 3&4 Project appears as a must. This Project was started in 2010 and it is expected to have the Units running by 2025. Cost effective and safety operation of a Nuclear Power Plant is made taking into consideration functional limits of its equipment. As common practice, every nuclear reactor type (technology used is tested according to the worse credible accident or equipment failure that can occur. For CANDU type reactor, this is a Loss of Cooling Accident (LOCA. In a LOCA type accident in a CANDU NPP, using RELAP/SCDAP code for fuel bundle damage assessment the radioactive nuclei are to be quantified. Recently, CANDU type NPP accidents are studied using the RELAP/SCDAP code only. The code formerly developed for PWR type reactors was adapted for the CANDU geometry and can assess the

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of SCW NPP cycles with thermo-chemical co-generation of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidin, N.; Mokry, S.; Monichan, R.; Chophla, K.; Pioro, I. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Maria.Naidin@mycampus.uoit.ca, Sarah.Mokry@mycampus.uoit.ca, Romson.Monichan@uoit.ca, Karan.Chophla@mycampus.uoit.ca, Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca; Naterer, G.; Gabriel, K. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca, Kamiel.Gabriel@uoit.ca

    2009-07-01

    Research activities are currently conducted worldwide to develop Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts with the objective of improving thermal efficiency and increasing economic competitiveness of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) compared to modern thermal power plants. The Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept is one of the six Generation IV options chosen for further investigation and development in several countries including Canada and Russia. Water-cooled reactors operating at subcritical pressures (10 - 16 MPa) have provided a significant amount of electricity production for the past 50 years. However, the thermal efficiency of the current NPPs is not very high (30 - 35%). As such, more competitive designs, with higher thermal efficiencies, which will be close to that of modern thermal power plants (45 - 50%), need to be developed and implemented. Super-Critical Water (SCW) NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to current NPPs (i.e., steam pressures of about 25 MPa and steam outlet temperatures up to 625{sup o}C). Furthermore, SCWRs operating at higher temperatures can facilitate an economical co-generation of hydrogen through thermochemical cycles (particularly, the copper-chlorine cycle) or direct high-temperature electrolysis. The two SCW NPP cycles proposed by this paper are based on direct, regenerative, no-reheat and single-reheat configurations. As such, the main parameters and performance in terms of thermal efficiency of the SCW NPP concepts mentioned above are being analyzed. The cycles are generally comprised of: an SCWR, a SC turbine, one deaerator, ten feedwater heaters, and pumps. The SC turbine of the no-reheat cycle consists of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Alternatively, the SC turbine for the single-reheat cycle is comprised of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder, one Intermediate-Pressure (IP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Since the single

  11. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  12. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in lakes exposed to Chernobyl-derived ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Nagorskaya, L.L. [Institute of Zoology NAS Belarus, 27, Academicheskaya st., 220072, Minsk (Belarus); Smith, J.T., E-mail: Jim.Smith@port.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Bldg, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Littoral (lake shore) macroinvertebrate communities were studied in eight natural lakes affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The lakes spanned a range in {sup 137}Cs contamination from 100 to 15500 kBq m{sup -2} and estimated external dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 30.7 {mu}Gy h{sup -1}. General linear models were used to assess whether abundance of individuals, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance and Shannon-Wiener diversity varied across the lakes. Step-wise multiple regressions were used to relate variation in total abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity, taxon richness within major groups of macroinvertebrates and abundance of the more common individual taxa to the measured environmental characteristics (conductivity, pH, total hardness and phosphate; lake area, lake maximum depth and total external dose) of the lakes. No evidence was found in this study that the ecological status of lake communities has been influenced by radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the most contaminated lake, Glubokoye, contained the highest richness of aquatic invertebrates. Taxon richness in the eight study lakes varied from 22 (Svyatskoe no. 7) to 42 (Glubokoye) which spans a range typical for uncontaminated lakes in the region. Since {sup 90}Sr is readily-absorbed by Mollusca, estimated dose rates to this group exceeded those for other invertebrate groups in two lakes (Perstok and Glubokoye). However this study found no association between mollusc diversity or abundance of individual snail species and variation between lakes in the external radiation dose. Indeed Glubokoye, the lake most contaminated by {sup 90}Sr, had the highest richness of freshwater snails per sample (an average of 8.9 taxa per sample). - Highlights: > We studied the effect of radiation on macroinvertebrates in Chernobyl affected lakes. > Abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity evaluated. > No

  13. Inverse modeling of the Chernobyl source term using atmospheric concentration and deposition measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Evangeliou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an inverse modeling study for the determination of the source term of the radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs and 131I released after the Chernobyl accident. The accident occurred on 26 April 1986 in the Former Soviet Union and released about 1019 Bq of radioactive materials that were transported as far away as the USA and Japan. Thereafter, several attempts to assess the magnitude of the emissions were made that were based on the knowledge of the core inventory and the levels of the spent fuel. More recently, when modeling tools were further developed, inverse modeling techniques were applied to the Chernobyl case for source term quantification. However, because radioactivity is a sensitive topic for the public and attracts a lot of attention, high-quality measurements, which are essential for inverse modeling, were not made available except for a few sparse activity concentration measurements far from the source and far from the main direction of the radioactive fallout. For the first time, we apply Bayesian inversion of the Chernobyl source term using not only activity concentrations but also deposition measurements from the most recent public data set. These observations refer to a data rescue attempt that started more than 10 years ago, with a final goal to provide available measurements to anyone interested. In regards to our inverse modeling results, emissions of 134Cs were estimated to be 80 PBq or 30–50 % higher than what was previously published. From the released amount of 134Cs, about 70 PBq were deposited all over Europe. Similar to 134Cs, emissions of 137Cs were estimated as 86 PBq, on the same order as previously reported results. Finally, 131I emissions of 1365 PBq were found, which are about 10 % less than the prior total releases. The inversion pushes the injection heights of the three radionuclides to higher altitudes (up to about 3 km than previously assumed (≈ 2.2 km in order

  14. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  15. IPEEE Review of other external events of the NPP Asco; Revision del IPEEE de sucesos externos de C.N. Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, F.; Aleman, A.; Beltran, F.; Pifarre, D.; Hernandez, H.; Gasca, C.

    2011-07-01

    Within the process of maintaining and updating the risk analysis of the NPP Asco, results from the review of the vulnerability study of the plant against severe accidents caused by external success (Individual Plant Examination of External Events, IPEEE).

  16. Net primary productivity (NPP) and associated parameters for the U.S. outer continental shelf waters, 1998-2009 (NODC Accession 0071184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession consists of monthly net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 1998-2009 derived from the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) for the 26...

  17. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  18. Regression tree modeling of forest NPP using site conditions and climate variables across eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    As evidence of global warming continue to increase, being able to predict forest response to climate changes, such as expected rise of temperature and precipitation, will be vital for maintaining the sustainability and productivity of forests. To map forest species redistribution by climate change scenario has been successful, however, most species redistribution maps lack mechanistic understanding to explain why trees grow under the novel conditions of chaining climate. Distributional map is only capable of predicting under the equilibrium assumption that the communities would exist following a prolonged period under the new climate. In this context, forest NPP as a surrogate for growth rate, the most important facet that determines stand dynamics, can lead to valid prediction on the transition stage to new vegetation-climate equilibrium as it represents changes in structure of forest reflecting site conditions and climate factors. The objective of this study is to develop forest growth map using regression tree analysis by extracting large-scale non-linear structures from both field-based FIA and remotely sensed MODIS data set. The major issue addressed in this approach is non-linear spatial patterns of forest attributes. Forest inventory data showed complex spatial patterns that reflect environmental states and processes that originate at different spatial scales. At broad scales, non-linear spatial trends in forest attributes and mixture of continuous and discrete types of environmental variables make traditional statistical (multivariate regression) and geostatistical (kriging) models inefficient. It calls into question some traditional underlying assumptions of spatial trends that uncritically accepted in forest data. To solve the controversy surrounding the suitability of forest data, regression tree analysis are performed using Software See5 and Cubist. Four publicly available data sets were obtained: First, field-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (USDA

  19. S-NPP CrIS Full Resolution Sensor Data Record Processing and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Han, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D. A.; Jin, X.; Weng, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer. It provides a total of 1305 channels in the normal mode for sounding the atmosphere. CrIS can also be operated in the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the MWIR and SWIR band interferograms are recorded with the same maximum path difference as the LWIR band and with spectral resolution of 0.625 cm-1 for all three bands (total 2211 channels). NOAA will operate CrIS in FSR mode in December 2014 and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Up to date, the FSR mode has been commanded three times in-orbit (02/23/2012, 03/12/2013, and 08/27/2013). Based on CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), CrIS full resolution Processing System (CRPS) has developed to generate the FSR Sensor Data Record (SDR). This code can also be run for normal mode and truncation mode SDRs with recompiling. Different calibration approaches are implemented in the code in order to study the ringing effect observed in CrIS normal mode SDR and to support to select the best calibration algorithm for J1. We develop the CrIS FSR SDR Validation System to quantify the CrIS radiometric and spectral accuracy, since they are crucial for improving its data assimilation in the numerical weather prediction, and for retrieving atmospheric trace gases. In this study, CrIS full resolution SDRs are generated from CRPS using the data collected from FSR mode of S-NPP, and the radiometric and spectral accuracy are assessed by using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast fields. The biases between observation and simulations are evaluated to estimate the FOV-2-FOV variability and bias under clear sky over ocean. Double difference method and Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) method are also used to assess the CrIS radiance consistency with well-validated IASI. Two basic frequency validation

  20. Evaluation of NPP VIIRS Vegetation Index EDR performance using MODIS and AVHRR data records

    Science.gov (United States)

    vargas, M.; Shabanov, N.; Miura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation Index (VI) is one key parameter to specify the boundary condition in global climate models, weather forecasting models and numerous remote sensing applications for monitoring environmental state and its change. The VI Environmental Data Record (EDR), which includes the Top of Atmosphere Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TOA NDVI) and the Top of Canopy Enhanced Vegetation Index (TOC EVI), is currently operationally generated from data delivered by the Visible Infrared Imaging radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) platform launched in October 2011. The VI EDR was implemented to provide continuity for 30+ years of historical VI records provided by MODIS and AVHRR sensors. This presentation reports on the results of the analysis performed by the JPSS VI group at NOAA-NESDIS-STAR on two major aspects of performance of the VI EDR in the early phase of the NPP mission: (1) assessment of accuracy of the VIIRS VI EDR product with respect to input data including Surface Reflectances, Cloud and Aerosol masks as function of vegetation (biome) types; (2) temporal and spatial consistency of VIIRS VI EDR with respect to heritage MODIS and AVHRR VI products. This analysis is based on data from VIIRS (daily TOA NDVI and TOC EVI, and daily surface reflectances), Terra MODIS (16 days composites of TOC EVI and TOC NDVI, and daily TOA radiances) and NOAA-18 AVHRR (7-days composites of TOA NDVI). MODIS 8-biome landcover mask was used to quantify variations in VI product performance as function of vegetation type. Best overall agreement is achieved between VIIRS and MODIS data (TOC EVI and TOC NDVI) in terms of minimum systematic discrepancy (minimum bias and STD) and highest correlation of spatial patterns (highest r^2). The agreement is highest for biomes with low vegetation cover, but degrades with increased foliage density. VIIRS cloud mask provides a fair screening of daily data over the globe. While performance of

  1. Neurobehavioral and cognitive performances of children exposed to low-dose radiation in the Chernobyl accident: the Israeli Chernobyl Health Effects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Joseph, N; Reisfeld, D; Tirosh, E; Silman, Z; Rennert, G

    2004-09-01

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine could potentially have influenced the neurobehavioral and cognitive performances of exposed children. A cohort study of adolescents who were children at the time of the accident and who subsequently emigrated to Israel was conducted in 1998-2001. A total of 1,629 children (59% of all 2,769 invited) were included in the study (41% from higher contamination areas, 25% from lower contamination areas, 34% from noncontaminated areas). Mean scores of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test were highest in children in all exposure groups whose parents had a high level of education. No overall relation was found between the cognitive function scores of the child and his/her putative radiation exposure level. Conners' test T scores did not differ significantly by level of exposure. Mothers of all exposure groups who were pregnant at the time of the accident gave their children significantly higher Conners' test scores than did those who were not pregnant. Scores for hyperactivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were significantly higher among those who were in utero at the time of the accident. These results do not show differences of neurobehavioral or cognitive performance in exposed versus nonexposed children. There is a possible behavioral effect among offspring of pregnant mothers or mothers of very young children in all exposure levels.

  2. Calculation of an accident with delayed scram at NPP Greifswald using the coupled code DYN3D/ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, S.

    1998-10-01

    Complex computer codes modeling the whole reactor system including 3D neutron kinetics in combination with advanced thermohydraulic plant models become more and more important for the safety assessment of nuclear reactors. Transients or experiments with both neutron kinetic and thermalhydraulic data are needed for the validation of such coupled codes like DYN3D/ATHLET. First of all measured results from nuclear power plant (NPP) transients should be used, because the experimental thermalhydraulic facilities do not offer the possibility to model space-dependent neutron kinetic effects and research reactors with reliably measured 3D neutron kinetic data do not allow to study thermalhydraulic feedback effects. In this paper, an accident with delayed scram which occurred in 1989 at the NPP Greifswald is analyzed. Calculations of this accident were carried out with the goal to validate the coupled code DYN3D/ATHLET. (orig.)

  3. KAERI software verification and validation guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital I and C system of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Eom, Heung Seop

    1997-07-01

    This technical report is to present V and V guideline development methodology for safety-critical software in NPP safety system. Therefore it is to present V and V guideline of planning phase for the NPP safety system in addition to critical safety items, for example, independence philosophy, software safety analysis concept, commercial off the shelf (COTS) software evaluation criteria, inter-relationships between other safety assurance organizations, including the concepts of existing industrial standard, IEEE Std-1012, IEEE Std-1059. This technical report includes scope of V and V guideline, guideline framework as part of acceptance criteria, V and V activities and task entrance as part of V and V activity and exit criteria, review and audit, testing and QA records of V and V material and configuration management, software verification and validation plan production etc., and safety-critical software V and V methodology. (author). 11 refs.

  4. Simulated dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) for outdoor livestock feeding coefficients driven by climate change scenarios in México

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. MONTERROSO RIVAS; J. D. GÓMEZ DÍAZ; M. L. TOLEDO MEDRANO; J. A. TINOCO RUEDA; C. CONDE ÁLVAREZ; C. GAY GARCÍA

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is used as a way to estimate the capacity of the ecosystem to produce dry matter which may be available for livestock to meet the forage requirements. The method allows the simulation of the possible impact on NPP and dry matter (DM), under climate change conditions observable for the country in a given time horizon. The concept was also used for current coefficients of rangeland and under current climate change scenarios, thus allow...

  5. NPP changes of Larix chinensis estimated by tree-ring data and its response to climate change in the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Taibai, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, O.; Xuemei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larix chinensis is mainly distributed in timberline of Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, a critical geographic demarcation for climate and vegetation distribution in China. Combined with biomass equations and the annual diameter at breast height calculated from tree-ring widths and investigation data of sampling plots, annual biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes were estimated. Correlation and response analyses were used to illustrate the relationship between the climate and NPP. The results show that from 1949 to 2014, the biomass of L. chinensis in the pure forests increases from 54.03 to 94.43 t/ha in the northern slope and 28.32 to 55.80 t/ha in the southern slope. The NPP of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes has varied concordantly over the past 65 years, with an average value of 0.62 and 0.42 t/(ha·a) respectively. The difference in NPPs between the northern and southern slope is decreasing for the slight decrease trend of NPP in northern slope. Temperature plays an important role in the growth of L. chinensis. Low temperature before the growing seasons (from pervious November to April) and warm conditions in the growing seasons (mainly from June to July) can increase the growth of L. chinensis. However, the relationships between NPP and temperature are different in the northern and southern slope. The NPP in southern slope is more positively correlated with the temperature in the growing seasons and there is no significant correlation relationship between the NPP and the temperature in previous winter (from pervious November to January), while the NPP in northern slope is more negatively correlated with the temperature before the growing seasons. These results will provide useful information for the future research of forest carbon cycling.

  6. The new revision of NPP Krsko decommissioning, radioactive waste and spent fuel management program: analyses and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka [ARAO, Parmova 53, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lokner, Vladimir; Levanat, Ivica; Rapic, Andrea [APO, Savska 41, Zagreb (Croatia); Mele, Irena [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The preparation of the new revision of the Decommissioning and Spent Fuel (SF) and Low and Intermediate level Waste (LILW) Disposal Program for the NPP Krsko (Program) started in September 2008 after the acceptance of the Term of Reference for the work by Intergovernmental Committee responsible for implementation of the Agreement between the governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the status and other legal issues related to investment, exploitation, and decommissioning of the Nuclear power plant Krsko. The responsible organizations, APO and ARAO together with NEK prepared all new technical and financial data and relevant inputs for the new revision in which several scenarios based on the accepted boundary conditions were investigated. The strategy of immediate dismantling was analyzed for planned and extended NPP life time together with linked radioactive waste and spent fuel management to calculate yearly annuity to be paid by the owners into the decommissioning funds in Slovenia and Croatia. The new Program incorporated among others new data on the LILW repository including the costs for siting, construction and operation of silos at the location Vrbina in Krsko municipality, the site specific Preliminary Decommissioning Plan for NPP Krsko which included besides dismantling and decontamination approaches also site specific activated and contaminated radioactive waste, and results from the referenced scenario for spent fuel disposal but at very early stage. Important inputs for calculations presented also new amounts of compensations to the local communities for different nuclear facilities which were taken from the supplemented Slovenian regulation and updated fiscal parameters (inflation, interest, discount factors) used in the financial model based on the current development in economical environment. From the obtained data the nominal and discounted costs for the whole nuclear program related to NPP Krsko which is jointly owned by Slovenia and Croatia have

  7. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  8. Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in heather honey and its dependence on deposition patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, S; Sanderson, D C

    1999-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectra were measured from Scottish heather honey samples gathered from hive locations with associated airborne gamma-ray survey data. The honeys all contained radiocesium, with activity concentrations ranging from 43-680 Bq kg(-1) 137Cs, and 134Cs/137Cs ratios consistent with Chernobyl deposition. Activity concentrations in honey were highly correlated with ground deposition within 2.5 km of the hive location over two successive years. Both isotope ratios and the quantitative relationships between environmental and food levels suggest that weapons testing fallout is significantly less available than recent deposition. The implications for design of future monitoring programs and radiological consequences are discussed. The whole-body retention of 137Cs in honey ingested by a volunteer was consistent with the ICRP's metabolic model for cesium.

  9. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of {sup 137}Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and `dingoes tending the sheep`. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet `system` performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors). 16 refs.

  10. Articulating the signs of danger: lay experiences of post-Chernobyl radiation risks and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2011-05-01

    This essay examines lay experiences of radiation--the hazard imperceptible with unaided senses--and how these experiences are shaped. Analysis is conducted on the basis of participant observation and interviews in Belarusian rural areas affected after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. I argue that radiation risks and health effects are not always obvious or immediately observable for those experiencing them, and they should be articulated. The paper compares various opportunities for articulation, including the context of radiological testing and administrative contexts, and describes the kinds of articulations they make possible. I conclude that limited opportunities for articulation result in limited lay recognition of radioactive contamination and their own health effects. The analysis implies that affected lay populations cannot always be assumed to be the most risk-conscious and hold special knowledge about radiation effects independently of scientific and administrative definitions of it.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF UKRAINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF MEMORY ON CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Perga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the research of individual, collective and historical memory — through the prism of environmental disasters. Although they lead not only to physical but also to mental trauma in modern scientific discourse this aspect has not become a subject of special studies. In the example of Chernobyl disaster traumatic experience of 50 residents of Kiev, who received indirect effects of the accident, is analyzed. It is shown the formation a stable distrust of the authorities of the USSR, which is transferred to the present and entails a negative assessment of the environmental policy of independent Ukraine. Factors, which cause such situation and its relationship with the views of respondents on their future, are established. The conclusion of the feasibility of using the questionnaire method for determining the main trends traumatic impact of environmental disasters on individual memory is done. Directions for further in-depth research in this area are proposed.

  12. [Clinical and experimental parallels between immunological observations of irradiated animals and patients injured during Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, V N

    2011-01-01

    Immunological parameters in different periods of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of experimental animals and Chernobyl reactor accident-injured patients have been studied. 148 patients and experimental animals (123 dogs and 198 monkeys) were observed after radiation exposure of different levels (from a sub-lethal dose to the minimal absolute lethal dose). We have found the increase in the C-reactive protein, fluctuation of normal antibody titers and the complement in blood serum, as well as the growing number of skin microbes after exposures to lethal doses. Experimental results match clinical data in terms of ARS progress phases but differ from the latter in terms of the time of clinical manifestations. The highest rate of clinical manifestations is observed on the 7-14 days for experimental animals (rats, dogs and monkeys) and on the 20-30 days for patients after radiation exposure. Regenerative processes in animals run faster than those in humans.

  13. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Rundmo, T.; Eraenen, L.; Ekstroem, H

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects

  14. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  15. Frequency of trisomy 21 in Germany before and after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R.D.; Schulzke, I.; Struck, E. (Institut fuer Humangenetik, Berlin (DE))

    1991-01-01

    For Berlin (West) the rate of trisomy 21 among newborn and all prenatally diagnosed cases can be almost completely recorded, including the maternal age distribution. During the 9-year-period from 1980 to 1988 the average number of trisomy 21 per month was about 2, following a Poisson distribution. A significant increase (P < 0.01) was observed in January 1987, excatly 9 months after the Chernobyl accident. In a supraregional study based on > 30 000 prenatal diagnoses performed in 1986, no significant effect could be observed. However, the highest rates of trisomy 21 were observed in the more heavily contaminated, southern part of Germany. The majority of these fetuses were conceived during the period of greatest radioactive exposure. The data are discussed with respect to the effect of low-dose radiation around the time of conception on the induction of non-disjunction in man.

  16. Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident; Helbredsmaessige konsekvenser af reaktorulykken i Tjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewerin, I. [Royal Dental College, Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

  17. Radiological effects on populations of Oligochaeta in the Chernobyl contaminated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Polikarpov, G.G. E-mail: ggp@iur.sebastopol.ua

    2003-07-01

    A detailed investigation of 3 populations of Oligochaete species (Dero obtusa, Nais pseudobtusa and Nais pardalis) has been carried out in contaminated lake of the close-in Chernobyl zone and in a control lake. Hydrochemical indices and concentrations of heavy metals, chloro-organi compounds and {sup 90}Sr in bottom sediments have been measured. Absorbed doses were calculated on the basis of the results of radiochemical analysis an assessed directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Stimulation of paratomous division (asexual reproduction) was found in one species of worm (D. obtusa), and activation of sexual reproduction in the two other specie studied. An increase in the amount of cytogenetic damage in the somatic cells of worms from the contaminated lake was found and an attempt was made to assess the relative contributions of radiation and chemical exposure on the basis of analyses of inter-cellular aberration distributions and the types of chromosome aberrations observed in the cells.

  18. [Formation of paroxysmal brain activity in the liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumacher, G I; Efremushkin, G G; Gelobetskaya, E D

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the formation of paroxysmal brain activity (PBA) in the liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in view of their age on the date of exposure to radiation. EEG examinations were performed in 105 liquidators of the consequences of the nuclear disaster (LCND) and 90 people without radiation anamnesis (control group). It has been determined that the formation of paroxysmal brain activity in LCND occurs 3.5 times more frequent (pradiation. The history of the exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with the increased risk of the development of convulsive PBA as focal seizures by 5.5 times (pRadiation effect on LCND under 30 years old increases (as compared to the control group) the risk of the formation of elevated paroxysmal brain activity by 19 times (peffect of ionizing radiation on the development of PBA related to the age on the date of exposure to radiation was found.

  19. Strontium-90 concentrations in human teeth in south Ukraine, 5 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulev, Y D; Polikarpov, G G; Prigodey, E V; Assimakopoulos, P A

    1994-10-28

    Approximately 1000 human teeth, collected in South Ukraine, in 1990-1991, were measured for 90Sr concentration. The teeth were grouped into 18 samples according to the age and sex of the donors. Measured levels of 90Sr concentrations were lower by a factor of 10 than measurements taken in the mid-1960s and mid-1970s. An interesting feature of the data is a 3-fold enhancement of contamination levels in the 25-45 year-old age group of the male population. A possible explanation for this anomaly is that this age group contains a significant number of men who were mobilized immediately after the Chernobyl accident for clean-up operations within the 30-km zone around the damaged nuclear power plant.

  20. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved for