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Sample records for chernobyl npp accident

  1. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  2. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  3. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  4. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  5. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  6. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi

  7. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  8. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  9. The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

  10. Characteristics of border nervous-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is revealed that border nervouse-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident are the most widely spread diseases. Their specific features are the following: prevalence of the disorders from asthenic and psycho-organic circles; relatively small positive dynamics in the cause of treatment; uniformity in symptoms, which do not depend on psychological characteristics of a person. Particular efforts should be concentrated on developing psychosocial programs for rendering the victims help. 3 refs

  11. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  12. Diagnostics of nervous-mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the data of studying mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination during the first catastrophe period (2-10 days after the accident) nonpathological neurotic effects were revealed for 69% of persons examined and neuroses were observed for 4% of them. Preclinical neurotic effects were met in 41% of cases 47% of the persons had neuroses and 0.7% of those examined had psychoses in the second period (several months later after the evacuation). Decrease in preclinical effects up to 30% because of these disorder transformations into neuroses was shown in the third period (delayed effects). The presence of border nervouse-mental and psychosomatic disorders for persons engaged in accident effect elimination, as well as the predicted growth in these disorders required realization of medical-correcting rehabilitation measures for the given contingent of persons under surveillance

  13. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  14. 25 years after Chernobyl NPP accident: experience and trends of radioactive contaminated soils rehabilitation in Belarus - 59242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The paper describes the developed and applied soil decontamination measures and methods in Belarus after the Chernobyl NPP accident. It is considered the possibility of using of organo-mineral amendments based on natural raw materials (sapropel) and industrial wastes (hydrolyzed lignin, clay-salt slimes) for rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated soils. (author)

  15. Peculiarities of forming and dissemination of radioactive contamination in Iput' river after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of radiation contamination forming of the river systems by Cs 137 and Sr 90 after the Chernobyl NPP accident was analyzed. It was shown that before 1990-1994 the river system contamination was formed by the initial falling out of radionuclides on the aquatic surface. After 2000 the contamination will form by means of entrance of radionuclides with surface flowing off from columbines. It was determined that the transboundary transport of radionuclides from the Russia territories influences essentially on contamination of Iput' river on the territory of Belarus. On the authors estimations such input was 30% for Cs 137 and 96% for Sr 90 in 1986, 86% for Cs 137 and 65% for Sr 90 at present

  16. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  17. ON THE ROLE OF MUSHROOMS IN THE INTERNAL DOSE FORMATION TO THE POPULATION IN THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT AFFECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present overview describes the results of the 25-year studies devoted to the estimation of the contribution of radionuclide containing mushrooms to the internal exposure dose to the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident. A significant increase with the time after the accident is shown for the contribution of mushrooms to the population internal exposure dose. Factors are identified influencing variability in the estimations of radionuclide from the mushroom component contribution to the population internal exposure dose.

  18. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  19. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  20. The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

  1. Pathology of respiratory organs in persons participated in the Chernobyl NPP accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations, performed by the personnel of Pulmonology Institute of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, on the respiratory organs pathology resulted from the Chernobyl accident in persons participated in the accident response are presented. The studies were carried out in cooperation with French colleagues. Attention was paid to the problems of environmental contamination due to the accident pathology resulted from the acute exposure and delayed effects, specific features of the respiratory organs diseases, and programs of treatment and rehabilitation as well

  2. The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

  3. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: 15 years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic ecosystems and especially lakes are efficient collectors for the wide range of radionuclides, which are deposited in abiotic and biotic components after their intake by aquatic environments. For the time being, ecosystems of water bodies of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone continue to suffer from heavy radioactive contamination, dictating, thus, the need to carry out further research works within the framework of comprehensive regional radioecological monitoring. Particular features of radionuclide accumulation by hydrobionts substantially depend on formation of hydrochemical composition of water, which, in its turn, is a complex process, depending on functioning of aquatic ecosystems and natural conditions of a water catchment basin. Hydrochemical regimes in reservoirs are determined by external factors and internal water body processes. The results of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content in hydrobionts tissues of different trophic levels of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Our studies were conducted: (1) to identify dynamics of radionuclide distribution in components of freshwater biocenose of water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone; (2) to study dynamic profiles of radioactive contamination levels in species of different ecological groups; (3) to assess the major factors, which determine distribution of radionuclides in the freshwater ecosystems; (4) to study the seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites and the role of main aquatic plant associations in processes of radionuclides distribution in biotic component of biohydrocenose; (5) to assess a possibility to use hydrobionts of different trophic levels as biological indicators of radioactive contamination of water objects and (6) to assess the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from different water bodies. (author)

  4. Animal breeding state on radioactive contaminated territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measures providing for thyroid dose loading decreasing realized in May 1986 in the zone neighbouring the Chernobyl' NPP are analyzed. Dispensary surveillances of argicultural animals are organized begining from 1988. Experiments aimed at acceleration of radioactive cesium excretion from animal muscle tissue by using pharmacological and chemical preparations for different levels of diet contamination are conducted. Milk with increased radioactive cesium concentration is processed into butter from the first day of radioactive effuent up to now. The final product contains radioactive cesium amount decreased by the factor of 6 as compared with that for milk, and radioactive cesium traces only are present in melted butter. Sheep-breeding is forbidden in contaminated territories

  5. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of researches is study of a condition of population health and its dynamics, as well as development of new methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases. Along with significant growth of the morbidity rate by thyroid cancer, the growth tendencies of preleucosis condition, cancers of lungs, mammary glands, urinary bladder, kidneys etc. were detected. The new clinical and laboratory methods of differential diagnostics of thyroid pathology, directed on detection of diseases at an early stage are developed. The new methods of surgical treatment of thyroid diseases are introduced. For practical use the methods of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of a liver, stomach and duodenum, secondary immuno deficits at the having suffered population, psychosomatic conditions at the liquidators are created. A number of preparations, biologically active connections, food additives is received; their complex medical biological estimation is carried out and the recommendations for use and manufacture are developed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident

  6. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  7. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  8. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  9. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

  10. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO 'Pripyat' over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.)

  11. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  12. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  13. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  14. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  15. Variability of genetic characteristics in animals kept in the zone of Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locusses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic contamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  16. Experience of rehabilitation of territories contaminated during Chernobyl NPP accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant part of Ukraine territory, including agricultural lands, was subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of ChNPP emergency. In the initial period of emergency the main attention was given to averting of radioactivity propagation and irradiation of the population. Irradiation of the thyroid gland for a large contingent of human, especially children, became the hardest consequence of the emergency. The main problem of minimization of the emergency consequences consisted in a complete rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Resettlement of residents of contaminated territories was appeared effective only in cases, when expected effective dose of irradiation could exceed levels of interference. In the remote terms after emergency this measure was accompanied by an unjustifiable psychological stress for the population and considerable material expenses. The adopted organizational and technological countermeasures allowed to reduce significantly a dose of irradiation for thyroid gland, especially for population of Kiev urban agglomeration - about 4 mln. persons. The efficiency of countermeasures was insufficient due to hiding of the emergency firstly, and then because of the late announcement of a danger, after iodine attack already. The program of reconstruction of irradiation doses for different groups of population was realized, i.e. the liquidators of emergency, children, inhabitants of the contaminated zone. The sharp increase of thyroid gland cancer frequency and other types of pathologies was observed. The network of specialized medical entities for consulting and clinical examination of victims was created. Iodine radionuclides entered into human organism per os with foodstuffs predominantly. Prevention of milk contamination and its processing was the most effective measures of population protection. The big part of the territory of Ukraine was subjected to radioactive contamination with fallout predominantly the area of Ukrainian

  17. Physical root-causes of the accident on Chernobyl NPP and its impact on the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the article is in short described the process of establishing nuclear safety and reliability for nuclear power plants, and in the second part are shortly described root-causes for two significant accidents on nuclear power plants (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl). Considered is an impact of theses accidents on the power industry and measures of the international community for assurance of reliable and safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  19. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  20. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  1. Distribution and migration of 90Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in 90Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of 90Sr concentrations were determined: in water – 4.1–24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants – 3.6–7.7 years, in molluscs – 2.4–6.7 years, and in fish – 7.8–12.9 years. The time for 90Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32–44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25–73 years. The contribution of dose from 90Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. -- Highlights: ► Regularities of change in 90Sr concentrations in the aquatic ecosystems were studied. ► Forecasts of time for 90Sr concentrations reduction to pre-accident levels were made. ► 90Sr CF values for hydrobionts did not depend on distance from the accident area. ► 90Sr is useful as a radiotracer for the chronological dating of the bottom sediments. ► Dose received by hydrobionts from 90Sr after accident period was determined

  2. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  3. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  5. To the problem of concepts of measures for water protection against secondary radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the analysis of experience in water protection measures in the zone of the Chernobyl' accident influence some conceptual approaches to solving the problems of secondary radioactive contamination of the Dnieper river water system are discussed. The scheme of the necessary information support for decision making in the field of water protection measures in zones subjected to accidental contamination by radioactive materials is suggested. It is shown that isolation of flooded source forming radionuclide washing-out from ground and surface waters is the most efficient method for decreasing water contamination level in the zone affected by contaminated spillways and river flood-plain basins. The objects for localization are the contaminated soils or leakages from radioactive waste storage places. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  6. Molecular-genetic characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in persons irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the mechanism of radiation induced leukemia we studied the bcr rearrangements in 19 CML patients irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl accident and 30 CML patients without exposure to ionizing radiation. 48 patients, irrespective of radiation exposure, had M-bcr mRNA, 1 - m-bcr. Clinical-hematological data and analysis of breakpoints (ratio of b2a2 and b3a2 transcripts) demonstrated prevalence of b3a2 among the exposed persons.Regardless of exposure to ionizing radiation the high platelet count cases were more frequent among patients carrying b3a2 transcripts. This study suggests, that formation of chimeric BCR/ABL gene and its genetic products may play an important role in the development of leukemia in either radiation-induced or de novo CML

  7. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  8. The fate of long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: role of hydrophysical factors and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The poster summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosporus Strait, temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles and inventories in the Black Sea water column and inventories in bottom sediments were estimated over the period 1986-2005. It has been estimated that atmospheric fallout deposited after 26 April 1986 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the surface of the Black Sea - nearly 2 % of total 137Cs release into the environment. Consequently the 137Cs inventory increased by a factor of 6-10 in the 0-50 m layer and in the whole volume of the Black Sea - by a factor of at least 2 in comparison with pre-Chernobyl value of - 1.4 ± 0.3 PBq. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated as 0.1-0.3 PBq. Preaccident 90Sr level around 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988 except NW Black Sea. The subsequent 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was very insignificant in comparison with the short-term atmospheric fallout. In contrast to this, total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was closed to amount of 90Sr fallen on the Black Sea surface after Chernobyl NPP accident. The results of observations and mathematical modelling testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea in 1986-2000 an exponential decrease of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-7 years and 9-13 years respectively have been observed. Under conditions of relatively unimportant river inputs and depletion by sedimentation from the water column, the decrease of the 137Cs inventory in the surface layer has been influenced mainly by three processes: vertical water mixing, release through the Bosphorus Strait, which accounts for 2-2.5 % of the 137Cs inventory in the 0

  9. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  10. NPP safety in Slovakia according to stress tests after accident in Fukushimi

    OpenAIRE

    Králik, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the new requirements to test of the safety and reliability of the NPP structures due to the last nuclear accidents in the world. The accidents of the NPP in Chernobyl and Fukushima give us the new inspiration to verify the safety level of the NPP structures. The probabilistic assessment of NPP structures for PSA level 2 of VVER 440 in the case of LOCA accident is presented. The results of the probabilistic nonlinear analysis of the NPP structures are present...

  11. Migration peculiarities of long-lived radionuclides in soils in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied migration of long-lived radionuclides of caesium-134/137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in soil samples from regions contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Samples of three types of contamination - fuel (A), quasi-fuel (B) and aerosol (C) - were taken at calibration sites in August 1988 down to a depth of 5 cm using conventional core samplers. The radioactivity of the samples was measured at intervals of 0.5 cm, as was the activity of three mechanical fractions of the samples: 1-2 (> 2) mm; 0.25-1.0 mm; 2) mm fractions (grass, roots and tillering nodes) in the 0-1 (to 2) cm layer, which reflects the increasing role of biogenic migration processes in mass transfer of radionuclides despite their apparent lack of mobility in biocenoses. The soil's dust and clay fraction (< 0.25 mm) helps to fix the radionuclides in the crystal structures of soil minerals and organic matter. The ratio of caesium-134/caesium-137 in soils exhibiting the quasi-fuel type of contamination varies from 0.17-0.55 in the 1-2 mm and < 0.25 mm sample fractions, evidently reflecting the various radionuclide occurrence forms and topographies in the fallout matrix, isotope separation included. (author)

  12. 90Sr and 137Cs in the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident: inventories, balance and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes studies of the distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs in the water and sediments of the Black Sea carried out during a 10-year period following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Its goal is to assess the temporal evolution of radionuclide inventories and balances and to evaluate the mixing of water masses and the sedimentation processes using man-made radionuclides as tracers. Using mathematical models and field data, mixing time-scales of 5, 16 and 24 years have been estimated, respectively, for the water layers of depths 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200 m. For the Central Basin the ventilation time of the lower pycnocline is estimated at 15-25 years. 137Cs has been used to date shelf and deep-basin sediments, providing the history of chemical and radioactive pollution and of eutrophication during the past 50 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 μmol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 μtmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of

  14. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  15. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  17. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  18. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  19. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  20. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 137Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 137Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 137Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 90Sr level nearly 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 90Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input and sedimentation on

  1. The simulation of environment contamination and the assessment of external and inhalation doses in the Gomel's region of Belarus after Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of environment contamination by some radionuclides at the short post period after Chernobyl accident has been performed on the basis of the Lagrangian trajectory model and computer code NIKAT. Afterwards the reconstruction of external and inhalation population doses has been done. (orig.)

  2. Estimation of molecular carriers of electrons in mitochondria of adrenal cortex under conditions of long-term permanent action of low-intensive ionizing radiation after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By EPR at 77K, we study molecular carriers of electrons in mitochondria of adrenal cortex in animals under conditions of the chronic action of low-dose ionizing irradiation from incorporated radionuclides related to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP and have found a significant decrease in the content of adrenodoxine which is a molecular carrier of electrons in the system of steroid hydroxylation. The last can play an important role in the mechanism of growth of neoplasms in adrenal glands, ovarial, and mammary glands

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  4. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  5. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation monitoring. Migration of radionuclides in natural environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section Radiation monitoring comprises: atlas of area radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station accident, state of computerized radiation control system, hydrological monitoring, radiation situation in different areas, problems of radioactive monitoring and protection of water objects, methods for determining radionuclides content, radiochemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration mobility of the Chernobyl' effluents, the results of investigations into migration of radionuclides in soils, landscapes, bottom depositions, in the soil-plant chain

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  7. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  8. Features of clinical signs of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and human populations of affected regions at different stages of accident and its response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical signs of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and persons taking part in the emergency response were analysed. Main stress factors for the personnel side by side with radiation hazard were the following ones: house loss, family separation, future uncertainties, etc. Singularity of labour under conditions of remaining threat for life and health, absence of information on the environmental radioactivity, unsatisfactory life conditions were in the first place for arrived persons. Analysis of determined psychopathological signs testifies to the prevalence of wide range of nervous disorders peculiar to natural calamities and disasters

  9. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  10. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  11. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  13. The account of thin isotope structure of contamination in the Belarus territory, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident, for reconstruction of the contamination level of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive trace formed as a result of Chernobyl accident, was formed in the complex conditions which are not giving in to correct mathematical modeling. Emission of a radioactivity occurred during enough long time from various parts of the reactor core with a different degree of fuel burning out and, hence, with miscellaneous radionuclide structure of emission. Meteorological conditions changing during this time have led to rather complex radioactive contamination of territory and non-uniform both on a level of contamination and on radionuclide structure. (authors)

  14. Some results of psychophysiological examinations of the liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP disaster consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychological examination of chemical troops officers being on service in the Chernobyl NPP zone and having different irradiation doses was realized. Analysis of the mental status (MS) of persons (51 men), who took part in the Chernobyl NPP accident effect elimination had shown the statistic difference of MS from persons, who did not take part in such works. The presence of the expressed syndrome of post-extremal state connected with increased mental instability was revealed. Quick diagnostics of the liquidator organisms functional states had shown hypofunction of cardiovascular, immune, central and peripheral nervous systems; hyperfunction of liver, kidneys and skeleton

  15. Site characterization techniques used in restoration of agricultural areas on the territory of the Russian Federation contaminated after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath after the heavy radiation accidents shows the need for improvement in site characterisation techniques and methodology in order to provide a link between site characterisation and the selection of restoration strategies. This paper gives an overview of the site characterisation techniques used in restoration of contaminated agricultural lands on the territory of the Russian Federation. The approach used for site characterisation and selection of restoration strategies is described. The main site specific factors influencing the choice of restoration options are identified. Data on the efficiency of major restoration measures used for the remediation of agricultural lands after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Kyshtym accidents are given. A description of the decision support system FORCON, designed to simplify the selection of restoration options, is presented. (author)

  16. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  17. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  18. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  19. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  20. Operational conditions of storages for products of decontamination of the territories of Belarus after the accident at Chernobyl NPP and evaluation of their radioecological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of carrying out the measures on decontamination of the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident, the storages for radioactive products of decontamination have been arranged in the Republic. Up to now, 69 storage sites for radioactive products of decontamination have been examined and registered. Six of them, the most typical, with the highest activity, are under constant control with the help of the network of the hydrogeological observation holes. The analysis of the field conditions of the storage sites at the territory of Belarus has shown that there is the violation of requirements for safe storage practically for all storages. The evaluation of protection of the ground water against radioactive contamination has shown, that in 10--100 years, the contamination of the ground water with caesium-137 is possible in concentrations lower than the Republican permissible levels and with strontium in concentrations significantly exceeding the specified values

  1. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  2. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  3. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

  4. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  5. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  6. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  7. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  8. JUSTIFICATION OF TRANSITION FROM ZONING OF CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES TO SETTLEMENTS CLASSIFICATION AT AN AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES IN REMOTE PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an existing exposure situation (in a remote period after the Chernobyl accident there is a need of the transition from "radioactive area zoning" to "the settlements classification by average annual effective doses to the critical group of persons among the settlement's residents", to ensure the appropriate radiation level and social protection of the settlement's residents, located on the contaminated territory.The comparative allocation analysis of the average annual external and internal effective doses, the average annual effective cumulative doses to residents of settlements, related to the relevant areas (the Council of Ministers of Belarus latest decision, the proposed dose range according to the Catalogue of average annual effective doses of residents of settlements radiation Republic of Belarus confirmed the validity of the transition from "radioactive zoning area" to "the classification of settlements by average annual effective dose."In accordance with the radiation protection principles, it seems reasonable to classify the settlements located on the contaminated territory at the average annual effective dose as follows: < 0.1 mSv / year (not required to carry out radiation protection measures in the agricultural sector;  0.1-1 mSv / year (periodic radiation monitoring should be carried out;  1 mSv / year (it is necessary to apply a complex of protective measures.

  9. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  10. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  11. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  12. Investigation of Chernobyl NPP and recovery of environment and medical service in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident will be terminated, if sufficient care of recovery for heart of people, economy and environment leads to happy Fukushima. It might be taken more than 20 years or more. The overseas NPP investigation group in the study committee for safety regulatory of NPP in PES division in JSME visited Chernobyl NPP, Ministry of Emergencies, National Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of Ukraine, Chernobyl Center, Slavutych, Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants and Chernobyl Museum. The investigation of bases of their new technology for deep LRW cleaning of Fukushima genesis from the whole range of radionuclides, including uranium and transuranic elements, organic impurities and simultaneous concentration of radioactive components in a small volume. The recovery of environment and care of heart of people were good in Ukraine. The lessons derived from the accident, we can decide what we should do. (author)

  13. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized

  14. Radionuclides in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of researches of the spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics, and distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs, and transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analyzed. For fish of lakes of the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the increase of the specific activity of 90Sr is registered, which is presumably connected to the dynamics of physico-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water basins from the catchment territory. Now about 90 % of the internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are caused by the 90Sr incorporation

  15. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  16. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  17. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10

  18. The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

  19. Peculiarities of soil mycobiota composition in Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil mycobiota in zones of strong radiation control (Lyutizh region), nine stationaries in 30 km Chernobyl NPP zone and one in the vicinity of Kiev has been investigated. 180 species of 70 genera of micromycetes has been isolated and identified. The species of genera Penicillium, Mortierella, Trichoderma, Cladosporium dominated in all soils studied, and the species of genera Acremonium, Paecilomyces, Oidiodendron etc. were frequent. The comparison of the generic composition of micromycetes in localities studied has revealed their similarity. The characteristic feature for the mycobiota was regular revealing and specific variability of melanin-containing fungi. Many of them compose the reserve group of micromycetes. There was found new and rare species Acrodontium crateriforme (v.Beyma) de Hoog, Botryosporium longibrachiatum Oud., Chuppia sarcinifera Deighton, Harzia acremonioides Harz etc., with were not registered in these soils before the accident. The structure of the micromycete complexes presented as a correlation Pleiades has been established. Discovered Pleiades were formed mainly by melanin-containing fungi. According to the preliminary results the micro-mycetes complexes, taking into account their occurrence, can be used as indicators of unfavourable ecological soil state. To our mind, a search for such complexes may be conducted among of melanin-containing species as well as numerous species of genus Penecillium and related Paecilomyces

  20. Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  1. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  2. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  3. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 μm. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 μm. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

  4. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  5. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  6. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  7. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  8. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  9. Analysis of the accident at the Chernobylsk-2 NPP due to make-up deficit in the cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP power unit 2, which occurred on October 11, 1991, due to non-sanctioned connection to the net of turbogenerator planned for repair, is analyzed. The accident resulted in heavy fire in the machine hall and subsequent failure of safety-significant systems, providing for project mode of reactor cooling. The investigation of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP power unit 2 indicated the necessity of developing procedures for the personnel actions in situations with complete or partial feed-up loss of multiple forced circulation circuit from high-pressure water feed-up sources. 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. RADIATION SITUATION ON THE TERRITORY OF THE OREL REGION AFFECTED BY THE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of radiation situation monitoring on the territory of the Orel region after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Actions of the sanitary epidemiological authority for the emergency response management, actions of the region administration for the population protection from the overexposure are analyzed. Data on morbidity of the liquidators of Chernobyl accident and region inhabitants, living on the contaminated territories, is presented.

  11. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  12. Characteristics of hot particles of the soil in the neighborhood of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sizes of the hot particles, their activity, and the isotopic composition have been described by several investigators. Most of the measurements have been carried out during 1986-1987, i.e., within a short period after the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents the data concerning the hot particles in the specimens of the soil drawn from the surface of the land located at a distance of 600 m from the damaged power block of the Chernobyl NPP. Measurements were carried out during February-August 1991, i.e., after a lapse of 5 years from the instance of the accident. It is noted that the hot particles falling on the soil are dangerous to the life of the organisms inhabiting the near-surface layers of the earth. In this case, the risk of decreases due to the β-active hot particles has been studied to a lesser extent. In view of this, the authors studied the accumulation of the radioactive hot particles in the pulmonary tissues of mice and the tissues of earthworms inhabiting the region of the Chernobyl NPP according to the autoradiographic method. In order to obtain α-radiograms, Kodak-LP115 and CN-8015 detectors were used, maintaining a direct contact with the surface of the soil specimens. The optimum exposure amounted to approximately 100 h

  13. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

  14. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  15. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  16. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  17. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  18. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  19. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  20. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  1. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  2. Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

  3. Radionuclides in lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territories of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterised by significant heterogeneity of radionuclide contamination, which is reflected by the radioactive substance contents in aquatic ecosystem components. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes and over the years that passed since the accident have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs, and in particular the lakes in the inner exclusion zone, have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentrations of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. During 1997-2004 we studied the dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, 137CS, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the main components of the lake ecosystems within the exclusion zone, defined as a roughly circular area of 30 km radius around the destroyed unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The radionuclide content was measured in bottom sediments, water, seston, higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish in Azbuchin Lake, Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake. The analysis of radionuclide distribution in components of lake ecosystems has shown that about 98-99 % of 137CS and more than 99 % of transuranic elements of the total radionuclide content has concentrated in the bottom sediments. The content of 90Sr in sediments of lakes, due to higher solubility, amounts to 89-95 %. About 2-10 % of radionuclides concentrated in water and only about 1 %- in biota. In this percent a prevailing value for different radionuclides has the macro benthos species (especially bivalve molluscs) and higher aquatic plants. The average specific activity of radionuclides in fish tissue more than in 100 times exceeds a maximum permissible level for fish production in Ukraine. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts, living within littoral zone of the researched lakes, due to external

  4. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection.

  5. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  6. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  7. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  9. Radionuclide migration and biological effects in forest landscape of the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioecological and radiobiological studies made in pine-birch plantations located at the distances of 15 and 18 km to the West from the Chrenobyl NPP in 1987-1988 are discussed. It is shown that the contents of radionuclides studied in the soil-vegetable cover of the 15-km zone decrease in the following order Cs-137 > Cs-134 > Sr-90. Sr-90 is present in firmly fixed state in soil near the Chernobyl NPP failed unit, and its great portion becomes fixed by ion exchange reaction type as the distance from the accident place increases. Cs isotopes are included into the firmly fixed compounds in soils of the 30-km zone

  10. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  11. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  12. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  13. New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

  14. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  15. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  16. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  17. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  18. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  19. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  20. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  1. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  2. Children thyroid carcinoma and Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear medicine diagnostic department of Kaunas Medical University Clinics 22 children (6-16 years of age), ill with thyroid carcinoma were examined. Bas ing on the data of Kaunas Medical University Clinic the incidence of children thyroid carcinoma did not increase after Chernobyl accident. Ratio of boys and girls was 4.5:1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was detected in 15 (68.2%)children, mixed carcinoma - 4 (18.2%), nondiferenciated -3 (13.6%) children. First stage of cancer was detected only in one patient (4.5%), second -16 (72.7%), third - 3 (13.6%), fourth stage - 2 (9.1%) patients. (author)

  3. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  4. Proceedings of the 6rd Radiobiological conference with international participation dedicated to 20th anniversary of nuclear accident in Chernobyl, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific conference deals with problems in radiobiology, photobiology and radio-environmental sciences. Some papers deal with the historical aspects development of reactor accidents (Chernobyl NPP and NPP A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice) as well as history of nuclear sciences in former Czechoslovakia. Proceedings contain forty-seven papers

  5. The Chernobyl accident--an epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Hatch, M

    2011-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to the exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer-particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes-that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with the risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer end points. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers ('liquidators') have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other haematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  6. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident

  7. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  9. Varieties of fuel particles in fallout of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil in the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone is known to be contaminated by fine particles of dispersed irradiated fuel. Experimental data obtained by the authors shortly after the accident indicated a significant excess of 95Zr in the particles compared with its calculated amount. This suggested that particles of the U fuel also contain construction material from the core, activated Zr. The authors have isolated particles of radioactive material from the heavy soil fraction in order experimentally to confirm this. Their dimensions varied from 85 to 750 μm; their mass, from 10 to 700 μg. Such characteristics as the microstructure, elemental composition, and the concentration of 144Ce and other radionuclides obtained from electron microscope measurements, microprobe analysis, and γ- and α-spectrometry were used to classify the particles. It was found that two types of highly active particles are characteristic of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (up to 4-5 km) and the western track of the fallout for a distance of 20 km from the destroyed fourth block. The first type are genuine particles of irradiated fuel. The second type are aggregates consisting of U and Zr oxides. The second type predominates in fallout of the exclusion zone and in the western track

  10. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  11. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  12. Virtual reality in design, planning, operation and training related to the decommissioning of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Reality in refueling operation and maintenance training at Leningrad NPP has been recognized by Chernobyl NPP. Institute for Energy Technology's is establishing now the Chernobyl Decommissioning Visualization Centre to be used for planning and training the dismantling procedures in addition to presenting it to the authorities and the public. It will be ready in 2007. The first scenario will be the dismantling of the refueling machines

  13. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  14. The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  15. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  16. Impact on London of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation levels in London following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and are reported. The sampling programme of atmospheric dusts, water and milk is detailed. A few other items, eg food and ships arriving at Tilbury and Sheerness were also tested. The counting techniques are given. The results show that at its peak the additional activity contributed by the inhalation of the debris probably increased the radiation dose to an individual in London by about 40% of the natural dose for that period. The increased activity in milk gave rise to an additional dose and may continue to do so. However, the radioactive debris from the fallout was much less in London than other parts of the UK. (U.K.)

  17. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  18. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  19. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

  20. Investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of biosphere has been acquiring a special topicality after nuclear weapon testing and NPP-induced accidents that have already brought to global pollution of the Earth with radioactive substances. One of visual examples of regional radioactive pollution is dispersion of emissions all over the territory of Central Europe after the Chernobyl accident, which aftermaths impacted Armenia, as well. Monitoring investigations in the Ararat Valley showed a precise peak of gross radioactivity of atmospheric fallout in 1986 - the year of Chernobyl accident. Gross mean annual radioactivity was established 1783 10 7 Bq/KXm 2 yr. Later, a sharp fall in the activity was observed. Mostly, radioactive fallout consisted of short-lived radionuclides. Measurements for 1986-1987 showed that gross β-radioactivity level in soils amounted to 977-1022 Bq/KXg, repeated measurements in 1991 allowed establishing 640-656 Bq/KXg. A precise indicator of radioactive emissions that reached Armenia after the Chernobyl accident was a short-lived radionuclide 134 Cs (T1/2=2.07 yr) identified in soils. Measurements made 2 years later showed half as much decay of 134 Cs, and in some points established were its traces only. 137 Cs/134 Cs ratio in varied 1.4 to 1.8 in atmospheric fallout and 2.1 to 33.4 in soils. Thus, monitoring investigations evidence a regional character of Chernobyl emission dispersion, this being proved by investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia, too

  1. Analysis of nuclear fuel reliability based on Chernobyl NPP operation for validation of fuel element service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of failure intensity of fuel assemblies at Chernobyl-1 and Chernobyl-3 NPP during 10 years are given. Fuel assembly reliability is connected with seal failure reactor operation. Preliminary results are discussed

  2. Regulatory effect of fungus origin melanin on the generating rate and content of oxygen radical forms in the liver microsomes of animals which for a long time were hold in the zone of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the spin trap and ESR methods, quantitative investigation of the rate of oxygen radical form generation have been carried out in the liver microsome of animals which were staying during during 1,5 years in the area of Chernobyl accident and also after preventive action of fungus melanin produced from Cladosporium cladosporioides (Patent of Ukraine 1523, 15.09.93). For the first time considerable increase (in 3 times) of the rate of peroxide anion radical generation and the content of hydroxyl radicals in the electron transport chain of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of the liver has been discovered. As it has been found, protective properties of fungus melanin in radiation carcinogenesis under conditions of prolonged action of ionizing radiation of low intensity are in correspondence with reducing of oxygen radical form generation

  3. Chernobyl NPP's shelter site yesterday, today and tomorrow. Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the beyond the design basis accident in Unit 4 at 1:23 a.m. on April 26, 1986, the core of the reactor and its protective safety barriers and safety systems were destroyed. The nuclear fuel inside lost its properties as fuel and became radioactive waste. The destroyed power unit, which could no longer perform its functions, became the scene of a comprehensive effort to mitigate the consequences of the accident. As part of the effort, a temporary shelter was constructed over the destroyed central hall of Unit 4. Called 'Shelter Site of Power Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP'', the object now includes both accident-damaged Unit 4 and the protective structures and enclosures covering the ionizing radiation emitters ejected from the reactor core. These newly built structures are equipped with additional systems for diagnostics, dust suppression, neutron-absorbing solution injection, fire prevention water supply and other components designed to limit the effects of the accident and protect personnel and the environment. 5 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  5. Implementation of post-Chernobyl first-priority safety improvement measures at the Leningrad NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the severe accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 and in order to ensure RBMK-1000 safe operation, a set of measures was worked out aimed at preclusion of such an accident recurrence. Implementation of these measures is described

  6. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On the 26th of April 1986 an accident at the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP took place. The accident became known to the whole world as a Chernobyl catastrophe. By its scale, by complexity of global problems stipulated by the accident, by long-term consequences it is the largest and the gravest catastrophe in the history of nuclear energy application. After Chernobyl catastrophe the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of an environment and prognosis in future. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of an exposure gamma-rates in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The results of monitoring show, that exposure gamma-rates decreases in a result of processes of natural radioactive decay and vertical migration of radionuclides in soil. The results of monitoring of exposure gamma-rates allow to make the prognosis and to calculate a year, when exposure gamma-rates will be equal to levels before the catastrophe on ChNPP. The numerical prognosis shows, that in Bragin town exposure gamma-rates will be equal to level before the catastrophe on ChNPP approximately after 65 years, in Slavgorod and Chechersk towns - after 23-24 years. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs- 37 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of the evolution of area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986 - 2046 shows: - In 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will be approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease with a factor 1,5 in comparison with 1986; - In 60 years (2046) contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. will decrease with a factor 2

  7. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  8. Radioactive iodine-131 over Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two weeks after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, a substantial increase in radioactivity above normal background levels was observed in various samples taken in Taiwan, which is 7600 km from Chernobyl. The 131I concentrations in grass, rainwater, and milk were monitored continuously in succeeding weeks and correlations with weather conditions are discussed. Levels of radiation fallout over Taiwan due to the Chernobyl accident are much lower than the response levels recommended by local authorities and pose no danger to the public. (author)

  9. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  10. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  11. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  12. Aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For past 17 years after accident the character of radioactive contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has undergone essential changes. First of all it connected with realisation on a wide area of deactivation works, and also with transformation of radioactive substances in water-soil systems. Besides, during 1991-95 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as protection dams, interfering washing away of radioactive substances from soils of the left-bank catchment basin and changed a hydrological regime of these territories during a high water, was constructed. The levels of radionuclide contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone was rather stabilised. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes (especially during floods and periods of high water) and over the years have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. Therefore, for the majority of standing reservoirs the level of radionuclide content is determined mainly by the rates of mobile radionuclide forms exchange between bottom sediment and water, as well as by the external washout from the catchment basin. In this paper will be considered: (1) the latest data on radionuclide content (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241) and dynamics in water, seston, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of different trophic levels and ecological groups; (2) the peculiarities of formation of vegetative communities from lakes within embankment territory of Pripyat River flood-lands and its impact on radionuclide redistribution in aquatic ecosystems; (3) the major hydrochemical factors, which determine the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic

  13. Post-processing activities after Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and lesson learned to the response Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident of Chernobyl NPP no.4 1986, various activities including the construction of the shelter, prevention of the release of radioactive dust and liquid from the shelter, monitoring the condition of the damaged core, and disposal of radioactive waste have been implemented in the Chernobyl site for mitigating the nuclear and radioactive risks of damaged nuclear facilities, and the reducing radiation dose of working personnel. The construction of new shelter started for the decommissioning of the damaged unit no.4. facility. For reducing the radiation dose to the inhabitants from the contaminated land and feedstuff, the countermeasures including the set of the exclusive zone and permissible level of radionuclide in the foodstuff have been conducted for the countrywide. These activities include many valuable information about how to recover the condition of the site and maintain the social activities after the severe accident of NPP, and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  14. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 μSv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  16. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  17. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  18. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  19. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  20. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was

  1. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

  2. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  3. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  4. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  5. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  6. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  7. Problems of ground-water monitoring in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the nine years of hydrogeological studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone scientific and methodological problems of the radio hydrogeological monitoring are discussed. Inconsistency of the official ground-water monitoring system is shown. The ways to improve the radio hydrogeological monitoring are indicated. The special attention is paid to principles of the development of monitoring well network in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in the light of the hydrogeological factors. The data are presented on ground-water contamination by strontium-90 in the zone adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP (at the right bank of the Pripyat River)

  8. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  9. Human reliability analysis for accident sequences in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to perform a human performance analysis in accident conditions for the operating NPP. This analysis is realized using Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. HRA methods have necessary tools to analyze the human actions, to estimate the human error probabilities and to identify the major factors which could have a negative influence on the mitigating of the consequences of the abnormal events in NPP. The analyzed events are from CANDU 600 NPP. In order to achieve the analysis of these events the THEP and SPAR-H methods were used. After analyzing the results the actuated equipment, the negative influence factors on the human performance and the dependence levels between the human actions and between the human actions and diagnosis were established. In addition, some recommendations were formulated which could influence positive the human performance on the mitigating of the consequences of the accident sequences in NPP. (authors)

  10. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  11. Damage of common reed by gall mites and diptera within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy damage events of common reed by gall arthropods in water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP inner (10-km) exclusion zone have been studied. The mites of family Tarsonemidae - Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis and S. gibber have been discovered. The damage events of common reed by larvae of gall fly of family Chloropidae, genus Lipara have been considered as well

  12. Problems of hydrogeological monitoring and prediction of ground water contamination in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of ground water monitoring and the questions of development of the observation well network in the nearest 10-15 km area around Chernobyl NPP are considered. Ground water contamination by radionuclides in the exclusion zone is described. Results of mathematical modeling of strontium-90 migration from radioactive waste disposal sites are presented

  13. Reconstruction of radioactive contamination of territory the Belarus by an isotope I-131 after the catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first period after the accident of Chernobyl NPP considerable increasing of exposure dose power was registered practically everywhere on the territory of Belarus. The levels of radioactive contamination induced by iodine-131 were so high that the irradiation of millions people caused by it has been qualified by experts as the period of 'iodine blow' by specialists. So reconstruction of iodine doses during the first period after the accident can considerable change current assessments of radionuclides affect upon population of Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Nowadays the assessment of environmental short-lived radionuclides, first of all iodine isotopes, contamination is very important because high levels of iodine contents in soil, atmospheric air, water and food have caused rising of malignant thyroid cancer in the post accident period, especially among children and teenagers everywhere on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Revealed dependence between iodine-131 contamination of soil and space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidence among children on the territory of Belarus allows one to use the reconstruction map for detection the regions of increased risk of cancer incidence. Reconstruction map of space iodine-131 distribution reflects real situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus on the May 10, 1986. Proposed approaches allow one to construct a number of maps of iodine-131 distribution for given data taking into account dynamics of real meteorological conditions formed the radioactive trace.Dose commitments on thyroid cancer caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2,5 months after the accident. The space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of Belarus in the period from 1986 to 1995 map was made. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of

  14. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological

  15. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to m...

  16. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  17. The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

  18. Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

  19. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  20. Lessons of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insensitivity of radiation without measuring apparatus and health outcome observed in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are major sources that make people fear the possible late effects of radiation exposure attributable to nuclear power plant accident. However, the health conditions of people in the last 20 years around Chernobyl indicated the necessity to review the risk assessment suggesting that effects of radiation exposure may considerably be different between the atomic bombing and nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  1. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  2. Biological Effects 10 years after the Chernobyl NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident were analyzed. The mortality of infants in some towns in Poland was presented. The increase in the incidence of neoplasms, blood diseases and endocrine diseases infants was observed in 1986-1988. The increase in number of the Down syndrome during this time period was remarkable. Also the first notifications of neoplasms showed the trend to an increase

  3. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  4. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

  5. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  6. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  7. Activities of the central authorities in 1990-1991 on the Chernobyl accident response and social defence of it's victims. Long-term programs on the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter presents the information on the approved All-Union Programs to eliminate the long-term consequences of the CNPP accident and on problems linked with the social protection of the victims. Three stages of the activity to overcome the consequences of the accident are studied: 1-st period - 1986; 2-nd period - 1987-1989; third period (reconstruction) -1990-1995 and subsequent years. Attention is focused on the All-Union section of the State Union and Republic Program to protect the USSR population against the effects of the Chernobyl NPP in 1991-1995 and during the period up to 2000

  8. Cancer following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: what we have learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Twenty years later, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine remains the largest of its kind. Ukraine and Belarus in particular were heavily contaminated, principally with radioiodine which concentrate in the thyroid gland. Before Chernobyl, little was known about, the risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed to radioiodine as children, although there were some reports based on exposed adults. A number of epidemiologic studies have since been conducted to evaluate populations in Chernobyl-exposed areas. These have provided valuable information about the risks of Iodine-131 to children. I will summarize these studies and the lessons the international scientific and medical community have learned from this research on Chernobyl. Finally, I will describe progress with a seminal project: the Belarus-American Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases following the Chernobyl Accident. This collaborative effort has involved screening a cohort of approximately 12,000 individuals exposed as young persons at two year intervals for three consecutive cycles. This is the first study, cohort in design, to be based on individual, measured doses and thus can provide the best quantitative estimate of the dose-response relationship between Iodine-131 and risk of thyroid cancer

  9. Assessment of the MSLB accident safety margins for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the comparison between the 3-D neutronics (coupled code RELAP5/QUABOX/CUBBOX) and point kinetics (RELAP5/mod3.2.2) calculations of MSLB accident for NPP Krsko (NEK) after steam generator (SG) replacement and at uprated conditions (6% power increase). The main steam line break (MSLB) accident in pressurized water reactors (PWR) is overcooling accident characterized by large variations in primary coolant conditions, asymmetric core inlet and outlet conditions and strongly localized reactivity disturbance due to assumed stuck control rod. The characteristics and phenomena related to the MSLB accident for best-estimate calculations can be accurately analyzed through the use of coupled code. (author)

  10. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME HEALTH INDICATORS OF VARIOUS RADIATION ACCIDENTS LIQUIDATORS

    OpenAIRE

    V. M. Shubik

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident), at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS) consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP). Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine acc...

  12. Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

  13. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  14. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  16. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  17. Codes for NPP severe accident simulation: development, validation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software tools that describe various safety aspects of NPP with VVER reactor have been developed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN). Functionally, the codes can be divided into two groups: the calculation codes that describe separate elements of NPP equipment and/or a group of processes and integrated software systems that allow solving the tasks of the NPP safety assessment in coupled formulation. In particular, IBRAE RAN in cooperation with the nuclear industry organizations has developed the integrated software package SOCRAT designed to analyze the behavior of NPP with VVER at various stages of beyond-design-basis accidents, including the stages of reactor core degradation and long-term melt retention in a core catcher. The general information about development, validation and applications of SOCRAT code is presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  19. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  20. Russian National Chernobyl Register as information and and analytical for Chernobyl accident medical consequences estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to using of the National Radiation and Epidemiology Register basic part, namely the Russian State Medical-Dosimetric Register of the people affected by the Chernobyl accident, to estimate the medical consequences of the accident. First part of article presents the common description and current state of Register. The estimation of medical consequences of the accident for clean-up workers is given in second part. The prognosis of radiation effects and definition of basic epidemiology factors to propose optimal medicalrehabilitation measures is discussed

  1. Introduction of nitrogen blow-through in the cooling circuit of the Chernobyl NPP Unit 3 in experimental industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of nuclide composition of Chernobyl NPP releases (inert gases) showed that Ar-41 plays there the main role (84-90%). For its decrease a system for gas tank blow-through by nitrogen of high purification was proposed

  2. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  3. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800

  5. Intelligent system for accident identification in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental situations in NPP are great concern for operators, the facility, regulatory bodies and the environmental. This work proposes a design of intelligent system aimed to assist the operator in the process of decision making initiator events with higher relative contribution to the reactor core damage occur. The intelligent System uses the results of the pre-operational Probabilistic safety Assessment and the Thermal hydraulic Safety Analysis of the NPP Juragua as source for building its knowledge base. The nucleus of the system is presented as a design of an intelligent hybrid from the combination of the artificial intelligence techniques fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. The system works with variables from the process of the first circuit, second circuit and the containment and it is presented as a model for the integration of safety analyses in the process of decision making by the operator when tackling with accidental situations

  6. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  7. Accident assessment for Chernobyl unit 3 from potential collapse of adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Simonov, I.M.; Kritsky, A.B. [Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    This study assessed the likelihood of a serious, explosive accident to be caused at Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 3 by a collapse that might occur in the nearby shelter (Ukrytie) constructed over the destroyed unit 4 or in the intermediate building block V separating the two units. In order to determine quickly and economically the significance of the hazard to unit 3, the analysis was based on existing information and expert judgment. No new structural analysis calculations were performed. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed and directed the methodology of the study. The expert judgment assessments of likely scenarios and event probabilities were carried out by Ukrainian experts. Most of the project team was drawn from the State Scientific and Technical Center of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine with support from personnel of the Chernobyl NPP, the Interbranch Agency of the Ukrainian Scientific and Technical Center, and the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Administration. It was truly an international project; the PNNL project manager resided in Ukraine during the study and met regularly with the Ukrainian team to review progress and to discuss approach and methodology. Peer reviews were obtained from Ukrainian, US, and Canadian risk analysis and RBMK systems and operations experts. The full report of the study and its results was published by the Ukrainian team.

  8. Revisiting Chernobyl accident:what were the causes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally stated, particularly in the West, that the Chernobyl accident was the result of a specific Soviet political and economic system, and that such an accident could not happen in the Western reactors. The reality is much more complicated. A careful examination of events that lead to the accident reveals that there were several different factors contributing to it. If any one of these factors were absent, there would have been no accident, or it would have been only a minor incident. Three of these factors were related to the reactor design, two to the preparation of the experiment, three to the judgment of the operators, judgments made under pressure and in a hurry, and at least one to the management..The management factor is perhaps the most controversial and interesting. One popular interpretation is that the accident was the result of excessive bureaucracy and individual irresponsibility. Some examples of mismanagement in other areas of human activity are quoted in this paper. They illustrate that similar mistakes occur quite frequently all around us, not only in the Soviet Union. The overall analysis of the Chernobyl accident confirms what scientists and engineers have known for a long time. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to develop a new technology without making mistakes, some of which may be fatal. (author)

  9. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  10. Study of the condition of thyroid glands of cattle that was kept in the alienated zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition of the thyroid gland of a cow that liver in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for 14 years (since the moment of the accident till the death) is investigated. we atrophy of the gland and its substitution by fat and connective tissues. Nevertheless, there are found small islets of a glandular tissue with normal follicles, which contained colloid. According to our evaluations, the animal has received a dose of about 100 Gy/thyroid gland from an internal exposure of radioiodine disregarding the inhalation component. Such a dose was sufficient for the beginning of series disturbances, but was not thyroidectomy. Long life and ability to normal reproduction are connected, most likely, with the regeneration and compensating processes in the gland of the animal

  11. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  12. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK)

  13. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, J.; Kaletsch, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Petridou, E.; Trichopoulos, D. [Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston, MA (United States); Dessypris, N.; Flytzani, V.; Haidas, S.; Kalmanti, M.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.

    1997-05-15

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK).

  14. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  15. Duodenal ulcer course in patients participated in Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    80 participants of Chernobyl accident response having duodenal ulcer exacerbation were examined. Their disease was the result of internal irradiation (due to ingestion of short-living radioisotopes) as well as other emergency factors. Data characterizing the specific course of duodenal ulcer in patients were presented. Conclusion was made on the expediency of microbiological and cytogenetic investigations with simultaneous assessment of the indices of somatic mutagenesis

  16. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  17. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  18. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  19. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  20. A brief overview of Ignalina NPP safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the safety of Ignalina NPP in a very popular form is presented. Answers to the most frequently recurring questions concerning the Ignalina NPP are provided based on recently completed international studies. Questions are like these: can a similar accident to the one that occurred in Chernobyl take place at Ignalina NPP, does the Ignalina NPP have a containment, what are the probabilities and potential consequences of accidents, etc. The brochure contains a short description of Ignalina NPP safety improvement programs

  1. [The main radionuclides and dose formation in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Kaglian, A E; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Klenus, V G

    2008-01-01

    The results of the researches of spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, of 137Cs and of transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analysed. The data of estimations of absorbed doze rate from incorporated radionuclides for pray fish and predatory species are given. For the fish from the lake of the left-bank floodplain of the Pripyat River the increase of 90Sr specific activity is registered which is presumably connected with the dynamics of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water bodies from the catchment basin. Now about 90% of internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone is caused by 90Sr incorporation. PMID:18666579

  2. Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

  3. Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

  4. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident with regard to Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986, in which large amounts of radioactive material were released into the environment, was the most serious accident that occurred in connection with the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation. The radiation levels from released radionuclides were highest in the immediate vicinity of the reactor, in the western part of the former Soviet Union and in the European countries. In other parts of the world, radionuclide contamination was due not only to external radiation but also to ingestion of contaminated food, mainly milk products. 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  6. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  7. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  8. Radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and spice-indicators of radioactive contamination are exposed as well. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose have been demonstrated

  9. 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water object within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated

  10. Migration properties of radionuclides released from Chernobyl NPP in agriculture and radioecological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide in the area migration Chernobyl NPP at the 12 points of three landscape-geochemical proving grounds in Mogilev and Gomel Regions is studied. The main characteristics of contamination, the vertical migration in a soil profile, the degree of radionuclide builup by plants and the intensity of the accumulated isotope release from domestic animal bodies are investigated. The data presented could be applied for solving radioecological problems, forecasting radiation situations and developing practical recommendations

  11. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  12. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication

  13. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. Hydrobionts of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone. Radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territories of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterised by significant heterogeneity of radionuclide contamination, which is reflected by the radioactive substance contents in aquatic ecosystem components. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes and, over the years that have passed since the accident, have ceased to play an essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs, and in particular the lakes in the inner exclusion zone, have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. In 1997-2002 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs of the exclusion zone were found to be in the range from 1.6 x 10-3 to 3.5 Gy·year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of Pripyat River, the lowest for specimens from the running water objects. The following are considered in the paper: (1) the latest data on content of the most biohazardous radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and 241Am) in hydrobionts of the different trophic levels and ecological groups (higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish); (2) the possibility to use of hydrobionts of different trophic levels as biological indicators of radioactive contamination of water objects; (3) the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from different water bodies; (4) some biological effects (somatic and citogenetic) of radiation exposure on hydrobionts living in water reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination. (author)

  15. Agro-industrial sphere-radiological consequence of Chernobyl accident and major safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early spring radionuclide fall as a consequence of Chernobyl accident caused air contamination of aerial part of agriculture crop - winter crops, natural and seeded permanent grasses. For other plants the soil and wind contamination are prevailing. After radionuclide fall most of them are concentrated in the soil upper layer. Radionuclide uptake depends on the ratio of their concentration in soils, that is varied due to the soil type. The soil development results in variation of radionuclide migration in the crop. In cattle production two main trends are the most significant: estimation of food contamination (primarily of milk and meat) and analysis of physiological state of animals near NPP. Organization and land-improvement measures permitting a stable agro-industrial functionaing on the contaminated territory are considered

  16. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  17. Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

  18. Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

  19. The Chernobyl active phase: why the ''official view'' is wrong [Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a new investigation into the active phase of the Chernobyl accident are summarised. This phase is defined as the period from the initial destruction of the core to the puzzling and very sharp drop in environmental radionuclide release about nine days later. The research was carried out at Chernobyl over 18 months in cooperation with scientists living there. Its objective was to examine the reliability of the official Soviet presentation at the IAEA post-accident review conference in August 1986. In order to reconstruct the events, four new spheres of information were brought together: a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the accident management actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident; a description of the remains of the reactor building and the solidified corium; results of radiochemical analyses of the melted fuel; and an analysis of radioisotope release dynamics. An alternative explanation for the bathtub shaped release curve has been arrived at and a rough release estimate made which confirms suspicions that the amount of radioactivity released into the environment was greater than that officially reported. (UK)

  20. The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

  1. Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

  2. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  3. Landscape and ecological-geochemical conditions of the Chernobyl NPP effect at the Ukrainian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of landscape-geochemical division into districts of the Ukrainian territory in 1990-1991 are presented due to the Chernobyl accident. Landscape features of regions and indices of man-made load are described. Characteristics given also include peculiarities of geochemical landscape structure, migration conditions of chemical elements, ground water protection degree, exogenetic chemical process character, radionuclide anomalies, toxic chemical element prevalence

  4. Aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: dynamics of contamination, radiation absorbed doses, radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioactive contamination dynamics in the main components of aquatic ecosystems and absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone has been analysed. Some cytogenetic and haematological effects of long-term irradiation on aquatic organisms as well as damage of higher aquatic plants by parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods have been considered. (authors)

  5. Electric spin resonance and instrumental neutron activation element analyses of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up worker teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Se, Zn, Co) in teeth of Chernobyl's NPP accident clean-up workers examined in the Centre of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P.Stradins Clinical Hospital, Medicine Academy of Latvia. The strontium concentration was high in teeth of clean-up that in control teeth. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the absorption dose. The absorbed dose reconstruction was achieved by additive dose method. The absorbed dose measured by ESR in teeth was always higher than the documented exposure doses. (author)

  6. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  7. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer

  8. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  10. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  12. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  13. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  14. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

  15. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  16. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH (TWO POINTS OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  17. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1996, the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant led to the release into the atmosphere of considerable quantities of radionuclides. Most contaminated regions were in the southern Belarus, northern Ukraine and Bryansk and Kaluga regions of Russia. Main population groups exposed to the radioactivity released during the accident were the personnel at the Chernobyl plant and the rescue teams present on-site during the first hours, the cleanup workers (numbering about 600000) who participated in the decontamination and cleaning operations in the 30 km zone around the site, the residents of the same zone who were evacuated (numbering about 115000) and the inhabitants of contaminated zones (≥1 Ci/km2). Dose and dose rate levels as well as exposure pathways differ from one population group to another. A review of scientific articles published in the international literature till 1998 has been carried out. Apart the 28 deaths due to acute radiation sickness which occurred in the personnel of the plant and rescue teams within several days or weeks after the accident, two main public health consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been observed. First an unprecedented epidemic of thyroid cancers was detected in children first in 1992 in Belarus then in the Ukraine and to a lesser extent in Bryansk region. The spontaneous incidence of these tumours was multiplied by 100 in most contaminated regions. Although the role of the accident in this epidemic is now recognised, questions are raised regarding the respective role of radioactive agents and other environmental or genetic factors, and its evolution in the future. Regarding other kinds of solid cancers and leukemia, no excess has been clearly demonstrated in the residents of contaminated areas nor in liquidators. Second, results of available epidemiological investigations show an increased risk of psychological distress in residents of highly contaminated areas

  19. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  20. Epidemiology of cancer in population living in contaminated territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data of oncology service of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer and leukemia in 1980-1994 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP are generalized. Spatio-temporal for incidence of malignant diseases in population are developed. The analysis of possible connections between the effective dose and incidence of cancer in population living in the area contaminated by radionuclides is performed. Spatio-temporal models for the incidence of cancer including leukemias and lymphomas are found to be the same in the pre- and post-accidental periods. Nine years after the Chernobyl accident there are no scientific evidence for the excess of incidence of malignant tumors, except thyroid cancer, attributed to radiation factor, even in the most contaminated areas. Appearance of previously unregistered thyroid cancer cases in children living in the territory, where considerable amount of radioactive iodine was deposited, can indicate stochastic radiation effects in thyroid

  1. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  2. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the six items of improvement measures including a future improvement measure announced by the USSR regarding the accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant No. 4 reactor, the three items having exercised large influence over the plant behavior at the accident were analyzed by WIMS-ATR, EUREKA-2 and other calculational codes, and technically evaluated. As a result the following have been made clear: (1) If 80 manual control rods are inserted 1.2 m deep from the core upper end, any accident can be prevented by further inserting them at a 0.4 m/s speed, even under such power increase conditions as in this accident. (2) If the additional 80 manual control rods are inserted into the reactor, the coolant void reactivity coefficient can be improved from 2x10-4 Δk/k/% void to 1.4x10-4 Δk/k/% void. Further if the coefficient is less than 1.5x10-4 Δk/k/% void, the power increase speed will slow down much more and similar accidents can fully be prevented by means of the currently designed control rods of the shut-down system. (orig.)

  4. Hydrobionts of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: dose rates and cytogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000 - 2004 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone were found. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of Pripyat River. The high level of chromosome aberration in of snail's cells from water objects within the Chernobyl exclusion zone has been registered in comparison with Goloseevo lakes. The molluscs from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the maximal rate of chromosome aberration - about 20-25%, that in 10 times exceeds a level spontaneous mutagenesis for hydrobionts. A little bit less rate is registered for snails from Azbuchin Lake and Yanovsky Creek

  5. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  6. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  7. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  8. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  9. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  10. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E. (Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion.

  11. Adaptation state for persons living and working in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral health characteristics (IHC) reflecting the level of organism adaptation for persons working and living under specific conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone is suggested. IHC gives an opportunity to differentiate the adaptation degree in respect to 6 characteristics, which are encephalogram, cycle-ergometry, psychological test (uneasiness state), immunological test (T lymphocyte activity), content of chlorides in blood, state of skin bactericidal activity. Mathematical models connecting IHC with organism adaptation state are constructed. Adaptation level depends on the absorbed dose value, time of work in the 30-km zone and age of the person under examination. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Dose rate and biological effects on hydrobionts within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000-2003 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone were found to be in the range from 1.8·10-3 to 3.4 Gy/year. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the lowest - for specimens from the running water objects. The chromosome aberration rate in cells of the snail (Limnea stagnalis L.) embryos from the most contaminated reservoirs reached to 25%. (Authors)

  13. The content of Cs 137 in mushrooms of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cs 137 contents in S. luteus is more in 1.5 - 20 times, than in B. edulis, selected on one polygon. However this ratio has changed and Cs 137 contents in S. luteus equals to contents in B. edulis in territory of some polygons of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone in 2000 and 2001. Therefore, as indicators of Cs 137 contamination by wood ecosystems it is necessary to use two or more kinds of mushrooms differing by depth of mycelium's localization in soil

  14. Evaluation of the inflammatory processes in the liquidators of the consequences at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of leukocyte and nuclear indices of intoxication in dynamics in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP consequences is brought in this work. It is demonstrated that the study of blood indices in complex with application of leukocyte and nuclear indices intoxication formulas gives an opportunity to fix changes in blood content at liquidators exposed to small doses not only in the early, but in late post-accidental period as well. It was revealed that inflammatory processes proceeded in liquidators in the first years of post-accidental period, have a stable character which is reflected on development of total morbidity

  15. To the problem of afforestation of lands with high contamination density in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the best conditions for radionuclide fixation will be created in the case of contaminated land afforestation. The complex approach, variation of natural forest reconstruction, tree planting and seeding are necessary for land afforestation in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone. It is recommended to apply spontaneous afforestation with time on lands with high contamination density where man participation is impossible. It should be soft-leaf species at the first stage and pines in future. The wood destiny when the cultures will achieve the ripe age is the argumentative problem

  16. Two serious accidents at the A-1 NPP. Analysis of the accidents the A-1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author describes the nuclear reactor A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Author analyzes two reactor accidents which took off at this reactor. The first accident proceeded on January 5, 1976 during exchange of fuel elements when coolant - carbon dioxide - escaped. The second serious accident became on February 22, 1977 again during exchange of spent fuel elements. At this accident moderator - heavy water penetrated into the primary circuit of the reactor. Heavy water was subsequently removed from the reservoirs into the reserve tank in order not to leak out into the primary circuit. Inserting fuel element was melted. This accident was evaluated as grade 4 on seven-grade the international INES scale. A crash course and course parameters of the both accidents are analyzed.

  17. Chernobyl NPP: Completion of LRW Treatment Plant and LRW Management on Site - 12568

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a beginning of ChNPP operation, and after a tragedy in 1986, a few thousands m3 of LRW have been collected in a storage tanks. In 2004 ChNPP started the new project on creation of LRW treatment plant (LRWTP) financed from EBRD fund. But it was stopped in 2008 because of financial and contract problems. In 2010 SIA RADON jointly with Ukrainian partners has won a tender on completion of LRWTP, in particular I and C system. The purpose of LRTP is to process liquid rad-wastes from SSE 'Chernobyl NPP' site and those liquids stored in the LRWS and SLRWS tanks as well as the would-be wastes after ChNPP Power Units 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning. The LRTP design lifetime - 20 years. Currently, the LRTP is getting ready to perform the following activities: 1. retrieval of waste from tanks stored at ChNPP LWS using waste retrieval system with existing equipment involved; 2. transfer of retrieved waste into LRTP reception tanks with partial use of existing transfer pipelines; 3. laboratory chemical and radiochemical analysis of reception tanks contest to define the full spectrum of characteristics before processing, to acknowledge the necessity of preliminary processing and to select end product recipe; 4. preliminary processing of the waste to meet the requirements for further stages of the process; 5. shrinkage (concentrating) of preliminary processed waste; 6. solidification of preliminary processed waste with concrete to make a solid-state (end product) and load of concrete compound into 200-l drums; 7. curing of end product drums in LRTP curing hall; 8. radiologic monitoring of end product drums and their loading into special overpacks; 9. overpack radiological monitoring; 10. send for disposal (ICSRM Lot 3); The current technical decisions allow to control and return to ChNPP of process media and supporting systems outputs until they satisfy the following quality norms: salt content: 5 Bq/l. (authors)

  18. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident provoked a wave of public discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and particularly so in the Federal Republic of Germany. The article in hand discusses some consequences as can be assessed so far, although information on the causes and the course of the accident still is very incomplete. From the information available so far, the possible sequence of events is described. The safety engineering and design of Federal German reactor types is compared with the reactor type installed at Chernobyl, with the result that the Soviet type never would have been licensed in the FRG. The fallout, i.e. the resulting radiation exposure of the population, is expected to remain within the limits of the natural radioactivity; the political effects and possible consequences with regard to further commitments for the advancement of the fast breeder reactor line and the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (orig./RB)

  19. Radiobiological effects in organisms of plants and animals exposed to ionizing irradiation in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of ionizing radiation on forest ecosystems most clearly revealed itself near the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP), were magnitudes of absorbed doses reached 'lethal' values, as applied to conifers. Main contribution to absorbed dose was due to beta-radiation of short-living radionuclides. To largest extent the radiobiological effects appeared at injured plantations of pines and firs. Nevertheless, during the first year maximum absorbed doses influenced also on leaf-bearing trees (birch, alder, asp) which then rehabilitated themselves completely

  20. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  1. Features of high-temperature diffusion in concrete at Block 4 of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of elements (Na, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ni, Rb, Zr, U) and structural-phase changes in core samples taken from concrete wall in one of the rooms of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant subjected to penetration of lava-like fuel-containing mass were studied by γ-ray activation and crystal-optical methods and IR spectroscopy. High-temperature diffusion processes in concrete that occurred in the course of the Chernobyl accident (1986) were simulated using the developed numerical model describing concrete as a porous multiphase system occurring on the local level in the thermodynamic equilibrium with the matrix voids filled with water and gas. Comparison of theoretical results with profiles of the content of particular elements and with characteristics of newly formed minerals shows that the high-temperature fluid cloud saturated with corrosive and reducing gases played the decisive role in the processes occurring during the first stage of the accident

  2. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  3. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  4. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  5. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  6. Lessons learned from the TMI-2 accident and Chernobyl nuclear disaster for nuclear safety innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and the Tsunami gave the serious damage to the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The accidents occurred in Unit 1, 2, 3 and 4. It is said that the height of tsunami attacked Fukushima NPP was more than 14m. After 50 minutes from the automatic shut-down, tsunami attacked the NPPs in Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. For example, the Unit 1 lost A/C power caused the loss of water injection function; it made the core meltdown and unusual increase of PCV pressure in the midnight to March 11th to 12th morning. Though the Unit one has the Isolation Condenser Core Cooling system, it was stopped by the operator to keep the cooling rate of 55degC/h. Finally, the isolation signal was transmitted from the control room to the motor driven isolation valves when the control room's battery discharged. It was the initiation of the core meltdown. The lessons from the TMI-2 accident, human error and instrumentation and control system trouble cased the core damage. Though the NPPs in European counties have filtered venting system after the Chernobyl Nuclear disaster, there are not filtered venting system connected the containment vessel in Japanese NPPs. If the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs have filtered venting system, the venting could be much earlier and no nuclear disaster would be occurred. (author)

  7. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

  8. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

  9. Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  11. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  12. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

  13. Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 104 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

  14. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  15. The radiological situation in south Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl a radioactive cloud reached Bavaria on April 30th 1986 inducing activities in the air of 52 Bq iodine 131/m3 and 10 Bq cesium 137/m3 (measured in Munich on April 30th between 10am and 2pm). Further on, significant amounts of ruthenium 103, tellurium 132, iodine 132, iodine 133 and cesium 134 were found. Especially in the southern region of Bavaria the majority of the radioactivity in the air was washed out by heavy thundershowers and deposited on the ground. The local deposition was closely linked with the local precipitation rate between April 30th and May 2nd. The deposition of cesium 137 in Bavaria varied from less than 6000 to more than 40000 Bq/m2. This radioactive contamination of the environment adds a further radioactive exposure to man. The three major exposure pathways, direct radiation, inhalation, and ingestion, will be considered in this paper

  16. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  17. Characteristics of small mammals in the Chernobyl' NPP accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studying the low-dose ionizing radiation effects on specific features of wild rodent ecology (species variety, number dynamics, sex and age structure of the population), as well as the levels of radionuclide accumulation in animal bodies are discussed. Radionuclide concentrations detected in animal tissues in 1986 is connected with radioactive dust absorption through respiratory organs and skin-adipose tissues. The absorption is proportional to the environment primary contamination density and does not depend on animal species. The main path of radionuclides intake is their absorption via food chains in 1987

  18. Transplantation of bone marrow in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow transplants were carried out in 13 patients suffering from acute irradiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. Only blood relations of the patients were used as donors. The number of bone marrow cells transplanted must be at least 2x108 per kilogram of recipient weight. The experience of the present bone marrow transplants has shown defects in clinical methods of early diagnosis (during the first 7-10 days after exposure) of acute radiation injuries to the skin, intestine and lungs which are incompatible with survival. Another problem with bone marrow transplants for patients suffering from acute radiation sickness is to determine to what extent the depression of marrow activity is irreversible. Spontaneous regeneration of myelopoiesis was observed 22-30 days after exposure in patients who had received doses of 7-9 Gy. A lapse of this order before the onset regeneration is therefore, in principle, compatible with survival under the conditions of modern support therapy. Thus, the belief that prolonged acute radiation pancytopenia which is incompatible with survival starts already at doses of 5-6 Gy is evidently incorrect, at least for the relatively low exposure dose rates experienced by this group of victims. The results of bone marrow transplants in victims of the Chernobyl accident suggest that, in future, the following rules should be observed in transplanting human bone marrow to victims of acute radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identical transplants should be carried out; and (2) HLA-identical bone marrow transplants should be carried out only in patients who have received whole body doses of gamma radiation of 9.0 Gy or more. (author). 1 tab

  19. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  20. Radionuclide concentration from peat burning after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the radionuclide concentrations in byproducts and releases from a 30 MW peat-burning power plant in central Sweden. The plant is located in an area that received high levels of radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl accident. After the accident at Chernobyl, the plant carried out a test run before the beginning of the normal running season. Samples of peat and ash were collected during a 2 month period and were studied in order to ascertain whether radiation protection was necessary for workers handling the peat and byproducts. In spite of the high ground contamination of radionuclides (20-80 kBq/M2) of the peat, the radionuclide concentration in the peat was only about 1 kBq/kg (and half of this one year later). This is due to the process in which the top 50 cm layer of peat is continously mixed and turned over. Samples of fly ash from different parts of the plant, analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy, were found to have activity concentrations of 10-50 kBq/kg Cs-137, while the activity concentrations of bottom ash was 4-10 kBq/kg. During the winter of 1984-85 the average level of Cs-137 in the flyash was 340 Bq/kg. Condensed water from the chimney did not contain any measurable amounts of Cs-137. Emission measurements of the gases in the chimney gave rather high activity concentrations of Cs-137. The maximum value of 70 kBq/kg was probably due to the ease with which caesium escapes during heating. No special radiation steps were found to be necessary

  1. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  2. Summary report on the post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an Executive Summary which gives an overview of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, the first section of the main INSAG report presents the understanding of INSAG members of the causes of the accident, concluding that it was the result of a remarkable range of human errors and violation of operating rules, in combination with specific reactor features which compounded and amplified the effects of the errors and led to the reactivity excursion. The second section presents the problem of radionuclide release from the damaged reactor, showing that there was an initial intense release associated with the destructive events in the accident, then the release rates fell over the next few days up to 7x1016 Bq/d five days after the accident initiation, and at that point the release rates began to increase and reached about 3x1017 Bq/d nine days after the accident initiation. There was then a drop in the radionuclide release to 4x1013 Bq/d and the release rates have continued to decline since that time. The next section describes the accident management at the site, fire-fighting, cleanup of the site and the entombment of the damaged unit. In the fourth section the radiation protection aspects of the accident, the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the exposure of members of the public pointing to the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 which entered the food-chains, the on-site and off-site emergency response, the decontamination and the health effects including both the early non-stochastic effects and the late stochastic ones are presented. Safety issues to be pursued in order to derive whatever safety lessons can be learned from the Chernobyl accident are considered in Section V. The next two sections present INSAG's observations, conclusions and recommendations based on the lessons learned so far from the accident and ranging from reactor operation to radiation protection and international co-operation in nuclear safety. Finally the

  3. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children

  4. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  5. NGU's follow-up after the Chernobyl accident and their utilitarian value in future preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes how the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) organized and made public its fallout survey after the Chernobyl accident. NGU's view on their future share in Norwegian radiation protection preparedness and monitoring is expressed

  6. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  7. Leaching of radionuclides from two types of fuel-containing fallout particles of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel-containing fallout particles, which determine the radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone, are still studied from many aspects. This is due to the presence in the particles of long-lived α-emitters, weathering of the particles, the appearance of microscopic open-quotes hotclose quotes particles, the resulting contamination of groundwater by the leached radionuclides, and the possibility of using the fuel-containing particles to construct a model of the accident. Interest was renewed after two types of fuel-containing particles were found in fallout of the exclusion zone. These were those with irradiated U oxides and mixed U-Zr particles. The authors isolated fuel, graphite contaminated with fuel, and radioactive manufactured particles and aerosols. The structural-genetic differences in the two types of fuel-containing particles should affect the leaching of radionuclides from them. Therefore, the authors investigated the leaching of radionuclides from particles of dispersed fuel and from U-Zr technogenic new formations

  8. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made

  9. The Chernobyl Accident 20 Years On: An Assessment of the Health Consequences and the International Response

    OpenAIRE

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Objectives Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response ...

  10. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  11. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  12. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

  13. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  14. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  15. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  16. Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early morning of April 26, 1986, as the culmination of an almost incredible series of errors that began 24 hours earlier, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear complex, a so-called RBMK-1000 reactor, suffered the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. There was an uncontrolled nuclear excursion, release of a large amount of energy, possibly comparable to hundreds of pounds of TNT, blowing the top off the reactor. There was no containment, in the traditional American sense, so the roof of the building was blown out, an unprecedented amount of radioactivity was released to the biosphere, and a graphite fire was ignited, which burned for days. The radiation that was released spread through Eastern Europe (the world first learned of it through Swedish observations), bringing with it both official and unofficial protests that the Soviet Union had made no announcement of the radiation release until they were, in effect, caught. In fact, after a few days, the Soviets seemed to recognize that nuclear safety is a matter of international concern, and became quite open in their search for cooperation. They invited officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to visit the area and to fly over the plant, and agreed, in the end, to make a complete disclosure of the details of the accident at a special meeting of IAEA in Vienna, August 25 to 29, 1986. In preparation for that meeting they distributed a lengthy (400 pages) report on the event. This paper reviews this report

  17. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  18. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  19. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  20. Mutagenesis in the blood lymphocytes of the residents of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative examination of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone self-settlers and Yagotin region of Kiev province village residents was carried out in 1998-99. The interindividual variability and the mean frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutations, chromosomal aberrations both of the chromosome and chromatid types and the chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in vitro were substantially higher for the exclusion zone self-settlers than for the Yagotin region residents. An increase in the mean group frequency of cytogenetic damages for the self-settlers was caused mostly by individuals younger 60 years old. There were revealed no significant difference for the people of an older age. Chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in vitro correlates with a mutagenesis frequency in vivo

  1. Prognostic assessment of radionuclides transboundary transport due to a tornado over the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According the design documentation for the Chernobyl NPP Cooling Pond (CP) decommissioning a forecast of possible radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus and Russian due to radionuclides resuspension followed a tornado passage over the CP drained part are made. The calculations were performed using a set of models, including the conceptual model of a tornado, the mesoscale atmospheric diffusion model of pollutant transport LEDI and dosimetric models. The radiation dose to the people of Belarus will not exceed 1 mSv, Russian- 1o-2 mSv. Hence, the safety analysis showed that a tornado passage over the CP will not result in an unacceptable dose to individuals in Belarus and Russian

  2. Dynamics of faunistic complexes of parasitic organisms in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies made in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone, which deal with estimation of species composition and number of parasites, mammals, birds, their nest inhabitants and blood-suching insects, are discussed. It is shown that parasite species variaty is higher on the contaminated territory as compared with the control one. Number of arthropoda is greater, and those of helmines and winged blood-suching insects are smaller on the contaminated territories. The main carriers of parasites among birds are starlings, larks and tomtits in contaminated regions and those are chiff-chaff and finches in the control areas. The level of nest contaminations for rodents and birds correlates with environment contamination level

  3. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  4. Features of respiratory organs diseases in participants of the Chernobyl accident response, program of their treatment and rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of examination of 100 persons being residents of the Vladimir and Ryazan' regions who participated in the Chernobyl accident response are discussed. The conclusion is made that chronic bronchopulmonary pathology in participants of the Chernobyl accident response takes place 10 years later the accident. The program of treatment-prophylactic measures for response participants is developed. Efficiency of this program is shown

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: Development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, scientists from the former Soviet Union provided the nuclear safety community with an impressively detailed account of what was then known about the Chernobyl accident. This included assessments of the magnitudes, rates, and compositions of radionuclide releases during the ten days following initiation of the accident. A summary report based on the Soviet report, the oral presentations, and the discussions with scientists from various countries was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency shortly thereafter. Ten years have elapsed since the reactor accident at Chernobyl. A great deal more data is now available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for about ten days. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved our understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the pecularities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability of the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  6. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  7. Dynamics of tritium content in flood-land reservoirs of the Pripyat River and cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the 3H content in the water of the natural and artificial reservoirs within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP were conducted in 1993-1997. It was shown that the 3H content in the Pripyat River reservoirs and the ChNPP cooling pond was equal in 1993 to 4.1 - 11.0 Bq/l. Increase in the 3H content more than by 10 times with the maximum value in the Pripyat River (above 120 Bq/l) was registered in May 1994 and two months later the radionuclide concentration decreased practically to the level of 1993. Analogous increase was noted in April 1995. It is supposed that one of the NPPs with the WWER-type reactors located upwards by the current from the ChNPP (the Rovenskaya or Khmel'ntskaya NPP) might be the source of contamination

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME HEALTH INDICATORS OF VARIOUS RADIATION ACCIDENTS LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident, at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP. Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine accident liquidators reveals the possibility of combined influence of radiation and stress on the immunity and health.

  9. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  10. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  11. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  12. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

  13. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  14. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  15. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-01

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal-hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal-hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  16. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  17. Examination of persons connected with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, seventy-four persons (46 Children and 28 adults) from various villages in Ukrainia and Byelorussia, radiation exposed from Chernobyl accident, were examined in the Federal Office of Health in co-operation with the Federal Office of Radiation Protection in Germany. In the Project were included persons who want a medical examination or in the case of children which presents a consens of legal representation. In no cases clinical findings were attributed to radiation directly. Clinical findings mainly were chronical infections, required dental treatments and unspecific symptoms in the abdominal region. Single haematological deviation from normal show no connection to the official surveyed contaminated settlements. In our endocrinological program we found only one case in reference to a hyperthyreosis. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral lymphocytes showed in some case an elevated number of dicentrics, but no differences has been found between people living in surveyed contaminated and surveyed control settlements. Whole body counting of the examined persons showed low incorporation of radiocaesium with a connection to the level of official values for caesium surface contamination of the persons residence. (orig.)

  18. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  19. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

  20. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

  1. Some features of South-Ukrainian NPP information centre's interaction with mass media in post Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the above methods of interaction with the off-site media helped the South Ukraine NPP information centre achieve meaningful results in restoring the image of nuclear power ad making it more trustworthy. This is supported by a review of media Publications since 1989. Quantitative and qualitative modifications of the information flow to the media have yielded substantial changes of the structure of news releases about the South Ukraine NPP and nuclear power. Background information has increased from 1. 5 to 50 percent. Negative information is no longer dominating, and the Chernobyl topic is counterbalanced with diverse NucNet materials about nuclear from throughout the world. (author)

  2. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  3. Environmental radioactivity and dose evaluation in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial increase in fission product activity was observed in various environmental samples taken in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident. The concentration of long-lived fission products in air above ground, precipitation, grass, vegetation and milk were monitored in the next 7 wk. The individual effective dose equivalent committed by the first year of exposure and intake following the accident were evaluated. Average individual doses for the population in Taiwan are estimated at 0.9 microSv due to global fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This value is lower than that reported in neighboring countries in the Far East and poses no increased health impact to the public in Taiwan

  4. Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Environmental radioactivity in the soil of the Republic of Korea one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Chernobyl accident a large amount of radionuclides were released into atmosphere and added to atmospheric nuclide inventory from weapons tests. In early May of 1986 in South Korea, radioactivities such as 1-131 and Cs-137 were detected in surface air and rain water. That indicated that Chernobyl debris spreaded to far Eastern Asia. In the present time, the long-lived radionuclides have been deposited on the soil of Korean peninsular resulted from Chernobyl accident as well as from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Meanwhile, it has been reported that isotopic properties in fallout differ significantly, depending on their origin. Several studies have reported that plutonium isotopic ratio, Pu-238 to Pu-239,240 in particular, in fallout originated from Chernobyl accident was quite different from the ratio in global fallout from nuclear tests and burnup of SNAP-9A satellite using Pu-238 as energy sources. As soil, in terrestrial environment, is a principal reservoir of man-made radionuclides, a study on isotopic characteristic in soil can give some information on how Chernobyl accident is effecting on Korean environment. In this study, the vertical inventory of radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and Cs-137, and their isotopic ratios in soils were investigated to estimate the contribution of Chernobyl derived-nuclides to Korean environment

  6. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  7. Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities of radionuclide concentration by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropod was studied

  8. Assessment of radiation impact on biota as a result of hypothetical accidents at small NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Breakthrough in the development of science and technology, caused by the creation of nuclear weapons, allowed expanding the scope of application of the energy of nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants, nuclear power installations for submarines and ships were created. The main factor of the competitiveness of nuclear energy is its success in areas of its industrial, scientific, technical application. Nuclear energy, as well as any other modern sophisticated technology used by people, is associated with a particular risk for the individuals, society and the environment. According to the classification adopted by the IAEA, small reactors are reactors with an equivalent electric power of <300 MW(e) and medium-sized reactors are reactors with an equivalent electric power of 300-700 MW(e). Russia has a unique experience in the creation and operation of reactor systems with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear-powered submarines. Such is single unit nuclear power station with an experiment industrial power reactor installation with lead-bismuth coolant with an electric capacity of 100 MW (SVBR-100). The launch of the first power unit with the SVBR-100 is going to start up after 2017 in the city of Dimitrovgrad, Russia. After the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, the world community makes high demands to operation safety during running of NPPs. Due to this, the analysis of the consequences of non-routine and accidental events is the essential point of rationale for innovative nuclear technologies. In this regard, the evolution of modern radiation protection system considering the radiation protection of not only the population, but also non-human biota, cannot be disregarded. The aim of the current research was the assessment of radiological impact on biota caused by hypothetical accidents at NPP with lead-bismuth cooled small fast reactor SVBR-100. (authors)

  9. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated

  10. Accidents in nuclear power engineering. Emergency-engineering service and its purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of severe accidents in the world practice of NPP operation is given. The problems met when eliminating the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects are discussed. The main purposes of the emergency-engineering service in nuclear power engineering are considered. These are: possible accident forecasting and preparation of the equipment for its effect elimination; prevention of accidents and abnormal situations at nuclear power objects; accident effect liquidation, NPP unit decommissioning. Some directions which development takes the priority, are formulated. 21 refs

  11. Thyroid gland state in persons of Kiev region after Chernobyl accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl accident, the growth of thyroid pathology, particularly the children's thyroid cancer, has been noted in Kiev Region. Reconstruction of exposure doses on thyroid gland is one of the major problems on liquidation of medical effects of the Chernobyl accident. While accessing the dose load it is necessary to take into account not only iodine-131 contribution to the radiation load, but also that of other iodine short-living radionuclides as well as radionuclides of other chemical elements inhalated or swallowed into the organism. Analysis of pathological involvement of the thyroid gland is to be performed with regard for the state of other organs and systems, i.e. on the entire organism level, thyroid gland playing the leading role in its functioning

  12. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed γ-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  13. Down syndrome time-clustering in January 1987 in Belarus: link with the Chernobyl accident? : Down syndrome after Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Zatsepin, Ivan; VERGER, Pierre; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Gagnière, Bertrand; Tirmarche, Margot; Khmel, Rostislav; Babicheva, Irina; Lazjuk, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    International audience The Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) exposed a large part of the Belarus population to ionizing radiation. We analyzed the time trends of Down syndrome (DS) in Belarus to evaluate whether either brief exposure at high dose rates during the plume passage or continuous exposure at low doses and dose rates of the residents of contaminated areas had any detectable impact on DS prevalence at birth. DS data came from the Belarus National Registry of Congenital Malformat...

  14. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  15. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  16. Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

  17. Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident. 20 years later a UN report provides definitive answers and ways to repair lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of up to four thousand people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. As of mid-2005, however, fewer than 50 deaths had been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster, almost all being highly exposed rescue workers, many who died within months of the accident but others who died as late as 2004. The new numbers are presented in a landmark digest report, 'Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts', just released by the Chernobyl Forum. The digest, based on a three-volume, 600-page report and incorporating the work of hundreds of scientists, economists and health experts, assesses the 20-year impact of the largest nuclear accident in history. The Forum is made up of 8 UN specialized agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the World Bank, as well as the governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The Forum's report aims to help the affected countries understand the true scale of the accident consequences and also suggest ways the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia might address major economic and social problems stemming from the accident. Members of the Forum, including representatives of the three governments, will meet September 6 and 7 in Vienna at an unprecedented gathering of the world's experts on Chernobyl, radiation effects and protection, to consider these findings and recommendations

  18. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  19. Clinical state, reproductive and productive indices of cattle in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 specialists of Scientific and Technical Centre of RIA ''Pripyat'' carry out investigations of physiological and cytogenetic state of cattle at an experimental vivarium at the 30-km Chernobyl zone. The animals are represented by ones endured the Chernobyl accident at the closest zone and their generation, and by animals carried inside the zone after 1990. The first animals got about 130 Gy on thyroid gland, 2.5 Gy on whole body and 10-11 Gy on gastro-intestinal tract. Some health decline of them were observed in 1987-1988. During last 5 years of the research the most indices of cattle state, as well as productivity and reproduction, are in physiological norm limits. Since 1989 yearly calves of three generation have got from all suffered cows. Decrease of chromosome aberrations frequency to total population level has been showed. Some data testify of tension existence in hemopoietic and antioxidantic systems of organism. Nevertheless, until now there is no unique opinion of origin nature of the found atypical features. In the report numerous data of hematological, biochemical, hormonal, cytogenetic features of the animals have been presented and discussed

  20. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. PMID:27018344

  1. Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children, after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the accident from Chernobyl, an important number of studies were focused on the effects of the accident but, nine years after the accident, we still don't know enough about its impact on public health and environment. A major problem after the Chernobyl accident was to asses the effects of the irradiation for different age groups, especially for children. Our group measured Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children of different ages (between 4 and 12 years), at different time intervals after the accident. From the intake data, a trend of the annually committed effective doses was deduced. The paper presents the dose values for different age groups, as well as the balance of the intake and excretion, given as the 'observed ratio'. (author)

  2. Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

  3. Radiation health consequences after the accident of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of divergences in health consequences assessment after Chernobyl accident have been discussed. The average data about the cancer incidence in Poland have been presented. On that background the frequency of thyroid cancer, being considered as a result of iodine radionuclides exposure after Chernobyl accident in May 1986, have been performed. The great geographic differences in cancer incidence have been underlined. The observed differences between the selected group of people of different age and sex have been also discussed. 14 refs, 11 tabs, 3 figs

  4. Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed from the 7010 m Muztagata ice core record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN LiDe; YAO TanDong; WU GuangJian; LI Zhen; XU BaiQing; LI YueFang

    2007-01-01

    The total activity variation with depth from a 41.6 m Muztagata ice core drilled at 7010 m,recorded not only the 1963 radioactive layer due to the thermonuclear test,but also clearly the radioactive peak released by the Chernobyl accident in 1986.This finding indicates that the Chernobyl nuclear accident was clearly recorded in alpine glaciers in the Pamirs of west China,and the layer can be potentially used for ice core dating in other high alpine glaciers in the surrounding regions.

  5. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  6. V.A. Baraboj. Chernobyl: ten years later. Medical consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the book - Chernobyl: ten years later. Medical consequences of radiation accidents (Kiev, Chernobylinterinform, 1996) by V.A. Baraboj - is presented. The book is based on experimental data obtained by author and available data of other scientists. It is shown that experiments on rats irradiation demonstrate the same combination of symptoms as persons participated in Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the dosimetric, genetic, phenotypic features of exposed persons. Contributions of chemical hazardous pollutants and psychoemotional stress to the general pattern were also accounted. The importance of the book for specialists and public is accentuated

  7. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

  8. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

  9. National report: United Kingdom. Chernobyl - the aftermath. What can the industry learn from the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author points out that the nuclear industry has suffered a serious blow by the Chernobyl accident and asks the questions: Will nuclear power recover, and how, and when will it recover. The author states why in his opinion nuclear power will recover essentially, and reasons in terms of the future energy scene, national attitudes, and public opinion. The technical lessons from the Chernobyl accident are also evaluated. The conclusion is that the biggest single task facing the nuclear industry is that which concerns public perception. Effective communication is therefore very important

  10. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus' territory causing to destruction of the building constructions of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse scripts of development of events, causing to destruction of object 'UKRYTIE' and to contamination of the territory of Republic of Belarus are considered. The number of designs of the 4th unit has visually observed damages. Also there are hypothetically unstable constructive elements, at installation of which in a conditions of 1986 the application of reliable welded or bolt connections was impossibly. Initial events of the considered hypothetical accident are earthquake or aircraft accident. Settlement data on contamination of territory for considered accident are indicated. The account was made for a moderate- stable condition of atmosphere by the Gauss model for process of the dust particles precipitation. In this case the radionuclide falling out will take place basically on already contaminated territory of Belarus. The additional contamination may be about 2 Ci/sq.km in the Mozyr' region and 20 Ci/sq.km in Chernobyl NPP territory. In case of imposing of acts of nature (the earthquake or tornado), the all dust fraction, which available in object, may be released in atmosphere. The total activity of the dust falling out will be about 1.3 MCi, that can lead to more powerful contaminated of the south part of Belarus. Despite the hypothetical character of the scripts, the probability of their realisation at long operation of object will increase. Thus, the transformation of object 'UKRYTIE' to a safe system is an urgent problem. 1 ref., 3 figs

  11. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the evolution of the area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986-2046 shows, that in 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will decrease to approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease by a factor 1.5 in comparison with 1986; in 60 years (2046) the contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. it will decrease by a factor 2.4. Radioactive contamination of soils by 241Am in Belarus is generally limited to the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. Maximum 241Am levels will be reached in 2060 and will exceed the activity of 238,239,240Pu by approximately a factor of 2. Most of the 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentrations of 137Cs in rivers for the period 1987-2001 have considerably decreased. They are lower than the Republican Permissible Level for drinking water

  12. Implementation of Severe Accident Management Strategy at the Loviisa NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive severe accident management (SAM) strategy has been developed by Fortum for the Loviisa NPP in Finland. The strategy ensures reliable prevention and mitigation of containment - threatening phenomena, and it is built around a set of SAM safety functions. This paper focusses on the implementation status of the new SAM approach. We describe how and to what extent the modifications with regards to containment isolation, primary system depressurization, hydrogen mitigation, in-vessel retention of corium, and long-term containment cooling have been carried out. When implementing SAM, it was also necessary to modify the emergency response organisation to include a SAM support team. SAM guidelines, procedures and a SAM Handbook have been written. The automatic containment isolation function has been studied carefully within the SAM project. A successful isolation function is of paramount importance, when radioactive releases from the core can be expected to occur soon. Certain modifications have been carried out so that it is now possible to manually actuate missing isolation signals and to lock isolation status. New local control centres have been built to enable manual closure of certain isolation valves. Several new containment leak-tightness measurements have been installed. New depressurization valves, manually operated relief valves, were installed in 1996 for primary system depressurization purposes. The modifications to the ice condenser doors have been carried out in the years 2000 and 2001. Passive auto-catalytic recombiners have been successfully field-tested in the Loviisa containment atmosphere. We aim for installation in the year 2002. The locations of the glow plugs are being updated in a currently ongoing project. In-vessel retention of molten corium through external cooling of the reactor pressure vessel required certain plant modifications e.g. in order to guarantee access of water to the RPV wall. Most significantly, the support structures

  13. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  14. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  15. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 105) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well

  16. Morbidity of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Clean - up Workers with Oncological Diseases from 1990 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's largest ever radiation accident involving a nuclear reactor occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP). More than 6 000 Latvian inhabitants worked to clean-up CNPP accident in 1986-1991. The duration of accident clean-up workers exposure was from few weeks to 6 months, including external as well as internal radiation. The estimated external radiation doses were 0,01-0,5 Gy. Latvian CNPP accident clean-up workers State register was created on the basis of the Center of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P. Stradins Clinical University hospital in 1994 but examination of clean-up workers was started in 1986. Our aim was to analyse oncological morbidity in clean-up workers in comparison with oncological morbidity in Latvian men population. Materials and methods. For analysis of oncological morbidity in NPP accident clean-up workers, the data of Latvian CNPP accident clean-up workers State Register were used. The group for investigation includes 4053 males what were examined regularly (in average 1600 persons every year) from 1998 to 2004. From these groups of clean-up workers we have revealed 177 persons with oncological diseases over the observation period. Among them only two women but others were men. We have used for the comparison of oncological morbidity data of Latvian Cancer registry and Central bureau of statistics. Summary morbidity with oncological diseases and morbidity with oncological diseases of prostata, stomach, lungs and thyroid for men who have taken part in clean-up works were analysed. Oncological morbidity in age group 35-69 years over the observation period 1998-2004 were compared With age-matched non-exposed population morbidity. Results and discussion. In the structure of oncological morbidity of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers over the period 1990-2004 in the first place was lung cancer, in the second place -stomach cancer, in the third place -prostate cancer. CNPP clean-up worker's common

  17. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  19. Effects on environment and humans of accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USSR experts have reported the results of their works on the effects of the Chernobyl plant's accident at IAEA meeting in August. Plant staffs and fire men with acute radiation syndrome were hospitalized and treated with special care including bone marrow transplantation. Whole population (135,000) within the area of 30 km radius from the plant evacuated during a few days after the accident. Collective dose to this population was estimated as 1.6 x 106 person rem. (author)

  20. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ''standard'' stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Results of measurements of internal contamination of persons caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary summary is presented of c.a. 140 measurements of internal radioactive contamination, motivated by the Chernobyl accident, in Dutch persons, by the Radiological Service TNO, Arnhem and the Institute for Radiopathology and Radiation Protection, Leiden, the Netherlands. 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

  3. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  4. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

  5. Measured transfer factors in milk and meat after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail at the Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik. The change of the different radionuclides in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The knowledge about the transport of iodine into cow's milk could be very much improved

  6. Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs

  7. Assesment of radioactive pollution of environment 10 years after Chernobyl accident. Pt. 2. Pollution in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors describe radioactive pollution in Poland resulting from Chernobyl accident. Several cases of misinformation immediately after the disaster are described. Surface waters, soil and food contamination is described in detail. Authors discuss the measures that should be undertaken in order to provide proper monitoring and efficient protection in the case if similar disaster would happen again

  8. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  9. Intervention during late phase of the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: Gained experience and future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various measures, introduced to reduce external and internal radiation doses of inhabitants of territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, are described. Average annual doses are given. It is concluded that while factors such as reduction of psychoemotional tension need to be explored, risk coefficients for chronic exposure at low doses should be specified. (author)

  10. Functional state of peripheral blood circulation in invalid victims of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheographic and thermographic study of the extremities as well as biochemical study of cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein level were performed in 208 persons who had become invalids during the Chernobyl accident clean-up and have cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine diseases

  11. Soil contamination in Northern Austria as aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil contamination caused by the accident at Chernobyl was very uneven distributed in Austria. In late autumn 1986 soil samples from northern Austria were analysed in order to get to know the actual contamination in terms of figures. The extreme values for Cs-137 found were 962 and 73630 Bq/m2 respectively. 3 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  12. The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

  13. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  14. Bubbling-vacuum system for accident localization in WWER-type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system is intended for standard dual-cycle NPP of Soviet type. It ensures safety by reduction of the post-accident pressure in the corresponding sealed spaces. The system quarantees economy of the special fittings and preservation of the environment from the concequencies of the possible emergency operational modes of NPP. The system has an enhanced functional reliability which is reached by simplification and switching of the self-closed overflow reverse fittings. Installing of at least one vibration-acoustic detector ensures timely indication of small and comparatively frequent loss-of-coolant accidents. 2 claims, 1 fig

  15. Bubbling-vacuum installation for accident localization in standard NPP with two WWER-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present installation enchances the efficiency and safety in the elimination of the accident concequencies, as well as the efficiency of the dual-cycle NPP with 2x440 PWR. It is proposed to use only the volume of the usable part of the secondary circuit, e.g., the air chambers. The maximum accident superfluous pressure in the secondary side (linked air chambers) is reduced. The reduction of the superfluous pressure correspond to the reduced total amount of radioactive effluents and to reduction of radioactive burden in tne NPP environment. 2 cls., 2 figs

  16. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  17. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. 137Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FAL) and weight (FAW) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency of 18

  18. Estimation of 90Sr transition in flood waters of the Pripyat' river in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 90Sr chemical forms in the alluvial soddy soils of the left-bank part of the Pripyat' floodplain in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP is studied and the value of its transition to flood water at the simulation of floodplain flooding under laboratory conditions at the hydraulic extrusion from the deep soil layers to the surface is determined. It is shown that the main mechanism of formation of 90Sr concentration in the surface water is the ion exchange

  19. Technique for radionuclide composition analysis of snow cover in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone using fiber sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-sensitivity, simple and fast technique for analysis of large-dispersive and ionic components of snow cover radioactivity is suggested. It is based on separation of a sample by fractions, concentration of the dispersive fraction on mechanical filters and the dissolved one on ion-exchange sorbents and separated fraction spectrometry. The minimum measured contamination level is 3.7 Bq/dm3 for each radionuclide analyzed. The conclusion is made that the technique suggested is the reliable method for radionuclide content analysis is snow cover samples of the Chernobyl' NPP zone. 1 tab

  20. [The distribution of the radionuclides in the main components of lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The results of the studies devoted to the distribution of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in 1998-2003 in main components of Glubokoe Lake and Dalekoe-1 Lake located within Krasnensky flood lands of the Pripyat River (inner exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP) were analysed. The data about the radionuclide content in bottom sediments, in water, in seston, in macrozoobenthos (including bivalvia molluscs), in gasteropods molluscs, in higher aquatic plants and in fish are presented. PMID:16080615

  1. Chromosome aberration and hematological rates of gastropod snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) in water bodies of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose, as well as the chromosome aberration rate and a change of the hemolymph structure of the gastropod snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) in water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion Zone during 1998-2007, is evaluated. The absorbed dose is registered in range 0.3-85.0 μGy/h. In closed water bodies, the high rate of chromosome aberration in embryo tissues (up to 27%) and essential changes of hematological rates of adult molluscs in comparison with those in control water bodies are determined.

  2. Estimation of protective ability of soil-ground of aeration zone within the boundaries of the Chernobyl' NPP radiogeochemical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique for numerical estimation of the soil-ground protective ability in the aeration zone for the Chernobyl' NPP region, which is determined by sorption because of wide ground water use as the main source of auxiliary and drinking water supply is described. Histograms for Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in soil-grounds, coefficients of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in sandy-loamy grounds, are the effects of ground type in aeration zone on Cs-137 and Sr-90 absorption are estimated. The calculation scheme for soil-ground, and ground water protective abilities against long-living radionuclide effects is given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Modeling the migration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the subsurface from the Chernobyl NPP Unit-4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shelter constructed above the destroyed Unit-4 of the Chernobyl NPP contains 20 MCi of nuclear fuel. More than 1,000 m3 of intermediate-level radioactive water is disposed in its basement. The purpose of this work was to simulate migration of the radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs from the Shelter into the subsurface environment to evaluate their migration rate and migration paths. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of water and radionuclides in variably saturated media was used. The lack of suitable experimental and field studies excluded the possibility of complete validating the model. Results of the simulations will be useful for future field studies

  4. The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

  5. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  6. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  7. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  8. Radiation environment in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the full texts of all scientific contributions read on the conference. All these reports have been inputted to INIS. The topics covered include radioactive contamination of the environment, food products, Bulgarian population, safety standards, health hazards, genetic radiation effects, risk estimation, the necessity of iodine prophilaxis and some problems of occupational exposure of the personnel of the Kozloduj NPP

  9. Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

  10. Database for a systems analytical approach to studying the medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main elements of the program data base were the all-Union distribution register and the SDACHA computer system (Chernobyl accident data system) which ensured reliable functioning of the PRIORRA expert system (acronym stands for ''taking of optimum decisions in the event of a radiation accident''). The development of criteria for the optimum selection of countermeasures follows three paths - medical, economic and social - and is based on a regulatory document entitled ''criteria for taking decisions or measures to protect the population in the event of a reactor accident''. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs

  11. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. PMID:22920877

  12. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  13. About some regularities consequences of accidents at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the article are considered the principal reasons of differences in observed and calculation frequencies of emergency events in complex technological systems, including NPP. Analyzed simplification inherent in the probabilistic model of work of the reactor. The results of application of power-law probability distribution are presented for the estimation of consequences of catastrophes in complex and dangerous technologies

  14. Cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells of 3 species of voles in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the frequencies of different cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arualis, and Microtus oeconomus, trapping in places with different levels of irradiation in the zone of Chernobyl's accident is carried out. The species-specific features of the different cytogenetic anomaly frequencies under conditions of the increased ionizing levels are revealed. Possible reasons for the species and individual variabilities of karyotype destabilization under conditions of an increased level of ionizing irradiation are discussed

  15. Retrospection of Chernobyl nuclear accident for decision analysis concerning remedial actions in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from 'Krasnoyarsk-26' into Enisey River, releases of radioactive materials from 'Chelabinsk-65' (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial actions are usually developed on the base of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous. For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. Their of-site radiological monitoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made. All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of 137Cs in body (40 measurements in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Chernobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farmland model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine. By means of this model dynamics of 20 radionuclides in pathways and dynamics of doses have been estimated for the early, intermediate and late phases of the Chernobyl accident. The main results are following

  16. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry. PMID:17680126

  17. Radioactive wastes management of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern knowledge in the field of radiation waste management on example of the most serious man-made accident at Chernobyl NPP are illuminated. This nuclear power plant that after accident in 1986 became in definite aspect an experimental scientific ground, includes all variety of problems which have to be solved by NPP personnel and specialists from scientific organizations. This book is aimed for large sphere of readers. It will be useful for students, engineers, specialists and those working in the field of nuclear power, ionizing source and radiation technology use for acquiring modern experience in nuclear material management

  18. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: a fisheries viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring programme undertaken by the Directorate throughout the UK following the Chernobyl reactor accident is described. The results of sampling and analysis of fish, shellfish, seaweed and other materials are discussed. Chernobyl fallout was readily detected in all sectors of the aquatic environment, particularly during May when the highest concentrations were observed. An assessment of the radiological impact of the fallout shows that freshwater fish were the most important source of individual (critical group) exposure though, based on cautious assumptions, the effective dose equivalent is around 1 mSv in a year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from Chernobyl due to aquatic ingestion pathways, predominantly marine fish, is estimated to be 30 man Sv. (author)

  20. Genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident in the populations of Byelorus zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, various long-term surveys have been made on congenital malformations, abnormal embryos and fetuses, multiple congenital malformations and others in Byelorus zones. This report introduces the outcome of these surveys. Legal abortuses at the gestation of 5-12 weeks and newborns were reviewed for teratogenetic and mutagenic analyses. Approximately 50 kinds of abnormal diseases were observed in legal abortuses; urogenital system disease was the most common, followed by gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. There was no significant difference in malformation frequency in legal abortuses in Minsk and Gomel before and after the Chernobyul accident. There was neither specific teratogenetic effect nor fetus growth that was thought to be attributed to radiation exposure directly due to the Chernobyl accident. However, the incidence (per 1000 deliveries) of children born with obligatory registered malformations was increased in all Byelorus zones. This tendency was noticeable especially in the newborn born in the zone of cesium-137 of 15 Ci/km2 (555 kBq/m2), which was much more than that expected by the ICRP. The correlation between some congenital malformations and ionizing radiation has been shown only indirectly by an increase in dominant hereditary abnormality in the contaminated areas. Further collection of materials, registration and statistical analysis will provide more reliable information to evaluate genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident objectively. (N.K.)

  1. Health effects after the Chernobyl accident in Bulgaria: review of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current analysis is designed to address concern about possible health effects in Bulgaria following the Chernobyl accident (CA). The results of descriptive studies are analyzed for the period 1981-1996 and 1981-2003 on malignant diseases of lymph and haemopoietic system and thyroid cancer (TC) respectively. Analyses of the risk of TC in consequence of CA for analytical studies are based on detailed thyroid gland's dose of exposure. Comparative investigations are based on number of patients with surgery operation. Discussed are the results of studies among children received prenatal radiation exposure at the time of the CA. Overall, in none of the studies doesn't prove a significant increase in the malignant diseases of the hemopoietic system incidence as well as in leukemia that could be attributed to the Chernobyl accident. No increase in the leukemia incidence among children was registered. The descriptive and analytical studies reviewed doesn't prove CA as a risk factor for TC incidence. The number of congenital anomalies did not show a statistically significant increase in relation to the nuclear accident. It doesn't prove any influence of CA upon development of the chosen children's groups learning abilities. Exposure of Bulgarian population after the Chernobyl accident is not a risk factor increased incidence rate in oncohematological diseases and TC in our country

  2. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  4. The intelligent system for accident identification in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental situations in NPP are of greet concern for operators, the facility, regulatory bodies and the environment. This work proposes a design of intelligent system aimed to assist the operator in the process of decision making when initiator events with higher relative contribution to the reactor core damage occur. The intelligent System uses the results of the pre operational Probabilistic Safety Assessment and the Thermal hydraulic Safety Analyses of the NPP Juragua as source for building its knowledge base. The nucleus of the system is presented as a design of an intelligent hybrid system from the combination of the artificial intelligence techniques: fussy logic and artificial neural networks. The system works with variables from the process of the firsts circuit, second circuit and the containment and it is presented as a model for the integration of safety analyses in the process of decision making by the operator when tackling with accidental situations

  5. Crisis communication at NPP-Fukushima 1 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crisis communication at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in the disaster 3.11 was examined. I discussed the nature of crisis communication which is information exchange between the persons responsible to the accident and the public. And Myth of Panic and Elite Panic were also discussed. (author)

  6. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  7. Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

  8. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  9. Immune cells in Chernobyl radiation workers exposed to low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the aim of this work was to study immune response parameters in Chernobyl emergency and recovery operation radiation workers and nuclear industry workers exposed under professional limits. The monohydroxylated fatty acid content in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of radiation workers compared to unexposed control at the 12-th year after Chernobyl NPP accident was studied too

  10. Comparison of HRA methods based on WWER-1000 NPP real and simulated accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Adequate treatment of human interactions in probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) studies is a key to the understanding of accident sequences and their relative importance in overall risk. Human interactions with machines have long been recognized as important contributors to the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). Human interactions affect the ordering of dominant accident sequences and hence have a significant effect on the risk of NPP. By virtue of the ability to combine the treatment of both human and hardware reliability in real accidents, NPP fullscope, multifunctional and computer-based simulators provide a unique way of developing an understanding of the importance of specific human actions for overall plant safety. Context dependent human reliability assessment (HRA) models, such as the holistic decision tree (HDT) and performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) methods, are the so-called second generation HRA techniques. The HDT model has been used for a number of PSA studies. The PET method reflects promising prospects for dealing with dynamic aspects of human performance. The paper presents a comparison of the two HRA techniques for calculation of post-accident human error probability in the PSA. The real and simulated event training scenario 'turbine's stop after loss of feedwater' based on standard PSA model assumptions is designed for WWER-1000 computer simulator and their detailed boundary conditions are described and analyzed. The error probability of post-accident individual actions will be calculated by means of each investigated technique based on student's computer simulator training archives

  11. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  12. Achievement of international contract UK/TS/20 'Support to the Ukrainian authority in licensing activity related to TASIS/NSA financed decommissioning facilities at Chernobyl NPP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrainian Nuclear Regulation organizations in cooperation with the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre developed the license procedure and standard base for management with radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuels during decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP. The needed equipment for this is in process of preparation

  13. Comparison of phototoxic effects of pregnant rats exposure in Chernobyl NPP site and external prolonged exposure in the dose of 0.5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphometric study showed that within the 10-kilometre zone of the Chernobyl NPP delay of the rat fetus cerebral cortex maturation occurred, whereas used in the experiment prolonged low-dose irradiation did not cause essential disorders of cortical ontogenesis.(authors)

  14. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

  15. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment following a Nuclear Accident to a Candu NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents calculations of nuclear accident consequences to public and environment, for a Candu NPP using advanced fuel in two hypothetical accident scenarios: (1) large LOCA followed by partial core melting with early containment failure; (2) late core disassembly and containment bypass through ECCS. During both accidents a release occurs, radioactive contaminants being dispersed into atmosphere. As reference, estimations for Candu standard UO2 fuel were used. The radioactive core inventory was obtained by using ORIGEN-S computer code included in ORNL,SCALE 5 programs package. Radiological consequences assessment to public and environment was performed by means of PC COSYMA computer code

  17. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  18. Severe Accident Management Measures Introduced in Belgian NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Belgian Safety Authorities' request to address the severe accident issue within a decennial safety review, Tractebel, on behalf of the Belgian Utility, Electrabel, examined in detail specific severe accident topics and provided the Utility with several measures that could be implemented to reduce the risk associated with beyond-design accidents. The present paper summarizes the key elements of the approach applied in Belgium: - Presentation of plant-specific studies related to severe accident issues; - Use of PSA results; - Inputs of international R and D projects; - Selection and justification of severe accident measures; - Comparative study between possible mitigative measures; - Definition and justification of implemented severe accident management strategies. The vulnerability to severe accidents as well as the potential causes of containment failures have been identified leading to the study of possible countermeasures taking into account the combination of conservative design and post-TMI measures already implemented . A section of the paper will also be devoted to the specific study made for the selection, the sizing and the implementation of hydrogen control means. After the description of the selected measures implemented, the paper also describes the content of the 'Severe Accident Management Guidelines' developed by Tractebel for the Tihange NPPs and for the Doel NPPs. This project aimed at providing the operators with procedures or guidelines enabling to deal with complex situations not formally considered in the standard Emergency Response Guidelines, including accidents in which a significant portion of the core melts. The objective of these SAMG's programs is to indicate actions that must bring the plant to a controlled stable state and, above all, mitigate any challenges to the fission product barriers. The plant personnel must use the available plant information to determine the best severe accident management measures. Obviously

  19. Analysis of medicostatistical data to assess the genetic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the official medicodemographic statistical data (provided by the Ukrainian Ministry of Health) revealed variations in the mean rates of congenital developmental defects (CDD) before 1987 (1985-1986) and in the period of 1987-1989 in all the areas irrespective of a degree of contamination with radionuclides (i.e. variations are determined by the time factor rather than by the irradiation factor). According to the medical statistical data, the rates of CDD and spontaneous abortions varied within a wide range, making it difficult to assess probable mutagenic and teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl accident. Medicostatistical data on spontaneous abortions understated the actual rates 2-3-fold, therefore they were not recommended for assessment of mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl accident

  20. Soil contamination with 90Sr in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Khomutinin, Y V; Kaminsky, S P; Levchuk, S E; Protsak, V P; Kadygrib, A M; Zvarich, S I; Yoschenko, V I; Tschiersch, J

    2001-01-01

    Representative large-scale soil sampling on a regular grid of step width about 1 km was carried out for the first time in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident (radius 36 km). An integrated map of terrestrial 90Sr contamination density in the 30 km exclusion zone (scale 1:200,000) has been created from the analysed samples. Maps of the main agrochemical characteristics of the soils, which determine the fuel particle dissolution rates and the contamination of vegetation, were produced. The total contents of 90Sr on the ground surface of the 30 km zone in Ukraine (without the reactor site and the radioactive waste storages) was about 810 TBq (8.1 x 10(+14) Bq) in 1997, which corresponds to 0.4-0.5% of the Chernobyl reactor inventory at the time of the accident. This assessment is 3-4 times lower than previous estimates. PMID:11468820

  1. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  2. The effects on the thyroid of exposed populations following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radio-iodine during the nuclear accident at Chernobyl appears to have caused a rise in thyroid anomalies, including cancer, in the exposed population. Uncertainty about the extent of this increase is causing the population some anxiety. A WHO symposium of Soviet and other scientists met to see whether a more precise assessment could be made of the effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid disorders. They established that a long-term, large-scale epidemiological study should be initiated: the required dosimetric data already exist, and the collection of the relevant health data should begin. To ensure the comparability of all these data, the affected Soviet republics should collaborate closely. More training for Soviet researchers and health care workers, as well as greater collaboration with foreign scientists, should maximize their capacity to launch a successful study and set up the most appropriate health care programmes

  3. Soil to plant transfer of radiocesium: application to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium contamination of different annual crops, due to the Chernobyl accident, was systematically studied in two experimental agricultural farms in North Greece for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989. For the first three years after the Chernobyl accident it was generally observed that radiocesium contamination of almost all the annual crops appears to be time independent, the differences lying within the experimental error. Transfer Factors, relating radiocesium deposition to contamination of crops were found to be for cereals about 0.01, one order of magnitude smaller than those deduced from field experiments in Northern European Countries, mainly due to different soil characteristics. The results are also discussed in the framework of the UNSCEAR's empirical model and the corresponding parameters are deduced. (author)

  4. Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

  5. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  6. Does the exposure from the Chernobyl accident associate with cancer deaths in Greece?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of the population occurs via three main pathways: external irradiation from material deposited on the ground, inhalation of airborne material and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The population dose associated with these exposure pathways was evaluated just for one year, i.e. the first year after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986 - April 1987) for the following reasons: (i) the specific activities of I-131, Ru-103 and Cs-134 + Cs-137 in air were peaked on May 5-6,1986. A month later, the specific activities of the above radionuclides in air declined by a factor of 1000 reaching the level of 1 mBq/m3 or lower, (ii) the specific activity of the long-lived Cs-137, which remained until today, significantly decreased in the foodstuffs a year after the Chernobyl accident, i.i. by a factor of 1000. (author)

  7. Clinical effects of chronic low doses irradiation (11 years after Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of clinical effects of influence low doses of irradiation as the result of the Chernobyl accident on the human organism is presented in this report. The results of the investigations are concerning to changings in different organs and systems of inhabitants of the contamination territories and among clean-up workers. Increasing of morbidity of digestive and nervous systems is notified. Increase of thyroid cancer, chronic thyroidities and hypothyreouses is resisted in clean-up workers in dynamic observation. Highly morbidity of bronchopulmonal system and blood circulation system is revealed. High level of compensative and adaptive reactions of immune and hemopoietic systems is notified. Excesses of leukemias and lymphomas in inhabitants of the contamination territories is not demonstrated but tendency for increasing quantity cases of oncohematological diseases (leukemias, lymphomas, MDS) among clean-up workers IV-VII 1986 are absent. A dynamic of health state of children injured as a result of Chernobyl accident is characterized with continues negative tendencies. (author)

  8. Signs of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated to evaluate the possible appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles living in the areas of Kaluga region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% over seven years. There is a significant difference in the frequency of antibody appearance between persons affected by radioactive iodine and those not affected. A greater quantity of the positive sera was recorded in the area with highest level of radioactive contamination. It is suggested that the elevated rate of autoimmune thyroiditis signs in children and juveniles is one of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  9. The level of 137Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing 137Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 137Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The 40k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio 137Cs/ 40k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

  10. Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

  11. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  12. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of malignant diseases - situation after 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, released large quantities of radionuclides - among them radioiodine - into the atmosphere, thereby raising public concerns about its influence on thyroid structure and function, especially the development of malignancy. There were even reports about 700 deaths due to thyroid carcinoma in Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, resulting from the accident. In this review we discussed the incidence of thyroid cancer in different parts of the world, especially in heavily contaminated countries, as Ukraine and Belarus, and the possible link between radioisotope activity in the thyroid and the development of malignancy. The study carried out in Minsk showed 40-fold increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer in the years 1986 - 1994, in comparison to the period 1977- 1985. An increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer has generally been observed in many countries after the Chernobyl accident. We focused on the factors that may have an influence on this phenomenon, especially diagnostic tests, health care, social and environmental factors, like iodine level in water and soil. The results of molecular biology studies, e.g. RET translocation in carcinoma type RET/PTC1 in elderly and RET/PTC3 in children, and expression Ax1 and Gas6 in children were reviewed as well. We also mentioned other thyroid diseases, like nodular goitre, cysts, the disturbance of thyroid function and autoimmunity, possibly linked to the radiation after Chernobyl accident. Data obtained from the regions near Chernobyl showed no increased risk of other types of malignancy (leukaemia, Hodgkin's and non Hodgkin's lymphoma) in 1986 - 1996. In this article the epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Poland was also reviewed

  13. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  14. Whole body measurements of subjects who have ingested radioactive materials from the accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 in the thyroid was the most significant nuclide that was detected in subjects monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory who might have been exposed by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The estimated intake of I-131 by subjects ranged from 0.4 to 12 kBq, with a weighted committed dose equivalent (thyroid) of between 0.006 and 0.17 mSv. Whole-body monitoring data is presented for all subjects

  15. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Srobarova (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more eimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  16. Organism natural resistance in the liquidators 10 years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 95 liquidators (residents of Kyiv and Kyiv region) 10 years after Chernobyl accident clean-up. Leukocyte count was estimated using a generally accepted technique, the amount of large granule-containing lymphocytes (LGL) was determined in the blood smears, natural killer activity was evaluated with radiometric technique. Complex treatment with intravascular laser irradiation and Enterosgel enterosorbent administration increases LGL amount, which provides antitumor and anti-infection protection of the organism

  17. Sexual and psychological aspects of health status of men who participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with results of a ten years medical follow-up of 188 men aged 21 to 55 years who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. Survey of patients included physical examination, echography of urogenital organs, semen and prostatic secretions analysis, bacterial inoculation of prostate secretion, hormone studies, sexological questionnaire. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 38 % of men. It was found that sexual dysfunction occur against the background of neurotic disorders that accompany vegetative dysfunctions.

  18. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  19. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  20. Hydrological aspects of radionuclide migration in water bodies following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variety of secondary effects determining migration processes stands out as the main specific feature of the radioactive contamination of water bodies following the Chernobyl accident. Of these the paper highlights the transformation processes of the various physico-chemical forms of radioactive fallout products as observed in catchment areas and water bodies, such processes taking place in different geochemical and hydrological conditions depending on the landscape. The following are considered: dynamics of physico-chemical forms of radioactive fallout, changes in the contamination pattern of soils and water-body bed sediments following the accident and - as a result of runoff formation in these areas - the radioactive contamination regime of the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers between 1986 and 1990. The paper presents experimental data for evaluating retention factors for waterborne migration of Chernobyl radionuclides in surface washout, via seepage waters in soils, in silt solutions of bed sediments and via transport of suspensions in rivers and reservoirs. It also considers the different approaches to evaluating these parameters and the field research methods. We consider the methods used in field studies of washout mechanisms and mass transfer parameters for water-soluble, exchangeable forms of radionuclides and contaminated particles of soil and bed sediments in runoff and floodplain flows, and provide data on the kinetics of these processes. We also analyse the observed processes of flow purification through sedimentation, and the role of catchment-area and river-channel load in the transport and deposition of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr and total Pu. The paper provides transport and accumulation balances for Chernobyl radionuclides in the large reservoirs of the Dnieper Cascade. It also takes a close look at the specifics of 90Sr migration in Dnieper river water systems following the Chernobyl accident, comparing them with the specifics of 90Sr

  1. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  2. Cesium-137 urinary excretion by northeastern (Pordenone) Italian people following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the radiological consequences in humans due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (5 May 1986), we have determined both the 137Cs concentration in food and the 137Cs daily urinary excretion on 198 residents of the Pordenone area. The resulting experimental data have been compared with those estimated from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 10A model (ICRP 1971) using a suitable dietary intake, and they were found to be in reasonable agreement

  3. Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis was investigated. Patients had more tension elements of immune system at increased level of obstruction. Adaptive reaction in the liquidators was formed on lower level of organism reaction and imbalance in immune competence subsystems developed. This phenomenon is a negative prognostic sign of more serious disease and can cause invalidation of the patients

  4. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for

  5. NPP accident analysis for spray safety system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods for calculating the NPP containment spray system are considered in brief. The spray system consists of three manifolds mounted in the upper part of the containment. Indicated are formulas for calculating the degree of the liquid jet warm-up+ comparison of theoretical and experimental valwes of temperature and pressure in transients, dependence of pressure decrease rate on cooling water initial temperature, heat removal intensity curves at different cooling water temperatures and pressure decrease curves at various estimations of the degree of liquid jet warm-up

  6. Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabzev, I.A. [Institute of Problem of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

  7. Uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the reactor accident at Chernobyl, radioactive material was released to the atmosphere and was carried with the winds to many parts of Europe. Specifically some quantities of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in air have reached the European countries and exposed the population to internal radiation via inhalation. As a result of the fallout, these radionuclides were also taken by people via the food chain, this soon became the most significant exposure pathway. To determine the level of internal contamination, people were monitored for I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. Personal monitoring was performed on citizens (or visitors) of the European countries outside the Soviet Union or those who happened to visit the Soviet Union during or immediately after the Chernobyl accident. This paper gives a summary of the personal monitoring reported mainly by Canada, Finland, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The paper also gives a summary of the techniques used today to assess internal contamination and in particular, it elaborates on the two methods which were used to measure uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident. For these two methods (whole body or thyroid direct count and activity in urine) the paper summarizes the main physical, metabolic and radiological parameters for I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. These parameters help to put the two methods of personal monitoring into perspective and to convert the reported data on personal monitoring into internal radiation doses

  8. Radiological evaluation of an agricultural field in the Chernobyl accident area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, where happened the most serious nuclear accident seen by mankind a decade ago, renders the opportunity to carry out concrete scientific researches about post conditions of a nuclear accident. To evaluate the radiological situation of a field formally used for agriculture, inside the Exclusion Zone (30 Km zone around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant) a field exercise was organized by the Ukrainian Radiation Training Centre. To develop a radiological evaluation of a field it is necessary taking into consideration the nature of the sampling site and what are the tasks to be worked out to accomplish the aims of the evaluation. In a case of evaluation of external dose, measurements of dose rate, gamma flux and beta surface contamination are the principal surveys. The present radioactive contamination in the Exclusion Zone is mostly determined by 137Cs, 90Sr and transuranium radionuclides. It should be noted that on the contaminated area, ten years passing after Chernobyl accident, the dose-rate is formed by 137Cs contamination and beta flux is due to 137Cs + 90Sr. in this report the techniques of measurement dose rate, beta flux and density of contamination of 137Cs have been discussed

  9. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  10. Experience in therapy of persons affected at the Chernobyl accident and direct outcomes of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with the results of therapy of 115 patients with acute radiation syndrome after the Chernobyl accident. The chief methods of the effective therapy of bone marrow syndrome are antimicrobial drugs and fresh donor platelet mass transfusions. Homopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogenetic bone marrow or embryonic hepatocytes) is indicated and effective in a very limited number of patients in accident irradiation. Severe β-burns of the skin remain an unsolved problem as a result of their spreading. Organizational principles of therapy of a great number of patients with acute radiation syndrome in a specialized hospital were described

  11. Cs137 transfer from mother to embryos in the first three years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter- to be solved. After the Chernobyl accident, we had the possibility to study the transfer of Cs137 from mother to embryo, in the case of a continuous and variable Cs137 intake of the mother. The study was carried on for a period of three years after the accident. Our group performed also measurements of transfer from mother to embryo, in the case of a continuous, prolonged, but rather constant intake. The results of this study will be presented in future papers. (author)

  12. The role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspects domestic and imported meat and poultry food products to assure the public that they are safe, wholesome, not economically adulterated and properly labeled. The Service also monitors the activities of meat and poultry plants and related activities in allied industries, and establishes standards and approves labels for meat and poultry products. As part of its responsibility, shortly after the Chernobyl accident occurred, FSIS developed a plan to assess this accident's impact on domestically produced and imported meat and poultry

  13. Dynamics of the immune system state in the residents of Kiev after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident, decrease in cytotoxic activity of natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) and antibody-dependent cytotoxic cells (ABDCC) of the peripheral blood, disturbance of regulatory T-lymphocytes subpopulations balance, increase of the amount of lymphoid immature cells in blood serum, increase of M, G, and A immunoglobulins levels, decrease of the amount of saliva secretory A immunoglobulin were revealed. The most prominent changes of reactivity were observed during the first two years after the accident, the values (except for NCC) became normal by 1990. In vitro experiments revealed the possibility to stimulate NCC functional activity with immunomodulators having different action

  14. Social, economic, institutional and political impact in Romania of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Romanian society, on a whole had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident. This fact has been mainly owed to: the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania, these exceeded the local radioactive background considerably; the inherent proximity to the place of accident; some elliptical and over-estimated official statements spread about through radio and TV. There have been strong and various pressures, from the highest state dignitaries to profiteers of the new raised emergency. They claimed for preferential actions concerning protective measures at theirs particular residences or demanding prophylactic substances in unjustified quantities or imperiously asked for being internally monitored at the whole-body counter facilities

  15. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  16. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal

  17. Reflections on liability and radiological or nuclear accidents: the accidents at Goiania, Forbach, three mile Island and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the lessons learned today from, amongst others, the radiological accidents of Goiania in 1987 and Forbach in 1991, as well as the nuclear accident at Three Miles Island (T.M.I.) in 1979, this article tries to make a distinction between problems of liability linked, on the one hand, to the sanctioning of the absence of prevention implied by the occurrence of non-stochastic effects and, on the other hand, to the judicial sanctioning of the failure of precautionary measures taken, as regard stochastic effects. Lastly, over and above the type of damage compensated, liability also gives rise to some thoughts, in light of the experience of Chernobyl, about the impact of modes of compensation on the management of post-accident situations in areas affected over the long term by persisting contamination and the radiological risk associated with it. (N.C.)

  18. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabachny, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends.

  19. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  20. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends