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Sample records for chernobyl contamination resulted

  1. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N.; Alexakhin, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

  2. On forecasting of rivers contamination as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitskij, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of rivers on the territory effected by the Chernobyl accident is under consideration. On the base of analysis field and laboratory experiments data understanding about formation of long-lived radionuclides concentration in rain and snow melt runoff was elaborated. The correctness of mathematical model used for forecasting radiation situation on rivers was confirmed by the data of rivers contamination levels in spring 1987 [ru

  3. Radioactive contamination of Bavarian game as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, W.; Hecht, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 contamination of the soil in South Germany, especially around Schwabmuenchen, after the reactor accident in Chernobyl at the end of April 1986 amounted up to 20000 Bq/2. At certain places, maximum loads of even 40000 Bq/2 were measured. In the other South Bavarian regions and the southern parts of East Bavaria Cs-137 loads of between 5000-10000 Bq/2 were recorded which gradually declined to the North and to the West and reached values of [de

  4. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  5. Results of the internal contamination measurements performed after Chernobyl accident by means of Casaccia whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampa, E.; Santoni, G.; Di Pietro, S.

    1987-01-01

    Direct measurements of internal contamination were carried out in human subjects following the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. The Whole Body Counter facility operated by Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell'Uomo, Divisione Scienze Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Energia - C.R.E. - Casaccia (Rome) was utilized. This investigation was continued until December 31, 1986. The subjects were either resident of the Rome metropolitan area or Italian citizens returning from East European Countries. The report present the data regarding 131 I in the thyroid and 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the whole body. An ingestion or inhalation of these radionuclides is also calculated. The results of this study should contribute to a better evaluation of the theoretical models for the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to man

  6. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from Chernobyl accident. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Fesenko, S.; Firsakova, S.K.

    2001-03-01

    The present report realizes a settlement specific approach to derive remediation strategies and generalizes the results to the whole affected area. The ultimate aim of the study is to prepare possible investment projects on remediation activities in the contaminated territories. Its current aim was to identify the areas and the remedial actions that should be primarily supported and their corresponding cost. The present report starts with an outline of the methodology of deriving remediation strategies, a description of data for 70 representative settlements and of parameters of the remedial actions considered, and a classification of the contaminated territory according to radiological criteria. After summarising aspects of the contamination situation and applications of remedial actions in the past, dose calculations and derived remediation strategies for the representative settlements are described. These are generalized to the total contaminated territory. Within the contaminated territory private produce is of main importance for the radionuclide intake. At the end of the report, radiological aspects of the produce of collective farms are described. (orig.)

  7. Relationship between the 137Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km -2 137 Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), who had whole-body 137 Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body 137 Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10 -9 ). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body 137 Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174)

  8. Chernobyl, what happened. [Netherlands; contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwigt, A

    1986-01-01

    In this article a description is given of the accident in the Chernobylsk-4 reactor and the resulting effects in the Netherlands. The Chernobylsk-4 reactor is described and the cause of the accident is followed step by step. The contamination of the Netherlands is mapped. The absorbed doses for the Dutch people are calculated. In the discussion the author recommends agreements about uniformity for sampling, activity measurements and follow-up studies. (Auth.). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table.

  9. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaare, E.; Jonsson, B.; Skogland, T.

    1991-04-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  10. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137 Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

  11. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Wahba, A.G.; Elraey, M.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  12. Food contamination : lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, F.

    1987-01-01

    This brief survey of radioactive contamination of food suggests at least four areas in which action needs to be taken so that we might be better prepared to respond to any possible future nuclear accident. More research is needed on the way that radiation enters the food chain, and the measures that can be taken to counter the health hazards posed by fallout. A second clear need is for a global radioactivity monitoring system. Third, international standards need to be established for methods of sampling, analysis and reporting of the radioactive levels in foods. Finally, an effort must be made to inform the public so it can distinguish between the real and the imaginary hazards posed by radioactively contaminated foods

  13. Dynamics of 137Cs concentration in agricultural products in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of 137 Cs concentration in the main types of agricultural products obtained in regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 1986, have been analysed. The rate of decline of 137 Cs contamination in agricultural products during the period under study (1987-1992) was not uniform. Reductions of the 137 Cs content of produce was most rapid during the early years after the accident, as a consequence of the intensive application of countermeasures at that time. Half-life periods for 137 Cs content in milk (the basic dose-forming product) and the decrease in products for areas in Russia subjected to the most intensive contamination amounted to 1.6 to 4.8 years, depending on the scale of countermeasures carried out. Half-life periods of decrease of 137 Cs content in other types of agricultural products (grain, potato) were within the range of 2 to 7 years. Based on the comparison of the dynamics of 137 Cs levels in agricultural products of the regions where the countermeasures scales differed, the contribution of countermeasures and of natural biogeochemical processes to the decrease of 137 Cs contamination levels of the main types of agricultural products that determine the dose from internal irradiation of local population has been estimated. (author)

  14. The Chernobyl silences: the contaminated future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandazzi, G.

    2004-01-01

    This analyse provides the sanitary actuality of the Chernobyl accident which occurred in 1986. Testimonies, politicians, scientists, philosophers and artists reflexions are provided. It wonders on the information evolution and the notion of ''accident'' since Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  15. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  16. Human radiation dose resulting from forests contaminated by radionuclides: generic model and applications to the Chernobyl ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkov, I.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Schell, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have been found to contribute significantly to the human radiation dose in the intermediate and long teens following radionuclide releases. Evaluation of the internal and external radiation dose for these critical population groups requires knowledge of radionuclide transport processes in forest ecosystems, as well as the extent of forest utilization by these populations. The high complexity of the problem requires the use of models to define and analyze the properties of the forest as well as to evaluate the ecosystem response to possible human intervention. A generic FORESTPATH model is used to calculate the internal and external radiation doses for different critical groups of consumers at different times following radionuclide release. The model is tested using the information available for contaminated forests in Belarus. Uncertainty of the model predictions are estimated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. (author)

  17. A thermodynamic study of decontamination of soils contaminated with 137Cs radionuclide as the results of accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkst, D.Eh.; Chaliyan, K.N.; Chaliyan, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic characteristics of the process of soil decontamination from 137 Cs by the their washing with eluting solution, Fe(3) and ammonium being included in its composition, have been determined. The decontamination process is 137 Cs desorption as a result of destruction of cesium chelate complexes with humic acids. Fe 3+ and Fe(OH) 2+ substitution for Cs + in the soils occurs spontaneously as a thermodynamically efficient process. 3 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj

    2001-01-01

    up to the present time. Available information should be presented in a form suitable for perception by wide public. Different categories of population (children, workers of various professional groups, pensioners) need practical consultations and recommendations on how to provide safe life conditions. For almost 15 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. Moreover, there is a tendency for understatement of the catastrophe consequences, bringing it down to the ordinary NPP incident. At the same time the radioecological, medico-biological, socio-psychological, economic and other Chernobyl consequences show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long. The unique situation as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident must be used completely for improving the knowledge about the possible consequences of the similar catastrophes, for investigation and accumulation of experience of practical realisation of protection measures complex under the conditions of large-scale radioactive contamination of the territory. It creates good prerequisites for effective and mutually beneficial international co-operation on overcoming of the catastrophe consequences

  19. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevic, V.A.; Duba, V.V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  20. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Busby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed; p = 0.0025 in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  1. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  2. The peculiarity of the models of the contamination's migration in water in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononovich, A.L.; Krishev, I.I.; Oskolkov, B.Ja.; Kulebakina, L.G.; Arhipov, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    The new factors become significant for Chernobyl's contamination's evolution after 8-10 years. Those factors were hidden in the early 3-5 years. Our paper describes the mathematical model of the migration's process of the radionuclides in Chernobyl cooling pond and some results about the migration of the 137 Cs by groundwater. Our model for radionuclide's migration in the Chernobyl cooling pond differ from other mathematical models, that it takes into account the destruction of the fuel's particles during the time. It shows increased concentration of the 90 Sr in water and the monotonous decrease 137 Cs concentration in water. The results of the model's calculation of the annual concentration of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water coincide with measurements results in less than 20%. It is the only model of the Chernobyl cooling pond, which has so good coincidence during 10 years. Result of this work shows that the main process, which determines the time's dependence of the annual concentration of the radionuclides in Chernobyl cooling pond, is the destruction of the fuel's particles. In the second part of the paper there is result of the investigation 137 Cs migration by groundwater. The investigation was made with combination of the physical's modelling and mathematical's modelling methods. Truer is discussion about similarity of the physical-chemical simulation and real process. We had investigated the real Chernobyl's ground's contamination in the physical-chemical's similar model's system. It has observed the fraction of the 137 Cs in groundwater's contamination with very low sorption's coefficient, and thus the big migration's velocity (like 90 Sr). The part of the speed component is about 10 -4 . But the components of 137 Cs contamination, which has the big sorption's coefficient, converts slowly into the 'speed form' during the time. We had no see any publication about 'speed component' of 137 Cs contamination in Chernobyl's groundwater. All contemporary models of

  3. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, V.N.; Panin, A.V.; Ivanova, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that fallout of 137 Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137 Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137 Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137 Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137 Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137 Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137 Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

  4. Bacterial community analysis of contaminant soils from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Chapon, V.; Berthomieu, C.; Piette, L.; Le Marrec, C.; Coppin, F.; Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Shortly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, vegetation, contaminated soil and other radioactive debris were buried in situ in trenches. The aims of this work are to analyse the structure of bacterial communities evolving in this environment since 20 years, and to evaluate the potential role of microorganisms in radionuclide migration in soils. Therefore, soil samples exhibiting contrasted radionuclides content were collected in and around the trench number 22. Bacterial communities were examined using a genetic fingerprinting method that allowed a comparative profiling of the samples (DGGE), with universal and group-specific PCR primers. Our results indicate that Chernobyl soil samples host a wide diversity of Bacteria, with stable patterns for Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and more variable for Proteobacteria. A collection of 650 aerobic and anaerobic culturable isolates was also constructed. A phylogenetic analysis of 250 heterotrophic aerobic isolates revealed that 5 phyla are represented: Beta-, Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and spore-forming Firmicutes, which is largely dominant. These collection will be screened for the presence of radionuclide-accumulating species in order to estimate the potential influence of microorganisms in radionuclides migration in soils

  5. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.; Davies, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

  6. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Rolevich, I.V.

    1998-12-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  7. Radioactive contamination: atlas France and Europe. French soils contamination by Chernobyl accident fallouts - The lie evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Andre; Castanier, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    This document deals with the Chernobyl nuclear accident impacts and the authorities transparency. The first part is a reference document constituted by the CRIIRAD and showing how the authorities strove for minimizing the real contamination of French soils by the Chernobyl fallouts. In the second part, an atlas provides the detailed maps of the radioactive contamination of soils based on more than 3000 measurements carried out by a geologist, Andre Paris, assisted by the CRIIRAD laboratory

  8. Influence the technogenic disaster at radionuclide contaminated Chernobyl zone on transgeneration changes of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.

    2017-01-01

    Some of the territories have naturally increased level of radiation as areas of native radioecological anomalies, but others were polluted as a result of nuclear weapon testing, nuclear waste leakage, and nuclear power plants disasters, such as Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) and Fukushima. Eventually, the large areas have been strong contaminated with radioactivity isotopes for long term. Despite more than thirty years aftermath the explosion of the CNPP accident, the problems coming from the high radionuclide contamination of the environment and the effects of chronic radiation on living organisms still remain relevant. Because the recent tragedy at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan is chillingly reminiscent of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986. Our research addressing the effects of chronic ionizing radiation on plants, the ongoing success of plants adaptation and transgeneration changes in radio-contaminated Chernobyl area was revealed. The focus our investigation is on a role of the small dose chronic radiation due to plant biodiversity processes because it is a common adverse environmental toxicology factor. In order to characterize proteomes of plants adapting to biodiversity at radio-contaminated Chernobyl area we established non-radioactive and radio-contaminated experimental fields.

  9. Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Fesenko, S.; Firsakova, S.K.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Schotola, C.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Zhuchenko, Y.M.; Kovgan, L.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Ageyets, V.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered

  10. About estimation of the contamination of territorial-administrative regions of the Chernobyl genesis radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    It is recommended to realize the matching territorial-administrative regions on degree of the contamination their of the Chernobyl genesis radionuclides to size generalised index gravity of the radionuclide soiling region. The methodology of the calculation indexes is offered. The results executed estimation are briefly stated. (authors)

  11. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination form the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied form 1990-1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Clouvas, A; Gagianas, A

    1996-12-01

    Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied from 1990 to 1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions.

  13. Analysis of the results of environmental monitoring in Spain after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Salas Collantes, R.; Rey del castillo, C.; Marugar tovar, I.; Sterling carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L.; Lorente Lorente, P.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plants, CSN launched special surveillance devices to monitor radioactive contamination through the values provided by the various networks and environmental monitoring programs. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the results corresponding to the exposure pathways and matrices in which contamination is detected. (Author)

  14. Chernobyl: exclusive investigation. How the French nuclear lobby buries the truth in contaminated areas. The After-Chernobyl or 'Living happy' in contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the results of this inquiry, the CEPN (study centre on assessment of protection in the nuclear sector) has been created by the main actors of the nuclear industrial sector (EFG, Cogema, CEA and IRSN) and is at the origin of the ETHOS and CORE projects. Moreover, these projects have been financed by public funds. It also shows that the FNSEA (farmer trade union) has been allied to the French nuclear lobby for the distribution probably contaminated and radioactive foodstuff. It evokes the case of Belarus researcher who denounced such contamination and the misappropriation of international funds, and who was sent to jail. It comments the collaboration between the French nuclear sector and the Belarus regime, denounces how the truth about Chernobyl has been hidden, the cynical results of the ETOS program which would imply the consumption of contaminated foodstuff in France in case of nuclear accident. Some proposals are made: to dismantle the CEPN, to stop the participation of French organisations to the CORE and FARMING programs, creation of an independent commission on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and so on. For the authors, phasing out nuclear is the only solution o avoid a new Chernobyl

  15. Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnowiecki, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

  16. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, Elena; Iacob, Olga

    1998-01-01

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  17. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  19. Chernobyl three years later: radiobiologic evaluation of a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, A.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Othmani, S.

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, after partial fusion and confining loss by explosion of a nuclear reactor, 5 x 10(7) Ci of radionuclides escaped from Chernobyl. Three years later, maps show contamination by radioactive isotopes (formed during that period) of 21,000 km2 of Soviet soil, mainly in Byelorussia and part of the Ukraine. Decontamination measures have not been effective to date and 135,000 persons are being followed medically, taking into account the radioactive doses they received. An initial excess of morbidity from solid tumors has been noted much sooner than in the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but its significance is in dispute. Three years later, only the extent of the ecologic disaster caused by the radioactive contamination can be confirmed. It is too early to draw conclusions about radiation-induced carcinogenesis for the contaminated population

  20. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G; Popovic, D; Smelcerovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro); Petrovic, B [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beograd, (Serbia and Montenegro); Djujic, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  1. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.; Smelcerovic, M.; Petrovic, B.; Djujic, I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  2. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  3. The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrael, Yu.A.; Cort, M.De.; Jones, A.R.; Nazarov, I.M.; Fridman, Sh.D.; Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Kelly, G.N.; Matveenko, I.I.; Pokumeiko, Yu.M.; Tabatchnyi, L.Ya.; Tsaturov, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m 2 (≅ 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m 2 (≅ 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m 2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*10 16 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

  4. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Mátel, L'ubomír; Salaj, Terézia; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The explosion in one of the four reactors of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, Chernobyl) caused the worst nuclear environmental disaster ever seen. Currently, 23 years after the accident, the soil in the close vicinity of CNPP is still significantly contaminated with long-living radioisotopes, such as (137)Cs. Despite this contamination, the plants growing in Chernobyl area were able to adapt to the radioactivity, and survive. The aim of this study was to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms toward permanently increased level of radiation using a quantitative high-throughput proteomics approach. Soybeans of a local variety (Soniachna) were sown in contaminated and control fields in the Chernobyl region. Mature seeds were harvested and the extracted proteins were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 9.2% of 698 quantified protein spots on 2-D gel were found to be differentially expressed with a p-value Chernobyl soil conditions was proposed. Our results suggest that adaptation toward heavy metal stress, protection against radiation damage, and mobilization of seed storage proteins are involved in plant adaptation mechanism to radioactivity in the Chernobyl region.

  5. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children and adolescents with Hashimoto`s 1 thyroiditis from the areas contaminated as aa result of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molostvov, G.S. [Research Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Minsk (Belarus)

    1996-12-31

    m6o-color immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subsets using a lysed whole blood method was performed in 46 children and adolescents with Hashimoto`s thyroiditis (HT) from contaminated areas and in 18 children with HT from `pure` areas of Belarus. 46 healthy children of matched age and sex distribution were used as control group. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets in children with HT living in contaminated areas showed a considerable decrease in the levels of total lymphocytes, CD8+T cells (T-suppressors), total B cells, and CD5+B cells together with an activation of NK and CD56+, CD8+CD57+T cells (T-killers not restricted by HLA antigens). The study of cellular immunity in children with different doses of incorporated radionuclids revealed that prolonged influence of very small doses of ionizing radiation resulted in significant changes in lymphocyte subsets; interestingly, B cell subsets were the most sensitive to such influence while radiosensitivity of T-killers and NK was the lowest. These changes were the greatest in children with HT with the highest dose of incorporated radionuclides. Significant correlation between the levels of main lymphocyte subsets and the doses of accumulated radionuclids observed in this study also indicated that their relation was dose-dependent.(orig.)

  6. Chernobyl: Activities with children from contaminated areas by the accidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Llanes, R.

    1996-01-01

    In May 1990, Cuba set up a programme for the care of children from the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident, with the main aim of offering specialized medical assistance and developing a hospital-based rehabilitation programme. Over its first five years, this programme has tended care for over 15,000 children and adults. The paper explains the origins of the programme and its working, and shows the main medical, dosimetric and impact-on-health results. (Author) 5 refs

  7. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1987-01-01

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  8. Long-term trend of radioactive contamination of food products in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, K.; Marinov, V.; Naidenov, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results which characterize the dynamics for the power of radioactive contamination of foods in the Bulgaria with Cesium radionuclides from May 1986 to December 1995 are presented. It was done for motivation of some conclusions during the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The data are compared with Maximum residues limits (MRL) of our country as well as that of international organizations. They are compared with the background contamination of foods descended from regions affected after experimental nuclear explosion till 1963 too

  9. Methodical approach to reconstruct individual internal doses for persons residing in areas of Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, Anatoly; Belsky, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The studies on the risk to population of low-level exposure following the Chernobyl accident require the estimation of the individual doses. The most difficult aspect is the estimation of internal exposure (IAED int ). Level of individual internal exposure due to ingestion of long-lived caesium isotopes defines by individual 'food habits' (IFH) of the person. Non-standard methodical approach is suggested to evaluate internal doses taking into IFH: 1) IFH are generally conservative by food characteristic and steady in time; 2) IFH of the person determines his dose which can be calculated using data of personal interview and the special table of conformity establishing connection between IFH and corresponding percentile interval in a variation line of doses in given settlement; 3) IAED int (1986-2005) is calculated as the sum of annual doses of the individual for all period of exposure and in all settlements of residing. To develop the model, WBC measurements data (around 1.5 millions) collected in 1987-2005 for population of around 1000 Belarusian settlements were used. The input data for IAEA int calculation include consumption of dose-significant products, duration, and place of residence obtained by mean of individual questionnaire; WBC measurements data; table of conformity (IFH → IAED int ). (author)

  10. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, G.; Recknagel, E.

    1988-01-01

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs [de

  11. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  12. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microorganisms associated with feathers of barn swallows in radioactively contaminated areas around chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    The Chernobyl catastrophe provides a rare opportunity to study the ecological and evolutionary consequences of low-level, environmental radiation on living organisms. Despite some recent studies about negative effects of environmental radiation on macroorganisms, there is little knowledge about the effect of radioactive contamination on diversity and abundance of microorganisms. We examined abundance patterns of total cultivable bacteria and fungi and the abundance of feather-degrading bacterial subset present on feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), a colonial migratory passerine, around Chernobyl in relation to levels of ground level environmental radiation. After controlling for confounding variables, total cultivable bacterial loads were negatively correlated with environmental radioactivity, whereas abundance of fungi and feather-degrading bacteria was not significantly related to contamination levels. Abundance of both total and feather-degrading bacteria increased with barn swallow colony size, showing a potential cost of sociality. Males had lower abundance of feather-degrading bacteria than females. Our results show the detrimental effects of low-level environmental radiation on total cultivable bacterial assemblage on feathers, while the abundance of other microorganism groups living on barn swallow feathers, such as feather-degrading bacteria, are shaped by other factors like host sociality or host sex. These data lead us to conclude that the ecological effects of Chernobyl may be more general than previously assumed and may have long-term implications for host-microbe interactions and overall ecosystem functioning.

  14. Radioactive contamination of the Dutch soil in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Pennders, R.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl air, contaminated with radioactive materials, spread over the Netherlands. From 2nd May to 6th May, with dry and to a greater extent with wet deposits, important quantities of radionuclides came upon the earth surface. In this period the weather circumstances within the Netherlands differed strongly resulting in distinct variations in deposit. In this document a preliminary picture is given of the contamination of the Dutch bottom on the basis of soil samplings made in the first few months after the accident. No attention is paid to geographic differences in bottom contamination. The contamination of the bottom is expressed in Bq/kg dry soil as well as in Bq/m 2 soil. 5 refs.; 6 tabs. (H.W.)

  15. Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, Valery; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Zhurba, Marina; Protsak, Valentyn; Khomutinin, Yuri; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Chaplow, Jacqueline S.

    2018-02-01

    The dataset Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was developed to enable data collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) and 2014 by the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR) after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. The dataset includes results from comprehensive soil sampling across the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Analyses include radiocaesium (134Cs and 134Cs) 90Sr, 154Eu and soil property data; plutonium isotope activity concentrations in soil (including distribution in the soil profile); analyses of hot (or fuel) particles from the CEZ (data from Poland and across Europe are also included); and results of monitoring in the Ivankov district, a region adjacent to the exclusion zone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the available data and methodology used to obtain them. The data will be valuable to those conducting studies within the CEZ in a number of ways, for instance (i) for helping to perform robust exposure estimates to wildlife, (ii) for predicting comparative activity concentrations of different key radionuclides, (iii) for providing a baseline against which future surveys in the CEZ can be compared, (iv) as a source of information on the behaviour of fuel particles (FPs), (v) for performing retrospective dose assessments and (vi) for assessing natural background dose rates in the CEZ. The CEZ has been proposed as a radioecological observatory (i.e. a radioactively contaminated site that will provide a focus for long-term, radioecological collaborative international research). Key to the future success of this concept is open access to data for the CEZ. The data presented here are a first step in this process. The data and supporting documentation are freely available from the Environmental Information Data Centre (EIDC) under the terms and conditions of the Open Government Licence: https://doi.org/10.5285/782ec845-2135-4698-8881-b38823e533bf.

  16. Contribution of the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, to liquidation of radionuclide contamination aftereffects in the Kaluga Region that resulted from the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, E.G.; Berdov, B.A.; Gorobets, V.F.; Tsyplyakovskaya, L.M.; Ivanov, V.K.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Pitkevich, V.A.; Omel'chenko, V.N.; Borovikova, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Specialists from the Medical Radiology Research Center, have been participating in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects since May-June, 1986. The basic trends of their work are mass dosimetric studies of the population of the contaminated areas, annual prophylactic check-ups of children and adolescents, pregnant and nursing women and other adults of high-risk groups (agricultural workers, patients with chronic diseases), development of recommendations for health and prophylactic measures in the districts under observation, treatment of patients from these regions, who are in need of a specialized care, at the clinic of the Center

  17. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137 Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137 Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition

  18. Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia 8 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Girard, P.

    1997-01-01

    Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia after the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the situation in the district of Chetchersk in Bielorussia. This article presents an analysis of the social and economic aspects of radiological protection in the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. It is based on the results of two surveys performed in 1994 on the living conditions of the inhabitants of a territorial community located in Bielorussia, 180 km north of Chernobyl. The first part presents the radiological post-accident situation of the district, together with an analysis of this situation's demographic impact since 1986. The second part presents a description of the modes of exposure of the inhabitants of the contaminated territories and an assessment of he various countermeasures programmes initiated by the authorities in the legislative framework of 1991. The last part addresses the economic aspects of the Chetchersk district and an evaluation of the consequences of the radiological situation on the economic, and above all agricultural, activities of the district.The conclusion highlights the difficulties that face the Byelorussian authorities today. The now definitive presence of inhabitants in a durably contaminated environment poses a new category of problems. The objectives of radiological protection have to be reshaped within a set of constraints of different types, notably social and economic. The development of radiological safety cannot be dissociated from a return to quality living in these territories. This necessarily entails re-establishing a climate of social confidence. The initial legislative plan for post-accident management must be adapted to give greater autonomy to local participants in the reconstruction of satisfactory living conditions. (authors)

  19. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This leaflet has been prepared by the Central Electricity Generating Board. Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union people are concerned about the safety of the UK's nuclear power stations. This leaflet explains that Chernobyl is unlike any nuclear station operating or planned in the UK and under the CEGB's stringent safety rules it could not have been built in the UK. The leaflet explains what happened at Chernobyl and compares the RBMK design and British reactors. The bodies concerned with reactor safety are noted. The containment of radioactivity and emergency procedures are explained. The PWR design for Sizewell-B is stated to be much safer than the RBMK Chernobyl design. (UK)

  20. Study of caesium contamination in foodstuffs in Ghana after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Schandorf, C.; Yeboah, J.

    1996-01-01

    Fallout radioactivity has been studied in foodstuffs in the Environmental Monitoring Laboratory after the Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe. The study covers the analysis of reference samples of imported foods, mainly meat and milk, for 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination using a low-level gamma spectrometer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether it is necessary to control food imports in order to reduce the risk from intake of radionuclides by the Ghanian public resulting from transboundary contamination. Measurement of caesium levels in various foods over a period of seven years has shown contamination to be within the recommended action levels for international trade in foods. The committed effective dose intakes in any single year is far below the 1 mSv annual dose recommended by the ICRP in Publication 60. (author)

  1. Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Tretyakevich, S.S.; Koreniak, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m 2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km 2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km 2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 μR/h/kBq·m 2 to 0,041 μR/h/kBq·m 2 (with 2,0 μR/h/Ci·km 2 to 1,5 μR/h/Ci·km 2 ). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive

  2. Markers for hepatitis B, C, D and G contamination in the population suffered of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhavoronok, S.V.; Kalinin, A.L.; Grimbaum, O.A.; Chernovetskij, M.A.; Babarykina, N.Eh.; Ospobat, Ya.M.

    1998-01-01

    The results received in the study of 2814 persons having taken part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, of people (adult and teenagers) migrated from the contaminated territories to Vitebsk region and of the control group consisted of 46773 donors are presented. Hepatitis B and C viruses have been revealed more frequently in people suffered of the Chernobyl accident. Hepatitis D and G viruses have defined. It allows to predict a larger number of death caused by hepato cirrhosis or primary carcinomas of the liver

  3. Chernobyl and its effects in terms of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The contamination of plant surfaces and roots is gone into. There is a continuous decrease in contamination as a result of washout and dilution from plant growth. In animals, contamination decreases as a result of biological secretion. The isotopes I-131, Cs-137, and Sr-90 were investigated. To avoid high radiation, the author recommends to banish mushrooms, game, goat's meat, and mutton from the table. (PW) [de

  4. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Egorov, V.N.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m −3 , respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq 137 Cs and 22 Bq 90 Sr per m 3 as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly 90 Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995–1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. -- Highlights: • Concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Black Sea water is still relatively high. • The Black Sea continues to receive considerable radionuclide amount from the rivers. • The North-Crimean Canal is significant source of the Black Sea radioactivity. • Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea increased in the late 1990's. • Radionuclide remobilization from sediments leads to a further Black Sea pollution

  5. Contamination of soil and food with radionuclides from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of systematic gamma spectroscopic analyses of fission products performed on the territory of SAP Vojvodina after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Samples of soil grass and food were periodically taken at 5 representative locations and the regions of highest activity concentration are identified on the basis of the results obtained. In the controlled chain soil-plants (feeds)-cow's (milk) on three characteristic locations (soil with different physico-chemical and mechanical properties) the activity concentration of fission radionuclides was determined and transfer factors for soil-plants; feed-milk were calculated. At the territory of hunting sites of SAP Vojvodina, artificial radionuclides were determined in meat and bones of fallow-deer, deer, boar and wild hare; and the highest content of radionuclides was found in meat and bones of boar. (author)

  6. Agricultural aspects of the radiation situation in the areas contaminated by the southern Urals and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Being different in nature, the accidents in the Southern Urals and at Chernobyl gave rise to radiation situations with own specific features, affecting, in particular, agricultural activities in the contaminated area. The main specific features of the Chernobyl accident were the vast scale of contamination, the large contamination gradients even at considerable distances from the accident site, the heterogeneity of radioactive fallout distribution at micro-level, the inconsistent nature of changes in soil contamination levels, and separation of the radionuclides from the fallout. In spite of the fundamental differences in the chemical character of the types of radioactive fallout, the radionuclides of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were in both cases readily available for assimilation by plant root systems. In both the Southern Urals and the Ukraine the coefficients of radionuclide build-up in soils with identical agrochemical properties fall within the observation accuracy limits. As a result of the Chernobyl accident, light soils of soddy-podzolic composition were subjected to the greatest contamination, their radionuclide build-up coefficients being 8-15 times higher than those of the chernozem soils in the Southern Urals. An abnormally high level of radiocaesium accumulation was observed in meadow grasses, which explains the leading role of milk contamination in the radiation situation on private holdings. (author)

  7. Microbial diversity in contaminated soils along the T22 trench of the Chernobyl experimental platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapon, Virginie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 6191, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Piette, Laurie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 6191, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vesvres, Marie-Helene [Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS-IN2P3, UMR 5797, CENBG, POB 120, F-33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Coppin, Frederic [IRSN, DEI/SECRE/LRE-Bat 186, B.P.3, Cadarache Center, F-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Marrec, Claire Le [ISVV, UMR 1219, Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux/INRA, POB 50008, F-33882 Villenave d' Ornon (France); Christen, Richard [Universite de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Centre de Biochimie, Parc Valrose, F-06108 Nice (France); CNRS, UMR 6543, Centre de Biochimie, Parc Valrose, F-06108 Nice (France); Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 6191, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS-IN2P3, UMR 5797, CENBG, POB 120, F-33175 Gradignan cedex (France); IRSN, DEI/SECRE/LRE-Bat 186, B.P.3, Cadarache Center, F-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Fevrier, Laureline [IRSN, DEI/SECRE/LRE-Bat 186, B.P.3, Cadarache Center, F-13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); others, and

    2012-07-15

    The diversity of bacterial communities exposed to radioactive contamination in Chernobyl soils was examined by a combination of molecular and culture-based approaches. A set of six radioactive soil samples, exhibiting high levels of {sup 137}Cs contamination, were collected from the T22 trench. Three samples were also collected in nearby soils with low contamination. Complex bacterial community structures were observed in both highly and weakly contaminated samples, using a molecular approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the presence of specific populations within samples from highly contaminated soils could not be revealed by statistical analysis of the DGGE profiles. More than 200 culturable isolates, representative of dominant morphotypes, were grouped into 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and affiliated to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroiedetes. No specific pattern linked to contamination was observed for these culturable bacteria. The results show that both highly and weakly contaminated soils host a wide diversity of bacteria, suggesting that long term exposure to radionuclides does not lead to the extinction of bacterial diversity.

  8. Microbial diversity in contaminated soils along the T22 trench of the Chernobyl experimental platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapon, Virginie; Piette, Laurie; Vesvres, Marie-Hélène; Coppin, Frédéric; Marrec, Claire Le; Christen, Richard; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Février, Laureline

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities exposed to radioactive contamination in Chernobyl soils was examined by a combination of molecular and culture-based approaches. A set of six radioactive soil samples, exhibiting high levels of 137 Cs contamination, were collected from the T22 trench. Three samples were also collected in nearby soils with low contamination. Complex bacterial community structures were observed in both highly and weakly contaminated samples, using a molecular approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the presence of specific populations within samples from highly contaminated soils could not be revealed by statistical analysis of the DGGE profiles. More than 200 culturable isolates, representative of dominant morphotypes, were grouped into 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and affiliated to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroïdetes. No specific pattern linked to contamination was observed for these culturable bacteria. The results show that both highly and weakly contaminated soils host a wide diversity of bacteria, suggesting that long term exposure to radionuclides does not lead to the extinction of bacterial diversity.

  9. The decision-making process in dealing with populations living in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Schneider, T.

    1998-01-01

    Experience from the Chernobyl accident revealed strong disturbance in social life and stress phenomenon in the population living in the contaminated territories. The ETHOS project (founded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission-DG XII) has initiated an alternative approach of the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. This project started at the beginning of 1996 and is implemented in the Republic of Belarus. Its main goal is to create the conditions for the inhabitants of contaminated territories to reconstruct their global quality of life. The main features of the methodological approach of the ETHOS project in the village of Olmany in the district of Stolyn (Brest region) since March 1996 are presented, and its implementation and first results are discussed. (R.P.)

  10. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal management routes for the restoration of territories contaminated during and after the Chernobyl accident: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report identifies optimised restoration strategies for contaminated territories (actually private agricultural lands and forests) in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The evaluation of restoration strategies is based on economic and radiological criteria. For this purpose a methodology involving the subdivision of the territories into categories based on doses was developed. Remediation strategies for agricultural lands involves many options; for example, extensive resettlement, supply of clean milk, radical improvement of land, etc. For contaminated forests the potential radiological impact resulting from a selection of countermeasures like incineration of contaminated wood has been thoroughly evaluated

  12. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132 Te- 132 I, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h −1 per initial 137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 , whereas it was 100 μGy h −1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ( 134 Cs + 137 Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively

  13. Radiological effects on populations of Oligochaeta in the Chernobyl contaminated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Polikarpov, G.G. E-mail: ggp@iur.sebastopol.ua

    2003-07-01

    A detailed investigation of 3 populations of Oligochaete species (Dero obtusa, Nais pseudobtusa and Nais pardalis) has been carried out in contaminated lake of the close-in Chernobyl zone and in a control lake. Hydrochemical indices and concentrations of heavy metals, chloro-organi compounds and {sup 90}Sr in bottom sediments have been measured. Absorbed doses were calculated on the basis of the results of radiochemical analysis an assessed directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Stimulation of paratomous division (asexual reproduction) was found in one species of worm (D. obtusa), and activation of sexual reproduction in the two other specie studied. An increase in the amount of cytogenetic damage in the somatic cells of worms from the contaminated lake was found and an attempt was made to assess the relative contributions of radiation and chemical exposure on the basis of analyses of inter-cellular aberration distributions and the types of chromosome aberrations observed in the cells.

  14. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation monitoring. Migration of radionuclides in natural environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    Section Radiation monitoring comprises: atlas of area radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station accident, state of computerized radiation control system, hydrological monitoring, radiation situation in different areas, problems of radioactive monitoring and protection of water objects, methods for determining radionuclides content, radiochemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration mobility of the Chernobyl' effluents, the results of investigations into migration of radionuclides in soils, landscapes, bottom depositions, in the soil-plant chain

  15. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation monitoring. Migration of radionuclides in environment. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    Section Radiation monitoring comprises: atlas of area radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl' NPP accident, state of automated radiation monitoring control system, hydrological monitoring, radiation situation in different areas, problems of radiation monitoring and protection of water objects, methods for determining radionuclidescontents, radiochemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration mobility in the Chernobyl' effluents, the results of investigations into migration of radionuclides in soils, landscapes, bottom depositions, in the soil-plant chain

  16. Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kashparov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was developed to enable data collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl and 2014 by the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. The dataset includes results from comprehensive soil sampling across the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ. Analyses include radiocaesium (134Cs and 134Cs 90Sr, 154Eu and soil property data; plutonium isotope activity concentrations in soil (including distribution in the soil profile; analyses of hot (or fuel particles from the CEZ (data from Poland and across Europe are also included; and results of monitoring in the Ivankov district, a region adjacent to the exclusion zone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the available data and methodology used to obtain them. The data will be valuable to those conducting studies within the CEZ in a number of ways, for instance (i for helping to perform robust exposure estimates to wildlife, (ii for predicting comparative activity concentrations of different key radionuclides, (iii for providing a baseline against which future surveys in the CEZ can be compared, (iv as a source of information on the behaviour of fuel particles (FPs, (v for performing retrospective dose assessments and (vi for assessing natural background dose rates in the CEZ. The CEZ has been proposed as a radioecological observatory (i.e. a radioactively contaminated site that will provide a focus for long-term, radioecological collaborative international research. Key to the future success of this concept is open access to data for the CEZ. The data presented here are a first step in this process. The data and supporting documentation are freely available from the Environmental Information Data Centre (EIDC under the terms and conditions of the Open Government Licence: https://doi.org/10.5285/782ec845-2135-4698-8881-b

  17. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH) [de

  18. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hättenschwiler, Stephan [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–EPHE), 1919 Route de Mende, F-34293 Montpellier (France); Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chauvet, Eric [EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, INPT, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France); Gaschak, Sergey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Maksimenko, Andrey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); and others

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h{sup −1}) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h{sup −1}) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h{sup −1}. This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on

  19. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h −1 ) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h −1 ) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h −1 . This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on ecosystem processes

  20. Inhibition of intestinal radiocaesium absorption from Chernobyl contaminated whey by hexacyanoferrates(II) in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresow, B.; Asmus, J.; Fischer, R.; Nielsen, P.; Heinrich, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibition of radiocaesium transfer from Chernobyl contaminated whey powder to the pork and liver of fattening pigs using various dosages of different hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds (HCF) was studied under normal feeding conditions. Increasing amounts of all three hexacyanoferates tested resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the 134+137 Cs activity concentration in all of the tissues sampled. KFe[Fe(CN) 6 ] and NE 4 Fe(CN) 6 ] were effective to the same extent while Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 was less effective at dosages of 1-3 g d -1 HCF. Administration of 10 g d -1 HCF resulted in an almost complete inhibition (>99%) of intestinal radiocaesium absorption for all three compounds. (Author)

  1. Reactions of Russians living in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumonier, S.; Allen, P.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly describes how in July 1992 a pilot survey was conducted of the social and psychological factor affecting people living in a contaminated area of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl accident. First hand experience was gained of the reactions of the people affected by the nuclear accident and the effects of the subsequent countermeasures. (UK)

  2. Historical and cultural legacy in the Chernobyl contaminated zone: the recommendations for its preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filistovich, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has an effect not only on economics and environment of Belarus. Impact on historical and cultural inheritance of the republic have done. The descriptions of the main archaeological and architectural monuments on the contaminated territory are given. The recommendations for preservation of the historical and cultural inheritance are given for local authorities and state bodies of culture and education

  3. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary report tries to give an answer, beyond the current reporting during the last months - including the VDI Nachrichten - how to judge somewhat surely the reasons of the accident and its procession according to the report of the USSR and the international discussion. Subjects: Sequence of events and causes leading to the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl; dimension and consequences of the radioactive precipitations in West-Germany; foundations of nuclear fission; structure and security systems of Sovjet reactor lines and comparisons with German nuclear power plants; licensing procedure and continual control of the German plants; moral responsibility of the peaceful use of nuclear energy; nuclear phase out and its consequences, and at last data and facts about the use of renewable sources of energy. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs from Burgenland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    About 500 samples of foodstuffs, drinking water and grass from Burgenland (an eastern province of Austria) were measured by the author's institution in May to August 1986. Burgenland and generally the east of Austria had, with respect to the Chernobyl fallout, an advantage against other parts of Austria, due to low rainfall and favorable winds in the days after the Chernobyl accident. The activities were generally below the legal limits for drinking water and higher than these in few cases in foodstuffs and grass. The legal limits for activity concentrations in foodstuffs and drinking water for the elements iodine 131, cesium 134, cesium 137 and strontium 90 are listed in an appendix. 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.

    1989-01-01

    The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

  7. Challenges to decision makers after urban contamination: The Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Ilyin, L.

    2000-01-01

    The real history of the Chernobyl decisions will probably be published in ten or fifty years after the death of the politicians who made those decisions and the soviet scientists who were there creating them. But that is not out of the possibility that real and tragic history will never be published at all. This is mainly because the most hard and responsible Chernobyl decisions which had to be made in the situation of acute time, skill and information deficit, had been marked by the stamp of time and society where all of us, including the authors, were living. Never before, and I hope very much, never in the future, has humanity faced the industrial nuclear-radiation accident with the scale like Chernobyl NPP accident. So it's extremely important to summarise and put together not only the scientific but human experience of the scientists which directly formed the large-scale decisions. It is very important to explain to society not only the scientific background of those decisions but also the scientists' personal views, their personal impressions as at the time of decision making as in eight years after the accident. (author)

  8. Some radioactivity concentrations and ingestion dose projections arising from consumption of food containing Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, L.R. de la; Palattao, M.V.; Estacio, J.F.L.; Anden, A.

    1987-04-01

    Doses arising from the ingestion of radioactive contamination coming from Chernobyl accident are calculated using various radioactivity limits adopted by different organizations after the accident. These are compared with that allowed in the Philippines. Projected concentrations of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in various food items in the affected countries, one month and one year after the accident are calculated using a model proposed by Boone, Ng and Palms. Except for food produced in one or two hot spots, the projected concentrations after one year are expected to return to within the range of pre-Chernobyl values. (Auth.) 12 refs.; 13 tabs.; 6 figs

  9. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.; Winkelmann, I.; Ruehle, H.R.; Bayer, A.; Wirth, E.; Haubelt, R.; Koenig, K.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

  10. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenhuber, E; Winkelmann, I; Ruehle, H R [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Bayer, A; Wirth, E; Haubelt, R; Koenig, K [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ``radioactive cloud`` was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter. 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Reproduction in the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus along a gradient of radionuclide contamination at Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Neil; Ford, Alex T; Nagorskaya, Liubov L; Gudkov, Dmitri I; Smith, Jim T

    2018-07-01

    Nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima have led to contamination of the environment that will persist for many years. The consequences of chronic low-dose radiation exposure for non-human organisms inhabiting contaminated environments remain unclear. In radioecology, crustaceans are important model organisms for the development of environmental radioprotection. Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated deleterious effects of radiation exposure on crustacean reproduction. However, no studies have documented the effects of chronic radiation exposure on the reproduction of natural crustacean populations. Based on data from laboratory exposures, we hypothesised that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus exposed to radiation for thirty years at Chernobyl would display reduced reproductive output and altered timing of reproduction. To test this hypothesis, A. aquaticus was collected from six lakes at Chernobyl over two years with total dose rates ranging from 0.06-27.1μGy/h. No significant differences in the fecundity, mass of broods or proportion of reproducing female A. aquaticus were recorded. Significant differences in the body mass of gravid females were recorded suggesting different timings of reproduction, however this was not related to radiation contamination. No significant effect of a range of environmental parameters on A. aquaticus reproduction was recorded. Our data suggests current dose rates at Chernobyl are not causing discernible effects on the reproductive output of A. aquaticus. This study is the first to assess the effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure on the reproductive output of an aquatic invertebrate at Chernobyl. These findings are consistent with proposed radiological protection benchmarks for the maintenance of wildlife populations and will assist in management of environments impacted by radiation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottens, E.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of the data from different laboratories concerning the fallout on the Belgian territory following the Chernobyl emissions is presented. The evolution of the particulate air activity at ground level, the integrated fallout captured in water, the deposition on soil surface directly for different localities in Belgium are given. The grass contamination, the milk contamination from individual farms, the concentration levels on leafy vegetables, surface waters and water basins and the contamination of meat during the month of May are presented. (A.F.)

  13. Bacterial microflora characteristics of plant samples from contaminated by radionuclides Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelena, Pavlina; Shevchenko, Julia; Molozhava, Olha; Berezhna, Valentina; Shylina, Julia; Guscha, Mykola

    2015-01-01

    Two serious nuclear accidents during the last quarter century (Chernobyl, 1986 and Fukushima, 2011) contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. In radioactive areas all components of ecosystems, including microorganisms, exposed to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of dominant bacteria from plant samples, which were collected from the area of radioactive contamination and to compare it with bacteria isolated from plant collected in a non-radioactive area by their qualitative composition, physiological, biochemical and pathogenic characteristics. Bacteria were isolated from plant samples grown in a radioactive field located 5 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP). Physiological, biochemical and pathogenic properties were characterized from nine pure bacterial isolates. The common features of bacteria from radionuclide contaminated plant samples were increased synthesis of mucus and capsule creation. It was found that all selected isolates produce catalase, therefore, bacteria were resistant to oxidative stress. The increased pathogenicity of most bacteria isolated from the plant grown in radioactive Chernobyl area compare to the isolates from the plant without radioactive contamination was established from the phytopathogenic tests. Consequently, bacterial isolates from the plants grown in the radioactive environment tends to dominate enterobacteria similar to agents of opportunistic infections. (author)

  14. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota for the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond: model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Feng, Y.; Galeriu, D.; Heling, R.; Kryshev, A.I.; Kononovich, A.L.; Watkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, which was heavily contaminated in 1986 as a result of the reactor accident. The calculation tasks include (a) reconstruction of the dynamics of radionuclide transfer and bioaccumulation in aquatic media and biota following the accident; (b) assessment of doses to aquatic biota; and (c) assessment of potential doses and radiation risks to humans from consumption of contaminated fish. Calculations for the Scenario were performed by 19 participants using 6 different models: LAKECO-B (Netherlands); LAKEPOND (Romania); POSOD (USA); WATER, GIDRO and ECOMOD-W (Russia). For all endpoints, model predictions were compared with the test data, which were derived from the results of direct measurements and independent dose estimates based on measurements. Most of the models gave satisfactory agreement for some portions of the test data, although very few participants obtained good agreement with all criteria for model testing. The greatest level of difficulty was with the prediction of non-equilibrium radioecological processes in the first year after the accident (1986). The calculations 5 for this scenario gave modellers a unique opportunity to test their models using an independent data base and to analyse the advantages and weaknesses of different model approaches. The use of post-Chernobyl data in such a scenario is also recommended for use in training students in the field of radioecology and environmental protection. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  16. Structural-genetic approach to analysis and mapping of Chernobyl's radionuclide contamination field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskura, N.I.; Bujkov, M.; Nagorsky, V.A.; Tepikin, V.; Poletaev, V.; Solyanke, E.G.; Shkvorets, O.Y.; Shestopalov, V.M.; Skvortsov, V.

    1997-01-01

    As a main tool for revealing and interpreting the internal structure of radionuclide contamination field, around the Chernobyl NPP the reliable and validated detailed scale maps of contamination densities could serve. Such maps should have, on the one hand, a high enough density of initial observation points (not less than 1 to 10 points per 1 sq.cm. of final map) and, on the other hand, a high representativeness of each observation point, i.e. reliability of presentation of its vicinity (0.1 to 1 sq.km). The available analytical data files of soil sampling in the exclusion zone conform neither to the first requirement, nor to the second one: real density of sampling does not exceed 0-2 to 0.5 points per 1 sq.m, and the representativeness of obtained results has a typical variation from medium values (in the neighbourhood of 0.1 to 1 sq.km) to 3 to 5 times

  17. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...... from 0.10 to 0.30, with an average of 0.18, and no correlation between I-129/Cs-137 ratio and the distance from Chernobyl reactor to sampling location was observed. It seems feasible to use the I-129/Cs-137 ratio to reconstruct the deposition pattern of I-131 in these areas. The association of I-129...... and (CS)-C-137 in the Chernobyl soil and Irish Sea sediment was investigated by a sequential extraction method. Similar speciation of I-129 in the Chernobyl soil and Irish Sea sediment was found. Approximately 70% of I-129 is bound to oxides and organic matter, and 10-20% is in the readily available phase...

  18. The results of selective cytogenetic monitoring of Chernobyl accident victims in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilinskaya, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Selective cytogenetic monitoring of the highest priority groups of Chernobyl disaster victims has been carried out since 1987. In 1992-1993, 125 liquidators (irradiated mainly in 1986) and 42 persons recovering from acute radiation sickness of the second and third degrees of severity were examined. Cytogenetic effects (an elevated level of unstable as well as stable markers of radiation exposure) were found in all groups, which showed a positive correlation with the initial degree of irradiation severity even 6-7 y after the accident. Comparative scoring of conventional staining vs. G-banding in 10 liquidators showed the identical rate of unstable aberrations. At the same time, the yield of stable aberrations for G-banded slides exceeded the frequency for conventional staining. In order to study possible mutagenic activity of chronic low levels of irradiation, the cytogenetic monitoring of some critical groups of the population (especially children and occupational groups-tractor drivers and foresters) living in areas of the Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides was carried out. In all the examined groups, a significant increase in the frequency of aberrant metaphases, chromosome aberrations (both unstable and stable), an chromatid aberrations was observed. Data gathered from groups of children reflect the intensity of mutagenic impact on the studied populations and demonstrate a positive correlation with the duration of exposure. Results of cytogenetic examination of adults confirmed the importance of considering the contribution of occupational radiation exposure to genetic effects of Chernobyl accident factors on the population of contaminated areas. 17 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Radiological passports as a decision support technique for post Chernobyl dose reduction in contaminated settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, A.; Mansoux, H.; Yakushau, A.; Antsipov, G.; Averin, V.; Zhouchenko, Y.; Minenko, V.; Tirmarche, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, IRSN and GRS initiated a support for collecting, securing and validating of existing data in the field of Chernobyl accident consequences and establishing a database including a detailed documentation in order to make available all reliable and objective information for decision makers, for planning of actions, for information of the public and for further scientific work. Three projects as a part of French/German Initiative (FGI) for humanitarian and technical assistance in favour of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have been established. The authors represent sub-project 3.9.1, which objectives are as follows: (i) develop and replenish the database for the Radiological-Hygienic Passports (RHP) and perform additional investigation of the target settlements in Belarus where comprehensive information has not been acquired yet, (ii) establish conditions and communication infrastructure for database availability, (iii) provide data analysis involving data on individual effective dose monitoring and results of countermeasures applied, and (iii) formulate the wider recommendations for the target settlements located in contaminated areas, concerning radiation, health, sanitary and social protection, countermeasures, industrial infrastructure development and reviving the local economy. During implementation of the project, 96 settlements with total population of 25 thousand were investigated and their RHPs were compiled. Every RHP consisted of 13 separate forms grouped under three principal headings: Statistics (societal and demographic structure of population, housing, land used and predominant soil type); Economical infrastructure and public utilities (farms, industries, schools, hospitals, shops, service, etc.); Radiological data and doses (total area subdivided vs. level of contamination, Cs-137 content in human body, contamination of agricultural products, contamination of households, annual effective dose). Every RHP was concluded with proposals as to the

  20. Investigation on the health effects and radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Yokoyama, Naokata

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis, to measure radiation dose in every subjects and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Based on experiences of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki, children around Chernobyl area were examined. In the Chernobyl accident, various investigations were supported by many international organizations and groups in the world. More than 80,000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers; Klincy in Russia, Mogilev and Gomel in Beralus and Kiev and Korosten in Ukraine. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology were 2 in Mogilev. 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy until the end of 1994. The prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1,000/million children), compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/millions/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of thyroid diseases and whole body 137 Cs radioactivity or the soil 137 Cs radio contaminated levels. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid 131 I dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that 131 I produces thyroid cancer in human. It is concluded about childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl that; it is confirmed that there are many children with thyroid cancer in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and its diagnosis is correct. The increases of the incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident is probable confirmed. It is suspected but no confirmed that cause of thyroid cancer is the radioactive fallout of Chernobyl accident. Investigation on internal radiation and short lived isotopes along with 131 I may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer. (K.H.)

  1. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  2. Caesium-137 behaviour in small agricultural catchments on the area of the Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Golosov, V.N.; Ivanova, N.N.; Panin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in soils of the basin of the Gusinaya Lapka dry river, situated in the Eastern region, 550 km from the reactor, has been investigated. In this area the 137 Cs contamination levels range between 250 and 502 kBq.m -2 . In the accumulation zones, at the bottom of the valley, the sediment deposits over the last ten years represent a layer of not more than 10 cm. On arable lands, the erosion processes are limited and no perceptible redistribution of 137 Cs could be observed, except at the transition between ploughed lands on the inter-rivers and meadows on the Balka slopes. This study demonstrates the potential use of the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident for the quantification of the soil erosion process. (author)

  3. Foliary contamination in the area of Bratislava (Czecho-Slovakia) after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    1991-01-01

    The contamination of leaves of some ornamental and fruit-tree plants (18 species), herbs (6) and early leafy vegetable (2) were assessed in Bratislava and its vicinity through the first months after the Chernobyl accident. The levels of contamination showed local and temporal dependence. In October compared to its levels five months earlier, foliar contamination showed a relative 12 to 200-fold decrease of radioactivity. The effective half-life of the mixture of fission products in cumulative fallout on leaves changed on time after the accident from 4 days to 150 days. The soluble fraction of radioactive contaminants on plant foliage ranged from 0.12 to 0.64. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  4. Peculiarities of forming and dissemination of radioactive contamination in Iput' river after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, N.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of radiation contamination forming of the river systems by Cs 137 and Sr 90 after the Chernobyl NPP accident was analyzed. It was shown that before 1990-1994 the river system contamination was formed by the initial falling out of radionuclides on the aquatic surface. After 2000 the contamination will form by means of entrance of radionuclides with surface flowing off from columbines. It was determined that the transboundary transport of radionuclides from the Russia territories influences essentially on contamination of Iput' river on the territory of Belarus. On the authors estimations such input was 30% for Cs 137 and 96% for Sr 90 in 1986, 86% for Cs 137 and 65% for Sr 90 at present

  5. Chernobyl, 25 years later, demographical situation and health problems in the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandajevski, Yury I.; Bandajevskaya, G.S.; Dubovaya, Natalia; Kadun, O.N.

    2011-04-01

    On April 26, 1986, the reactor no.4 of the Chernobyl power plant (Ukraine) exploded. The real human impact of this catastrophe is still unknown. Today, 1.4 million people, included 260.000 children, are living in contaminated areas. What is the population situation of these areas and what are the actual health problems encountered? Written by scientists who have worked for 25 years in contaminated areas, this book follows two goals: - providing the reader with verified and reliable information about the accident impacts on public health and demography; - proposing a remedial action plan aiming at improving the health of the populations living in the contaminated areas (named 'model of life system in a radioactivity contaminated territory'). (J.S.)

  6. Rehabilitation of life conditions in territories contaminated by Chernobyl accident. ETHOS project in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolevitch, I.; Pachkievitch, V.; Petroviet, V.; Lepicard, S.; Livolsi, P.; Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.; Ollagnon, H.; Pupin, V.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Girard, P.; Guyonnet, J.F.; Le Cardinal, G.; Monroy, M.; Pena-Vega, A.; Rigby, J.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the ETHOS project funded by European Union and whose aim is to stimulate a lasting rehabilitation of life conditions in the territories contaminated by Chernobyl nuclear accident. The daily life of people living in the contaminated regions has been affected not only on medical aspect but also on economic, ecological, social and cultural aspects. The strict regulations imposed by radiation protection authorities have been a major element to the degradation of the standard of living. ETHOS project is based on a cooperation between the authorities and the inhabitants and on a strong motivation of the people, for instance in the Olmany village 6 work groups have been organized around themes such as: the improvement of the quality of the milk and meat produced in the village, the radiation protection of children, the practical basics to know when living in a contaminated area, and the right management of home wastes like ashes that are particularly contaminated. (A.C.)

  7. Earthworm populations in soils contaminated by the Chernobyl atomic power station accident, 1986-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutzkii, D.A.; Pokarzhevskii, A.D.; Viktorov, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A study of earthworm populations in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl atomic power station was carried out in 1986-1988. Significant differences in earthworm population numbers were found between highly contaminated and control plots in summer and autumn 1986 and in April 1987. But in the autumn of 1988 the earthworm population numbers in contaminated plots were higher than in the control plots. The ratio of mature to immature specimens was higher in 1986 in the contaminated plots in comparison with the control plots. Only one species of earthworms, Dendrobaena octahedra, was found in contaminated forest plots during the first 2 yr following the accident but in the control forest plots Apporectodea caliginosa was also found. (author)

  8. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included [fr

  9. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milohnoja, M [Veterinary College, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1986-07-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg.

  10. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milohnoja, M.

    1986-01-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg

  11. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  12. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokumejko, J.M.; Matveyenko, I.I.; Germenchuk, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  13. Obtaining ''clean'' produce from livestock reared in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyazov, R.G.; Firsakova, S.K.; Karpenko, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable areas of Byelorussia devoted to intensive livestock farming were contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The problem of furnishing livestock produce meeting Soviet Ministry of Health requirements (provisionally permissible levels) first arose immediately after the accident and is just as pressing nowadays. The main aims of the studies were, in the long term, to devise and implement measures for the fodder/animal/livestock-produce food chain which would result in the maximum reduction of radionuclide levels in livestock produce. It was established that the coefficients of radiocaesium transfer from the daily fodder ration varied from 0.004 to 0.016 for milk, from 0.03 to 0.06 for beet and from 0.10 to 0.11 for sheepmeat, which tallies with previous findings. A procedure for producing meat from cattle reared in a contaminated environment was developed to provide ''clean'' produce from livestock farming. It was established that the rate of radiocaesium removal from muscle tissue is an exponential function with two periods of semi-elimination - 14 and 80 days. Scientific and experimental data were used to draw up practical recommendations for final fattening of cattle with ''clean'' fodder, thus allowing fodder stocks to be used rationally. Ever since the accident occurred, milk with a high concentration of radiocaesium has been processed into butter. The standard method used to make cream butter reduces by a factor of 6 the radiocaesium content in the end product as compared to the original milk; and when melted, the butter contains hardly any traces of radiocaesium. (author)

  14. Results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    About 1500 people were involved in emergency operations on 26-27 April 1986 at the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. They worked in different working conditions and were exposed to aerosols of different characteristics. The Chernobyl accident was the first accident in which, when the reactor core was destroyed, aerosol of the dispersed spent nuclear fuel became a significant source of internal and external exposure for a large group of people. Detailed information on the properties of the Chernobyl aerosol for the first post-accident period is absent. Therefore, results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident can be an important source of information for assessing the radiological properties of the Chernobyl aerosol. (author)

  15. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-01-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  16. Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, B A; Schmieman, E A; Voitsekovitch, O

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near-surface waste storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986-1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5-15 km from the nuclear power plant site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100 y service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel-containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel-containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  17. Radioactive caesium contamination in human milk in Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuti, G.C.; Risica, S.; Rogani, A.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study of human milk contamination due to the Chernobyl fall-out was conducted from May 1986 to December 1988 in the Rome area. A comparison was made with the contamination in the same period in other infant food, that is, cows' and powdered milk. The thyroid and effective dose equivalent for breast fed infants born in different periods were evaluated. Using average main food contamination data in the same area, an assessment of the transfer coefficient between the mothers' diet and their milk was performed. 40 K content of this milk was also measured and is discussed in the paper. An extension of the sampling to other areas was made in 1987 and 1988. (author)

  18. Radioactive contamination of game and farm animals after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author shows how, by using a network covering a certain area and based on the examination of the meat of roedeer, a survey of the contamination situation in meat and venison, using radioisotopes, was available very soon after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. During the first few months after the disaster the radioactive contamination of meat decreased rapidly. In the autumn of 1986 again rise was observed, due to the use of contaminated feed, although this rise was smaller than had been feared. At the end of 1986 the meat of farm animals had relatively low radiocaesium contents (pork x tilde ≅ 70, beef x tilde ≅ 32 Bq/kg). (orig./ECB) [de

  19. The consequences of radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglova, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of forests on the radionuclide primary distribution in different components of the contaminated ecosystems is considered by the example of Chernobyl accident. A basic mathematical model is developed describing 137 Cs biogeochemical cycling under conditions of quasi-steady state radionuclide redistribution in the ecosystem. Forest ecosystems are proved to diminish radionuclide migration in the environment, and forest should be regarded as an important sanitary factor. The contribution of contaminated forests and forest products to the total irradiation dose to local population is estimated. Special countermeasures are elaborated in order to diminish unfavorable consequences of forest radioactive contamination. A long-term dynamics of radioactive situation in the forest ecosystems in forecasted and further studies on the subject are drafted

  20. Some thoughts concerning the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs 10 years after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Chernobyl disaster happened 10 years ago (26 Apr. 1986), investigation of the radioactive contamination of the environmental is still in the focus of interest. However it can be established that the pollution level in Hungary- like other, from the place of accident rather far located countries - decreased significantly in the food chain in comparison with measured data in May-June, 1986. Practically the present contamination level (e.q. 137 Cs, 90 Sr) since 1989 is the same as it was in the years before the disaster. Since the level of artificial contamination is much less than the natural radioactivity (e.q. 40 K, 226 Ra) of the foodstuffs, the radiation burden caused by the consumed foodstuffs is negligible. (author)

  1. Post-Chernobyl contamination of Belarus biosphere with plutonium and americium-241 radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Kievets, M.K.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Bazhanova, N.N.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.; Zhuk, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of Post-Chernobyl soil surface contamination in Belarus are presented, as well as the data on vertical migration of Pu and 241 Am in soils, on actinides concentrations in the near-ground air, sizes and the activity aerosol 'hot' particles, Pu content in organs and tissues in the inhabitants of Belarus. It is shown that hairs can be test-tissue for a lifetime assessment of the levels of Pu intake and content in the organism of a human being. (author)

  2. The radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The situation in the area around the town of Kiel in a given period of time is taken as the example to explain the radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl fallout. The measured data reported refer to the nuclides I-131 and Cs-137 in milk, and are compared with data on the I-131 and Cs-137 activity measured in raw milk collected in southern Bavaria, and in other Lands of the F.R.G. (DG) [de

  3. Preliminary results on transfer of radionuclides in soil and crops in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinault, J.M.; Picat, P.; Colle, C.; Fache, P.; Maubert, H.; Arutyunyan, R.; Gavrilov, S.; Kancvski, M.; Kiselev, V.; Friedli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The IPSN is collaborating with IBRAE (INS: Institute of Nuclear Safety of Russia) in the fields of measurements and computer modelling, and of radiochemistry with EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne). The opportunity given by Russia to collect samples in a contaminated area inside the Chernobyl region gives us the possibility to combine the efforts of the three institutes to provide a complete chain: sampling, measurement, modelization and validation. An emphasis is made on the evolution, versus time, of the vertical distribution in different soils, mainly podzol, of cesium, measured by spectrometry gamma, and strontium, extracted by radiochemistry and measured by beta counting. This paper presents the objectives of the project, the progress of the work and the first results obtained. (author)

  4. Aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuzmenko, M.I.; Krot, Y.G.; Kipnis, L.S.; Mardarevich, M.G.; Ponomaryov, A.V.; Derevets, V.V.; Nazarov, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    For past 17 years after accident the character of radioactive contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has undergone essential changes. First of all it connected with realisation on a wide area of deactivation works, and also with transformation of radioactive substances in water-soil systems. Besides, during 1991-95 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as protection dams, interfering washing away of radioactive substances from soils of the left-bank catchment basin and changed a hydrological regime of these territories during a high water, was constructed. The levels of radionuclide contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone was rather stabilised. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes (especially during floods and periods of high water) and over the years have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. Therefore, for the majority of standing reservoirs the level of radionuclide content is determined mainly by the rates of mobile radionuclide forms exchange between bottom sediment and water, as well as by the external washout from the catchment basin. In this paper will be considered: (1) the latest data on radionuclide content (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241) and dynamics in water, seston, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of different trophic levels and ecological groups; (2) the peculiarities of formation of vegetative communities from lakes within embankment territory of Pripyat River flood-lands and its impact on radionuclide redistribution in aquatic ecosystems; (3) the major hydrochemical factors, which determine the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic

  5. Rehabilitation of the living conditions in the contaminated territories after Chernobyl: the ETHOS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles; Schneider, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    European surveys undertaken in the context of the EU/CIS co-operation programme to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), provided an extensive assessment of the social and psychological effects of the accident on liquidators, relocated populations and inhabitants of contaminated territories. Further investigations carried out in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia revealed strong social disturbance and stress phenomena amongst the populations of the contaminated areas. In these areas, the environmental contamination was a basic concern for most of the inhabitants and was creating a climate of widespread anxiety, focused on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and especially that of the children. The inhabitants of the contaminated territories experienced an overall depreciation of many different types of values: social, economic, aesthetic, symbolic, ethical, political, etc. The quality of life was perceived as being irreversibly affected: some people expressed the situation by saying that 'Nothing will be the same again', when speaking about their lives 'before' and 'After' the accident. The feeling of insecurity, the lack of trust of the population in the scientific, medical and political authorities and the impression of being deprived of means to avoid radiological hazards perceived as all-pervasive in everyday life, created the general feeling of a loss of control over the situation. The ETHOS project ended in December 1998. Twelve missions representing about 600 man-days of the European participants have been performed. But the project also entailed a considerable involvement of the local population as well as from the local, regional and national authorities. The assessment of the outcomes of this project has been undertaken by the research team with its Belarussian partners. When considering globally the village of Olmany a first question was to determine to what extent some global objective changes have been observed with regard

  6. Estimation and justification of permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabrodskij, V.N.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Sadchikov, V.I.; Kalinin, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    The permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the radioactively contaminated territory are calculated and justified. They are proposed to be used on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  7. Radioactive contamination. Italian programme to monitor the radiocesium levels in the urine and thyroid status of exposed children from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Valeriani, F.; Musumeci, R.G.; Salimei, G.; Marinosci, N.; Giannotti, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1995, following the accident at Chernobyl, the Italian Red Cross has hosted about 2,000 children from the contaminated zones of Belorussia and the Ukraine. The purpose of the project was to ensure, by temporary removal of the children from the contaminated areas, an improvement in their general well-being with both physical and psychological benefits. In the current work, in particular, the results reported are of a study carried out in order to evaluate radioactive contamination levels and the medical surveillance of the thyroid status of the exposed children after the fall-out of the accident at Chernobyl. During the course of the research 400 children were examined, masculine and feminine, between the ages of 6 and 16. The children from Belorussia were hosted by families in Tuscany and the children from the Ukraine were hosted in the Corpomiles Center of the Italian Red Cross in Lazio. The children were hosted for a period of 30 days in our country and many have returned since then and we have repeated the same analyses. In the current work a radiometric analysis was carried out on the children's urine samples to find Cs-137 and Cs-134. The concentration of the two radionuclides was measured at the beginning and end of the children's stay in Italy. The two radionuclides were collected over a period of 24 hours. Moreover, a scan of the thyroid was carried out on the same children to discover the potential presence of a glandular tumour of pathological form caused by I-131. The results of the spectrometric analyses give indications as to the degree of radioactivity contamination in the children relative to their different home countries. The results confirm the existence of a chronic radioactive contamination due to a balanced diet of contaminated food. The analysis of the thyroid also demonstrated small to medium lymphadenopaties latero cervical. In conclusion, data collected from our present multidisciplinary work shows a decrease of around 30% in Cs-137

  8. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  9. Rehabilitation of the living conditions in the contaminated territories after Chernobyl: the ETHOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles [Mutadis, Paris (France); Schneider, Thierry [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-07-01

    European surveys undertaken in the context of the EU/CIS co-operation programme to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), provided an extensive assessment of the social and psychological effects of the accident on liquidators, relocated populations and inhabitants of contaminated territories. Further investigations carried out in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia revealed strong social disturbance and stress phenomena amongst the populations of the contaminated areas. In these areas, the environmental contamination was a basic concern for most of the inhabitants and was creating a climate of widespread anxiety, focused on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and especially that of the children. The inhabitants of the contaminated territories experienced an overall depreciation of many different types of values: social, economic, aesthetic, symbolic, ethical, political, etc. The quality of life was perceived as being irreversibly affected: some people expressed the situation by saying that 'Nothing will be the same again', when speaking about their lives 'before' and 'After' the accident. The feeling of insecurity, the lack of trust of the population in the scientific, medical and political authorities and the impression of being deprived of means to avoid radiological hazards perceived as all-pervasive in everyday life, created the general feeling of a loss of control over the situation. The ETHOS project ended in December 1998. Twelve missions representing about 600 man-days of the European participants have been performed. But the project also entailed a considerable involvement of the local population as well as from the local, regional and national authorities. The assessment of the outcomes of this project has been undertaken by the research team with its Belarussian partners. When considering globally the village of Olmany a first question was to determine to what extent some global objective changes

  10. Some results of liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of works dealing with liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP are generalized. Some measures realized are estimated. Suggestions directed to efficiency increase when eliminating such accident effects are formulated

  11. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  12. Radioactive contamination of amphibian in the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar'kov, M.D.; Gashchak, S.P.; Goryanaya, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    In result of our investigations there was found out, that though there are great variations of accumulation indices of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, there are certain species differences between amphibians. Basing on general ideas, it can be caused by features of nutrition, behavior and ecology of the species. Terrestrial forms accumulate 137 Cs more than water one, and toads have more high indices of 90 Sr accumulation than frogs. It can been expected, that larvae stages of the terrestrial amphibians, due to water living, will have lower parameters of the radionuclide accumulation, than individuals came on dry land. They also must have and more low variation coefficient of TF values. However, it demands to be checked

  13. Experience of rehabilitation of territories contaminated during Chernobyl NPP accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznyak, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Significant part of Ukraine territory, including agricultural lands, was subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of ChNPP emergency. In the initial period of emergency the main attention was given to averting of radioactivity propagation and irradiation of the population. Irradiation of the thyroid gland for a large contingent of human, especially children, became the hardest consequence of the emergency. The main problem of minimization of the emergency consequences consisted in a complete rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Resettlement of residents of contaminated territories was appeared effective only in cases, when expected effective dose of irradiation could exceed levels of interference. In the remote terms after emergency this measure was accompanied by an unjustifiable psychological stress for the population and considerable material expenses. The adopted organizational and technological countermeasures allowed to reduce significantly a dose of irradiation for thyroid gland, especially for population of Kiev urban agglomeration - about 4 mln. persons. The efficiency of countermeasures was insufficient due to hiding of the emergency firstly, and then because of the late announcement of a danger, after iodine attack already. The program of reconstruction of irradiation doses for different groups of population was realized, i.e. the liquidators of emergency, children, inhabitants of the contaminated zone. The sharp increase of thyroid gland cancer frequency and other types of pathologies was observed. The network of specialized medical entities for consulting and clinical examination of victims was created. Iodine radionuclides entered into human organism per os with foodstuffs predominantly. Prevention of milk contamination and its processing was the most effective measures of population protection. The big part of the territory of Ukraine was subjected to radioactive contamination with fallout predominantly the area of Ukrainian

  14. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  15. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  16. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 4. Organization of accident effect elimination and prospects of the 30-km zone use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Some results of liquidation of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects and main principles of the zone development are discussed. The problems of management for the zone territory and natural objects and the ways for wood industry development are considered. The state estimation and forecasting for conifers in the zone, wood ecosystem radioactive contamination effects, analysis of conifer genetic effects are made. The results of physical-mathematical simulation of formation of the Chernobyl' NPP near zone territory contamination with long-living radionuclides are given. The protection ability of the aeration zone soil-grounds within the boundaries of radiogeochemical effects of radioactive effluents from internal surfaces of air conduit and ventilation duct during ventilation system operation is estimated

  17. High levels of fluctuating asymmetry in populations of Apodemus flavicollis from the most contaminated areas in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleksyk, Taras K.; Novak, James M.; Purdue, James R.; Gashchak, Sergiy P.; Smith, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Random deviations from the perfect symmetry of normally bilaterally symmetrical characters for an individual with a given genotype occur during individual development due to the influence of multiple environmental factors. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often used as a measure of developmental instability, and can be estimated as the variance of the distribution of differences between the left and right sides. We addressed the question of whether levels of FA were elevated in radioactively contaminated populations living around Chernobyl compared to those in reference populations of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). In addition, we studied amounts of directional asymmetry (DA) when one side is larger than the other on average. There was a significant difference among populations, including reference populations, in the amount of both FA and DA. A higher level of FA was documented for the contaminated populations in close proximity to the failed Chernobyl reactor for both the asymmetry of size and shape. The FAs of size and shape were highest in populations from the most contaminated locations in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Although the directional asymmetry of shape was also highest in the contaminated populations, it was not significantly different from those in most of the reference populations. Populations from less contaminated areas inside the Chernobyl exclusion zone did not express FA values different from those of the reference populations outside the affected area. FA of skulls of A. flavicollis may indicate the degree to which the level of radioactive contamination affects the development of animals at Chernobyl. However, the mechanisms leading to these effects are not clear and probably vary from population to population. There were significant correlations between the overall right to left differences for the Procrustes aligned shape configurations, centroid sizes, and intramuscular 137 Cs. Detectable effects of radiation on developmental

  18. Comparative study between radioactive contamination in milk powder by chernobyl accident [137Cs] and natural radioactivity [40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.

    2005-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, Mexico imported from an European country 28,000 Tons of contaminated milk powder with the fission product 137 CS. When the contamination was detected, the alarm among the authorities and population spread out very quick and of course the product was retired at once from the foodstuff market. Nevertheless, the public panic grew up in such a manner, that even the way to manage and to dispose safely this material, considered highly dangerous, was largely discussed. Now, about two decades ago from this event, a study has been performed to compare the level of radioactivity due to both radioisotopes present in one saved sample: the artificial contaminant 137 CS, beside the natural, all around present 40 K, in order to evaluate in a more realistic way how risky was the management, possible consumption, and final disposition of this nourishment. This paper considers results obtained within an uncertainty degree equal to ±5%, and set up conclusions by comparing artificial and natural radioactivity present in that contaminated milk powder.

  19. Fundamental principles for obtaining agricultural produce of standard purity in those parts of the Russian Federation which were radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and the effectiveness of the measures being taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnikov, A.N.; Aleksakhin, R.M.; Popova, G.I.; Zhigareva, T.L.; Vasil'ev, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    For the decrease in radionuclide content in agricultural products a complex of countermeasures in plant and animal production should be carried out. The results from the investigations performed indicate that quarantined obtaining of high quality plant products may be achieved by optimization of crop cultivation technology when qualitatively implementing all the agrotechnical operations and introducing the techniques facilitating the decrease of radionuclide transfer to plants. The use of agricultural ameliorants (vermiculite, bentonite), capable of non-exchanging radionuclide absorption in soils, reduces the 137 Cs accumulation in yield from 1,5 to 3 times. One of the most reevaluates economically inexpensive techniques on arable and forage lands under conditions of radioactive contamination is a selection of the most productive crop species and varieties showing the minimum radionuclide accumulation. Specific distinction in 137 Cs accumulation may reach from 2 to 45 times. Variety distinction are less and account for 2 to 5 times. The basis for obtaining plant products fully satisfactory for human consumption is a rational organization of feed stuffs, production, provision for animals of complete balanced diet with minimum radionuclide content, availability of high-productive animals

  20. Strontium measurement results from the Federal Republic of Germany and from Switzerland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, A.; Goll, L.; Voelkle, H.; Winter, M.

    1987-10-01

    The Working Group Environmental Monitoring (AKU) of Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. (Radiation Protection Association) performed an inquiry about the time after the Chernobyl reactor accident concerning the results of strontium-90 measurements carried out for the territories of the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. The data suppliers listed in the report furnished to AKU results of Sr-90 measurements made on approximately 1000 samples in total. The individual measuring results have been entered into separate tables in a uniform representation. The tables also include the results of Sr-89-measurements as well as the Cs-137/Sr-90 ratios as far as they were available. The results of measurements presented here taken together prove that contamination with Sr-90 of the environmental media including food as a result of the Chernobyl fallout were only low in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland compared with the contamination due to the nuclides I-/131 and Cs-137. The same applies to the amount of Sr-90 transferred into the soil as compared with the level of existing contamination due to nuclear weapons fallout which has accumulated since the 60ies. (orig.) [de

  1. Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having recalled the different steps and mistakes which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the events and measures after the accident, this document briefly describes the various interventions and works performed on this site since 1986, and notably during the first months, evokes the movement of a radioactive cloud over Europe. It outlines the silence and hesitations of Russian authorities, the reactions in European countries regarding nuclear safety, the control of contaminated products. It also evokes the controversy in France about the SCPRI. It indicates some assessments and comments regarding health, environmental and psychological consequences. It finally evokes the project of construction of a new shelter for the wrecked plant

  2. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  3. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  4. Survey of post-Chernobyl contamination in Sumava region using various methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Filgas, R.; Malatova, I.; Cespirova, I.; Foltanova, S.; Hoeschl, V.; Roudny, R.; Jurza, P.; Pichl, R.

    1998-01-01

    A nation-wide survey of fallout and soil contamination was made immediately after the Chernobyl accident, on 16-18 June 1986. This, however, could not be done near the Bavarian and Austrian border with a special restricted-access regime. Measurements were completed there 10 years later. Cesium deposition was examined by the airborne scintillation and semiconductor spectrometric systems, complemented with ground in-situ spectrometry and measurement of soil samples at selected sites. The 137 Cs deposition in July 1996, as obtained by ENMOS airborne measurement, ground in-situ gamma spectrometry, and soil sampling lay within the ranges of 12-65, 15-63, and 7-81 kBq/m 2 , respectively. The cesium activity in the individual soil samples in each sampling point varied by more than one order of magnitude. (P.A.)

  5. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  6. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, β-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  7. A review on contamination and emergency response actions in USSR, European countries and Japan in the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Jun; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1987-01-01

    The accident occurred in the Chernobyl No.4 reactor on April 26, 1986 became the largest accident of nuclear reactors so far as the quantity of release of radioactive substances was very much, and the wide area contamination over the whole Northern Hemisphere was brought about. Consequently, the revision over wide ranges, such as the desigh and operation of nuclear reactors and the response at the time of emergency, was to be urgently demanded. As to this accident, many reports have been already made. In this report, the contamination and the response carried out at the time of emergency including the state in Japan are mainly described. The contents of this report are based on the data sent from the international organizations, the results of measurement by the organizations in respective countries, the publication by USSR at the IAEA expert conference in August, 1986, and the data published in respective countries by research institutes. The state in respective countries after the accident, the radioactivity contamination due to the accident in USSR, European countries and Japan, the diffusion and move of radioactive substances, the countermeasures to the accident such as the estimation of exposure dose, scientific investigation, the evacuation of people and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Proteomic analysis of flax seed grown in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klubicova, K.; Danchenko, M.; Pretova, A.; Hajduch, M.; Skultety, L.; Rashydov, N.

    2010-01-01

    An explosion of one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power occurring 26.4.1986, causing the worst nuclear disaster in human history. During the explosion is released into the environment are a number of different radioactive elements was also contaminated and much of Europe. Nowadays, after more than 20 years, the area located near the nuclear power plant is still contaminated by radioactive elements with long-lived, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite the increased radiation in the environment of the plant not ceased to increase, that is, they have created a mechanism of adaptation. The aim of our work was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the adaptation of plants in the environment. During the first generation, we analyzed the mature seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in the control and in the contaminated zone. Proteins have separated and identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins (28) We were categorized into nine functional categories. We have designed a working model of adaptation of plants to elevated levels of radiation in the environment.

  9. Proteomic analysis of flax seed grown in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klubicova, K.; Danchenko, M.; Pretova, A.; Hajduch, M.; Skultety, L.; Rashydov, N.

    2010-01-01

    An explosion of one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred on 26 th April 1986, causing the worst nuclear disaster in human history. During the explosion a number of different radioactive elements were released into the environment which contaminated much of Europe. Nowadays, after more than 20 years, the area located near the nuclear power plant is still contaminated by radioactive long-lived elements, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite increased radiation in the environment the plants did not stop increasing. It means that they have created a mechanism of adaptation . The aim of the work was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in adaptation of plants in the environment. During the first generation, the authors analyzed the mature seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in control zone and in contaminated zone. Proteins were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins (28) were categorized into nine functional categories. The authors have designed a working model of adaptation of the plants to elevated level of radiation in the environment.

  10. Use of total {sup 137}Cs deposition to predict contamination in feed vegetation and reindeer 25 years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration, P.O. Box 1104, N-9504 Alta (Norway); Thoerring, Haavard; Ytre-Eide, Martin A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    }. These results will be used to study the importance of soil deposition levels in determining the present concentrations levels in plants and lichens, which will be crucial for the development of the directed grazing strategy in years to come. In addition to the soil - plant contamination assessments above, long-term data on contamination in reindeer meat is being linked to the 2011 deposition maps to assess the correlation between deposition and meat contamination levels in specified grazing areas within the mapped area (i.e., using aggregated transfer factors). The aim is to elucidate possible regional differences in transfer to reindeer which could be compared with the soil - plant results above. Finally, the study will focus on the applicability of the results for reindeer husbandry in the area. The long-term Chernobyl challenges for animal production require predictable and robust remediation strategies enabling the animal owners and herders to gain influence over their own situation. (authors)

  11. Is exposure to ionising radiation associated with childhood cardiac arrhythmia in the Russian territories contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout? A cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Landon, Geraldine; Clero, Enora; Doroshchenko, Vladimir; Silenok, Aleksandr; Kurnosova, Irina; Butsenin, Andrei; Denjoy, Isabelle; Franck, Didier; Heuze, Jean-Pierre; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2018-03-25

    To investigate childhood cardiac arrhythmia and chronic exposure to caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Prospective cross-sectional study using exposed/unexposed design conducted in the Bryansk region from May 2009 to May 2013 on children selected on the basis of 137 Cs soil deposition: control territories ([ 137 Cs]555 kBq per square metre, where children were considered as exposed). Russian territories affected by the Chernobyl fallout (Bryansk region). This cross-sectional study included 18 152 children aged 2-18 years and living in the Bryansk region (Russia). All children received three medical examinations (ECG, echocardiography and 137 Cs whole-body activity measurement) and some of them were given with a 24-hour Holter monitoring and blood tests. Cardiac arrhythmia was diagnosed in 1172 children living in contaminated territories and 1354 children living in control territories. The crude prevalence estimated to 13.3% in contaminated territories was significantly lower than in control territories with 15.2% over the period 2009-2013 (PChernobyl fallout. The suspected increase of cardiac arrhythmia in children exposed to Chernobyl fallout is not confirmed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E. F.; Mironov, V. P.; Drugachenok, M. A.; Kudryashov, V.P; Grushevich, L.E; Adamovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m 2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  13. Assessing 137/134Cs contamination from Chernobyl across Europe using available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Mahadeva, N.; Wilson, J.J.N.

    1989-05-01

    This study was carried out by the Air Pollution Group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London for Environmental Modelling and Assessment Group at Harwell Laboratory. The distribution of radiocaesium deposition across the whole of Europe arising from the Chernobyl accident is assessed using modelling studies, rainfall data and the results of published radiological assessment from several countries. The large amount of data on activity in foodstuffs presented for importation into the United Kingdom is analysed to identify products and sources which may require monitoring in relation to regulatory limits. (author)

  14. Contamination dynamics in fallouts, pasturable vegetation and milk in Leningrad distrist after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedbaevskaya, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Blinova, L.D.; Kryshev, I.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation monitoring of individual elements of agroecosystem in the area of the Leningrad NPP is carried out with the purpose of studying the concentration dynamics of radioisotopes in the atmosphere resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The γ-radiation dose rate on the terrain, content and radionuclide composition of atmospheric fallout, content of γ-emitting isotopes in the soil and plants at pastures is monitored from April up to September 1986; radioisotope content in cow milk by pasturing is determined

  15. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraskin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Zyablitskaya Ye.Ya.; Oudalova, A.A.; Spirin, Ye. V; Alexakhin, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external β- and γ-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute γ-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years

  16. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  17. Analysis of external dose to the people living at the territory contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, O.; Medvedev, S.; Kireev, S.; Proskura, M.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of international collaboration took place in 1996-1999 State Specialised Enterprise 'RADEC' (now it is SSSIE E cocentre ) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) measurements was performed of equivalent dose of people living at the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In 1997-1998, 273 people were chosen from 23 villages of the Chernobyl exclusion zone and each of them acquired three dosimeters Toshiba GD-400. The first dosimeter was assigned for the measurement of external individual dose, indoor dose inside dwellings and outdoor dose in yards. Exposition time varied from one to three months. Linear approximation of the obtained data gave possibility to find dependence of individual, home and outdoor doses on the surface density of 137 Cs contamination of village territory. This coefficient for the individual dose was found about 0.7μSv.year -1 /(kBq.m -2 ) that is agreed with literature data. Also a constant contribution of the natural external exposure to the individual dose was found about 0.9 mSv.year -1 . Availability of results for three types of doses (i.e. individual, home and outdoor) let calculate two other useful coefficients, namely, the shielding factor and the behaviour factor. These factors were found equal 4.8 and 0.39, correspondingly. Studying of variation of the experimental data around the approximated values let assess statistics uncertainties of the measurements. Having applied the 99% percentile to the distribution of the ratio of the measured dose to the approximation the safety factor was found about 3. Also the external radiation long-term series provided by the automated system of monitoring of radiation situation (ASMRS) at the Chernobyl exclusion zone were analysed. That analysis revealed that the dose rate is leveled off during the last 6 years (taking into account radioactive decay). However, our finding is not compliant to other authors according to whom the rate of diminishing of the environmental external

  18. Estimation of doses received in a dry-contaminated residential area in the Bryansk region, Russia, since the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear preparedness, an essential requirement is the ability to adequately predict the likely consequences of a major accident situation. In this context it is very important to evaluate which contributions to dose are important, and which are not likely to have significance. As an example of this type of evaluation, a case study has been conducted to estimate the doses received over the first 17 years after the Chernobyl accident in a dry-contaminated residential area in the Bryansk region in Russia. Methodologies for estimation of doses received through nine different pathways, including contamination of streets, roofs, exterior walls, and landscape, are established, and best estimates are given for each of the dose contributions. Generally, contaminated soil areas were estimated to have given the highest dose contribution, but a number of other contributions to dose, e.g., from contaminated roofs and inhalation of contaminants during the passage of the contaminated plume, were of the same order of magnitude

  19. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the contamination levels within the 30 km area and in the adjacent area after the Chernobyl'-4 reactor accident is presented. There are some data on reper isotope ratio which add some knowledge about the processes taking place in the reactor core after the reactor accident. The time-dependent background radiation variations for the first two years after the accident are demonstrated

  20. Disturbances of bird embryo development in fall-out contaminated biocenoses of the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinskaya, I.A.; Gaber, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    Special features of bird reproduction in Chernobyl 30-km zone are analyzed. On the areas with higher degree of contamination a decrease of hatching indices, an increase of both embryo death-rate and embryo per cent of inherent disorders have been noticed. The more frequent cases of inherent disorders for different bird species have been considered. The trend to a bird reproduction successfulness decrease has been fixed

  1. Survey of the 137Cs contamination in Belgium by in-situ gamma spectrometry, a decade after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, J; Pommé, S; Van Waeyenberge, B; Hardeman, F; Buysse, J; Culot, J P

    1997-10-01

    The residual radiocesium concentration, nearly 10 y after the Chernobyl accident, is measured at different sites on the Belgian territory by means of in-situ gamma-spectrometry. A possible link between the rainfall at the beginning of May 1986 and the actual cesium concentration is investigated. The radiological impact of this contamination, even in the most affected regions in the Ardennes, is very small (<6 microSv y(-1)).

  2. Using of dosimetric properties of quartz for radiation monitoring of territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.; Voloskij, V.; Pasalskaya, L.

    1998-01-01

    Specific dosimetric properties of red brick samples from a contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were studied. The doses were reconstructed from samples accumulated during 11 years following the accident. The conventional technique of extraction and purification of quartz grains from the bricks was used. The thermoluminescent emission was recorded and a comparative analysis of the high temperature and pre-dose techniques was performed. (M.D.)

  3. Field methods for determining contents of alpha-radiating nuclides on the areas contaminated with depositions after the Chernobyl nuclear power station failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevich, V.A.; Duba, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The work is aimed at creating field methods for estimating contents of alpha-radiating nuclides on the areas contaminated with depositions after the Chernobyl' station failure and for measuring the density of alpha-particles flux at various depths of soil. The methods make it possible to estimate the character of migration of isotopes Pu in depth. Instrumental and physical grounding of the methods are given. One can find the results of field measurements of α-active nuclides content in depositions. The results of measurement prove theoretical and practical feasibility of the suggested methods. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tabs

  4. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Alexander; Mironov, Vladislav [International Sakharov Environmental University. Box 220070, 23 Dolgobrodskaya Street, Minsk, 220070 (Belarus)

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 239}Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year ({sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides {sup 241}Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and {sup 239+240}Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of {sup 241}Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of {sup 241}Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg{sup -1}, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of {sup 241}Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of {sup 241}Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg{sup -1}, and the

  5. Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivan, V.; Egger, K.P.; Hausbeck, R.; Schmid, W.

    1986-01-01

    Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results. (orig.) [de

  6. Bodily activity measurements and estimation of dose by inner contamination during 1993-1994 in children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arado Lopez, Orquidea; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo; Valdes Ramos, Maryzury

    1996-01-01

    At the whole body counter laboratory installed at the Jose Marti Pioneers City, measurements to determine inner contamination with Cesium 137 were taken of 463 Ukrainian children from areas affected by The Chernobyl accident. Starting from the measured activity, both the incorporated activity and the inner dose were estimated according to the ICRP latest recommendations, which take age into account. The results obtained showed that a 46,9 % of the measured children presented a bodily activity of cesium 137 higher to the minimal detectable activity. The highest valve that was calculated for the effective dose in this group of children was 9,2 mSv

  7. Cytogenetic effects of radiation from Chernobyl nuclear accident on humans and animals in the contaminated area of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeliseeva, K.; Mikhalevich, L.; Kartel, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring of amphibian and rodent populations, and children from the radio contaminated regions of the Republic of Belarus was conducted as a follow up to Chernobyl nuclear accident. A statistically significant increase in the levels of cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of amphibians and rodent and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children was found. The presence of chromosome-type aberrations supports the conclusion that radiation is the causative agent. However, no direct relationship between the level of radionuclide contamination and the degree of the cytogenetic damage was found. (Author)

  8. PECULIARITIES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl accident has influenced greatly all spheres of life of the affected territories, changing the life-style of the local population. [1, 2]. Investigation of the radionuclides behavior in natural conditions becomes more and more important which is connected with the fact that radionuclides are drawn into substances rotation and are actively accumulated by the plants and animals, that means that they become integral link of the food chains and are of a great importance in the functioning of the ecosystems. Deposition of radionuclides in the forest system is often higher than in agricultural arrears. Specific ecological features of the forests often lead to the high degree of accumulation of contaminating radionuclides. Organic matter high content in the forest soil and its stability increase the transfer of radionuclides from soil into plans which lead to high content of radionuclides in lichens, mosses, mushrooms and berries. Radionuclides transfer to game in such conditions could bring to the situation when some people actively consuming game meet will be highly exposured.

  9. Results of a honey monitoring program in Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omet, C.; Piermattei, S.; Ossola, P.; Tofani, S.; Fabretto, M.; Padovani, R.

    1988-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis Mellifera) as bioindicators of environmental pollution have been studied for a long time to analyse their ability to detect air and water pollution. Bees forage over a large area (around 7Km 2 ) and seem to act as biomagnifiers of the contamination of the environment. Honey bees and their products, mainly honey, were used in the U.S.A. during the seventies to monitor potential releases from nuclear waste disposal sites. Honey samples were examined to detect contaminated areas surrounding a nuclear facility at Cattaraugus Country (NY); the presence of radionuclides from fallout of nuclear weapon tests in honey samples was also investigated. As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive contamination spread all over the Italian soil allowed the analysis of the radioactivity transfer from the environment to honey

  10. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    2005-01-01

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 1 31I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 10 4 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy -1 . These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  11. Assessment of radiation risks as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the Government of the former USSR had made decision on establishing common registry of exposed persons in several months after the Chernobyl accident. The registry had served in Medical Radiological Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk City till 1992 (the time of dissolution of the USSR). Individual medical and dosimetric information on 659292 persons, including 284907 emergency accident workers (liquidators) had been collected for the period between 1986 and 1991. As of 01.01.1998, National Chernobyl Registry of the Russian Federation has kept individual data on 508236 persons including 167726 liquidators. As it is known, long-term epidemiological study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors resulted in statistically significant assessments of radiation risks for induction of cancer at the dose level above 0.5 Gy. Radiation doses after the Chernobyl accident do not exceed 0.3-0.5 Gy. That is why assessment of radiation risks at low radiation doses is a problem of great importance. As a result of the epidemiological studies performed on the basis of the Russian Chernobyl registry we pioneered the assessment of statistically significant radiation risks for induction of cancer at low radiation dose. (author)

  12. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, J van [State University of Ghent, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G [Universite de Liege, Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-07-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient {gamma}-dose rate or for {beta} activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross {beta} activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. {gamma}-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the

  13. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoof, J. van; Maghuin-Rogister, G.

    1986-01-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient γ-dose rate or for Β activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross Β activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. γ-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the following days for

  14. Cytogenetic investigation of individuals living in areas of the Ukraine contaminated by fault from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, A Yu; Zamostian, V P [Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev, (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    A number of areas in Ukraine were severely contaminated by fallout from Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the exposures received by individuals in these areas were sufficiently high to produce measurable increase in chromosomal aberrations. The individuals studied were selected from the Koselets, Chernigov, Narodichi, and Ovruch regions specifically the districts of Chernigov and the districts of Jitomir. Indication of radiation exposure was based on an increase of total frequency of aberrant cells and frequency of aberration of chromosomal type. All cytogenetic abnormalities in metaphases were examined. The highest cytogenetic effects was observed in individuals from Ovruch and Narodichi regions, for which the mean levels of chromosome aberration were 1.88 and 1.29 per 100 cells, respectively. Among individuals living in Narodichi region, the observed frequency of dicentric and centric rings was 0.04 and for double minutes was 0.87 per 100 cells. among all exposed groups, the frequency of chromatid type was approximately the same. The results of the study of subjects with effective dose equivalent below 10 c Sv show that the mean frequency of (chromosomal type aberrations i.e dicentric, centric, and acentric rings) among individuals living in different contaminated regions of Ukraine was significantly higher that the mean population indices. Moreover, individuals exposed to long-lived radionuclides such as Cs{sup 137} and Sr{sup 90} were observed as having higher chromosome aberration frequency when compared with individuals exposed to short-lived iodine radionuclides. Continued observation on high-risk individuals who live in the contaminated areas is recommended. Similarly, there is a need for objective criteria to define when further monitoring of the genetic effects among the exposed adults and children in the Ukraine is appropriate. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. The weeping cow: impact of countermeasures on daily life in Chernobyl contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.; Avetova, E.; Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve years after the Chernobyl catastrophe, what is the daily life of rural dwellers in contaminated regions of Belarus and the Ukraine? Over the years, protective countermeasures have been applied or withdrawn, and radiation protection advice is still in effect concerning e.g. the consumption of milk or of forest food products. How is that advice regarded by villagers? To what extent do they comply or not comply, and what is their reasoning? How are countermeasures woven into the fabric of social life? In the goal of optimisation, radiation protection countermeasures may be evaluated as the sum of individual dose averted, cost, and distress. A detailed formula exists for calculating dose, but social and economic costs, and individual distress, are in need of modelling.. Twelve focus groups (10 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine; six groups each of men or of women) were consulted in an effort to develop a convincing and workable definition of distress experienced by members of the rural communities affected by Chernobyl. Stresses introduced by countermeasures, or linked to other aspects of the post-accidental situation, were identified. A systematic content analysis was carried out, bearing on the benefits or satisfactions linked to focus behaviours (e.g, milk consumption, forest visits...), distress experienced, attitudes towards countermeasures, impacts and management of information, etc. The focus group transcripts contain telling, humorous or poignant representations of how people carry on living in the face of threat, uncertainty, and absurdity. This presentation explores social representations of milk, and some of the reported impacts in the Belarus settlements of the post-accident restrictions on milk production and consumption. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission part-funded project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey European Institute of Health an Medical Science, Symlog, and UK National

  16. Contamination and migration of Chernobyl radiocaesium in upland soils of NE Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Padovani, R.; Fadone, A.; Scruzzi, E.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of radiocaesium from Chernobyl fallout undisturbed soils of the mountain areas of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy) has been monitored by sampling surveys carried out in 1987, 1988 and 1990. About 800 soil samples were collected in 55 sites to estimate radiocaesium inventories the upper 10 cm layer of soil. Vertical profiles consisting of 4 to 7 samples were also collected to detect downward migration of radiocaesium. Surface activities are presented and discussed with regard to different ecosystems. The main features of the pattern of deposition on undisturbed fields and forests are outlined. The behaviour of radiocaesium in the environment is interpreted on the basis of results from the comparison of the three sets of samples

  17. Health effects in a casual sample of immigrants to Israel from areas contaminated by the Chernobyl explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordysh, E.A.; Goldsmith, J.R.; Cohen, R.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed questionnaire and physician examination data for 1560 new immigrants from the former USSR divided into three groups by potential exposure to Chernobyl radiation. Two groups were chosen according to soil contamination by cesium-137 at former residences, as confirmed by our findings in a 137 Cs body burden study. The third group consisted of open-quotes liquidators,close quotes persons who worked at the Chernobyl site after the disaster. Liquidators had greater self-reported incidences of symptoms commonly accepted as acute effects of radiation exposure, increases in prevalence of hypertension, and more health complaints. Excesses of bronchial asthma and health complaints were reported in children from the more exposed communities. Asthma prevalence in children potentially exposed in utero appears to be increased eightfold. Older adults from more exposed areas had more hypertension as assessed by history and measurements. These findings suggest the possible association of radiation exposure with several nonmalignant effects. 34 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  18. 8 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

  19. Dose estimates from protracted external exposure of inhabitants living in contaminated area of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kurotaki, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Barishkov, N.; Mishin, A.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the radiation risk assessment, it is important to estimate the accurate doses of inhabitants, due to protracted exposure after the Chernobyl accident as well as the high doses just after the accident. We used a model for estimation of the dose with a long-term temporal change using information of dose rate on the ground and profile of the activity depth distribution in soil. A value C t [μSv h -1 /(MBq m -2 )], which is dose rate in air corresponding to the initial deposition of 137 Cs on the ground just after the accident, was analyzed using the results of the measurements of dose rate in air and activity in soil samples in the contaminated area of Bryansk region in Russia. From the analysis, the value, C 12 at 12 years after the accident can be predicted by categorizing usage of the land. The values obtained from the results of the actual measurement were 1.5 for forest, 1.0 for pasture, 0.6 for yard, and 0.45 for arable or kitchen garden. Temporal change of C t was estimated with a vertical migration model of activity in soil developed by Golikov et al. Annual dose due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in the period from 1987 to 1999 in farmers, and forest workers were estimated by the model using above values. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by using the personal dose monitoring. The cumulative doses of the inhabitants estimated by the model range from 10 to 60 mSv. (author)

  20. Soil prokaryotic communities in Chernobyl waste disposal trench T22 are modulated by organic matter and radionuclide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Février, Laureline; Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Christen, Richard; Piette, Laurie; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Sergeant, Claire; Berthomieu, Catherine; Chapon, Virginie

    2017-08-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities. A remarkably high abundance of Chloroflexi and AD3 was detected in all soil samples from this area. Our statistical analysis revealed profound changes in community composition at the phylum and OTUs levels and higher diversity in the trench soils as compared to the outside. Our results demonstrate that the total absorbed dose rate by cell and, to a lesser extent the organic matter content of the trench, are the principal variables influencing prokaryotic assemblages. We identified specific phylotypes affiliated to the phyla Crenarchaeota, Acidobacteria, AD3, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and WPS-2, which were unique for the trench soils. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  2. Fungi as bioindicators of radiocaesium contamination: pre-and post-Chernobyl activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselwandter, K.; Berreck, M.; Brunner, P.

    1988-01-01

    Mean 137 Cs content of basidiocarps 1n is 3.0-4.8 x higher than before the accident at Chernobyl. Patterns of accumulation of 137 Cs are species specific with the pileus more radioactive than the stipe. (author)

  3. Chernobyl its effect on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; MacNeill, G.; Pollard, D.

    1987-03-01

    This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

  4. What did we learn from ecologic studies performed on the long term on fauna and flora of areas contaminated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    Based on several published studies, this report proposes a synthetic overview of observations made on the consequences of the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents on fauna and flora in contaminated areas. It is noticed that, due to the complexity of multidisciplinary approaches, results and conclusions are often contradictory among these publications. These publications may concern various animal and vegetal species. For examples, various studies noticed morphological anomalies on pine trees without establishing a clear dose-effects relationship. Studies on invertebrates depend on the studied species, and evolutions on both sites can be different. As far as birds are concerned, it seems that there is a correlation between a loss of abundance and the ambient dose rate. Apparently, the evacuation of human populations is the determining factor to explain the return of animals in contaminated areas

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  6. Environmental Radiation Monitoring In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - History And Results 25 Years After

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  7. Peculiarities of the contamination with radionuclides of the cultured pasture grass of the Lithuanian SSR after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedvetskajte, T.N.; Filistovich, V.I.; Petrulis, R.A.; Dauskurdis, S.I.; Tamulenajte, O.P.; Chias, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the contamination of pastures in the Lithuanian SSR with 131 I after the Chernobyl accident are given on the basis of measuring the grass samples from the cultured pastures. The predominant radionculides on the grass in the north-eastern and central parts of Lithuanie were 1 31 I and 103 Ru, while in its western and southern parts the 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and other radioisotopes as well as hot particles predominated. The value of the grass-milk transfer coefficient was specified. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Biological dosimetric studies in the Chernobyl radiation accident, on populations living in the contaminated areas (Gomel regions) and in Estonian clean-up workers, using FISH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, F.; Natarajan, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to perform retrospective estimations of radiation doses seven years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in contaminated areas around Chernobyl and the Estonian clean-up workers were determined. The first study group composed of 45 individuals living in four areas (i.e. Rechitsa, Komsomolski, Choiniki and Zaspa) in the vicinity (80-125 km) of Chernobyl and 20 individuals living in Minsk (control group - 340 km from Chernobyl). The second study group (Estonian clean-up workers) composed of 26 individuals involved in cleaning up the Chernobyl for a different period of time (up to 7 months) and a matched control group consisting of 9 probands. Unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings) were scored in Giemsa stained preparations and stable aberrations (translocations) were analyzed using chromosome specific DNA libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. For both study groups the estimated average dose is between 0,1-0,4 Gy. Among the people living in the contaminated areas in the vicinity of Chernobyl, a higher frequency of numerical aberrations (i.e. trisomy, hyper diploidy) was evident

  9. Mulching as a countermeasure for crop contamination within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yera, T.S.; Vallejo, R.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G.; Omelyanenko, N.; Ivanov, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of mulch soil cover on crop contamination by 137 Cs was studied within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Experiments were performed with oats (Avena sativa) over a three year period. In 1992 soil surface was covered by a plastic net. In 1993 two straw mulch treatments were applied at a dose rate of 200 g m -2 using 137 Cs contaminated and clean straw, respectively. A similar mulch treatment was applied in 1994, and two mulch doses of clean straw were tested. Protection of the soil with a plastic net significantly increased crop yield and reduced crop contamination. When clean straw was used as a mulch layer, a significant decrease of about 30--40% in 137 Cs activity concentration was observed. Mulching with 137 Cs contaminated straw did not reduce crop contamination, probably due to an increase in soil available 137 Cs released from the contaminated mulch. Mulching has been shown to be an effective treatment both for reducing 137 Cs plant contamination and improving crop yield. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential countermeasure in a post-accident situation

  10. Iodine-131 thyroid uptake results in travelers returning from Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Thyroid screening measurements for 131 I were performed on 58 travelers returning from Eastern and Western Europe to Boston after the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986. The travelers consisted of both Americans arriving home after business or vacation and European nationals visiting relatives in the Boston area. For purposes of dosimetry the population was divided into three subpopulations--adult (greater than 18 yr old), children (less than or equal to 18 yr old), and two individuals, 17 and 26 wk pregnant. Seventy-four percent of the population had detectable quantities of 131 I thyroid burdens, ranging from 1 nCi (37 Bq) to 900 nCi (33,300 Bq). The highest adult radiation dose equivalent was 5.18 mrem (51.8 mSv). The children, however, had considerably higher dose equivalents with one infant receiving 37 rem (370 mSv). Several other children were above 1 rem (10 mSv). The fetal dose equivalents were less than 14 mrem (140 mu Sv). The presence of rain dominated those testing positive for 131 I. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident contaminated a wide range of Europe and a large population subsequently ingested radioactivity. The children exhibited the highest thyroid radiation dose equivalents of the individuals monitored in the present study. The significance of this is presently unknown

  11. Lake fish as the main contributor of internal dose to lakeshore residents in the Chernobyl contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Bazjukin, A.N.; Bruk, G.Ja.; Shutov, V.N.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Mehli, H.; Strand, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two field expeditions in 1996 studied 137 Cs intake patterns and its content in the bodies of adult residents from the village Kozhany in the Bryansk region, Russia, located on the shore of a drainless peat lake in an area subjected to significant radioactive contamination after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The 137 Cs contents in lake water and fish were two orders of magnitude greater than in local rivers and flow-through lakes, 10 years after Chernobyl radioactive contamination, and remain stable. The 137 Cs content in lake fish and a mixture of forest mushrooms was between approximately 10-20 kBq/kg, which exceeded the temporary Russian permissible levels for these products by a factor of 20-40. Consumption of lake fish gave the main contribution to internal doses (40-50%) for Kozhany village inhabitants Simple countermeasures, such as Prussian blue doses for dairy cows and pre-boiling mushrooms and fish before cooking, halved the 137 Cs internal dose to inhabitants, even 10 years after the radioactive fallout

  12. Preliminary meteorological analysis of the radioactive contamination in Austria during and after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Diskussion meteorologischer Aspekte der radioaktiven Belastung in Oesterreich durch den Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, H; Mahringer, G; Seibert, P; Sobitschka, W; Steinhauser, P; Zwatz-Meise, V

    1986-01-01

    Transport, diffusion and deposition of radioactive material released in Chernobyl were calculated using simple models. As far as possible, results were verified with available data. Predicted trajectories corresponded surprisingly well with measured increases in radioactivity in Austria, as well as in other countries in central and Southern Europe. Precipitation amounts might prove to be a very good indicator for longterm contamination of soil and plants in Austria. Ref.no. ZII 1.353/309.

  13. Results of experimental radiobiological studies made within ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelevina, I.I.; Ryabov, I.N.; Ryabtsev, I.A.; Gulev, B.F.; Gotlib, V.Ya.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Vasilenko, S.N.; Gumenyuk, M.L.; AN SSSR, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow; Institut Biofiziki, Moscow; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of high radioactive contamination on the animal organism (C57BL/6 mice) and Hela cell culture within the ten-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl A.P.S. accident. The total radiation dose, as calculated by γ-component, was 0.09 to 2 Gy. A long-term exposure of mice within the zone (cumulative dose of 1.18 to 2 Gy) caused a significant decrease in bone marrow stem potencies and changes in the brain vascular system; subsequent acute exposure of animals increased interferon titres in the serum to a much greater extent than a single acute exposure did. As to Hela cells, irradiation there of with doses of 0.09 to 0.4 Gy during 15-20 postirradiation generations caused a decrease in the proliferative activity, an emergence of cells with micronuclei and of giant cells

  14. Using on based molecular biology approaches to assess plant elusive responses mechanisms to chronic ionizing radiation in radionuclide contaminated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.; Hajduch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : It is well known that the Chernobyl accident released large amounts of radioactive isotopes into the environment. As a consequence, the vicinity of Chernobyl Nuclear power Plant remains contaminated with long-lived radionuclide such as 137Cs, 90Sr and several transuranic isotopes. There have been a few molecular analyses of plants grown in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area, but there is as yet no broad understanding of the mechanisms that underlie their survival or success. Much research has addressed the nature of mutation sites in DNA, changes in signaling networks, epigenetic changes, changes at the transcription level, protein level. All of these must be considered when designing a global strategy for understanding the far discovering elusive of resistance and adaptive mechanisms of plants to chronic ionizing radiation

  15. Modelling of Cs-137 availability in soils subjected to contamination after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the application of the model describing behaviour of the radionuclide in meadow ecosystems for the analysis of the factors governing of the radionuclide availability in soils are presented. The estimation of characteristics of fuel particles in near zone of the Chernobyl NPP is given. It is shown that in the first period after the accident the main factors determining Cs-137 availability in soil are property of soil and mat as well as fallout characteristics. Refs. 6, figs. 5

  16. Final results of the Cuban program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Julio; García, Omar

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 till 2011, a free health care program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident was organized and implemented by the Cuban Government. A significant number of qualified personal in medicine and science collaborated with this program. The information gathered for more than 21 years and the conclusive results obtained in the program are presented here. During this time, 26 114 patients, 84 % children, mostly from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were treated in the mentioned program. Other aspects of the Cuban medical assistance in Ukraine and the main results obtained in the radiological impact evaluation of the accident on the children treated in Cuba are also included. (author)

  17. Elaboration of methods for assessment of radio-ecological safety state of objects, situated on the territories contaminated with Chernobyl radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanov, Eugene; Saltanova, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of assessment of radio-ecological state of object is to elaborate recommendations to reduce both radiation dose and negative action of other contaminators on human organism. The basis of objects' ecological safety assessment is considering complex influence of multiple negative factors, such as radioactive contamination, firstly, and air, water, soil and noise pollution, secondly. The objects of assessments are social, industrial, rural enterprises and their production: school buildings and territories, all kinds of recreational institutions, civil buildings, etc. The described method is embodied in a computer program, which enables calculation of integral indicator of contamination and gives information about object's safety state. The results of the work may be proposed to the corresponding supervisor institutions as a prototype of practical guidance to control ecological state of the objects and territories. Particularly, the proposed methods are necessary to determine the order of measures, normally undertaken to deactivate objects, and to provide unified approach to radio-ecological safety assessment of objects, situated in the territories contaminated with Chernobyl radionuclides. (author)

  18. Cytogenetic characteristics of children who suffered as a result of the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobtsova, I.E.; Kolyubaeva, S.N.; Vorob'eva, M.V.; Korotkov, D.V.; Komar, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    Cytogenetic examinations of children living in the St. Peterburg district who suffered as a result of the Chernobyl power plant accident (liquidators' children and children evacuated from radioactive pollution areas) and of control children were carried out. The chromosomal system stability was assessed by several parameters: spontaneous levels of chromosomal radiosensitivity in in vitro irradiation of lymphocytes in dose 1.5 Gy of 60 Co γ-irradiation. Children with an increased incidence of chromosomal aberrations and an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity were referred to a risk group

  19. Secondary contamination of 30-km zone of the Chernobyl atomic electric plant and adjacent territory due to radionuclides carried by ascending wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Gavrilov, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The territory contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric plant is a surface source of radioactive aerosols carried into the atmosphere by ascending winds. In this connection, a number of problems arise whose solution is important for assessment of the radiation conditions in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface: (1) calculation of the volume concentration of radionuclides and their fallout on the contaminated and neighboring territory and on this basis determine the potentially dangerous contaminated regions; (2) assessment of the secondary contamination of deactivated territories due to ascending winds and transfer of radionuclides; and (3) determination of the size of the protective (buffer) zones around or near populated areas to ensure low volume concentrations of radionuclides during strong winds. In order to calculate the transfer of radionuclides from a surface source, it is necessary to know its dust intensity, which is the vertical turbulent flux of the radionuclides in the atmosphere layer near the ground Q (Ci · m -2 sec -1 ). A quantity frequently used in practice is Q referred to the contamination density of the surface layer c (Ci/m 2 ) and called the wind ascent intensity α = Q/c. As a rule, the radionuclide wind ascent intensity for a plane source with a nonuniform surface and contamination density may depend on the physical characteristics of the surface as well as on those of the radionuclides and also on the space coordinates x, y and on time. In the present study, the wind ascent intensity was determined by gradient measurements of the mean radionuclide concentration, the wind velocity and air temperature; the conditions during the measurements were assumed to correspond to the case of a plane homogeneous, stationary source of a nondepositing admixture

  20. Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Documents used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Chernobyl revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the report of the International Chernobyl Project for Canadian readers. General conclusions included the following: there were no health disorders that could be directly attributed to radiation exposure; there were substantial adverse psychological consequences; the relocation and food restrictions should have been less extensive. The second part of this article is the Chernobyl History taken from the same report. It deals with: emergency actions at the site, evacuation of the prohibited zone, securing the site, radiation release and transport, protection of water supplies, intervention measures. The safe living concept based on 350 mSv over a lifetime of 70 years has been replaced by the concept of three classes of zones based on surface contamination levels of cesium

  3. Health status of the population in the Ukraine exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the health status of population exposed top radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident is a problem of paramount importance. The results of demographic and epidemiologic surveys and clinical observations have shown that changes in the morbidity rates among children and adults at the strictly controlled districts in the Ukraine result not only from improved diagnostic service, but also from the after effects of the Chernobyl accident. A tendency to a growth of primary disease incidence among childrn and adults was established. Analysis of the results of follow-up of children has revealed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The accident caused an unfavourable demographic situation in the Republic

  4. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  5. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  6. Analysis of morbidity in the population of Kozeletsky district, (Chernigiv region) contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    Statistical analysis was used to study the changes in the incidence of definite cardiovascular, endocrine diseases as well as those of the central nervous system, cancer and chronic alcoholism during the recent 20 years. The annual statistical reports of medical establishments were taken as baseline data. After the Chernobyl accident increase of incidence of definite diseases was noted which may be due to the action a number of harmful factors. Their successful treatment and prophylaxis requires establishment of the true cause and correlation with the causative factors

  7. sup 137 Cs and sup 134 Cs human internal contamination in Italy following the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroni, G.; Melandri, C.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy)); Rampa, E. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    A synthesis of the data concerning the distribution and behaviour over time until September 1989 of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs human contamination derived from the accident to Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986, is presented. The controls have been performed by means of two intercalibrated whole-body counters on healthy adult male and female volunteers living in different Italian regions. The main topics investigated are: the behaviour over time of the contamination in Bologna and Rome; geographic distribution in Italy in September 1987; the statistical distribution of data; the variability of the individual activity in relation to the mean activity of homogeneous groups; the intersex differences; and the effect of the element's biokinetic uncertainties on the committed effective dose equivalent evaluation. Trends are also found, mainly useful where extended contamination involves too large a fraction of the population for individual control of all the subjects concerned, thus requiring the identification of small groups of individuals representative of large population groups. (author).

  8. Chernobyl plume: commentary about a discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Paris appeal court has dismissed the charges against P. Pellerin who was the head of the SCIRP (service of protection against the ionizing radiations) at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The appeal court confirms that P.Pellerin never said that the Chernobyl plume stopped at the French border but instead he said that the Chernobyl plume entered the French territory but the radioactivity level was so low that it was unnecessary to take sanitary steps. P.Pellerin based his decision on the results of 6500 controls performed by the SCIRP in May and June 1986. Seven other European countries recommended not to take sanitary measures. The increase of thyroid cancers that has happened in all industrialized countries and that affect only adults, can not due to Chernobyl contamination because child's thyroid is far more sensitive than adult's. The increase of thyroid cancer is mainly due to a better detection of the tumors. (A.C.)

  9. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  10. Doses of irradiation to the Ukrainian population as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtarjov, I.A.; Kovgan, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    In the middle of 1990 the whole problem of the assessment of exposure doses to the population living near the Chernobyl plant can be divided into several separate problems: - storage, handling, organization and primary analysis of direct measurement results of external and internal doses to the people; - usage of the available information for the models of retrospective reconstruction of the past exposure doses and for prediction of possible future doses; - verification and validation of mentioned models by means of constant comparison of calculation results received on their basis to the results of current instrumental monitoring. Three problems mentioned above are solving in the laboratory of mathematical models and radiation prediction in dosimetry and radiation hygiene department of AUSCRM USSR AMS. The given report presents the description of the first results of this work. (author)

  11. Results of a monitoring programme in the environs of Berkeley aimed at collecting Chernobyl data for foodchain model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.; Darley, P.J.; Shaer, J.

    1989-03-01

    The results of a fallout measurement programme which was carried out in the environs of Berkeley Nuclear Laboratory in the United Kingdom following the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 are presented in this report. The programme was aimed at establishing a time-dependent data base of concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in selected agricultural products. Results were obtained for milk, grass, silage, soil and wheat over an eighteen month period from May 1986. It is intended to use the data to validate the CEGB's dynamic foodchain model, which is incorporated in the FOODWEB module of the NECTAR environmental code. (author)

  12. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  13. Reviewing ecosystems affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the resulting population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1999-01-01

    The research project is intended to yield information on the current radiological situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout. Environmental materials of particular interest are game, mushrooms, berries, and forest stands in the most heavily affected forest ecosystem of the Bavarian forest area called Bayerischer Wald. This area has been intensively monitored in the period from 1988 until 1994, so that the development up to the current radiological situation can be analysed. Activities under the research project will encompass: Measurement of the radioactive contamination of specimens of the game population in the Bodenmais forest area of 7 500 hectares. Measurement of seasonal variations of the radiocesium activity in various indicator plants of the food chain of the game population. Soil sampling and radioactivity measurement at 2 cm depth intervals. The measuring work will be carried out in two areas which have been earmarked for monitoring over the last eight years (B1 and B2). The measured results will be compared with earlier data, and long-term space and time-dependent information on the transfer of radiocesium in the forest ecosystem under review will be derived. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Some aspects of the population relocation from Bryansk region areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislov, M.V.; Karlin, N.E.; Liberman, A.N.; Bronshtejn, I.Eh.; Nuralov, V.N.; Karlina, L.V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigations carried out in 1992 linked with the resettlement of people from the Bryansk region areas affected by the Chernobyl accident with analysis of some use-harm indices. Resettlement is shown to be the most radical way of protection and to prevent completely the effect of irradiation, but to be accomplished with the essential money expenses ad inadequately determined social-and-psychological and medical-and-biological consequences for people health. Decision about people resettlement, especially at the accident latest stage, should be obligatory based on the use-harm analysis

  15. Diet of residents of Bryansk region western areas and it's variation resulted from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.; Kaplun, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the examination of 955 inhabitants of the Bryansk region areas affected greatly by the Chernobyl accident. The examination was carried out in August-September, 1987. The examination was conducted to estimate the efficiency of the protective measures taken to reduce the levels of population irradiation at the alimentary in take of radionuclides. The ratios characteristic for the urban and rural population and the variations of the rations resulted from the accident became one the objects of the investigation. Milk consumption by all groups of the population is determined to reduce abruptly thus affecting the usual structure of nutrition. Consumption of meat, of fish from local lakes and rivers, of mushrooms, of forest berries reduced, as well. The mentioned variations enabled to decrease the dose of internal irradiation of the population by several times, But protein, microelements and vitamin deficiency in combination with the stress may negative affet the health of the people

  16. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  17. Chernobyl accident. The radioactive contamination in the area of Lake Como and in other Northern Italy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Ravera, O.; Pizzala, A.; Bacci, P.

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Po Plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30, 1986; the cloud remained in the Northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds or washed by rains. The evidence in the atmosphere of radionuclides as tellurium, iodine, cesium was promply observed by the Istituto di Fisica. The intense rain, in the first week of May, washed the radioactivity and the fallout contaminated the land, soil, grass and vegetables. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fallout in the Alpine region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma-spectroscope; a linear correlation is found between the radionuclide concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on Lake Como ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fallout in the lake area have been investigated.

  18. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghajanyan, Anna; Suskov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p 137 Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  19. The hemopoiesis system in subjects exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Klimenko, V.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of cell and membrane factors in the realization of remote effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Twenty-nine subjects exposed in doses of 0.3 to 3 Sv were examined. Seven of them has a history of acute radiation disease of the first degree, two that of the second degree, and one of the third degree. Under study were the morphology and function of blood and bone marrow elements, colony-forming activity of hemopoietic precursor cells in tissue culture in vivo, and the antioxidant function of blood plasma assessed by paramagnetic resonance from the levels of transferrin and ceruloplasmin. Refs. 9, figs. 1, tabs. 4

  20. Estimation of thyroid doses received by the population of Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilin, Yu.; Khrouch, V.; Shinkarev, S.; Drozdovitch, V.; Minenko, V.; Shemyakina, E.; Bouville, A.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within weeks of the Chernobyl accident, about 300000 measurements of human thyroidal 131 I content were conducted in the more contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. Results of these and other measurements form the basis of thyroid-dose reconstruction for residents of Belarus. Preliminary estimates of thyroid doses have been divided into three classes. Class 1 ('measured' doses). Individual doses are estimated directly from the measured thyroidal 131 I content of the person considered, plus information on life style and dietary habits. Such estimates are available for about 130000 individuals from the contaminated areas of Gomel and Mogilev Region and Minsk city. Class 2 ('passport' doses). For every settlement with a sufficient number of residents with 'measured' doses, individual thyroid-dose distributions are determined for several age groups and levels of milk consumption. This action has been called the 'passportization' of the settlement. A population of about 2.7 million people resides in the 'passportized' settlements. Class 3 ('inferred' doses). For any settlement where the number of residents with 'measured' doses is small or equal to zero, individual thyroid doses are derived from the relationship obtained between the mean adult-thyroid dose and the deposition density of 131 I or 137 Cs in settlements with 'passport' doses presenting characteristics similar to those of the settlement considered. This method can be applied to the remainder of the population (about 7.3 million people). An approximate estimate of the collective thyroid dose for the residents of Belarus is presented. Illustrative results of individual thyroid dose and associated uncertainty are discussed for rural settlements and urban areas

  1. CONTENT OF CS-137 IN HOMEMADE PRESERVES OF MUSHROOMS PICKED IN 2014 BY LOCAL RESIDENTS IN AREAS AFFECTED BY RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the study made in 2014 on evaluation of the content of Cs-137 in different homemade dried and pickled mushrooms picked by residents of most contaminated areas of the Bryansk region. The aim of the study was to evaluate actual content levels of Cs-137 in homemade preserves of dried and pickled mushrooms picked in the Bryansk region areas with high level of radioactive contamination after Chernobyl accident. Sampling was conducted in residential settlements in proximity to most visited forest areas located at different distances to residential settlements in the range from 0.3 to 5 kilometers, with different forest types, with different soil surface contamination density by Cs-137 in the range from 33 to 944 kBq/m2 (Tentative levels of surface contamination of forest soil are evaluated based on the results of gammaspectrometry measurements in soil samples. The sampling was done at voluntary consent of local residents. In the frameworks of the research in ten settlements with 6112 residents altogether 25 samples were selected (8 samples of dried and 17 of pickled mushrooms.The analyses of study results resulted in the following conclusions: specific activity in samples of different kinds of dry and pickled mushrooms picked by residents of south-west areas of the Bryansk region vary in broad range from 32 to 34000 Bq/kg. The most part of homemade preserves of dried and pickled mushrooms of the local residents exceeds normative levels of permissible mushroom contamination. Cs-137 content in pickled mushrooms is not explicitly dependent on the level of soil surface contamination whereas specific activity of dry mushrooms increases along with the level of surface contamination increase. In the process of mushroom pickling, the additional reduction of Cs-137 content is observed: from 17% to 67% which averages to 37%. Due to the gradual reduction of transfer coefficients for Cs-137 into forest mushrooms and significant

  2. Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: a new nuclear disaster about to happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Hao, Wei Min; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive contamination in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia after the Chernobyl accident left large rural and forest areas to their own fate. Forest succession in conjunction with lack of forest management started gradually transforming the landscape. During the last 28 years dead wood and litter have dramatically accumulated in these areas, whereas climate change has increased temperature and favored drought. The present situation in these forests suggests an increased risk of wildfires, especially after the pronounced forest fires of 2010, which remobilized Chernobyl-deposited radioactive materials transporting them thousand kilometers far. For the aforementioned reasons, we study the consequences of different forest fires on the redistribution of (137)Cs. Using the time frequency of the fires that occurred in the area during 2010, we study three scenarios assuming that 10%, 50% and 100% of the area are burnt. We aim to sensitize the scientific community and the European authorities for the foreseen risks from radioactivity redistribution over Europe. The global model LMDZORINCA that reads deposition density of radionuclides and burnt area from satellites was used, whereas risks for the human and animal population were calculated using the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model and the computerized software ERICA Tool, respectively. Depending on the scenario, whereas between 20 and 240 humans may suffer from solid cancers, of which 10-170 may be fatal. ERICA predicts insignificant changes in animal populations from the fires, whereas the already extreme radioactivity background plays a major role in their living quality. The resulting releases of (137)Cs after hypothetical wildfires in Chernobyl's forests are classified as high in the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES). The estimated cancer incidents and fatalities are expected to be comparable to those predicted for Fukushima. This is attributed to the fact that the distribution of radioactive fallout after the

  3. Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: A new nuclear disaster about to happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive contamination in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia after the Chernobyl accident left large rural and forest areas to their own fate. Forest succession in conjunction with lack of forest management started gradually transforming the landscape. During the last 28 years dead wood and litter have dramatically accumulated in these areas, whereas climate change has increased temperature and favored drought. The present situation in these forests suggests an increased risk of wildfires, especially after the pronounced forest fires of 2010, which re-mobilized Chernobyl-deposited radioactive materials transporting them thousand kilometers far. For the aforementioned reasons, we study the consequences of different forest fires on the redistribution of 137 Cs. Using the time frequency of the fires that occurred in the area during 2010, we study three scenarios assuming that 10%, 50% and 100% of the area are burnt. We aim to sensitize the scientific community and the European authorities for the foreseen risks from radioactivity redistribution over Europe. The global model LMDZORINCA that reads deposition density of radionuclides and burnt area from satellites was used, whereas risks for the human and animal population were calculated using the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model and the computerized software ERICA Tool, respectively. Depending on the scenario, whereas between 20 and 240 humans may suffer from solid cancers, of which 10-170 may be fatal. ERICA predicts insignificant changes in animal populations from the fires, whereas the already extreme radioactivity background plays a major role in their living quality. The resulting releases of 137 Cs after hypothetical wildfires in Chernobyl's forests are classified as high in the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES). The estimated cancer incidents and fatalities are expected to be comparable to those predicted for Fukushima. This is attributed to the fact that the distribution of radioactive fallout after the

  4. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Erat, S.; Fessler, H.; Hempelmann, S.; Maurer, K.; Pimpl, M.; Radziwill, A.

    1986-08-01

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.) [de

  5. The soil structure investigation for the interpreting radiocaesium behaviour in upper horizons of Chernobyl contaminated sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazhinskij, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    The soil-composing particles in natural environment form aggregates of different stability. For soils (topsoil) of contrasting type from Chernobyl NPP area the particle size and microaggregate analyses have been performed and the distribution of Cs 137 in the obtained fractions has been studied. Results of long-term investigation of Cs 137 vertical migration in sandy soils of 50-km zone around Chernobyl NPP have been compared with data on radiocaesium distribution among water-stable aggregates and particles of various size in studied soils. On the basis of particle size analysis and aggregate soil composition the size of soil components with vertical migration potential, and the amount of Cs 137 potentially tending to migrate with the soil components along soil profile have been assessed. Based on findings showing Cs 137 partitioning among water-stable soil aggregates of diverse size and pattern of the radionuclide vertical distribution in top 0-10 cm soil layer, it was assumed that neither shift of peak radiocaesium level from upper soil layer downwards nor the so-called slow constituent of Cs 137 vertical migration (in terms of quasi diffusion description of Cs 137 profile in soil) could not be explained by self-motion of soil aggregates and particles with associated radiocaesium. Hypothesis of root intermixing as principal mechanism responsible for Cs 137 vertical transport in top 0-10 cm soil layer was postulated

  6. Biogeochemical cycles of Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems: long-term dynamics of the migration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Biogeochemical migration is a dominant factor of the radionuclide transport through the biosphere. In the early XX century, V.I. Vernadskii, a Russian scientist known, noted about a special role living things play in transport and accumulation of natural radionuclide in various environments. The role of biogeochemical processes in migration and redistribution of technogenic radionuclides is not less important. In Russia, V. M. Klechkovskii and N.V. Timofeev-Ressovskii showed some important biogeochemical aspects of radionuclide migration by the example of global fallout and Kyshtym accident. Their followers, R.M. Alexakhin, M.A. Naryshkin, N.V. Kulikov, F.A. Tikhomirov, E.B. Tyuryukanova, and others also contributed a lot to biogeochemistry of radionuclides. In the post-Chernobyl period, this area of knowledge received a lot of data that allowed building the radioactive element balance and flux estimation in various biogeochemical cycles [Shcheglov et al., 1999]. Regrettably, many of recent radioecological studies are only focused on specific radionuclide fluxes or pursue some applied tasks, missing the holistic approach. Most of the studies consider biogeochemical fluxes of radioactive isotopes in terms of either dose estimation or radionuclide migration rates in various food chains. However, to get a comprehensive picture and develop a reliable forecast of environmental, ecological, and social consequences of radioactive pollution in a vast contaminated area, it is necessary to investigate all the radionuclide fluxes associated with the biogeochemical cycles in affected ecosystems. We believe such an integrated approach would be useful to study long-term environmental consequences of the Fukushima accident as well. In our long-term research, we tried to characterize the flux dynamics of the Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems and landscapes as a part of the integrated biogeochemical process. Our field studies were started in June of

  7. Some aspects of radioactive contamination and decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident zone territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Nad''yarnykh, G.V.; Teplitskij, A.L.; Shilin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Data are presented on the radioactive contamination of the 30-km zone, on the radionuclide (RN) distribution in soils and on the RN migration in grounds. During 1986-1988 were tested over 20 techniques for territory decontamination and were found out the most optimal ones. The first stage of decontamination was removal of an upper contaminated soil layer. The second stage was prolonged chemical fixation of dusting decontaminated soil areas. 3 tabs

  8. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzom , Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler , Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines , Catherine; Chauvet , Eric; Gaschak , Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller , Karine; Della-Vedova , Claire; Dubourg , Nicolas; Maksimenko , Andrey; Garnier-Laplace , Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin , Christelle

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely un- known. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the function- ing of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black a...

  9. Internal and atmospheric contamination measurament by means of whole body counter performed up to 31.21.1986 by Bologna ENEA-PAS following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Calamosca, M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.; De Zaiacomo, T.

    1987-01-01

    Internal contamination and atmospheric sampling data obtained at ENEA PAS-FIBI-AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna (Italy), following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. Internal contamination data are related to persons coming from European countries (mainly the USSR) and Italy, measured in Bologna in the period May-Dicember 1986, while the atmospheric contamination samplings were performed in Bologna during the first decade of May. Descriptions of the measurement methods, data analysis and the evaluation of the committed dose equivalent due to both inhalation and ingestion of radioactive contaminants are given. The last chapter reports an estimation of the possible trend of internal contamination due to Cs-134 and Cs-137 up to 1991

  10. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  11. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  12. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  13. Chronic diseases and mortality among immigrants to Israel from areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusky, Danna A; Cwikel, Julie; Quastel, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    To examine six chronic diseases and all-cause mortality among immigrants to Israel from areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The medical data were obtained from the two largest HMOs in Israel. In the assessment of chronic diseases, individuals were divided into three groups: less exposed (n = 480), more exposed (n = 359), and liquidators (n = 45) and in the mortality analysis, into two groups: less exposed (n = 792) and more exposed (n = 590). Compared to the less exposed, adults from the more exposed group had increased odds of respiratory disorders (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.21, 4.54) and elevated odds, with borderline significance, of ischemic heart disease (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.97, 4.20). In addition, the liquidators had increased odds of hypertension compared to the less exposed (OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.24, 5.64). The Cox proportional-hazards model indicated no difference in the ratio of all-cause mortality between the exposed groups during the follow up period. Our study, conducted approximately two decades after the accident, suggests that exposure to radionuclides may be associated with increased odds of respiratory disorders and hypertension.

  14. Fluctuating asymmetry of shape in rodents from radioactively contaminated environments at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Novak, J.M.; Oleksyk, T.K.; Purdue, J.R.; Gashchak, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question of whether levels of fluctuating symmetry (FA) were elevated in the radioactively contaminated populations compared to reference populations of an abundant rodent living in both environments: the yellow - necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). We used six populations of these animals from both inside the radioactively contaminated area close to the failed Chornobyl reactor in Ukraine and in reference areas with no apparent contamination by radionuclides. Twenty-four landmarks on the ventral surface of the rodent's skulls were used to calculate the amounts of FA of shape using Procrustes methods. A higher level of FA was documented for the populations in closest proximity to the failed Chornobyl Nuclear Plant. This index was significantly higher in populations from the most contaminated locations in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone than in the reference areas. On the other hand, populations from the less contaminated areas inside the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone did not express FA values different from those in the reference populations

  15. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.; Marchenko, T.A.; Shoigu, S.K.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  16. Results of ten years study of Chernobyl NPP release fallout properties and behaviour in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.; Protsak, V.; Zvaritch, S.; Khomutinin, Yu.; Oreshich, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of territories of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Polesye as a result of ChNPP accidental release is characterized by high level of un-homogenity of fallout properties (physico-chemical properties, radionuclide composition etc.), density of the territory contamination by long-lived radionuclides. On the other hand, the soil-plant cover of contaminated territory is presented by large set of soils, characterized by contrast physico-chemical and water-physical properties. Peculiarities of the behavior of different radionuclides, represented initially by various components of radioactive fallout, in soils, as a first link of migration chains are considered

  17. Genetic effects of radioactive contamination for arabidopsis populations growing in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.I.; Mitin, A.N.; Rubanovich, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Frequency of lethal embryonic mutations and frequency of those chlorophyl mutations, which are lethal ones in homozygotic state, are studied taking as an example arabidopsis growing on contaminated territory. It is shown that the certain dependence of the mutation frequency on the population chronic irradiation dose rate is observed in all previous years (1986-1990). This dependence is closer to the direct one in some years, and it is described better by power function in others. It is noted that mutation frequency in populations always grows with radioactive contamination level increase

  18. Modern parameters of caesium-137 root uptake in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems of contaminated post-Chernobyl landscape, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paramonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of modern parameters of 137Cs root uptake was conducted in natural meadow and agricultural ecosystems of post-Chernobyl landscapes of Tula region. The agrosystems with main crops of field rotation (barley, potatoes, rape, maize occupying watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems are contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (4.7-6.0 Ci/km2; natural meadow ecosystems occupying lower parts of slopes and floodplains are contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (5.8-7.6 Ci/km2. In the arable soils 137Cs uniformly distributed to a depth of Ap horizon (20-30 cm of thickness, while in meadow soils 70-80% of the radionuclide is concentrated within the top Ad horizon (9-13 cm of thickness. These topsoil layer accords with rhizosphere zone, where >80-90% of plant roots are concentrated, and from which 137Cs is mostly consumed by vegetation. Total amount of 137Cs root uptake depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.61. So 137Cs activity in meadow vegetation (103-160 Bq/kg is generally more than one in agricultural vegetation (9-92 Bq/kg. The values of 137Cs transfer factor in the studied ecosystems vary from 0.01 (rape to 0.20 (wet meadow, that confirms the discrimination of the radionuclide’s root uptake. The larger are the volume of roots and their absorbing surface, the higher are the values of transfer factor from soil to plant (correlation coefficients 0.71 and 0.64 respectively. 137Cs translocation from roots to shoots is also determined by biological features of plants. At the same level of soil contamination above-ground parts of meadow herbs accumulate more 137Cs than Gramineae species, and in agrosystems above-ground parts of weeds concentrate more 137Cs than cultivated cereals. Thus, the level of soil radioactive pollution and biological features of plants are determinants in the process of 137Cs root uptake and translocation and should be considered in land use policy.

  19. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Llanes, R.

    1998-01-01

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  20. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  1. The Chernobyl accident: Can lichens be used to characterize a radiocesium contaminated range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Gaare

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the lichen species that are important in the lichen dominated plant communities in the Norwegian mountains are important reindeer winter forage. They are also organisms that collect fall-out from the atmosphere. The Chernobyl accident brought, among other, radioactive Cesium, and from lichens this follow the food chain to reindeer and finally man. From region to region this fall-out was unevenly distributed and methods are needed to compare winter ranges and to monitor the developement of radioactive levels in the lichen carpet. Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cladina mitis, C. stellaris and Stereocaulon pa¬schale was collected in the Dovre mountains to compare species levels and to study collection methods. We found that from spot to spot there is a very large variation between samples, even within the same species. Because of this we are not able to show significant species differences. We found, however, that species from more or less snow free ridgetops, Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis and Cladina mitis showed less variation and thus must be recommended as the best species for monitoring and comparison of ranges.Tsjernobyl-ulykken: Kan lav nyttes til karakterisering av et radioaktivt forurenset reinbeite?Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Mange av de lavarter som er viktige i lavdominerte plantesamfunn i de norske fjell er viktige som vinterfor for rein. Disse organismer samler også nedfall fra atmosfæren. Ulykken i Tsjernobyl brakte, blant annet, radioaktivt cesium, og fra lav følger dette næringskjeden til rein og endelig mennesket. Fra område til område var dette nedfallet ujevnt fordelt, og det kreves metoder for å sammenligne vinterområder og for å overvåke utviklingen av det radioaktive nivå i lavmattene. Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cladina mitis, C. stellaris og Stereocaulon paschale ble samlet på Dovrefjell for

  2. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem components and

  3. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem

  4. Radiocesium contamination of deer in Salzburg 10 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichler, C.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of radiocesium in game from a large valley of the Hohe Tauern national park in the south of the Salzburg province was investigated with the help of volunteering local hunters. All tissue samples from heart, liver, kidneys and muscle and the content of the stomach were taken during the hunting season. The highest activities were observed in the kidney and muscles, the lowest, in the liver. The highest value, 2168 Bq/kg, was found in the kidneys of a young doe. In the average, however, young animals did not exhibit higher cesium concentrations than adult animals. The contamination of the vegetation was also measured. It is concluded that the contamination of deer is a complex phenomenon, affected by a variety of parameters, so that no transfer factor could be derived. (P.A.)

  5. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  6. Results of ten years monitoring health effects among Chernobyl child victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, N.

    1998-01-01

    Evacuated children, children exposed during Chernobyl accident in utero and children who were born to cleaning workers were investigated in the 1986 - 1996 period. During this period the number of children with chronic diseases (digestive diseases, blood diseases and nervous system diseases) increased. Manifestation of somatic diseases cannot be linked biologically to exposure to ionizing radiation. Vegetative dystonia assumes the first place among psychosomatic diseases and represents a major risk factor for peptic disorders and cardiovascular disorders. The non-radiation hazard of the Chernobyl accident (anxiety, psycho-social stress) has more significant health impacts than the radiation-induced cancer outcomes. (M.D.)

  7. Proceedings of the 21. Autumn School of Polish Radiation Research Society '' Chernobyl - 20 years after. Contamination of food and the environment and health effects. Nuclear power industry: for and against ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachocki, K.

    2006-01-01

    21. Autumn Schools of the Polish Radiation Research Society held in 2006 '' Chernobyl - 20 years after. Contamination of food and the environment and health effects '' consisted of 35 lectures and scientific contributions. All aspects concerning accident in the Chernobyl NPP: technical, environmental, medical (direct and prolonged, as well) and safety problems were presented and discussed. Perspectives for the development of the nuclear power industry in Poland were also shown

  8. Studies of cesium-137 from the Chernobyl accident in a contaminated coastal area at the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimas, U.; Neumann, G.; Noter, M.

    1988-01-01

    Very soon after the Chernobyl accident it was obvious that parts of Sweden were heavily contaminated by the fallout. At the end of April 1986 the Swedish Environmental Protection Board initiated an investigation program. The purpose was to follow the pathways for the ''new'' nuclides in the aquatic ecosystem and specially the uptake and turnover time for Cs-137 at different trophical levels. A regional survey of the nuclide concentration in the green algae Cladophora have been made twice; in May and July 1986. The concentrations in algae obviously reflect the geographical pattern of the fallout along the coast. In the beginning (May-June 1986) there were very high concentrations of fission products in primary producers such as benthic diatoms (100-1000 KBq/kg d.w.) and brown and green algae (10-100 KBq/kg d.w.). At higher trophic levels the nuclide concentrations decrease. Invertebrates have concentrations about 1-5 KBq/kg d.w., fishfry 10-1000 Bq/kg d.w. and adult fish (e.g. perch and pike) even lower values. The concentration of cesium-137 in seawater from this area increased during May-June 1986, reached a relatively constant level of about 3 Bq/l during the summer 1986 and has since then slowly decreased to 0.5 Bq/l Mars-December 1987. The studies showed a rapid decrease in algae, in general also a decrease in invertebrates, but a pronounced increase in fish. Depending on the cesium concentration in the perferred food organism the different fish species reaches maximum at different times. It seems that most fish species will have reached or passed the maximum of Cs-137 concentration at the end of 1988

  9. Radiation doses in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiktorson, Christor [Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, National Institute of Radiation Protection, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1986-07-01

    The radiation doses from the Chernobyl fallout originate mainly from two sources: External irradiation (ground radiation) and internal irradiation from radioactive materials accumulated in the human body via food. In addition there are an inhalation dose and a radiation dose from the radioactive cloud. The level of doses from the various sources is presented.

  10. Cytogenetic survey results in children and teens who sit in the area of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Sebastia, N.; Barquinero, J. F.; Soriano, J. M.; Almonacid, M.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Sila, M. A.; Ibanez, M.; Arnal, C.; Villaescusa, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    The biological effects are analyzed cytogenetic abnormalities (chromosomal) produced in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The study was conducted in 55 children from Ukraine and residing in areas affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Blood samples were taken after the signing of informed consent by parents guardians and cultured following the technical protocol of the IAEA (2001) for studies of biological dosimetry.

  11. The results of the research and studies concerning the information about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landahl, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The studies conducted by the National Board of Psychological Defence after the Chernobyl nuclear accident concern questions of great importance about crisis information. The Chernobyl fallout created problems for the mass media and the authorities. Both lacked individual preparedness. The knowledge necessary to face strong demands for information from the public was lacking. A sign of this lack of knowledge and experience was shown when individual journalists - contrary to their usual behaviour - uncritically accepted the sometimes ambiguous information coming from the central authorities. For the authorities it was very much the same. The expert authority, the National Institute for Radiation Protection, had quite a lot of know-how, but no resources for such extensive information as the situation required. Significant problems must be solved concerning the cooperation between central and regional authorities. Direct contacts must be established so that both types of authorities do not learn through mass media what has been decided. The wordings of the messages conveyed in such critical situations must be a matter of more concern. Facts known by the authorities must be presented in a way comprehensible to the public. Technical terms and units must be used with great care. Negative information must of course be presented but measures should be taken to countermand the negative effect. A special responsibility should rest with the school system. The difficulties of informing the public after the Chernobyl disaster were still more emphasized by the study of how the brochure After Chernobyl was received

  12. Radiation doses in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktorson, Christor

    1986-01-01

    The radiation doses from the Chernobyl fallout originate mainly from two sources: External irradiation (ground radiation) and internal irradiation from radioactive materials accumulated in the human body via food. In addition there are an inhalation dose and a radiation dose from the radioactive cloud. The level of doses from the various sources is presented

  13. Current radiological situation in areas of Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: Part 1. Human dietary exposure to Caesium-137 and possible mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunska, I; Kashparov, V; Levchuk, S; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Polishchuk, S; Lazarev, N; Khomutinin, Y

    2018-08-01

    This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples. Estimated annual effective doses calculated utilizing two different methodologies were in the range of 1.4-2.6 mSv/year and 1.2-1.8 mSv/year, respectively. The estimated effective period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eff ) from 137 Cs in these settlements was in the range from 8 to 17 years. The estimated ecological period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eco ) from 137 Cs was in the range from 11 to 36 years. The optimization of the remedial actions strategy for investigated settlements exposed to an effective dose above 1 mSv/year (as estimated in 2016) has shown that a diversity of measures can decrease effective dose for a representative person to below 1 mSv/year. Such measures include application of Ferrocyn to cows, mineral fertilization of potato fields, information campaigns on consumption of wild mushrooms and other forestry products, and feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder. The total costs of such measures are estimated to be about 71,000 Euro per year for the combined population (8336 inhabitants) of the six villages investigated in this study that showed the highest median residual 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk, with a subsequent decrease in cost in the future. This would result in an averted collective dose of 11 man-Sv, at an average cost of 6.5 kEuro/man-Sv averted. In the

  14. Hygienic evaluation of radiation consequences after the Chernobyl accident in highly populated areas of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachev, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Markelova, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses radiation exposure to the people in the Ukraine as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result of this accident all Ukrainian regions have been heavily contaminated, even though the contamination density obtained in different regions are considerably different. Soils have become contaminated and plants grown in the soils transfer radionuclides to people

  15. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  16. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T.; Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V.; Branovan, I.; Biko, I.; Reiners, C.

    2012-01-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  17. Infant mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years after Chernobyl. Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortality in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach Tschernobyl in der BRD. Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl im April 1986 auf die Saeuglingssterblichkeit in schwach- und hochbelasteten Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, W; Scholz, H; Hacker, C; Beushausen, S; Heydenreich, B; Platiel, G

    1991-04-01

    Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortility in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. In connection with this scientific study, official quarterly reports on population developments released by the Wiesbaden-based Federal Office of Statistics were subjected to a time-dependent analysis. On the basis of generally applicable stastical laws infant mortality curves plotted after 1958 were examined for changes after Chernobyl. In view of regional differences in the effects from radioactive precipitations due to the Chernobyl ractor accident, the examinations were performed in subgroups that were largely derived from the results of a study covering all of the Federal territory. The analysis revealed the following links: The curve of the infant mortality rates for the first 7 days after delivery (7-day mortalities) pointed to a linear-exponential relationship between the point of time investigated and number of infants dying. In heavily contaminated areas the 7-day mortality rates determined after 1986 show statistically significant deviations from developments as expected from normal rates. (orig./MG).

  18. Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

  19. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Astakhov, A.I.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Zubovich, V.K.; Knat'ko, V.A.; Lobanok, L.M.; Matsko, V.P.; Mrochek, A.G.

    1998-05-01

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  20. The international Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the official report of the International Advisory Committee at the conference of the International Chernobyl Project held in Vienna, May 1991. More details will be found in the actual report, ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive

  1. Dispersal, deposition and collective doses after the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the dispersal, deposition and collective doses of the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. It explains that, although Belarus, Ukraine and Russia were heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout, more than half of the fallout was deposited outside these countries, particularly in Western Europe. Indeed, about 40 per cent of the surface area of Europe was contaminated. Collective doses are predicted to result in 30,000 to 60,000 excess cancer deaths throughout the northern hemisphere, mostly in western Europe. The article also estimates that the caesium-137 source term was about a third higher than official figures.

  2. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  3. The improved long-term prognoses of surface waters contamination after Chernobyl accident for the territories of Bryansk Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitsky, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The precision of information about the density of contamination by long-lived radionuclides the territory of Russia was improved repeatedly after the Chernobyl accident. Also has appeared a lot of new information on processes of radionuclides migration in a surface layer of soil. Through the modified complex of the models with using the updated set of parameters the prognostic calculations for the annual concentration of radionuclides in the rivers and lakes of South-Western areas of Bryansk region up to twenty years were performed. The performed prognostic calculations show that it is possible to expect only decreasing with time annual concentrations of Chernobyl-generated radionuclides in surface waters for the South-Western territories of Bryansk region relative to current levels.Yet, special attention should be given to the reservoirs with weak and no outflow in which contamination levels are a little higher than the tolerable levels.On this basis, the guidelines on water using in the areas under consideration and on the realization of further operations are prepared. (author)

  4. Chernobyl accident. The ground deposition of radionuclides in Padana plain and in Alps Valleys and the radioactive contamination of the Como lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, D; Facchini, U; Gianelle, V; Ravasini, G; Ravera, O; Volta, L; Pizzola, A; Bacci, P

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated.

  5. The estimate reproductive health status of populations exposured in low doses in result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljaginskaja, A.M.; Izhewskij, P.W.; Golovko, O.V.

    1996-01-01

    In general the results achieved show that in the population living on the territories contaminated with radionuclides the most distinct negative dynamic of reproductive health than in the control areas is observed dourly the post-accidental period. The highest intensively of the negative dynamic and for certain the lower (than in the control) absolute indices of the reproductive health are revealed in the population living on the territory with 137 Cs contamination from 5 Ci/km 2 to 15 Ci/km 2 Under the equal conditions of 137 Cs contamination of soil the most distinct decrease of indices of the reproductive health was revealed in the areas with the most original level of the reproductive health that witness about the important role of the original level of the reproductive health in forming the effects of the exposure of the population. In the structure of the chosen indices of the reproductive health the loading place according to the intensively of the negative dynamic takes the indices characterising UPO and the status of the newborns, that is the indices reflecting the somatic stochastic effects of radiation influence. (author)

  6. The influence of radioactive contamination and iodine prophylaxis after Chernobyl accident on the thyroid morphology and function of the inhabitants of Poznan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gembicki, M.; Sowinski, J.; Ruchala, M.; Bednarek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of Poznan region was recognized after Chernobyl accident as average. The predicted values of minimal (inhalation) and maximal (inhalation and ingestion) committed dose equivalent to the thyroid varied from 2.5 (min) to 24.7 (max) mSv in different groups of adults and children. To follow up the results of iodine prophylaxis and some aspects of possible thyroid gland morphological and functional changes 11086 persons were carefully investigated clinically and biochemically. Among these 11086 persons were 42.6% males and 57.4% females both adults from 17 till 40 year and children up to 16 years. The following parameters were reviewed: pregnancy, time of residence in the region, thyroid abnormalities, family history concerning thyroid diseases, iodine intake in April and May 1986 with possible side effects, changes in the thyroid size observed before and after 1986, degree and kind of thyroid enlargement, serum concentration of T 3 , T 4 , TSH, ATMA and ATG titration and finally the effectiveness of thyroid blockade at 24, 48 and 72 h after ingestion of Lugol's solution. Side effects of the ingestion of potassium iodine from 30-70 mg were observed in 153 cases, 36 of them consulted medicals doctors but in no case the side effects (dominated by vomiting) threatened the life. The data obtained indicated the existence in Poznan. Region the goiter endemic because 27.5% of investigated children and adults had goiter classified as grades O-B, I, II and III. The elevation or diminution of T 3 values were noted in 1164 cases, for T 4 in 418 cases and for TSH in 1412 cases. The presence of anti membrane and anti thyroglobulin antibodies were observed in 303 cases. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 18 tabs

  7. Tipified conditions for irradiation of equipment and personnel and gamma radiation spectral-angular parameters of radioactively contaminated area of the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, A.B.; Frid, E.S.; Shekhanov, G.A.; Zhitnik, A.K.; Shanenko, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis and calculated-experimental investigations were presented. The tipified conditions for irradiation of the equipment and the personnel as the result of destroys in the Chernobyl' NPP and initial data of spectral-angular parameters of gamma radiated sites were proposed. The results of the investigation may be used in the prediction of radiation effect on the personnel as well as during design and estimation of the effective protection from gamma radiation. 3 refs.; 7 refs

  8. Chernobyl 25 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a brief recall on radioactivity measurement units and on radioactivity itself, this report describes and comments the Chernobyl accident, its consequent releases, the scattering of the radioactive plume over Europe, the formation of radioactive deposits in Europe, the contamination of the different environments and of the food chain, the health impact in the most contaminated areas, the doses received in France and their associated risks. It finally draws some lessons from this accident

  9. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or

  10. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornberg, C.

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from 137 Cs and 134 Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of 137 Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m 2 . Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of 134,137 Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137 Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137 Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137 Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137 Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of 137 Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion was found to introduce systematic

  11. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  12. Agricultural soils decontamination techniques: methods and results of tests realized near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, H.; Jouve, A.; Mary, N.

    1992-01-01

    After a major nuclear accident, decontamination of agricultural soils would be necessary in order to reclaim the land. Specific techniques were studied in the framework of the European program for Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an Accident (RESSAC). Different ways to remove the top layer of soils are described, and especially the use of Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) combined with spraying of organic polymers. Real scale tests in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that it is possible to achieve an excellent decontamination of agricultural fields (decontamination factor greater than 95%. (author)

  13. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartau, S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    1987-01-01

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.) [de

  14. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus' territory causing to destruction of the building constructions of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskorovajnyj, V.P.; Kotovich, V.V.; Molodykh, V.G.; Skurat, V.V.; Stankevich, L.A.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The adverse scripts of development of events, causing to destruction of object 'UKRYTIE' and to contamination of the territory of Republic of Belarus are considered. The number of designs of the 4th unit has visually observed damages. Also there are hypothetically unstable constructive elements, at installation of which in a conditions of 1986 the application of reliable welded or bolt connections was impossibly. Initial events of the considered hypothetical accident are earthquake or aircraft accident. Settlement data on contamination of territory for considered accident are indicated. The account was made for a moderate- stable condition of atmosphere by the Gauss model for process of the dust particles precipitation. In this case the radionuclide falling out will take place basically on already contaminated territory of Belarus. The additional contamination may be about 2 Ci/sq.km in the Mozyr' region and 20 Ci/sq.km in Chernobyl NPP territory. In case of imposing of acts of nature (the earthquake or tornado), the all dust fraction, which available in object, may be released in atmosphere. The total activity of the dust falling out will be about 1.3 MCi, that can lead to more powerful contaminated of the south part of Belarus. Despite the hypothetical character of the scripts, the probability of their realisation at long operation of object will increase. Thus, the transformation of object 'UKRYTIE' to a safe system is an urgent problem. 1 ref., 3 figs

  15. One decade after Chernobyl - The review of the results of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.

    1997-01-01

    On 26 April 1986 the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the current borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The consequences attributed to this accident have been subjected to extensive scientific examination. Ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) jointly sponsored an International Conference to recapitulate the accident's consequences and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the accident', took place in the Austria Center Vienna, Austria, from 8 to 12 April 1996. This paper is a review of the Conference based on updating reports and keynote presented, background papers presented by expert panels and discussions of these by the Conference. The clinical observed effects, thyroid effects, long term health effects and psychological consequences are particularly addressed. (author)

  16. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvetajlov, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  17. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  18. 90Sr and 137Cs contamination of wheat produced in Japan. Survey and analysis during the years 1959 through 1995 including the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, Misako; Tsumura, Akito; Kihou, Nobuharu; Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the influences of global-scale radioactive fallout on wheat produced in Japan. For this purpose, a set of wheat samples was collected annually from sixteen National and Prefectural Experimental Farms during the years from 1959 to 1995. According to the graph presenting year-to-year variations in the nationwide averages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents (mBq/kg) in wheat kernels, the sharp peak was first marked in 1963 with 12300 for 90 Sr and 43600 for 137 Cs. In 1966, however, the nuclide contents dropped drastically to 2360 for 90 Sr and 2870 for 137 Cs respectively. In the years following, both nuclides continued to decrease slowly although there were minor fluctuations. It is noticeable that low-level 137 Cs contamination was caused in Japan's wheat in 1981, the year after the nuclear testing in China. It is also noticeable that 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels increased to 5960 in 1986 when the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened, although it dropped back to its normal level of 40 in the year after. The following are also discussed in this paper: Year to year variations in the ratio of 90 Sr to 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and wheat flour. Regional differences in 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels. Comparison of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and unpolished rice. Direct and indirect pathways of 90 Sr and 137 Cs that contaminate wheat. Influence of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Suggestions about the ways of estimating the level of 137 Cs contamination in case of nuclear accidents, if any. (author)

  19. MEASURING CONTAMINANT RESUSPENSION RESULTING FROM SEDIMENT CAPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Sediment Issue summarizes two studies undertaken at marine sites by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the resuspension of surface materials contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) b...

  20. Chernobyl silences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandazzi, G.; Lemarchand, F.

    2006-01-01

    20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, this book presents the sanitary and ecological actuality of the accident, with direct testimonies translated from russian. It is also a reflexion of women and political men, scientists, philosophers and artists on the changes induced by Chernobyl on the information dissemination and the future of the accident. (A.L.B.)

  1. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''After Chernobyl'' is an outline account of interesting information on the evacuation and relocation of the population within a 30 km zone around the power plant, of decontamination efforts' of the entombment of the reactor and of the firemen of Chernobyl, not all of whom survived. (author)

  2. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbyin, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  3. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  4. Chernobyl: 30 years after - Proceedings of the technical meeting of the French Society of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Chouha, Michel; Damette, Guy; Durand, Vanessa; Besnus, Francois; Renaud, Philippe; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Laurier, Dominique; Chabrier, Patrick; Chauveau, Thomas; Thiry, Yves; Menetrier, Florence; Chevillard, Sylvie; Lesueur, Fabienne; Schneider, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    The French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the present day situation of the Chernobyl site, 30 years after the accident of the nuclear power plant. The review deals with the situation of the facility and of its safety works, the environment, the management of wastes, the workers and populations exposure, and the health monitoring of the exposed populations. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - The main highlights 30 years after the Chernobyl accident (Didier CHAMPION, SFRP); 2 - Circumstances, progress and consequences of the Chernobyl accident - Lessons and experience feedback for the other RBMK reactors (Michel CHOUHA, IRSN); 3 - Chernobyl, a confinement arch for 100 years (Patrick CHABRIER, Thomas CHAUVEAU - BOUYGUES); 4 - The reactor wastes management and the dismantling operations (Guy DAMETTE - IRSN); 5 - Environment contamination in the vicinity of the site (Yves THIRY - ANDRA); 6 - Impact of the accident on agriculture (Vanessa DURAND - IRSN); 7 - The fate of remediation wastes (Francois BESNUS - IRSN); 8 - Chernobyl fallouts in France (Philippe RENAUD - IRSN); 9 - The ecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident (Christelle ADAM-GUILLERMIN - IRSN); 10 - Results of liquidators and populations exposure (Florence MENETRIER - CEA); 11 - Thyroid cancers monitoring in the Chernobyl area and the role of modifying genetic factors (Fabienne LESUEUR - Institut Curie); 12 - Results of the Chernobyl accident health impact studies (Dominique LAURIER - IRSN); 13 - Impact on populations living condition (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); 14 - Molecular signature of radiation induced thyroid tumors (Sylvie CHEVILLARD - CEA)

  5. Chernobyl 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouette, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  6. Site characterization techniques used in restoration of agricultural areas on the territory of the Russian Federation contaminated after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    The experience gained in the aftermath after the heavy radiation accidents shows the need for improvement in site characterisation techniques and methodology in order to provide a link between site characterisation and the selection of restoration strategies. This paper gives an overview of the site characterisation techniques used in restoration of contaminated agricultural lands on the territory of the Russian Federation. The approach used for site characterisation and selection of restoration strategies is described. The main site specific factors influencing the choice of restoration options are identified. Data on the efficiency of major restoration measures used for the remediation of agricultural lands after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Kyshtym accidents are given. A description of the decision support system FORCON, designed to simplify the selection of restoration options, is presented. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, E.; Sokolov, V.; Proshin, A.; Barnes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  8. Adaptation and impairment of DNA repair function in pollen of Betula verrucosa and seeds of Oenothera biennis from differently radionuclide-contaminated sites of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubriak, I I; Grodzinsky, D M; Polischuk, V P; Naumenko, V D; Gushcha, N P; Micheev, A N; McCready, S J; Osborne, D J

    2008-01-01

    The plants that have remained in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl since 1986 encapsulate the effects of radiation. Such plants are chronically exposed to radionuclides that they have accumulated internally as well as to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides from external sources and from the soil. This radiation leads to genetic damage that can be countered by DNA repair systems. The objective of this study is to follow DNA repair and adaptation in haploid cells (birch pollen) and diploid cells (seed embryos of the evening primrose) from plants that have been growing in situ in different radionuclide fall-out sites in monitored regions surrounding the Chernobyl explosion of 1986. Radionuclide levels in soil were detected using gamma-spectroscopy and radiochemistry. DNA repair assays included measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis, electrophoretic determination of single-strand DNA breaks and image analysis of rDNA repeats after repair intervals. Nucleosome levels were established using an ELISA kit. Birch pollen collected in 1987 failed to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis, but pollen at gamma/beta-emitter sites has now recovered this ability. At a site with high levels of combined alpha- and gamma/beta-emitters, pollen still exhibits hidden damage, as shown by reduced unscheduled DNA synthesis and failure to repair lesions in rDNA repeats properly. Evening primrose seed embryos generated on plants at the same gamma/beta-emitter sites now show an improved DNA repair capacity and ability to germinate under abiotic stresses (salinity and accelerated ageing). Again those from combined alpha- and gamma/beta-contaminated site do not show this improvement. Chronic irradiation at gamma/beta-emitter sites has provided opportunities for plant cells (both pollen and embryo cells) to adapt to ionizing irradiation and other environmental stresses. This may be explained by facilitation of DNA repair function.

  9. Bacterial biodiversity analysis of a contaminated soil from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and characterization of the committed interaction of a Microbacterium strain with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear power plants accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima demonstrate the importance of the understanding of the transfer of the radioactive contamination in the environment and its ecological consequences. Although certain studies have been realized on superior organisms of the food chain, studies on telluric bacterial communities are scarce. The latter play nevertheless an essential role in the mobility of contaminants in soils by decreasing or improving their transfer towards other compartments (water, vegetables and animals). Moreover radionuclides (RNs) can have toxic effects on bacteria, leading to an inhibition of their participation in such transfer. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the impact of the radioactive contamination on bacterial communities belonging to a soil of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (trench T22) and (2) to study the uranium-bacteria interactions of a resistant strain, isolated from this soil. The various techniques used to characterize the bacterial diversity (culture of bacteria, DGGE, 454 pyro-sequencing) all testified of the multiplicity and the abundance of the bacterial communities in spite of the contamination. An impact on the community structure was difficult to assess by DGGE or cultural approach, but was nevertheless highlighted by the use of pyro-sequencing, suggesting the presence of species more adapted to the contaminated soil conditions. A specific molecular tool dedicated to the search of bacteria affiliated to the known radiation resistant Deinococcus-Thermus phylum (for example the Deinococcus radiodurans specie survives after an irradiation of several kGy) was developed. However it did not reveal the presence of bacteria affiliated to such a phylum in the studied soil. In parallel to the study of the bacterial biodiversity, about fifty culturable bacteria were isolated from this site and were used as a support to select a species (Microbacterium) capable to survive strong U(VI) concentrations. The

  10. Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Biernacka, M.; Grabowski, D.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

  11. Chernobyl NPP decommissioning efforts - Past, Present and Future. Decommissioning Efforts on Chernobyl NPP site - Past, Present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskiy, V.

    2017-01-01

    Two unique large-scale projects are underway at the moment within the Chernobyl - Exclusion zone - Shelter object transformation into ecologically safe system and the decommissioning of 3 Chernobyl NPP Units. As a result of beyond design accident in 1986 the entire territory of the industrial site and facilities located on it was heavily contaminated. Priority measures were carried out at the damaged Unit under very difficult conditions to reduce the accident consequences and works to ensure nuclear and radiation safety are continuous, and the Unit four in 1986 was transformed into the Shelter object. Currently, works at the Shelter object are in progress. Under assistance of the International Community new protective construction was built above the existing Shelter object - New Safe Confinement, which will ensure the SO Safety for the long term - within up to 100 years. The second major project is the simultaneous decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Currently existing Chernobyl NPP decommissioning Strategy has been continuously improved starting from the Concept of 1992. Over the years the following was analyzed and taken into account: the results of numerous research and development works, international experience in decommissioning, IAEA recommendations, comments and suggestions from the governmental and regulatory bodies in the fields of nuclear energy use and radioactive waste management. In 2008 the final decommissioning strategy option for Chernobyl NPP was approved, that was deferred gradual dismantling (SAFSTOR). In accordance with this strategy, decommissioning will be carried out in 3 stages (Final Shutdown and Preservation, Safe Enclosure, Dismantling). The SAFSTOR strategy stipulates: -) the preservation of the reactor, the primary circuit and the reactor compartment equipment; -) the dismantling of the equipment external in relation to the reactor; -) the safe enclosure (under the supervision); -) the gradual dismantling of the primary

  12. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  13. Decision making strategy on rehabilitation of wide territories of the Republic of Belarus contaminated by long-lived radionuclides following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Ternov, V.

    2002-01-01

    In the remote period following radiation accidents accompanied by wide scaled contamination of the territory by long-lived radionuclides inevitably problem of the territory rehabilitation is raised. Actually, we are speaking about difficulties, for state authorities and for society, in a decision making process aimed at taking out territories, settlements, residing and/or working people from the status of accident and at return to 'normality'. Difficulty in the decision making is caused by insufficient development of dose criteria, levels of intervention when really existing annual effective doses is less than 5 mSv, justification of usage, scales and duration of countermeasures. The laws accepted in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident are practicing privileges and compensation of damage to population, residing in territories with density of soil contamination by 137 Cs exceeding 37 kBq/sq.m or annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. This makes the idea of rehabilitation unattractive. To simplify the process of decisions making perception by society, it is suggested a step by step way of decision making aimed at rehabilitation, based on radiological and non-radiological criteria. As to radiological criteria, it is necessary to refer to a level of annual effective dose and derived values (exposure dose rate, permissible levels of contamination for foodstuffs and environment). Nonradiological criteria include psychological and social-economic factors (attractiveness of rehabilitating territories for residing and making business, reservation of some privileges, maintenance of high level of medical service). (author)

  14. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Bjerke, H.; Rudjord, A.L.; Ugletveit, F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  15. RETINAL VASCULAR PATHOLOGY RISK DEVELOPMENT IN THE IRRADIATED AT DIFFERENT AGES AS A RESULT OF CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, P A; Babenko, T F; Dorichevska, R Yu; Garkava, N A

    2015-12-01

    To assess the relationship between the age at which a person undergoes radiation exposure and risk of developing eye lesions (case study of the retinal angiopathy prevalence). The object of the study was the state of the retinal vessels in 2,531 persons (1,948 evacuated from the city of Pripyat under the age of 20 and 583 exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chernobyl NPP disaster. The results of standardized ophthalmic examination conducted from 1993 to 2000 within the framework of Clinical and epidemiological registry are used for the analysis. The evacuees were subdivided into different age groups of the exposed to radiation. The cohort of control group formed corresponding age groups of the unirradiated control. Statistical analysis of the survey results was carried out using the free trial version of «Open Epi 2.2.1» software package. The results obtained revealed a significant prevalence of retinal vessels pathology in all groups. The difference in angiopathy prevalence in exposed in utero persons was significant compared to age-control. The prevalence of retinal vascular pathology was also significantly higher in all groups of evacuees. Angiopathy prevalence was higher in the group exposed in utero and at the age of 8-12 years, and in the group of people who were exposed at the age of 4-7 years, the risk of angiopathy was lower. It is proved that the occurrence of distant radiation effects mainly depends on the age at which a person has undergone irradiation. It should be noted that all the other conditions were approximately the same. If working conditions of the persons who were exposed in utero or were aged 8 to 20 years when the Chernobyl disaster happened are connected with occupational radiation exposure it is necessary to take additional preventive measures. P. А. Fedirko, T. F. Babenko, R. Yu. Dorichevska, N. А. Garkava.

  16. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 7. Part 1. Localization of accident consequences at the 4th power unit, operating site of the Chernobyl NPP and adjoining territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The next data on the accident consequence elimination are presented: temperature monitoring results, gamma radiation exposure dose rates, neutron and gamma fields, aerosol disperse composition. The information system for scientific researches FINISH and automatic subsystems for radiation control and the Ukrytie object diagnostics are described. Decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP territory, equipment and rooms is described too

  17. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 7. Part 2. Localization of accident consequences at the 4th power unit, operating site of the Chernobyl' NPP and adjoining territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The next data on the accident consequence elimination are presented: temperature monitoring results, gamma radiation exposure dose rates, neutron and gamma fields, aerosol disperse composition. The information system for scientific researches FINISH and automatic subsystems for radiation control and the Ukrytie object diagnostics are described. Decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP territory, equipment and rooms is described too

  18. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.; Omelyanetz, N.; Strapko, N.; Ledoschuck, B.; Krasnikova, L.; Kartushin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  19. Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raestrup, R.; Kundke, J.

    1986-01-01

    The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP) [de

  20. Sanitary study of the population living in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Briggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The populations of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation affected by Chernobyl accident are anxious about the radiation effects on their healthy. The International Chernobyl Project has, in a great part, looked for the pathology increase and to assess its incidence on their healthy. This study does not prove that the Chernobyl accident would have important effects on population healthy of contaminated areas

  1. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  2. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Grebenkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  3. Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Willemsen, Stefan; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-05-01

    ) is close to the observed decrease constant in sediments (0.44 yr-1). These results strongly indicate that the gradual decrease of activity in demersal fish (decrease constant is 0.46 yr-1) is caused by the transfer of activity from organic matter deposited in bottom sediment through the deposit-feeding invertebrates. The estimated model transfer coefficient from bulk sediment to demersal fish in the model for 2012-2020 (0.13) is larger than that to the deposit-feeding invertebrates (0.07). In addition, the transfer of 137Cs through food webs for the period of 1945-2020 has been modelled for the Baltic Sea contaminated due to global fallout and from the Chernobyl accident. The model simulation results obtained with generic parameters are also in good agreement with available measurements in the Baltic Sea. Unlike the open coastal system where the FDNPP is located, the dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the Baltic Sea reach a quasi-steady state due to the slow rate in water mass exchange in this semi-enclosed basin. Obtained results indicate a substantial contribution of the benthic food chain in the long-term transfer of 137Cs from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms and the potential application of a generic model in different regions of the world's oceans.

  4. Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Maderich, Vladimir; Jung, Kyung Tae; Willemsen, Stefan; With, Govert de; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-01-01

    -feeding invertebrates (0.45 yr"-"1) is close to the observed decrease constant in sediments (0.44 yr"-"1). These results strongly indicate that the gradual decrease of activity in demersal fish (decrease constant is 0.46 yr"-"1) is caused by the transfer of activity from organic matter deposited in bottom sediment through the deposit-feeding invertebrates. The estimated model transfer coefficient from bulk sediment to demersal fish in the model for 2012-2020 (0.13) is larger than that to the deposit-feeding invertebrates (0.07). In addition, the transfer of "1"3"7Cs through food webs for the period of 1945-2020 has been modelled for the Baltic Sea contaminated due to global fallout and from the Chernobyl accident. The model simulation results obtained with generic parameters are also in good agreement with available measurements in the Baltic Sea. Unlike the open coastal system where the FDNPP is located, the dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the Baltic Sea reach a quasi-steady state due to the slow rate in water mass exchange in this semi-enclosed basin. Obtained results indicate a substantial contribution of the benthic food chain in the long-term transfer of "1"3"7Cs from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms and the potential application of a generic model in different regions of the world's oceans.

  5. Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezhenar, Roman; Maderich, Vladimir [Institute of Mathematical Machine and System Problems, Kiev (Ukraine); Jung, Kyung Tae [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Willemsen, Stefan; With, Govert de [NRG, Arnhem (Netherlands); Qiao, Fangli [First Institute of Oceanography, Qingdao (China)

    2016-07-01

    -feeding invertebrates (0.45 yr{sup -1}) is close to the observed decrease constant in sediments (0.44 yr{sup -1}). These results strongly indicate that the gradual decrease of activity in demersal fish (decrease constant is 0.46 yr{sup -1}) is caused by the transfer of activity from organic matter deposited in bottom sediment through the deposit-feeding invertebrates. The estimated model transfer coefficient from bulk sediment to demersal fish in the model for 2012-2020 (0.13) is larger than that to the deposit-feeding invertebrates (0.07). In addition, the transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food webs for the period of 1945-2020 has been modelled for the Baltic Sea contaminated due to global fallout and from the Chernobyl accident. The model simulation results obtained with generic parameters are also in good agreement with available measurements in the Baltic Sea. Unlike the open coastal system where the FDNPP is located, the dynamics of radionuclide transfer in the Baltic Sea reach a quasi-steady state due to the slow rate in water mass exchange in this semi-enclosed basin. Obtained results indicate a substantial contribution of the benthic food chain in the long-term transfer of {sup 137}Cs from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms and the potential application of a generic model in different regions of the world's oceans.

  6. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  7. European region case study the ethos project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.

    2004-01-01

    As the worst civilian nuclear accident, the Chernobyl disaster presented the authorities first in the Soviet Union and then in the independent republics with an unprecedented problem. Strenuous and costly efforts were made to limit the effects of the accident and then to cope with the evacuation or rehabilitation as appropriate of the contaminated areas. By the mid-1990's, however, there was increasing evidence that the problems were over-taxing traditional responses. Into this context, a French team of specialists from a range of disciplines entered with a view to attempting improvements, but without preconceived ideas of what they would do or how they would do it. Beginning by listening to the people of the area of Belarus selected for the so-called ETHOS project, they discovered a profound distrust of the authorities and experts born of the perceived shortcomings of the official responses to the problems to date. They thus worked in close co-operation with the people both to identify the problems that concerned them and to develop solutions that took account of local opportunities and constraints. This interim report on a case study examining the ETHOS project is based on interviews with a wide range of people in the area of the project. It presents the problems identified by interviewees with the initial responses of the authorities and then their assessment of the ETHOS approach. The overall finding is that where public confidence has been lost in the context of an event such as the Chernobyl disaster, the authorities need to make a special effort to establish trust to a point where confidence returns. Traditional top-down responses appear to have exacerbated and reinforced the loss of confidence in this case whereas the approach of the ETHOS team appears to have succeeded in building trust to a significant degree - perhaps even to a point where there may be evidence that confidence is returning. (author)

  8. Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

    1987-11-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult.

  9. Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult. (UK)

  10. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137 Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137 Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137 Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137 Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137 Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137 Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137 Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T agg ) for soil → plant and soil → flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T agg values for Soil → autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m 2 .kg -1 to 0,41 m 2 .kg -1 . While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T agg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T agg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137 Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137 Cs activity concentration in

  11. 134Cs and 137Cs whole-body measurements and internal dosimetry of the population living in areas contaminated by radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Jesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Danilova, I.O.; Wallstroem, E.; Alpsten, M.; Thornberg, C.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Six western districts of the Bryansk region, Russia, were heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Annually, between 1991 and 1994, inhabitants of four settlements were studied. Whole-body 134+137 Cs contents were measured in about 500 inhabitants. No correlation between Cs whole-body content and Cs soil contamination was found; Cs accumulation in a body depends greatly on natural factors such as type of soil, on social factors such as food habits including consumption of forest products, and on countermeasures to reduce internal exposure. During 1991-1994 average whole-body content of 134+137 Cs in adult inhabitants was about 3-60 kBq, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.1-2.4 mSv.y -1 . Cs whole-body content increases equally for girls and boys up to adult age. Cs content in adults does not depend significantly on age and is usually 1.2-2 times higher in men than in women. The average annual internal effective dose varies with age significantly less than 134+137 Cs whole-body content. In children (0-5 years) the mean absorbed dose is usually 1.2-1.5 times less than in adults. (author)

  12. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulikov, Alexei O.; Meili, Markus

    2003-01-01

    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for 137 Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a) potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ('carrier') of caesium; (b) the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c) the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of 137 Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the 137 Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the 137 Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects

  13. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 2. Part 1. Methods for decontamination, dust suppression. Development and applicability of techniques for the accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The means of decontamination have been considered. The requirements on radiation protection of equipment during radioactive contamination have been presented. New efficient methods for decontamination of technological equipment, units and systems of the Chernobyl' NPP were demonstrated. The variations and postects for burial of radioactive wastes and materials, radioactive water processing and application of polymer coatings were presented

  14. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 3. Part 2. Predictions of the variation in environmental radioactivity and radiation doses at the accidental zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and radiation-sanitary data on radiation situation in the 30-km accident zone at the Chernobyl' NPP are discussed. Doses of soil, vegetation and animals contamination in this region are estimated. Long-term predictions of radiation situation in the accident zone are made

  15. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  16. Methods and results of reconstruction of 131I concentration in milk from total beta-activity measurements in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, Mikhail; Shinkarev, Sergey; Titov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the first few weeks following the Chernobyl accident a large scale monitoring of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs locally produced was carried out in the most contaminated areas of Belarus. Due to a lack of spectrometric instruments, radiometric devices (DP-100) were used for beta activity measurements mostly of milk and milk products. Because the intake of 131 I with milk was the main contributor of the thyroid dose for the Belarus population, it is very important to reconstruct levels of 131 I in milk for Belarus settlements. The purpose of the paper is to present the methods and results of assessing the 13I concentration in milk based on historical records of total-beta activity measurements carried out in April-June 1986 in Belarus. The results of reconstruction of the 131 I concentration in milk will be used in on-going epidemiologic studies of a cohort of Belarus children. About 20,000 total-beta activity measurements were used in the analysis; for about 50% of those, the measurement result exceeded the minimum detectable activity. Estimates of 131 I concentration in milk at the date of sampling and of time-integrated milk concentrations were reconstructed for 482 settlements in Gomel Oblast and for 100 settlements in Mogilev Oblast, the most contaminated areas in Belarus, where at least one milk measurement was available. The assessment of the 131 I concentrations in milk involved: 1) An analysis of the calibration coefficients of the detectors for radionuclides available in milk (the main radionuclides were 131 I, 132 4Cs, 137 Cs, 89 Sr, 90 Sr); and 2) An assessment of the relative activity distribution of those radionuclides in milk. Only measurements made before 21 May 1986 were considered to be reliable, as the measurements conducted late May and in June were found to be unreliable because of the decrease in 131 I concentrations and the growing influence of other radionuclides with longer half-lives. Analysis of multiple

  17. Airborne mapping of radioactive contamination. Results from a test in Finland, RESUME95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, S.; Smethurst, M.A. [Geological Survey of Norway (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Geological Survey of Norway participated in the exercise RESUME95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment 95) in Finland, during August 1995. The purpose of the exercise was to 1) test preparedness in the Nordic countries for accidents involving the release and dispersal of radioactive material, 2) compare results from the different teams participating in the exercise, 3) establish routines for the exchange of data and 4) investigate the possibility of international assistance in the event of nuclear accidents. The Geological Survey of Norway carried out a survey over three test areas (area I, II and III). All three areas were contaminated with man made radionuclides in the days following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The Cesium-137 contamination level was reported to be about 50 kBq/m{sup 2} in area I, and this area was used for calibration. In area II mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration was carried out. Detection of hidden artificial radiation sources were the main purpose in area III. This report describes the exercise - RESUME95, field operations, calibration, mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration and detection of hidden point sources. Results are presented as colour maps. (au).

  18. Airborne mapping of radioactive contamination. Results from a test in Finland, RESUME95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, S; Smethurst, M A [Geological Survey of Norway (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    The Geological Survey of Norway participated in the exercise RESUME95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment 95) in Finland, during August 1995. The purpose of the exercise was to 1) test preparedness in the Nordic countries for accidents involving the release and dispersal of radioactive material, 2) compare results from the different teams participating in the exercise, 3) establish routines for the exchange of data and 4) investigate the possibility of international assistance in the event of nuclear accidents. The Geological Survey of Norway carried out a survey over three test areas (area I, II and III). All three areas were contaminated with man made radionuclides in the days following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The Cesium-137 contamination level was reported to be about 50 kBq/m{sup 2} in area I, and this area was used for calibration. In area II mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration was carried out. Detection of hidden artificial radiation sources were the main purpose in area III. This report describes the exercise - RESUME95, field operations, calibration, mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration and detection of hidden point sources. Results are presented as colour maps. (au).

  19. Demographic situation in the Kaluga region for 1976-1992. Possible consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, V.N.; Kurochkina, O.I.; Kostina, M.A.; Sidenko, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper studies the demographic situation in different areas of the Kaluga region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, during 1976-1992. The following indices received the particular attention: the composition of population, size of population, birth rate, mortality, child mortality. It is shown that during the investigated period no variations of the size of population, of the mortality and of the increment of population resulted from the Chernobyl accident were detected

  20. Radiocaesium fallout in Ireland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Moran, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a radiocaesium deposition pattern over Ireland resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Contaminated grassland soils from over 110 sites were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K were measured in all samples. The Chernobyl 137 Cs was identified using an initial Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs to 134 Cs ratio of 1.90. The results show a mean deposition level of 3.2 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs due to Chernobyl. The range of deposition was from 0.3 to 14.2 kBq m -2 . The distribution pattern is presented both on a National grid sub-zone basis and a higher resolution shaded map. A similarly shaded map shows the rainfall levels responsible for most of the washout. It is pointed out that some areas on both east and west coasts with maximum rainfall did not have maximum caesium deposition. In other areas a better correlation between rainfall and caesium deposition exists. A mean figure for the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in surface soil is provided. (author)

  1. Chernobyl. Radioactivity measurements in Belgium and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, P.; Gillard, J.; Declercq, H.; Avaux, J.L.; Binet, J.; Flemal, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of the fallout on the Belgian territory after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Contamination of air, soil, water milk, grass and vegetables is considered. Figures for other countries are also given. (MCB)

  2. Chernobyl. Radioactivity measurements in Belgium and abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejeune, P; Gillard, J; Declercq, H; Avaux, J L; Binet, J; Flemal, J M

    1986-01-01

    A survey of the fallout on the Belgian territory after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Contamination of air, soil, water milk, grass and vegetables is considered. Figures for other countries are also given. (MCB).

  3. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  4. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  5. The international Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The findings of the International Chernobyl Project are summarized herewith. The project focused on four key issues related to the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident which are of concern to the population and policy makers: the true extent of the current contamination in inhabited areas of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine; the past, current and future radiation exposure of the population; the actual and potential health effects; and the adequacy or measures being taken to protect the public. The project findings are expected to contribute towards alleviating the consequences of the accident by presenting factual information to allow future policy and worldwide assistance to be channelled to where it is most needed and where it can be best used. (author)

  6. Exploding Chernobyl myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1991-01-01

    Misconceptions about the way thermal reactors really work, and the use of misleading terminology, have allowed the western nuclear industry to claim that the accident at the RBMK (water cooled, graphite moderated) type reactor at Chernobyl would not be possible in western type pressurized water reactors. The author contends that control of thermal reactors is only possible because a small but consistent fraction of the secondary neutrons are delayed. If the delayed neutron reaction is overridden by the prompt neutron reaction, control is irretrievably lost and a nuclear explosion, such as at Chernobyl, results. Parallels between the PWR and RBMK are drawn. The consequences of the Chernobyl explosion are discussed and the question is asked: can any combination of circumstances, however improbable, produce a prompt neutron explosion in any western reactors? (UK)

  7. Thyroid doses in Belarus resulting from the Chernobyl accident: comparison of the estimates based on direct thyroid measurements and on measurements of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkarev, Sergey; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valery; Savkin, Mikhail; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    A substantial increase of childhood cancer cases observed in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia after the Chernobyl accident has been associated with thyroid exposure to radio iodines following the accident. A large number of direct thyroid measurements (i.e. measurement of the exposure rate near the thyroid of the subject)were conducted in Belarus during a few weeks after the accident. Individual thyroid doses based on results of the direct thyroid measurements were estimated for about 126,000 Belarusian residents and settlement-average thyroid doses for adults were calculated for 426 contaminated settlements in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Another set of settlement-average thyroid doses for adults was estimated based on results of activity measurements in milk samples for 28 settlements (with not less than 2 spectrometric measurements) and 155 settlements (with not less than 5 total beta-activity measurements) in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Concentrations of 131 I in milk were derived from these measurements. In the estimation of this set of thyroid doses, it was assumed that adults consumed 0.5 L d -1 of milk locally produced. The two sets of dose estimates were compared for 47 settlements, for which simultaneously were available a dose estimate based on thyroid measurements and a dose estimate based either on spectrometric or radiometric milk data. The settlement average thyroid doses based on milk activity measurements were higher than those based on direct thyroid measurements by a factor of 1.8 for total beta-activity measurements (30 settlements were compared) and by a factor of 2.4 for spectrometric measurements (17 settlements). This systematic difference can be explained by overestimation of the milk consumption rate used in the calculation of the milk-based thyroid doses and/or by application of individual countermeasures by people. (author)

  8. Analysis of morbidity of children irradiated intrauterine as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychik, S.I.; Stozharov, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was analysis of the influence of intrauterine irradiation of radioactive iodine on the structure and dynamics of prenatal irradiated children morbidity. It was examined children's group ( 10 years old aged ) irradiated in intrauterine status and having been lived constantly on polluted by radionuclide area of the Stolyn District of the Brest Region with contamination density of caesium 137 up to 15 Ci/km 2 . Control group were children aged 9 years old born after the accident and lived constantly in the same points that prenatal irradiated. The observation of morbidity since 1987 to 1995 years has shown that among prenatal irradiated children were more high parameters of general and primary morbidity in the structure of morbidity. It was established that thyroid gland participated in the forming of pathology of other organs and systems

  9. Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination. PMID:24963711

  10. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  11. Relation between natural and anthropogenic factors in the redistribution of radionuclides on the 30 km Chernobyl NPP territory, including the result of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, S.V.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Loginova, L.S.; Meshalkin, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Before the accident natural and anthropogenic ecosystems occupied about 90% of 30-km zone area, including 36% of forest ecosystem, ploughed lands -28%, meadows and bogs - 18%. About 10% of total areas were occupied by ameliorated lands, separate water reservoirs - 2.8% relatively large area. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident the lands structure was changed: Areas of forest territories became larger (up to 12-13%). Areas of territories occupied by different technical constructions, roads were increased too. Contamination of different objects of 30-km zone territory is very uneven, for instance variation of 137 Cs contamination of soil reaches the same thousand times (From 0.1-5 up to 10000 and more Ci/km 2 )

  12. Chernobyl recurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    In a convention of a local fire brigade medical corps in 1987 a radiation protection expert, a pediatrician and a journalist (the author) gave their comments on the effects of the Chernobyl accident. In the present contribution a short account of these comments is given. (qui)

  13. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP) [de

  14. Cesium contamination of mosses in county Vas, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golya, I.; Sebestyen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of mosses were examined to assess radiocesium contamination of Vas county, and to analyse some aspects of mosses for use as indicator of radioactive contamination. Experimental results demonstrated that the distribution of contamination in a given region could be characterized by the cesium contamination of mosses. Sampling sites should be selected with special attention paid to spots with high contamination. Regression analysis proved that the contamination of mosses originated from Chernobyl fallout. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Behaviour of rare earth elements, thorium, uranium and strontium isotopes in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the processes which control retention of rare earth elements, U and Th in soil samples of Bryansk region in one of Russian territory contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. Acid sandy and loam sand podzolic soils are typical of this area. We have classified soil samples into forest, pasture, field, yard and kitchen garden. Rare earth elements, U and Th concentrations were measured by digestion soil samples using acid digestion and microwave digestion method followed by ICP-MS whereas Sr isotope ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) was determined by using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). In case of forest soil samples, ratio of U/Th varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varies, ratio does not show much variation. Pasture soil showed higher concentration of REEs, U and Th. Chondrite normalized pattern of soil samples did not differ much from one another excep Ce and Eu and were similar to that for average concentration of continental crust. In case of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, top layer soil sample shows a relatively higher isotope ratio than lower layers. These data, within the study area, may be reflective of variations in the concentration of elements in reservoir rocks at depth. (author)

  16. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.; Guntay, S.; Powers, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  17. Results of complex studies in radiation state of temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the Chernobyl estrangement zone.; Rezul`taty kompleksnykh issledovanij radiatsionnogo sostoyaniya punktov vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledenev, A I; Ovcharov, P A; Mishunina, I B; Antropov, V M [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Describing complex studies in radiation state of temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the nearest Chernobyl NPP zone, the paper provides results of these studies as well as results of inspection of radioactive waste hidden in 1990 - 1994.

  18. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinkhal', G.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

  19. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Rakwal, R.; Agrawal, G. K.; Tamogami, S.; Kim, Y.H.; Shibato, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Shiraishi, K.; Los, I. P.; Shevachuk, V. E.; Yonekura, M.; Iwahashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  20. The reconstruction of thyroid dose following Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.; Kondrashov, A.; Yaskova, E.; Petin, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Parshkov, E.; Gavrilin, Yu.; Khrousch, V.; Shinkarev, S.; Makarenkova, I.; Volkov, V.; Zvonova, I.; Bratilova, A.; Kaidanovsky, J.; Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovsky, A.; Korneev, S.; Heinemann, K.; Pomplun, E.; Hille, R.; Bailiff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the overview of several approaches in working out the methods of thyroid internal dose reconstruction following Chernobyl. One of these approaches was developed (IBPh, Moscow; MRRC, Obninsk; IRM, Minsk) using the correlations between the mean dose calculation based on I 131 thyroid content measurements and Cs 137 contamination of territories. The available data on I 131 soil contamination were taken into account. The lack of data on I 131 soil contamination was supposed to be compensated by I 129 measurements in soil samples from contaminated territories. The semiempiric model was developed for dose reconstruction. The comparison of the results obtained by semiempiric model and empirical values are presented. The estimated values of average dose according semiempiric model were used for individual dose reconstruction. The IRH (St.-Petersburg) has developed the following method for individual dose reconstruction: correlation between the total I 131 radioiodine incorporation in thyroid and whole body Cs 137 content during first months after accident. The individual dose reconstruction is also mentioned to be performed using the data on individual milk consumption during first weeks after accident. For evaluation of average doses it is suggested to use the linear correlation: thyroid dose values based on radioiodine thyroid measurements vs Cs 137 contamination, air kerma rate, mean I 131 concentration in the milk. The method for retrospective reconstruction of thyroid dose caused by short-living iodine nuclides released after the Chernobyl accident has been developed by Research Centre, Juelich, Germany. It is based on the constant ratio that these nuclides have with the long-living I 129 . The contamination of soil samples by this nuclide can be used to assess thyroid doses. First results of I 129 contamination values and derived thyroid doses are to be presented

  1. Radioactive contamination of the Dnepr-Sozh river basin in Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Matveenko, I.I.; Pokumejko, Yu.M.; Shagalova, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic control over the radioactive contamination of surface waters is carried out at five main rivers of Belarus: Dnepr, Sozh, Pripyat, Iput, Besed. The experimental watershed of Iput river (Dnepr-Sozh basin) have been chosen for revealing the general rules of radioactive contamination of the rivers of Belarus on the basis of generalization of the monitoring data and field investigations. It has been found that transport of radionuclides on suspended solids is one of the main forms of migration of radionuclides in the river (caesium-137 in particular). Thus, the analysis of contamination of the rivers of Belarus has shown that the most intensive runoff of radionuclides from the territories of the watershed occurs in the head of the Dnepr basin, namely by its tributaries, Iput and Sozh. The annual runoff of radionuclides in soluble form by the rivers of Belarus in 1987-1996 has decreased significantly. Transport of radioisotopes with suspended and drawn wash loads significantly affects their migration and its contribution to the total runoff of radionuclides has increased with time. The runoff of radionuclides with transported wash loads varied within 20-80% from the total runoff of radionuclides. Sedimentation of river suspended load carrying radionuclides in the sites with slow river flow creates local movable ecologically dangerous centres of accumulation of radionuclides in bottom sediments particularly in front of the diverting dams. Existence of such centres of radioactive contamination requires their monitoring, assessment of their possible effects, and, if necessary, their decontamination

  2. Materials of scientific symposium Chernobyl 1986-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The scientific symposium 'Chernobyl 1986-1996' has been devoted to assessment of consequences for environment and human population of Chernobylsk-4 Nuclear Reactor accident. The environment contamination in Poland has been performed on the base of monitoring results carried out during the decade after the event. The influence of environment and food contamination for human health has been assessed in detail. The organization of medical preventive action, especially in children population in Poland has been positively assessed as well as cooperation of governmental and territorial authorities immediately after the accident. The long-lasting consequences of environment contamination and radionuclide migration to crops and food products have been also discussed

  3. Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    1997-01-01

    The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

  4. Seven years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwicki, R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper contains information of the WHO about the state of public health in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus seven years after the Chernobyl accident. The results of medical investigations obtained after two years run of IPHECA project have been also presented

  5. Experience of the Republic of Belarus in solving the problems of rehabilitation of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalko, V.

    2002-01-01

    As the result of the Chernobyl accident, about a quarter of the Belarussian territory has been contaminated by radionuclides. More than one and a half million of people live on the contaminated territory. The legislation and radiological standards were developed in all spheres related to overcoming of the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Significant range of countermeasures is applied in agriculture. The system of social protection of all population categories is under implementation. Considerable part of work has been done to improve living conditions in the contaminated territories. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories includes a complex of measures aimed at restoration of the economy, social infrastructure, physical and psychological health of people. Although a long time passed since the Chernobyl accident, a lot of problems of rehabilitation of affected areas still remain to be solved. In this regard, both national efforts and international collaboration are very important. (author)

  6. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in contaminated soils of the Chernobyl area; Etude du comportement du {sup 137}Cs et du {sup 90}Sr dans les sols contamines de la region de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gri, N. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    2000-07-01

    The improvement of the understanding of the mechanisms which generate radionuclides retention in soils are of main importance for radioactivity transport models, especially for long time assessments. In this context, the objectives of this thesis were to identify the mechanisms responsible for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr behaviour in non cultivated soils and to quantify their influence. We studied radiocaesium and radiostrontium availability in different soils of the Chernobyl area (chernozem, sand, gley, peat), whose contamination took several physico-chemical forms (fuel particles, condensed forms, mixed deposits). The migration profiles obtained by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation show that the majority of the activity is contained in the ten first centimeters of soil, except for one site. The profiles are varied and don't allow to classify the radionuclides availability according to the pedology or to the contamination type. A selective extraction protocol applied on several soil layers has been adopted as an indirect approach. Although radionuclides availability is increasing with depth, the selective extraction protocol shows that a non negligible fraction of activity remain not mobile. {sup 137}Cs is associated to interstratified clay minerals in a non reversible way and {sup 90}Sr is strongly bound to fuel particles. The existence of these retention mechanisms calls into question the use of the K{sub d} distribution coefficient in transport models because they disabled reversibility and instantaneous desorption notions. (author)

  7. High 36Cl/Cl ratios in Chernobyl groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Céline; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Simonucci, Caroline; Van Meir, Nathalie; Fifield, L. Keith; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    After the explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986, contaminated material was buried in shallow trenches within the exclusion zone. A 90 Sr plume was evidenced downgradient of one of these trenches, trench T22. Due to its conservative properties, 36 Cl is investigated here as a potential tracer to determine the maximal extent of the contamination plume from the trench in groundwater. 36 Cl/Cl ratios measured in groundwater, trench soil water and leaf leachates are 1–5 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural 36 Cl/Cl ratio. This contamination occurred after the Chernobyl explosion and currently persists. Trench T22 acts as an obvious modern point source of 36 Cl, however other sources have to be involved to explain such contamination. 36 Cl contamination of groundwater can be explained by dilution of trench soil water by uncontaminated water (rainwater or deep groundwater). With a plume extending further than that of 90 Sr, radionuclide which is impacted by retention and decay processes, 36 Cl can be considered as a suitable tracer of contamination from the trench in groundwater provided that modern release processes of 36 Cl from trench soil are better characterized. - Highlights: • High 36 Cl/Cl ratios measured in the Chernobyl Pilot Site groundwater. • Trench T22 acts as a modern source of groundwater contamination by 36 Cl but other sources are involved. • Contamination results from dilution of a contaminated “T22” soil water with rainwater. • Processes involved in the modern release need to be investigated

  8. Radiocaesium transfer to ewes fed contaminated hay after the Chernobyl accident: effect of vermiculite and AFCF (ammonium ferricyanoferrate) as countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Archimbaud, Y.; Cousi, J.; Fayart, G.; Hoffschir, D.; Chevallereau, I.; Le Creff, H.; Gueguen, L.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated hay harvested in the south-east of France in June 1986 was fed to lactating and non-lactating ewes for 50-60 days. The mean transfer coefficients observed were 0.075 days litre -1 to milk and 0.11 days kg -1 to meat. Adding vermiculite to feed pellets decreased the transfer coefficients by a factor of 2.5 to both milk and meat if given at 30 g day -1 ; a factor of 8 difference was reached using 60 g day -1 added vermiculite or 2 g day -1 ammonium ferricyanoferrate (AFCF). No adverse effects on intake rates, animal weight or milk production were observed during the administration period (90-100 days, 50-60 days during the oral contamination and 40 days during the depletion period), whatever the treatment. Three lactating goats were fed the same contaminated hay, but chopped and mixed with powdered maize, for 15 days. The mean milk transfer coefficient was lower than that for ewes at 0.032 days litre -1 . (author)

  9. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  10. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  11. Chernobyl's lengthening shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marples, D.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the April 26, 1986 nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The information presented was gathered through talks between the author and scientists, citizens, and hospital workers in Belarus and Ukraine, as well as from library research. What is currently believed to have occurred at the time of the accident is related. The short and long term health effects of the accident as they are now understood are analyzed. The numbers of people evacuated and the location and severity of land contamination are described. Political and economic consequences of the accident are also explored. 2 refs

  12. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137 Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137 Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137 Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m -2 ) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137 Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137 Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137 Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137 Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137 Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg -1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg -1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137 Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In

  13. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  14. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Nedvecktaite, T.; Filistovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  15. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midden, C.J.H.; Verplanken, B.

    1986-11-01

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  16. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  17. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  18. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Mycio

    2007-01-01

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  19. Results of radiation monitoring in the German Democratic Republic after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The summary of radiation monitoring results published in this issue of the SAAS Report series corresponds closely with the introductory paper to the compilation of individual data measured in the GDR in the period May to September 1986, which was submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency in October 1986. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these results is that it was at no time necessary to restrict food consumption or to change nutritional habits in order to avoid detrimental health effects. (author)

  20. Analysis of environmental contamination and human health effects in the southeastern of Belorussia 13 years after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueller, J.; Schweitzer, S.; Trojanov, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Associated with the humanitarian aid of the Chernobyl association and the University of Jena for the last 6 years simultaneous analysis of the radioactive contamination and the health situation is performed in the white-russian district of Krasnopolje (200 km north of the reactor, 23.000 inhabitants, 30% of the population evacuated since 1988). The retrospective analysis of incidences of malignant and non-malignant diseases is based on the annual epidemiologic reports of the district physician, comprising data from the past 13 years with a cutoff data of December 31, 1998. The level of contamination of the soil with Cesium 137 measures 1-5 Ci/km 2 in 14% of the territory, 5-15 Ci/km 2 in 50%, 15-40 Ci/km 2 in 25% and >40 Ci/km 2 in 11% (evacuated zone). The gamma-radiation dose rate in still inhabited areas fluctuates from 0,2 to 1,0 micro-Sv/h (normal values: 0,1-0,2 micro-Sv/h). In areas which have been evacuated and closed for agricultural use, levels exceeding 9 micro-Sv/h have been recorded. As expected comparing 1996 to 1998, no decrease of the radiation dose rate in corresponding places of measurement was seen. The existing dosimetry of food which does not fully cover the area shows only slight exceedings of the limits for the basic food supplied by the government controlled trade. With mushrooms, game and berries, peak levels up to 200 times of the Bq-levels per kg were measured. The annual rate of newly diagnosed malignant diseases was relatively constant until 1992 with 23/10.000, but did increase to 43/10.000 in 1993, followed by a decrease to 27/10.000 in 1997 and a increase to 35/10.000 in 1998. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma (n=9) have been observed since 1992. A tendency of growing incidence without significance was seen with tumors of the lungs, the urogenital and the colorectal tract, but barely with leucemia and malignant lymphomas. A significant increase in the incidences of endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, autonomic adenoma, diabetes, adrenal

  1. Analysis of environmental contamination and human health effects in the southeastern of Belorussia 13 years after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueller, J.; Schweitzer, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Trojanov, M.W. [District Hospital Krasnopolje, Krasnopolje (Belarus)

    2000-05-01

    Associated with the humanitarian aid of the Chernobyl association and the University of Jena for the last 6 years simultaneous analysis of the radioactive contamination and the health situation is performed in the white-russian district of Krasnopolje (200 km north of the reactor, 23.000 inhabitants, 30% of the population evacuated since 1988). The retrospective analysis of incidences of malignant and non-malignant diseases is based on the annual epidemiologic reports of the district physician, comprising data from the past 13 years with a cutoff data of December 31, 1998. The level of contamination of the soil with Cesium 137 measures 1-5 Ci/km{sup 2} in 14% of the territory, 5-15 Ci/km{sup 2} in 50%, 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2} in 25% and >40 Ci/km{sup 2} in 11% (evacuated zone). The gamma-radiation dose rate in still inhabited areas fluctuates from 0,2 to 1,0 micro-Sv/h (normal values: 0,1-0,2 micro-Sv/h). In areas which have been evacuated and closed for agricultural use, levels exceeding 9 micro-Sv/h have been recorded. As expected comparing 1996 to 1998, no decrease of the radiation dose rate in corresponding places of measurement was seen. The existing dosimetry of food which does not fully cover the area shows only slight exceedings of the limits for the basic food supplied by the government controlled trade. With mushrooms, game and berries, peak levels up to 200 times of the Bq-levels per kg were measured. The annual rate of newly diagnosed malignant diseases was relatively constant until 1992 with 23/10.000, but did increase to 43/10.000 in 1993, followed by a decrease to 27/10.000 in 1997 and a increase to 35/10.000 in 1998. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma (n=9) have been observed since 1992. A tendency of growing incidence without significance was seen with tumors of the lungs, the urogenital and the colorectal tract, but barely with leucemia and malignant lymphomas. A significant increase in the incidences of endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, autonomic adenoma

  2. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  3. Impact of fallout from Chernobyl on Saclay site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The fallout from Chernobyl accident have been monitored at Saclay Nuclear Research Center. The initial results from external irradiation measurement and analysis of environmental samples: air, fallout deposits, surface water, drinking water, underground water, food chain, are presented. The population radiation doses from external exposure to the plume, inhaled radioactivity and consumption of meat, milk and vegetables have been estimated. Special monitoring of internal contamination by iodine 131, cesium 134 and cesium 137 has been carried out using whole body counting [fr

  4. Measurement of the radioactivity of the channel DTD before Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Marinkov, L.

    1987-01-01

    The activity concentration of long loved fission and corrosion products and natural radionuclides has been measured in a selected part of the Danube-Tisa-Danube channel system which is not receiving liquid effluents from nuclear power plants. The comparison with the activities measured in the river danube did not show statistically significant differences. The results obtained describe the reference level of radioactivity for the evaluation of the contamination of the system caused by the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  5. Cytogenetical study of different groups of children living in Bryansk region areas contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandogina, E.K.; Agejkin, V.A.; Zvereva, S.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) was studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy children and children with thyreopathology living in the city of Klincy, Bryansk region (contamination level up to 5 Ci/km 2 ), and two Moscow groups, respectively. We have observed the elevated number of dicentrics and acentric fragments in cell from children with thyreopathology with respect from healthy children living in Klincy. This fact cannot be explained by influence of disease because there was no difference in cytogenetical markers between the groups of healthy children and children with thyreopathology from Moscow. The number of dicentrics was increased in cells from children with high level of internal contamination (more than 400 nCi) living in Krasnaya Gora (15-40 Ci/km 2 ). It is proposed that the internal irradiation is more important for the CA induction. The symmetrical translocation analysis using the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has shown the absence of this type of aberrations in cells from children with high level of internal irradiation whereas the translocations frequency in cells from control children was (1.1±0.4) per 1000 cells. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Evaluation of release amount of radioactivity from Chernobyl accident and of resulting radiological consequence in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxing

    1987-01-01

    Three kinds of methods are used to evaluate the release amount from Chernoby1 RBMK-1000 reactor accident, i.e. (1) estimation by comparison with Windscale accident; (2) estimation in terms of the stock in the core; and (3) estimation according to the available monitoring data form adjacent countries such as Poland and Finland. The results obtained are as follows: the release of I-131 was 0.1-1.5 EBq, which is approximately 4-50% of the stock in the core; the release amount of Ru-103 was comparable to that of Cs-137, both approximately 5-10% of that of I-131; the volatile nuclides such as Mo-99, Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-137 etc., were in the order of 0.4 EBq; involatile nuclides were 0.2 EBq; noble gases and other fission products 10 EBq; and the total amount released was about 20 EBq, which taken together 8% of the stock in the core. The radioactive cloud cluster passed through over the area of China in the beginning of May. It was estimated that the total amount of I-131 in air over China area was about 1.6 PB q , Cs-137 about 0.3 PB q , Ru-103 about 0.2 PB q ; the total fallout in the area of China was about 3 PB q for I-131, about 0.1 PB q for Cs-137, about 0.3 PB q for Ru-103. The resulting effective dose equavalent commitment to critical group individual was about 60 μSv, collective effective dose equavalent commitment received by the population of China was about 1 x 10 4 man.Sv

  7. Inspection system of radioactive contamination in foods and its results in Yokohama City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    Accompanying the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred on April 26, 1986, the radioactive contamination of the foods imported from Europe became problems. Consequently, the Ministry of Health and Welfare stipulated the temporary limit of radioactive concentration in imported foods in terms of the total of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at less than 370 becquerel per 1 kg of foods in November, 1986, and the inspection system was tightened. In Yokohama, in view of securing the safety of foods and eliminating the anxiety of citizen, the measuring instruments for radioactivity were installed in the Hygiene Laboratory in 1986 and in the Food Hygiene Inspection Stations in Central Wholesale Market in 1987, and the inspection was begun. So far 720 subjects were inspected, but there was none that exceeds the temporary limit. The period and the method of executing the inspection and the results of nuclide analysis, screening inspection and so on are reported. It was judged that at the present point of time, there is not much influence to the life of citizen. (K.I.)

  8. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external γ dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on

  9. The health status of the Russian pediatric population exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident: Results of a 29-year follow-up of the Children's Research and Practical Center for Anti-Radiation Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Baleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a long-term follow-up of the health status of children exposed to radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Five reference cohorts have been identified, each of which has individual features of the development of radiation-induced diseases. A cohort of babies irradiated in utero, a cohort of the children of Chernobyl accident liquidators, and a cohort of mI-irradiated children born in 1969-1986 are considered.

  10. Environmental radioactivity and water supply. Pt. 3. The contamination of surface waters in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.

    1988-03-01

    After the reactor accident, german surface waters have been monitored in numerous positions over a long period of time. The highest concentrations of iodine 131 occurred in the lower german region of the Danube river with more than 200 Bg/l whereas the Rhine river had the lowest concentrations. The sudden rise of the radioactivity of the river water have been followed by a slower decrease but nevertheless much faster than the radioactive decay. Probably this is caused by the interaction with river sediments. For the german lakes and reservoirs it was very important whether the water masses have been stratified or not when the radioactive cloud arrived. Where this was the case, the radioactive contaminants remained predominantly in the upper layer, the epilimnion for a long period of time [fr

  11. [The radioecological lessons of Chernobyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksakhin, R M

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radioecological studies undertaken within the area exposed to ionizing radiation after Chernobyl disaster. Conclusions are made concerning the major regularities in radionuclide migration within various natural media and action of ionizing radiation on natural and artificial ecosystems. The efficiency of basic protective ecological measures in eliminating the accident consequences has been determined. The contribution of radioecological studies to the elimination of Chernobyl disaster sequences assessed.

  12. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  13. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge Refs, figs, tabs

  14. The never ending burden: Germany in the year 1 past Chernobyl: Confused experts, distressed mothers, contaminated milk. Radiation doses went down, but the cancer risk and genetic hazards remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.; Janssen, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Becquerel values in milk and meat are due to rise again during the next few weeks. The Federal Republic of Germany continues to live with the radioactive burden brought by the Chernobyl clouds. It is true that the radiation doses are lower than expected, but low-dose exposure, too, can have evil effects; the cancer risk and genetic hazards still remain incalculable. The article presents a survey of the radiation exposure in the country as a function of geographic data, and a rough assessment of possible consequences emanating from ingestion of contaminated food. (orig./GL) [de

  15. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchuk, V.E.; Gurachevskij, V.L.

    2006-04-01

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  16. Radiation monitoring of conveyances, cargoes, passengers and crews on the UK following the Chernobyl accident: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J S; Shaw, K B

    1986-01-01

    A brief article presents monitoring results performed on ships, aircraft, cargo, passengers and crew arriving in the UK from areas which might have been affected by the radioactive plume from the Chernobyl accident. Contamination levels on aircraft surfaces were only marginally above background. Even on the most contaminated ships, thyroid uptake by crew and passengers was not detectable and the risks presented by the surface contamination were insignificant.

  17. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  18. Preliminary results and prospects for research performed by the scientists of Ministry of Health of Ukraine on Chernobyl accident medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyizhenko, Yu.P.; Rozenfel'd, L.G.; Mel'nik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Results of scientific management of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, as well as scientific researches of 23 scientific research institutes, 11 medical institutes, 6 scientific practical establishment were analyzed to cover Complex ecological research programme on Chernobyl accident outcomes for 1986-1990 (medical aspects). The data about the health of communities, epidemiology, peculiarities of the course, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of inner organs and systems disorders and diseases in the exposed persons, which were obtained on the basis of environment radiologic are reported

  19. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations (∼40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  20. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Conny.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  1. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-28

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas.

  2. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillwald, K.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.) [de

  3. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  4. Somatic mutagenesis at T-cell receptor locus in inhabitants of radiation polluted regions as a result of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamulaeva, I.A.; Smirnova, S.G.; Orlova, N.V.; Vereshchagina, O.A.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Smirnova, I.A.; Krikunova, L.I.; Parshin, V.S.; Ivanov, V.K.; Saenko, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the period of 2001-2004, the mutation frequency at T-cell receptor (TCR) locus was assessed in 553 inhabitants of contamination regions of the Russian Federation and 154 unexposed control persons. The inhabitants were divided into three groups according to age at the moment of the Chernobyl disaster and 137 Cs contamination density. The most intense changes of the TCR-mutant cell frequency was observed in the group of persons exposed to prenatal irradiation. The excess in the mean TCR-mutant cell frequency was less expressed in the group of inhabitants aged 0-14 years at the moment of irradiation start. It was not found significant differences in mutation frequency between the control group and adults consisting in the third group (18 and more years old). The changes of the TCR-mutant cell frequency in persons exposed in prenatal and postnatal periods differ not only quantitatively, but qualitatively. The TCR-mutant frequency was significantly higher in persons with benign tumors of different localizations and nodules in thyroid gland than in persons without this pathology [ru

  5. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Bouville, A.; Hall, P.; Savkin, M.; Storm, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  6. Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

  7. ReSCA: decision support tool for remediation planning after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, A; Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N

    2011-03-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident still provide a substantial impact on the population of affected territories in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Reduction of population exposure can be achieved by performing remediation activities in these areas. Resulting from the IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects with these countries, the program ReSCA (Remediation Strategies after the Chernobyl Accident) has been developed to provide assistance to decision makers and to facilitate a selection of an optimized remediation strategy in rural settlements. The paper provides in-depth description of the program, its algorithm, and structure. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  8. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushev, B.I.; Martinovich, B.S.; Rakhteenko, L.I.; Savel'ev, V.V.; Piskunov, V.S.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Sak, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  9. Radioactive contamination of food, sampled in regions of the USSR affected by the Chernobyl accident, and of radioactive exposure in these regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.; Struijs, van der T.D.B.

    1991-01-01

    From 21.10.1990 to 01.11.1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited the USSR. The Netherlands Government reacted positively to a request from the USSR for such aid and the aim of the mission was to gather facts for a useful aid

  10. Chernobyl's other legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenemser, C.; Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    A number of accounts of the Chernobyl accident argue that governments and the public were overwhelmed by the transnational impact of the accident, and that their response was in some sense irrational or exaggerated. This article describes the essential features of what is now known about the radiation release at Chernobyl, its world-wide dispersion, the resulting exposures, and the expected health consequences. With this basis the fallout exposure is related to changes in public attitudes about nuclear power, to the extent of protective action achieved, and to the level commitment to nuclear power in several countries. This analysis allows a number of questions to be posed, as follows: 1. Were shifts in public opinion related to the level of exposure, and if so, what does this suggest? 2. Were protective actions, as measured by radiation exposure averted (dose savings), proportional to the danger posed? 3. Were protective actions related to the change in public attitudes toward nuclear power? 4. Was a country's degree of commitment to nuclear energy, as measured by the nuclear share of electricity generation, a factor in its response to the Chernobyl accident? Analysis of these questions, which is largely based on data for the Western democracies, suggests that, with some significant exceptions, both public and government responses were surprisingly rational in that they were proportional to the public's level of exposure. This finding speaks in turn to the central importance of public information in fashioning a response to risky technology. 41 notes, 6 figures, 4 tables

  11. Return to Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosovsky, Anatolij

    1995-09-01

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country`s electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK).

  12. Return to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovsky, Anatolij.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country's electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK)

  13. Some problems connected with the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The description of the eruption of radionuclides caused by the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident, including the effective time of the accident, quality and quantity of radio waste, is presented. A particular attention is given to the spotty structure of Chernobyl's contamination. The assumption that the spots distribution may be a consequence of the turbulent processes in the atmosphere is made

  14. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of 137 Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of 137 Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, 137 Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of 137 Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, 137 Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested 137 Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested 137 Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that 137 Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  15. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  16. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented

  17. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Chekin, Sergei; Malakhova, Irina V.; Polyakov, Semion; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Yuri; Golovanov, Ivan; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Maceika, Evaldas; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  18. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Level of knowledge in the field of radiation safety of students and teachers of schools of Chechersk district, Gomel region, living in radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl disaster territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushin, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge level of students and teachers of schools in the field of radiation safety was determined using the test-questionnaire. The obtained results allow us to adjust approaches to public awareness and themes developed by students and public information and educational materials on international technical assistance project 'Enhancing human security in the areas affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant', which will undoubtedly contribute to enhancing its effectiveness.

  20. Formation of nitrosyl non-heme iron-sulphur complexes of a mitrochondria electron-transport chain in a liver and kidneys under prolonged permanent action of radiation contamination in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorik, E.P.; Burlaka, A.P.; Druzhina, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    No-complexes with iron-sulfur protein of the N-type (EPR signal g=2.03 at 77 K) have been revealed in a mitochondria electron transport chain in a liver and kidneys of animals which were hold for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl area under action of low intensity ionizing radiation as a result of incorporated radionuclides. These alterations in protein give evidence of changes in oxidation and phosphorylation in tissues

  1. Radionuclide transfer to wildlife at a 'Reference site' in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and resultant radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Gashchak, S; Maksimenko, A; Guliaichenko, E; Wood, M D; Izquierdo, M

    2018-02-27

    This study addresses a significant data deficiency in the developing environmental protection framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, namely a lack of radionuclide transfer data for some of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). It is also the first study that has sampled such a wide range of species (invertebrates, plants, amphibians and small mammals) from a single terrestrial site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Samples were collected in 2014 from the 0.4 km 2 sampling site, located 5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power complex. We report radionuclide ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 241 Am and Pu-isotopes) and stable element concentrations in wildlife and soil samples and use these to determine whole organism-soil concentration ratios and absorbed dose rates. Increasingly, stable element analyses are used to provide transfer parameters for radiological models. The study described here found that for both Cs and Sr the transfer of the stable element tended to be lower than that of the radionuclide; this is the first time that this has been demonstrated for Sr, though it is in agreement with limited evidence previously reported for Cs. Studies reporting radiation effects on wildlife in the CEZ generally relate observations to ambient dose rates determined using handheld dose meters. For the first time, we demonstrate that ambient dose rates may underestimate the actual dose rate for some organisms by more than an order of magnitude. When reporting effects studies from the CEZ, it has previously been suggested that the area has comparatively low natural background dose rates. However, on the basis of data reported here, dose rates to wildlife from natural background radionuclides within the CEZ are similar to those in many areas of Europe. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. [The radiological situation before and after Chernobyl disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoniak, Marcin; Zonenberg, Anna; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear reactor accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl, has been one of the greatest ecological disasters in human history. In our study we discussed the most recent data on the accident, and the natural and synthetic sources of radiation. According to the recent data, the air at Chernobyl had been contaminated with about 5300 PBq radionuclide activity (excluding rare gases), including 1760 PBq (131)I and 85 PBq (137)Cs. The highest radiation received by the liquidators (0.8-16 Gy), lower doses were received by the population which was evacuated or inhabited the contaminated areas (in which the level of (137)Cs activity deposited in the earth was 37 kBq/m(2)). In the European countries the highest mean radiation dose per year for the whole body in the first year after the accident was in Bulgaria (760 microSv), Austria (670 microSv) and Greece (590 microSv), while the lowest radiation dose was observed in Portugal (1.8 microSv) and Spain (4.2 microSv). In Poland the mean effective equivalent dose resulting from Chernobyl accident was 932 microSv and is close to the limited dose permitted in Poland, equalling 1 mSv/year. The highest radiation dose to thyroid was received by inhabitants of the states previously known as Bielskopodlaskie, Nowosadeckie and the north-east region of Poland. Lowest dose was received by inhabitants of the areas previously known as Slupski and Rzeszowski.

  3. Chernobyl: myths and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, A.

    1998-01-01

    Factual materials concerning the consequences of the Chernobyl accident presented by international organizations during post-Chernobyl period are discussed. Attention is paid to the clinical effects directly related to the accident, diseases, psychological consequences, long-term effect on health. Prospects for post-Chernobyl period are considered

  4. Belarus: Towards a new post-Chernobyl rehabilitation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimchik, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Today, Belarus still has to deal with many problems that resulted owing to the extensive contamination of its territory after the Chernobyl accident. These problems remain omnipresent in everyday life of the affected population and have a continuous impact on the economic well being of the country. This paper describes the major changes that have been carried out in the rehabilitation strategies in Belarus since the Chernobyl accident. The evolution of the legal and administrative framework for rehabilitation and actions taken in this context over the past two decades are summarized. The continuing challenges faced by the population in the affected areas are discussed and the key principles underlying rehabilitation strategies (that are both practicable and accepted) are identified. The latter include openness, voluntary participation, collective decision-making and empowerment of local population and professionals. These principles have underpinned the development of recent national and international initiatives that are described. (authors)

  5. Social and economic impact of Chernobyl in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erturk, K.; Guven, C.; Onat, B.; Birol, E.

    1997-01-01

    The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in terms of doses to individuals in the various countries covered a wide range. The specific features of the release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl accident, particularly its relatively large duration and altitude reached by the radioactive plume, caused a widespread distribution of activity across Europe. Meteorological conditions and wind regimes during the period of release were the contributing factors. The varying distances from the source of release and long duration of the release in different directions resulted in uneven ground and foodchain contamination. Also, variable meteorological situation, characterized by frequent and localized heavy precipitation contributed to uneven deposition differs sometimes by one or two orders of magnitude between localities situated few tens of kilometers apart. In these circumstances, the doses to the individuals of critical groups appeared to be higher than the average individual dose over whole population

  6. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanova, E.M.; Antipkine, Y.G.; Omelchenko, L.I.; Chernyshov, V.P.; Apuhovskaya, L.I.; Ossinskaya, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  7. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children`s health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanova, E M; Antipkine, Y G; Omelchenko, L I; Chernyshov, V P; Apuhovskaya, L I; Ossinskaya, L F [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children`s population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ``Children of Chernobyl``. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ``clean`` regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Derivation of soil to plant transfer factors of radiocaesium in Northern Greece after the Chernobyl accident, and comparison with greenhouse experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonoloulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of cereals, due to the Chernobyl accident, was systematically studied in two selected experimental agricultural farms in Northern Greece for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989. Radiocesium contamination of all annual crops is very low, of the order of 1 Bq kg -1 , and appears to be, for the first 3 years after the Chernobyl accident, time independent, the differences lying within the experimental error. Transfer factors, relating radiocesium deposition to contamination of crops, are deduced from the experimental results. Results are also discussed in the framework of UNSCEAR's empirical model, and the corresponding parameters are deduced. In addition greenhouse experiments show that the Transfer Factors obtained are independent of the initial radiocesium deposition and that radiocesium from the Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from usual experimental sources, such as 137 CsCl. (author)

  9. Thyroid Nodularity and cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Farbtuha, T.; Matisane, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Radiation exposure was from rapidly decaying radioactive iodines, as well as from 137 CS and other long-lived radioisotopes. About 6000 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident were from Latvia. External radiation exposure was defined for 40% of them and the doses were 0.01-0.5 Grey (Gy). Although according to conclusions of authoritative experts of different countries, the actual doses of radiation might be at least 3-4 times higher. Because the thyroid is highly susceptible to cancer induction by ionizing radiation, our examination was conducted in 2001 to determine the prevalence of thyroid tumors in 1990-2000 and other nodular thyroid disease 14 years after the accident in Latvia's Chernobyl clean-up workers. The Latvian State Register for persons who have received ionising radiation in Chernobyl and Latvia's Cancer Register were used in this work as well as 1000 Chernobyl accident clean-up workers medical ambulatory cards were analysed. We have received that occurrence of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers was 10,6 times higher than in Latvia's population (men) in 1990-2000 and also it occurs at earlier age in comparison with population data (40-50 and 55-65 accordingly). This can be explained in two ways: either due to effect of the short-term or long-term external and internal radiation exposure (including, from the incorporated 131 I) on the thyroid tissue, or due to a better dispensarisation (obligatory thyroid ultrasound examination once per year) of the examined group. The first thyroid cancer was discovered in 1996 -after ten years of latent period. The relative risk of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers in 1996 was 33.27, and in 1997 -42.64. Then, the morbidity of the thyroid cancer exhibits tendency to decrease (RR 18.27 in 1998, and 9.42 in 1999). The presence of thyroid benign nodules was

  10. Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: illness or illness behavior? A comparative general health survey in two former Soviet regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.; Rumyantzeva, G.; Kasyanenko, A.; Kaasjager, K.; Westermann, Anneke; van den Brink, W.; van den Bout, J.; Savelkoul, J.

    1997-01-01

    Results are described of a general health survey (n = 3044) that was conducted 6.5 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in a seriously contaminated region in Belarus and a socioeconomically comparable, but unaffected, region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to

  11. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Radiation Dose to Post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation dose calculation for post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine - both external radiation exposure due to fallout and internal doses due to inhalation (I131 intake) or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.

  13. Radiocesium in migratory bird species in northern Ireland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive fallout arising form the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 reached Northern Ireland in early May and was deposited in rain. However, the subsequent contamination of food supplies in Northern Ireland were well below national and international levels at which any action would be considered necessary and presented no risks to health. In addition to the direct contamination of food supplies with radionuclides in the form of fallout following the Chernobyl incident another potential source of radioactive contamination entering the human food chain was through the arrival of migratory species of game birds. Each autumn and winter many thousands of birds migrate to Northern Ireland from Northern and Eastern Europe and some of these could have been contaminated as a result of being directly affected by the fallout from Chernobyl. The purpose of this work was to examine the extend of radionuclide contamination in such species and a number of samples were obtained for analyses during the autumn/winter periods in 1986/87 and 1987/88. The results obtained are outlined below. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Soil to plant transfer of radiocesium: application to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of different annual crops, due to the Chernobyl accident, was systematically studied in two experimental agricultural farms in North Greece for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989. For the first three years after the Chernobyl accident it was generally observed that radiocesium contamination of almost all the annual crops appears to be time independent, the differences lying within the experimental error. Transfer Factors, relating radiocesium deposition to contamination of crops were found to be for cereals about 0.01, one order of magnitude smaller than those deduced from field experiments in Northern European Countries, mainly due to different soil characteristics. The results are also discussed in the framework of the UNSCEAR's empirical model and the corresponding parameters are deduced. (author)

  15. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  16. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Reitan, J.B.; Harbitz, O.; Brynhildsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  17. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  18. A content of minimizing the damage of health and welfare of the population as a result of the Chernobyl accident (questions and ansevers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A conception of minimizing the damage to the health and welfare of the population shich was exposed to radiation as result of the Chernobyl accident, was analyzed in form of questions and answers. Three chapters are considered: main positions and peculiarities; radiation situation; radiation effect on the health. Critical analysis of the conception is given. Its disadvantages were noted from the point of view of basis of some assessments of radiation safety and measures which were suggested to use for protection of health of the population. Social and economic problems arising in realization of given conception were considered. Comparative evaluation of this conception with results of overcoming the consequences of radiation action on population of Japan after nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was presented

  19. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Ryabukhin, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development [ru

  20. Possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways for bladder cancer in Ukraine, before and after the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Keiichirou; Romanenko, Alina; Min, Wei; Salim, Elsayed I; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-04-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine increased gradually from 26.2 to 43.3 per 100,000 people between 1986 and 2001. In the areas of low level but persistent cesium-137 (137Cs) radio-contamination, a unique atypical radiation-related urinary bladder cystitis named 'Chernobyl cystitis', a possible pre-neoplastic condition in humans, has been detected. We have previously documented high incidences of bladder lesions, including severe dysplasias and/or carcinoma in situ, in association with this cystitis and correlating with oxidative DNA damage. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying bladder carcinogenesis with this specific etiology, mutation analysis of p53 gene (exon 5-8) was performed for 11 and 18 paraffin-embedded bladder cancers in Ukrainians, respectively collected before and after the Chernobyl disaster. DNAs were extracted and subjected to nested PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by direct DNA sequencing, as well as p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). The incidences of p53 gene mutation were 54.5 and 16.7% for before and after the Chernobyl disaster, respectively, the difference being statistically significant. Also a tendency for higher p53 IHC score was apparent in the earlier group of lesions. No significant difference was noted for the proportions of historical types. These results point to possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways of bladder cancer formation, before and after the Chernobyl disaster, on the basis of variation in p53 gene alteration.

  1. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  2. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  3. Ten-year observations on health status of Children irradiated in utero as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, E I; Kondrashova, V G; Galychanskaya, T Y; Vdovenko, V U [Radiation Medicine scientific Center of Ukrainian Medical Sciences Academy, (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The health status dynamics of 1104 children exposed to radiation in utero was estimated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The thyroid doses ranged from 0.00 to 3340.00 mg y, and total body doses from 1.00 to 376.00 mZv. The decrease in child adaptation capacity was observed with general somatic pathology and higher incidence of thyroid haemoglobin levels were rare in children irradiated in utero. The leucopenias with blood cells ultrastructure surficial architectonics alterations were more frequent. The metabolism of hemopoietic elements during early, post-accident years was peculiar with energy production activation through all paths of energy reception. During further years, all the intracellular enzymes activity decreased. energy depots exhaustion accompanied with ultrastructural changes, neutrophyles functional capacity and specific functions depression were revealed. The PC analysis of data obtained enabled to determine the presence of interconnection between some body systems disorders, radiation effects phenomenon and health status as a whole, and to reveal the further deterioration risk level. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Pathogenesis of radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of our 12-year experience in dealing with this problem,we offered a functional model of thyroid pathogenesis in the post-Chernobyl period.The model highlights the tight correlation between the response of the thyroid gland at exposure to ionising radiation and its functional state.The model takes into account that the thyroid functional state - its volume,iodine intake,production of hormones,etc.- has an influence upon the formation of the absorbed dose,mainly due to radioactive iodine,as well as on the type and level of radiation response manifestation.The functional activity of the gland depends both on peculiarities of the pubescent period in boys and girls,on periods of pregnancy,lactation and menopause in women and on external factors(iodine enemy in the environment or iodine prophylaxis).This permits us to consider and analyse a wide set of thyroid disorders possibly related to radiation exposure

  5. Results of the scientific and humanitarian projects supported by the German electricity companies (VDEW e.V.) after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfob, H.; Heinemann, G.

    2000-01-01

    The German Electricity Companies, organized by VDEW e.V., tried to support in manifold ways the areas and people affected by the Chernobyl accident in their management of the situation. Apart from their prompting numerous help projects of the German public; we must mention three efforts especially: 1. the program for partnership in security matters initiated by the German nuclear power plants has been serving a quick and efficient support of the Eastern European plants since 1990- parallel to the efforts on a European level (strategic exchange of views of the experts concerned, consultation and training on the management level, optimization of training programs). 2: the project [Scientists Help Chernobyl Children] of the Joint Committee for Radiation Research (GAST), an union of the scientific societies working on radiation research in Germany under the chairmanship of Prof. Reiners (Essen/Wuerzburg) in cooperation with Prof. Streffer (Essen), Dr. Parezke (Munich), Dr. Heinemann (Hannover) and Dr. Pfob (Karlsruhe), aims to give humanitarian and scientific help for children ill with thyroid cancer in Belarus. Therapy and training, molecular biological examinations, dosimetry, and risk evaluation, as well as consultation and coordination in Minsk are parts of the project. 3: the project of the Radiation Cytogenetics Association (RCA) under the chairmanship of Prof. Bauchinger (GSF Muenchen) has been giving coordinated help with biological dosimetry to institutions and scientist in the states of the former USSR. Through retrospective biological dosimetry, especially the employment of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization)-technology for the assessment of so-called stable translocations, both individual and population doses were analyzed. All three of these projects, even if to a different extent, have been leading to new and unique results up to the present day. Especially the GAST-project has been marked to a high extent by its humanitarian help for the

  6. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  7. Chernobyl - and then?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestroem, Ulla

    1990-01-01

    The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

  8. Determination of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and strontium isotopes by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2001-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) determination of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium in forest, pasture, field and kitchen garden soils from a Russian territory and in certified reference materials (JLK-1, JSD-2 and BCR-1) is described. In addition to concentration data, strontium isotopic composition of the soil samples were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The measurements contributed to the understanding of the background levels of these elements in an area contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. There was not a significant variation in the concentration of REEs at different depth levels in forest soil samples, however, the ratio of Th/U varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varied to some extent, the ratio did not show much variation. The value of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, was in the top layer soil sample relatively higher than in the lower layers. (author)

  9. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Kellerer, A.M.; Bazyka, D.

    2006-01-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  10. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sabino, J.F.; Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  11. Chernobyl lesson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, G

    1986-01-01

    Structure and major technological parameters of the RBMK-1000 type Chernobylsk reactor, description of different phases of the reactor accident, the causes and consequences of the catastrophe and the measures taken to cease the fire, to stop the chain reaction, to prevent the inhabitants and the environment from radiation exposure and contamination are discussed. Major development projects at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant to support human control activities and to increase the operational safety are listed. (V.N.). 2 refs.

  12. Chernobyl; Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  13. Radioactiva contamination of food in the USSR, sampled in regions contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster, and of radioactive exposure in these regions (Cs-137 and K-40 in food)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.; Struijs, van der T.D.B.

    1991-01-01

    From 21.10.1990 to 01.11.1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited the USSR. The Netherlands Government reacted positively to a request trom the USSR tor such aid and the alm of the mission was to gather facts tor a useful aid

  14. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  15. Chernobyl's living legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years later, the April 1986 Chernobyl accident lives on in different ways: in fact and fiction. Today, national and international experts from eight United Nations agencies including the IAEA are working to sift fact from fiction. They are teamed with Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine to evaluate, document and report the accident's true scale. Known as the Chernobyl Forum, the group issued its comprehensive report in September 2005. It covers health and environmental consequences, and includes recommendations to channel assistance to where it is most needed. Dr. Fred Mettler is a member of the Forum, and a Chernobyl veteran researcher who served as the health team leader in an IAEA-led international project that first presented on-site assessments of Chernobyl's effects in the early 1990s, and participated in the International Chernobyl Conference in 1996 that summed up what was scientifically known then. In this essay, he revisits Chernobyl's health picture from personal and professional perspectives

  16. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m -2 ), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  17. Has fallout from the Chernobyl accident caused childhood leukaemia in Europe? An update on epidemiologic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: According to radiation risk estimates uniformly adopted by various official organizations, exposure to Chernobyl fallout is unlikely to have caused any measurable health risk in central Europe. Methods and Results: A reevaluation of ECLIS (European Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma Incidence Study), a large IARC-coordinated project revealed a slightly higher leukaemia incidence in the most contaminated European regions, and an increasing trend with estimated cumulative excess radiation dose. The excess corresponds to 20 cases of childhood leukaemia in the study area until 1991. Recent evidence from Greece and Germany indicate significantly higher risks in the cohort of children in utero at the time of the initial fallout. In Greece, a positive trend was observed over three regions of increasing average fallout contamination (p=0.005). Conclusion: Chernobyl fallout could well have caused a small, but significant excess of childhood leukaemia cases in Europe. The etiologic mechanism might include an induction of chromosome aberrations in early pregnancy. Increased risks in the birth cohort exposed in utero correspond to 11 excess cases in Greece and another 11.4 excess cases in Germany alone. Exposure misclassification and underascertainment of incident cases render post-Chernobyl risk estimates probably too low. If indeed Chernobyl fallout has caused childhood leukaemia cases in Europe, we would also expect an increased incidence for other childhood cancers and excess malignancies in adults as well as non-malignant diseases of all ages. Neither of these endpoints have as yet been systematically studied. (orig.)

  18. Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebakina, L.G.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90 Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90 Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

  19. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzel, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  20. Clinical effects of chronic low doses irradiation (11 years after Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.Y.; Bebeshko, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of clinical effects of influence low doses of irradiation as the result of the Chernobyl accident on the human organism is presented in this report. The results of the investigations are concerning to changings in different organs and systems of inhabitants of the contamination territories and among clean-up workers. Increasing of morbidity of digestive and nervous systems is notified. Increase of thyroid cancer, chronic thyroidities and hypothyreouses is resisted in clean-up workers in dynamic observation. Highly morbidity of bronchopulmonal system and blood circulation system is revealed. High level of compensative and adaptive reactions of immune and hemopoietic systems is notified. Excesses of leukemias and lymphomas in inhabitants of the contamination territories is not demonstrated but tendency for increasing quantity cases of oncohematological diseases (leukemias, lymphomas, MDS) among clean-up workers IV-VII 1986 are absent. A dynamic of health state of children injured as a result of Chernobyl accident is characterized with continues negative tendencies. (author)

  1. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  2. The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zybina, N.; Dryguina, L.; Katashkova, G.

    1997-01-01

    The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 μmol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 μtmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of

  3. Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, I.; Haabrekke, H.

    1986-09-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

  4. Chernobyl: lessons of the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a drastic increase the incidents of thyroid cancer in children living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The incidents of hemoblastoses which are etiologically closely related to radiation did not change after the incident. The lessons of the decade that passed since the accident necessitate measures aimed at alleviation of the medical consequences of the accident which are to be implemented for many years. The program of such measures should be based on a strictly scientific evaluation of each factor, that will be conductive to a most adequate state financing of this work [ru

  5. Chernobyl, an opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freslon, Herve; Vignon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  6. Social aspects of the Chernobyl activity in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has caused heavy impact on the environment in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. It has also resulted in a significant worsening of the economic situation in the affected republics of the former USSR, as well as in disruption of social life in large territories, growing anxiety and fears among the people living in contaminated areas and significant medical effects on all categories of the people affected by the accident. The USSR authorities knew about the seriousness of the radiological situation caused by the Chernobyl accident from the very beginning. However, at the time of the accident, the Soviet Union was in a state of deep economic crisis and was unable to implement necessary measures to mitigate the radiological consequences of the accident. That was one of the reasons for the USSR to conceal the true information about the accident and its consequences from the Soviet people. The traditional Soviet policy of concealing all data on any unpleasant event happening in the Soviet Union had played a very important role too. The collapse of the USSR created the formal possibility to develop appropriate policy aimed at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. However, implementation of this policy has been limited due to lack of necessary material and financial means. These and other problems are the subject of the present report. (J.P.N.)

  7. Radiation health effects. Experience from Chernobyl to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekitani, Yui; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 led to a high level of radioactive contamination over wide area in Europe. High radiation-dose exposure to 134 power plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome. The internal radiation exposure by radioactive iodine-131 caused operated thyroid cancer among more than 6000 children at the time of the accident until 2010. The low dose irradiation by radioactive cesium-137 continues even today, and evacuation and relocation proved a deeply traumatic experience to many people. Since the Chernobyl accident, WHO and IAEA have established a global assistance system to strengthen the activities related to radiation emergency medical preparedness and response network. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has also caused many people to evacuate, and great suffering, hardship, and anxiety to the residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Therefore the Fukushima Prefectural Government is now conducting the 'The Fukushima Health Management Survey' to alleviate residents' concerns about radiation and to facilitate suitable healthcare in the future. It is necessary to continue scientific research around Chernobyl and provide accurate information on radiation health effects not only to the Fukushima residents but also toward all over the world. (author)

  8. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  9. Means of surveying contaminated areas resulting from overseas nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, J.H.H.; Thorne, M.C.; Dickson, D.M.J.

    1989-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident is briefly reviewed as a useful basis to examine some of the considerations related to the design of surveys. The plans and procedures of key European and North American countries are reviewed, as well as the plans and capabilities of UK facilities and government agencies. The survey design incorporates the concepts of land use category, topography climate, etc. and discusses the spatial and temporal scale requirements. Use of a Geographic Information System is recommended to co-ordinate the data. Models address the requirement to detect an annual effective dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv to an individual in the first year following the accident. The equipment requirements are based on transit-type vans, each, preferably, with one or two gamma spectrometers, MCA's and ancillary equipment, with three teams of two men. This unit could survey about 150 km 2 within a larger area in 3 days. The cost per survey team is estimated to be Pound 60,000 - Pound 80,000 in the first year, with annual costs of Pound 20-23,000. (author)

  10. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Omar; Medina, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  11. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Howieson, J.Q.

    1987-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  12. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-02-15

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  13. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  14. Airborne gamma spectrometric survey in the Chernobyl exclusion zone based on oktokopter UAV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabulonov, Yu.L.; Burtnyak, V.M.; Zolkin, I.O.

    2015-01-01

    The results of field studies of radioactive contamination condition of RWTSP ''Red Forest'' and ''Neftebaza'' in the Chernobyl zone, obtained by the authors in June 2015 are represented. The technique of detection of local inhomogeneities on the soil surface without contrasting borders by airborne gamma spectrometry from the board of oktokopter UAV type is worked through. The technique of searching and contouring of hidden burial of radioactive waste is practiced

  15. Long-term safety assessment of trench-type surface repository at Chernobyl, Ukraine - computer model and comparison with results from simplified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J.; Shybetskyi, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, the surface repository for solid low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Long-existing plans for increasing the capacity of the facility shall be implemented in the framework of the European Commission INSC Programme (Instrument for Nuclear Safety Co-operation). Within the first phase of this project, DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) for a future extended facility based on the planned enlargement. In addition to a detailed mathematical model, also simplified models have been developed to verify results of the former one and enhance confidence in the results. Comparison of the results show that - depending on the boundary conditions - simplifications like modeling the multi trench repository as one generic trench might have very limited influence on the overall results compared to the general uncertainties associated with respective long-term calculations. In addition to their value in regard to verification of more complex models which is important to increase confidence in the overall results, such simplified models can also offer the possibility to carry out time consuming calculations like probabilistic calculations or detailed sensitivity analysis in an economic manner. (authors)

  16. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil–water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Golosov, V.; Laptev, G.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yoshimura, K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, K d , between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1–2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP – Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in

  17. The message of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Morris

    1986-01-01

    Public attitudes towards the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 are discussed. Although affected by the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl, people in West Germany were still prepared to vote, only 3 months later, for political parties who would not change the nuclear situation, not for the 'Greens' who would. The whole issue is seen as a question of values and alternatives. (UK)

  18. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  19. Compartment model for long-term contamination prediction in deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of different parts (fruits, leaves, and shoots) of selected apricot trees in North Greece was systematically measured in 1987 and 1988. The results are presented and discussed in the framework of a simple compartment model describing the long-term contamination uptake mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident

  20. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokozov, N. A.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Mirzoeva, N. Y.; Gulin, S. B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation summarizes studies of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 1 37Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 1 37Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 1 37Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 1 37Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 1 37Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 1 37Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 9 0Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 9 0Sr level nearly 20 Bq m - 3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 9 0Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input

  1. Agricultural recovery of a formerly contaminated area: Establishment of a high-resolution quantitative protein map of mature flax seeds harvested from the remediated chernobyl area

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been an increasing tendency toward remediation of contaminated areas for agricultural purposes. The study described herein is part of a comprehensive, long-term characterization of crop plants grown in the area formerly contaminated with radioactivity. As a first step, we ...

  2. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  3. Model description of CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code); results of testing with post-Chernobyl data from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S-R.

    1994-07-01

    CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code), a time-dependent code for assessing doses from accidental and routine releases of radionuclides, has been under development since 1987. A complete model description is provide here with equations, parameter values, assumptions and information on parameter distributions for uncertainty analysis. Concurrently, CHERPAC has been used to participate in the two internal model validation exercises BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) and VAMP (VAlidation of Assessment Model Predictions, a co-ordinated research program of the International Atomic Energy Agency). CHERPAC has been tested for predictions of concentrations of 137 Cs in foodstuffs, body burden and dose over time using data collected after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 April. CHERPAC's results for the recent VAMP scenario for southern Finland are particularly accurate and should represent what the code can do under Canadian conditions. CHERPAC's predictions are compared with the observations from Finland for four and one-half years after the accident as well as with the results of the other participating models from nine countries. (author). 18 refs., 23 figs., 2 appendices

  4. Model description of CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code); results of testing with post-Chernobyl data from Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S-R

    1994-07-01

    CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code), a time-dependent code for assessing doses from accidental and routine releases of radionuclides, has been under development since 1987. A complete model description is provide here with equations, parameter values, assumptions and information on parameter distributions for uncertainty analysis. Concurrently, CHERPAC has been used to participate in the two internal model validation exercises BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) and VAMP (VAlidation of Assessment Model Predictions, a co-ordinated research program of the International Atomic Energy Agency). CHERPAC has been tested for predictions of concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in foodstuffs, body burden and dose over time using data collected after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 April. CHERPAC`s results for the recent VAMP scenario for southern Finland are particularly accurate and should represent what the code can do under Canadian conditions. CHERPAC`s predictions are compared with the observations from Finland for four and one-half years after the accident as well as with the results of the other participating models from nine countries. (author). 18 refs., 23 figs., 2 appendices.

  5. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbyina, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

  6. The effects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that the Chernobyl accident will result in an (undetectable) increase of cancer in the U.K. over the next 40-50 years-probably 400-500 cases occurring, less than half of which would be fatal. Preventive measures which could have been instigated would have had doubtful effects in terms of total health detriment in the population. The overall governmental response was marked by confusion. The need for independent monitoring and assessment, and effective public communication was highlighted by the number of unofficial bodies and 'instant experts' approached for advice and information. There is an obvious need for some consensus about intervention or action levels among European countries. (U.K.)

  7. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Ulanovski, A; Schotola, C; Proehl, G [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J; Buglova, E; Kruk, J [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I; Kovgan, L; Vavilov, S; Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M; Bogdanova, T [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S; Gavrilin, Y [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  9. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created

  10. The environmental behaviour of Chernobyl deposition in a high fallout region of Sweden: analysis of the results of a soil measurement programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaer, J.; Nair, S.

    1989-04-01

    Sweden received a particularly high level of fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. An environmental monitoring programme was initiated jointly by the CEGB and Studsvik to study the behaviour of the deposited radionuclides in the rural and urban environment of Gaevle where the highest depositions were recorded. This report is concerned with the analysis of the rural data collected over the period from August 1987 to August 1988. The aim has been to develop an improved model to predict the migration of radionuclides through pasture soil. Two alternative models were developed; the first a compartment model and the second a diffusion-advection model modified to account for fixation. The predictions of the two models were tested against the results of the monitoring programme. Least squares analyses were used to establish the better of the two models and to obtain estimates of the model parameters. In all but one case, the diffusion model was found to provide the better description of the behaviour of radionuclides; the effect of advection was found to be negligible. It is intended that this model will be incorporated into an improved model to predict the uptake of activity into animal products. (author)

  11. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, M.; Rybacek, K.; Wilhemova, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137 Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137 Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  12. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Rybacek, K; Wilhemova, L [Academy Science of the Czech Republic, 18086 Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the {sup 137}Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for {sup 137}Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab.

  13. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  14. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131 I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137 Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and

  15. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  16. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  17. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuexian

    1990-12-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  18. The international Chernobyl project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Separate chapters deal with the history of the accident and the Soviet emergency measures, environmental contamination, radiation exposure of the population, health impact, and protective measures. The conclusions and recommendations of the Project are presented, and an annex gives the available data on cesium 137 and strontium 90 contamination levels in populated areas of the BSSR, the RSFSR and the UkrSSR from June/July 1989: these data were used to draw up the area contamination maps. Ref, figs and tabs

  19. Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

  20. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these

  1. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  2. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 3. Part 1. Predictions of the variation in environmental radioactivity and radiation doses at the accidental zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the prediction of environmental radioactivity in case of general accident at NPP, at reactor site and external zone was presented. Attention was also paid to the prediction of subterranean and ground water contamination, to the modelling and prediction of environmental radioactivity in the Pripyat river water reservoirs, to the population cytogenetic examination, to the prediction of forest state. Data on the realization of radiation monitoring were presented. Features of the modern forms of realization of prevention and correction of neurotic and psychosomatic disorders, rapid methods for the diagnosis of personnel psychophysical state, problems of the prediction of radiation doses to personnel of main Chernobyl' NPP shops and to population in case of its rerelocation in 30-km zone

  3. Chernobyl five years after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigna, A A

    1991-10-01

    In conjunction with an April 27-May 4, 1991 radioecological seminar at Kiev, European Communities' researchers were given the opportunity to visit the Chernobyl site and make observations on the state of the local environment and public health. This paper reports on these observations and compares the findings with those contained in a recent (1991) IAEA report on Chernobyl. The researchers' findings confirm those of the IAEA report and evidence that the most notable overall impact that the Chernobyl accident had on human health was psychological stress caused by misleading statements from mass media.

  4. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the

  5. The German Chernobyl project: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents results and lessons learned by one of the so far largest assessments of a post-accidental situation. Funded by the Federal Republic of Germany the German Chernobyl Project investigated in the years 1991-1993 the radiological situation in contaminated regions of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine. Measurements included a mass screening of the population in order to determine the Cesium body burdens of 250,000+ individuals in more than 240 settlements as well as the evaluation of external doses in selected settlements with soil contaminations varying from less than 74 kBq/m 2 to about 3700 kBq/m 2 including some, where decontamination measures had previously been taken. Also in many settlements environmental monitoring was undertaken. For most individuals doses did not exceed the international annual limits set for the general population. Open and comprehensive communication of results was favourably accepted by the public. In a few settlements the radiological situation has been followed up till to date. (author)

  6. Mobile Radiological Laboratories Intercomparison Measurements - Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Glavic-Cindro, D.; Korun, M.; Pucelj, B.; Vodenik, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In last decade different institutions in European countries have organised periodic intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories to improve the preparedness of emergency monitoring teams. The 12th Regular Workshop on Mobile Radiological Laboratories was held in Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl NPP, Ukraine from September 13 to September 18, 1999 under the acronym MORAL-12. The European Centre of Technological Safety (TESEC), Kiev, Ukraine and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia organised Intercomparison Measurements 99 jointly under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nineteen teams from 9 countries and IAEA participated in the Workshop. Six field and personal and equipment contamination control exercises were prepared and conducted at two measuring sites with very different ambient dose rate levels. The Workshop pointed out that such exercises are very valuable for rapid, efficient and harmonised emergency response in case of nuclear or radiological emergency. The teams had an opportunity to test their ability to perform field measurements in the contaminated environment, and to report results on the spot, as well as to test their emergency preparedness and persistence. They gained new experiences for fieldwork under stress conditions. An overview and results of these intercomparison measurements are presented and lessons learned are discussed. (author)

  7. Chernobyl related research and radiological protection activities in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B; Cunningham, J D [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a programme of monitoring and research was initiated in the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to address questions concerning the immediate and longer term impact of the fallout. Prior to the Chernobyl accident the scientific literature contained limited information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and their entry into food-chains. In response to this lack of information the monitoring programme assessed the contamination status following the accident, while the research programme was aimed at gaining a fuller understanding of the processes of radionuclide transfer. Investigations were undertaken into the pathways through which Chernobyl radionuclides may be transferred to man i.e. via agricultural crops, meat and milk production. The results showed that the behaviour of the fallout radionuclides is complex and highly variable, being influenced by weather, topography, season, crop type, land management etc. The research continues today and its aim is to identify pathways of radiation dose transfer to man and to determine strategies for minimising risk and cost to man and the environment. Examination of the factors which control radionuclide behaviour has revealed practical strategies for dealing with contaminated lands and foods. A significant factor controlling the behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems is the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. These physico-chemical characteristics have proved to be useful parameters which can be manipulated to reduce the transfer of radionuclides in agricultural systems. In semi-natural ecosystems (peatlands and commercial forests) the controls on the behaviour of radionuclides are generally more complicated and intervention is more difficult. These ecosystems present a challenge in terms of the identification of possible practical rehabilitation measures. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Assessment of radiation dose formation due to hot particles of Chernobyl origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchuk, V.; Lutkovsky, V.; Bondarenko, O.

    1997-01-01

    The necessity to apply original data about the size and the activity distributions of hot particles has been arising at many post-Chernobyl research. Such researches include first of all (i) studying of migration processes at soil-water complexes, (ii) retrospective inhalation dose reconstruction for the population, and (iii) validation different scenarios of the Chernobyl accident deployment. Results of this research show that the fuel matrix in soil can be considered as constant with accuracy 20-30% for transuranic nuclides and major of long-living fission products. Temporal stability of hot particles at the natural environment gives a unique possibility to use the hot particle size distribution data and the soil contamination data for retrospective restoring of doses even 10 years later the Chernobyl accident. In present research the value of the integral of hot particle activity deposited into the lung was calculated using a standard inhalation model which takes into account the hot particle size distribution. This value normalised on the fallout density is equal to 0.55 Bq/(Bq.m -2 ) for areas nearby the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'; Materialy II mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii 'Preodolenie posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl'skoj AEhS: sostoyanie i perspektivy'simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kapitonova, Eh K [eds.

    2004-04-01

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting.

  10. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to those obtained for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of 134 Cs or 137 Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, 106 Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of 134,137 Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for 106 Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to levels found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of {sup 134}Cs or {sup 137}Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, {sup 106}Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of {sup 134,137}Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for {sup 106}Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author).

  12. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  13. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  14. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  15. Dynamics of faunistic complexes of parasitic organisms in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labetskaya, A.G.; Balashina, N.S.; Kireenko, K.M.; Bychkova, E.I.; Efremova, G.A.; Tereshkina, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of studies made in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone, which deal with estimation of species composition and number of parasites, mammals, birds, their nest inhabitants and blood-suching insects, are discussed. It is shown that parasite species variaty is higher on the contaminated territory as compared with the control one. Number of arthropoda is greater, and those of helmines and winged blood-suching insects are smaller on the contaminated territories. The main carriers of parasites among birds are starlings, larks and tomtits in contaminated regions and those are chiff-chaff and finches in the control areas. The level of nest contaminations for rodents and birds correlates with environment contamination level

  16. Plankton as an indicator of the temporal variation of the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravera, O.; Giannoni, L.

    1995-01-01

    Here we describe the pattern of radionuclide activities (iodine-131; cesium-134; cesium-137; ruthenium-106) in net-plankton and water samples collected from two lakes in Northern Italy (Lake Monate and Lake Comabbio) during and after the presence in the area of the radioactive cloud from the Chernobyl accident: from 30 April to 3 September 1986. The results show that, because of its short lifespan, plankton is a good indicator of daily variations of environmental contamination. The contamination level of plankton depends on various factors, such as the speciation and biological role of the radionuclide, the community structure and chemical characteristics of the water

  17. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.; Tokarevsky, V.

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ( 137 Cs) and strontium ( 90 Sr). The 137 Cs and 90 Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  18. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.I.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  19. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Repacholi, M.; Carr, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  20. World nuclear developments after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1987-01-01

    1986 will inevitably go down in history as the year of Chernobyl, the consequences of which must be delays in and even withdrawals from the development of nuclear power. On the credit side, the Soviet Union has done a rapid and remarkable job in sealing the damaged reactor and rehabilitating the station and the area while improving the safety of its total program. Equally effective has been the response of the IAEA. In terms of nuclear power's claim as a major source of energy, nothing has changed as a result of Chernobyl. 15% of the world's electricity is now produced from nearly 400 power reactors. In comparison with any other energy form nuclear energy must rank high in terms of economy, safety and environmental effects. What has changed is the public perception of nuclear power, and the effort world-wide which will need to be made to restore public confidence