WorldWideScience

Sample records for chernobyl cartographie cinetique

  1. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This leaflet has been prepared by the Central Electricity Generating Board. Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union people are concerned about the safety of the UK's nuclear power stations. This leaflet explains that Chernobyl is unlike any nuclear station operating or planned in the UK and under the CEGB's stringent safety rules it could not have been built in the UK. The leaflet explains what happened at Chernobyl and compares the RBMK design and British reactors. The bodies concerned with reactor safety are noted. The containment of radioactivity and emergency procedures are explained. The PWR design for Sizewell-B is stated to be much safer than the RBMK Chernobyl design. (UK)

  2. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaare, E.; Jonsson, B.; Skogland, T.

    1991-04-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH) [de

  4. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, G.; Recknagel, E.

    1988-01-01

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs [de

  5. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary report tries to give an answer, beyond the current reporting during the last months - including the VDI Nachrichten - how to judge somewhat surely the reasons of the accident and its procession according to the report of the USSR and the international discussion. Subjects: Sequence of events and causes leading to the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl; dimension and consequences of the radioactive precipitations in West-Germany; foundations of nuclear fission; structure and security systems of Sovjet reactor lines and comparisons with German nuclear power plants; licensing procedure and continual control of the German plants; moral responsibility of the peaceful use of nuclear energy; nuclear phase out and its consequences, and at last data and facts about the use of renewable sources of energy. (orig./GL) [de

  6. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  7. Aesthetic Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Art theorists, Carole Gray and Heather Delday (2010) pose the question, "What might be known through creative practice that could not be known by any other means?" As a visual artist with a doctorate degree in environmental planning from the TU-Berlin's Department of Soil Protection, I have long considered this question in my work and over the years contributed an active voice to discussions on research, education, and public engagement with soil and art and soil and culture in Germany and around the world. After presenting many other examples of artists' work at international scientific symposia, I would like to present examples of some of my own artistic practice with soil mapping and soil protection issues at the 2017 EGU. In combining methods of visual art, landscape analysis, and soil mapping, I have developed a practice called Aesthetic Cartography that employs sculptural techniques, object-making, installation and performance, printing and graphic design, as well as site analysis, data mining, and map reading and interpretation. Given my background in participatory planning practices, I also integrate small-group dialogic processes in the creation and implementation of my works. The projects making up the body of works in Aesthetic Cartography are mainly focused on urban issues, including: soil sealing, inner-city watershed management, creative brownfield use, rubble substrates and leachates, foraging and urban agriculture, and envisioning sustainable cities of the future. In the session SSS1.4 - Soil, Art, and Culture I will summarize project goals, materials and methods, venues and public contexts, elements of collaboration and participation, as well as target audiences involved in several projects of the Aesthetic Cartography series. The aim of the presentation is not to give a comprehensive answer to Gray and Delday's question above, but rather to share personal insights from a professional practice that merges artistic and scientific approaches to soil

  8. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.; Davies, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

  9. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  10. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    OpenAIRE

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamic...

  11. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  12. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  13. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  14. Literature and Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literary authors have frequently called on elements of cartography to ground fictional space, to visualize sites, and to help readers get their bearings in the imaginative world of the text. Today, the convergence of digital mapping and globalization has spurred a cartographic turn in literature...... but represents a set of relations and tensions that raise questions about representation, fiction, and space. Is literature even mappable? In exploring the cartographic components of literature, the contributors have not only brought literary theory to bear on the map but have also enriched the vocabulary...... fictions....

  15. Two books History of Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Husak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two valuable books were published under the title History of Cartography in the group Lecture Notes and the subgroup Publications of the International Cartographic Association. The books were published as a result of collaboration between International Cartographic Association (ICA and the Springer-Verlag publishing company and contain most papers from the following symposia:3rd International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography at University of Texas in Arlington, October 11–12, (URL 1 with the theme Charting the Cartography of Chartered Companies and4th International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, Hungary, June 28–29, 2012 (URL 2 with the theme Exploration – Discovery – Cartography.

  16. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Cartographie et intelligence artificielle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Le monde complexe dans lequel nous évoluons est aussi paradoxal : ainsi, que peut-on prédire quant à la diffusion du savoir faire des géographes en termes de cartographie et de visualisation de l’information géographique ? On voit surgir toujours plus d’instruments et d’occasions de se repérer et d’admirer des images de la terre, mais il n’est pas sûr que cela fasse progresser dans le public la connaissance des cartes et de leur interprétation. Prenons l’exemple du repérage, par GPS, et bient...

  18. Cartographies of Erasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lúcio Dias Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rupture between the thought of nature as physis and human thought leads to suffering and confusion for man in the fields of subjectivity. An affirmative relationship with becoming, in accordance with the proposal of Nietzsche's concept of dionysian wisdom, might lead man once again to the path of tragic life - one that produces strength by asserting pain and difference – thus surpassing the false opposition man/nature. Inspired by Nietzsche, Deleuze and Guattari propose fighting against the fascism of the socius, the State, of capitalism and all the dominant discourses of established knowledge and established power that capture body and its will. An instrument for such struggle is the production of counterfascist erasures on the encodings of power. The question of how to produce bodies without organs as a way to escape the organic structure of the socius is made possible by the power of sensation to erase and rediagram the cartographies of subjectivity.

  19. The Rejuvenation of Cartography in ICT Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Renzhong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the impetus of ICT, cartography faces the unprecedented challenges. The paper discusses the problems and changes of cartography facing the digital technology, analyzes the constraints of traditional cartography that are mainly delimited by 2D physical paper map. Diverseness of modern cartography shows various map products, and the paper illustrates the digital freedom in information space of modern cartography from eight aspects, including physical reality VS virtual reality, paper map VS digital map, superficial visualization VS inner visualization and so on. Modern cartography encounters the new development opportunities and fresh demands in digital era, and it's necessary to extend the framework of cartography and to assimilate newly sprouted things to promote the rejuvenation of cartography.

  20. Cartography past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rhind, DW

    2013-01-01

    Making maps dates back at least four thousand years and it is widely recognised that many maps are of great historical value and present a skilled method of summarising the real world on a sheet of paper. Less well known is the judgement involved in the selection and simplification of features, the complex transformation of space and the exacting standards which are needed in cartography. This book is primarily a tribute to Professor F.J. Ormeling, former President and Secretary/Treasurer of the ICA and gives a wide ranging review of the current status of cartography, how this status was atta

  1. Thematic cartography, cartography and the impact of the quantitative revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cauvin, Colette; Serradj, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    This series in three volumes considers maps as constructions resulting from a number of successive transformations and stages integrated in a logical reasoning and an order of choices. Volume 2 focuses on the impact of the quantitative revolution, partially related to the advent of the computer age, on thematic cartography.

  2. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  3. Geodesy and Cartography (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-10

    C-OO/b73 GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY (SELECTED ARTICLES) English pages: 40 Source: GeodezJa i Kartografia, Vol. 27, Nr. 1, 1978, PP. 3-27 Country of...1976. 14) kledzixski, J., Zibek, Z., Czarnecki, K., Rogowski, J.B., Problems in Using Satellite Surveys in an Astronomical-Geodesic Network, Geodezja i...Based on Observations of Low-Low Satellites Using Collocation Methods, Geodezja i Kartografia, Vol. XXVI, No. 4, 1977. [-7. Krynski, J., Schwarz, K.P

  4. Chernobyl silences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandazzi, G.; Lemarchand, F.

    2006-01-01

    20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, this book presents the sanitary and ecological actuality of the accident, with direct testimonies translated from russian. It is also a reflexion of women and political men, scientists, philosophers and artists on the changes induced by Chernobyl on the information dissemination and the future of the accident. (A.L.B.)

  5. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''After Chernobyl'' is an outline account of interesting information on the evacuation and relocation of the population within a 30 km zone around the power plant, of decontamination efforts' of the entombment of the reactor and of the firemen of Chernobyl, not all of whom survived. (author)

  6. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  7. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  8. Blind Cartography for Side Channel Attacks: Cross-Correlation Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sauvage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Side channel and fault injection attacks are major threats to cryptographic applications of embedded systems. Best performances for these attacks are achieved by focusing sensors or injectors on the sensible parts of the application, by means of dedicated methods to localise them. Few methods have been proposed in the past, and all of them aim at pinpointing the cryptoprocessor. However it could be interesting to exploit the activity of other parts of the application, in order to increase the attack's efficiency or to bypass its countermeasures. In this paper, we present a localisation method based on cross-correlation, which issues a list of areas of interest within the attacked device. It realizes an exhaustive analysis, since it may localise any module of the device, and not only those which perform cryptographic operations. Moreover, it also does not require a preliminary knowledge about the implementation, whereas some previous cartography methods require that the attacker could choose the cryptoprocessor inputs, which is not always possible. The method is experimentally validated using observations of the electromagnetic near field distribution over a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The matching between areas of interest and the application layout in the FPGA floorplan is confirmed by correlation analysis.

  9. Chernobyl recurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    In a convention of a local fire brigade medical corps in 1987 a radiation protection expert, a pediatrician and a journalist (the author) gave their comments on the effects of the Chernobyl accident. In the present contribution a short account of these comments is given. (qui)

  10. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP) [de

  11. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  12. Reflexive cartography a new perspective in mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Casti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Reflexive Cartography addresses the adaptation of cartography, including its digital forms (GIS, WebGIS, PPGIS), to the changing needs of society, and outlines the experimental context aimed at mapping a topological space. Using rigorous scientific analysis based on statement consistency, relevance of the proposals, and model accessibility, it charts the transition from topographical maps created by state agencies to open mapping produced by citizens. Adopting semiotic theory to uncover the complex communicative mechanisms of maps and to investigate their ability to produce their own messages and new perspectives, Reflexive Cartography outlines a shift in our way of conceptualizing maps: from a plastic metaphor of reality, as they are generally considered, to solid tools that play the role of agents, assisting citizens as they think and plan their own living place and make sense of the current world. Applies a range of technologies to theoretical perspectives on mapping to innovatively map the world's geogr...

  13. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita

    2018-05-01

    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  14. Cartography (and Geoinformation in Education in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjanka Lechthaler

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic task of cartography lies in efficient and impeccable transfer of spatial information via cartographic models of geospace. Wired and wireless communication networks serve this purpose. They offer new media possibilities of saving and transferring cartographic information and cartographic models, and therefore their use. This is related to the emphasis of research work and education, which is equally oriented toward theoretical issues and those concerning applied cartography. The paper features a review of cartographic education and accomplished qualifications at universities and professional schools (Fachhochschule in Austria and a review of newly introduced study programs of Bachelor and Master studies according to guidelines of the Bologna Declaration. The education plan for the instruction of cartography for both studies at the Vienna University of Technology is presented in detail.

  15. Star Maps History, Artistry, and Cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Star Maps captures the beauty and awe of the heavens through celestial prints and star atlases. It traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of humanity's place in the universe. The text of this Second Edition is enriched with 263 photographs, 91 in color, showing images from actual antiquarian celestial books and atlases, each one with an explanation of its astronomical and cartographic features. This new edition of Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography includes: - over 50 new pages of text and 44 new images (16 in color) - completely new sections on celestial frontispieces, deep-sky objects, playing card maps, additional cartographers, and modern computerized star maps - updated figures and text about celestial globes, volvelles, telescopes, and planets and asteroids - revised and updated text and illustrations throughout. The book focuses on the development of celestial cartography from ancient to modern times and describes the relationships between ...

  16. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  17. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  18. Chernobyl revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the report of the International Chernobyl Project for Canadian readers. General conclusions included the following: there were no health disorders that could be directly attributed to radiation exposure; there were substantial adverse psychological consequences; the relocation and food restrictions should have been less extensive. The second part of this article is the Chernobyl History taken from the same report. It deals with: emergency actions at the site, evacuation of the prohibited zone, securing the site, radiation release and transport, protection of water supplies, intervention measures. The safe living concept based on 350 mSv over a lifetime of 70 years has been replaced by the concept of three classes of zones based on surface contamination levels of cesium

  19. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl; Cartographie cinetique des radioisotopes de l'iode dans le follicule thyroidien du rat nouveau-ne carence en iode ou non. Analyse par spectrometrie de masse d'ions secondaires (NanoSIMS50). Contribution a l'etude des consequences de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbast, M

    2008-03-15

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with {sup 129}I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of {sup 129}I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  20. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midden, C.J.H.; Verplanken, B.

    1986-11-01

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  1. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  2. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  3. Star maps history, artistry, and cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of man''s place in the universe and to advances in map-making. This book features reproductions of maps from antiquarian celestial atlases and prints. It includes a legend for each illustration to explain its astronomical and cartographic features.

  4. GIS and Cartography: An Introduction Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.

    2000-01-01

    This Technical Report concerns to some relevant concepts in Cartography and GIS. We will define terms and functions as scale, projection, cartographic syntaxes. We'll specify some Geographic Information, formats, sources... Finally, we will study about GIS applications and, specially, how CIEMAT is working with that, and what is the future of this technology. (Author) 71 refs

  5. Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having recalled the different steps and mistakes which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the events and measures after the accident, this document briefly describes the various interventions and works performed on this site since 1986, and notably during the first months, evokes the movement of a radioactive cloud over Europe. It outlines the silence and hesitations of Russian authorities, the reactions in European countries regarding nuclear safety, the control of contaminated products. It also evokes the controversy in France about the SCPRI. It indicates some assessments and comments regarding health, environmental and psychological consequences. It finally evokes the project of construction of a new shelter for the wrecked plant

  6. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  7. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  8. The Constancy and Volatility in Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Liqiu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Being facilitated by a number of scientific and technological revolutions,maps have successively evolved from omnipotent rare treasures to omnipresent daily necessities,but cartography remains a unique mixture of science,art and technology of making and using maps.This paper revisits four persistent research questions in cartography:①what is a map, ②for what is a map worth,③how are maps made, and ④who is making maps, Based on a retrospective analysis of cartographic progresses with regard to the map typology,values of maps,mapmaking workflows and the role of mapmaker,the author exemplifies the constants and variables in the development processes since the introduction of computer in the 1970's and indicates the emerging trend towards a sustainable mapping ecosystem supported by cloud computing platforms.

  9. Theoretical Foundations of Study of Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhofer, Václav; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka

    2018-05-01

    Cartography and geoinformatics are technical-based fields which deal with modelling and visualization of landscape in the form of a map. The theoretical foundation is necessary to obtain during study of cartography and geoinformatics based mainly on mathematics. For the given subjects, mathematics is necessary for understanding of many procedures that are connected to modelling of the Earth as a celestial body, to ways of its projection into a plane, to methods and procedures of modelling of landscape and phenomena in society and visualization of these models in the form of electronic as well as classic paper maps. Not only general mathematics, but also its extension of differential geometry of curves and surfaces, ways of approximation of lines and surfaces of functional surfaces, mathematical statistics and multi-criterial analyses seem to be suitable and necessary. Underestimation of the significance of mathematical education in cartography and geoinformatics is inappropriate and lowers competence of cartographers and professionals in geographic information science and technology to solve problems.

  10. Chernobyl 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouette, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  11. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  12. Retrospect and Prospect of the Development of Chinese Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Ke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into three parts. The first part of the article is a brief review of the developmental history of ancient and modern cartography in China. It shows that China is one of the earliest countries in the world to create maps. China played an important role in the development of cartography in the world, and has made significant contributions to the development of cartography. Up till the Ming Dynasty in 15th Century, China's map and cartography had always been ahead of the Western countries, but fell behind only after the Qing Dynasty. The second part of the article describes the rapid development of China's mapping and cartography after the founding of the "New China", including the tremendous achievements in the areas of mapping and creation of national topographic maps, thematic maps and atlases, remote sensing cartography, computer-aided cartography, multimedia electronic maps, mobile communication maps, online maps, and theoretical research of cartography. China has caught up and reached the world's advanced level in cartography. The third part It proposes the direction and adjusted roles of mapping and cartography in China in the new century, and analyzes the opportunities, challenges and prospects of cartography in the era of big data, internet and artificial intelligence. Via visualization of 3D dynamic mapping, big data can show the spatial pattern and regional differentiation as well as temporal and spatial dynamic change of subjects and phenomena, and then make analysis and evaluation, forecast and early warning, zoning and layout, planning and design, management and regulation. Therefore cartography can play an important role in the era of big data. In the future, internet will become the main platform for map creation and application. Maps will be more popular, personalized, intelligent and practical.

  13. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Chernobyl: myths and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, A.

    1998-01-01

    Factual materials concerning the consequences of the Chernobyl accident presented by international organizations during post-Chernobyl period are discussed. Attention is paid to the clinical effects directly related to the accident, diseases, psychological consequences, long-term effect on health. Prospects for post-Chernobyl period are considered

  15. NEW THEORETICAL RESEARCH TRENDS IN CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Sluter, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cartography has been defined as the art, science, and technology of map-making. Until the middle of the 20th Century, cartography was more an art than a science. Beginning in the 1950's, cartographic researchers began to take a more scientific approach to map-making with Robinson's The Look of Maps. In the 1970's, many researchers adopted a communications paradigm for cartography, understanding maps as tools for the communication of information from cartographer to map user. Under this paradigm, cartographers attempted to find the "optimal" map that would communicate known information to the map-reader with as little "noise" as possible. With the rapid progress in computer technology afforded by the ubiquitous personal computer, in the last decade a number of cartographic researchers, led by Alan MacEachren, have suggested a new way of understanding how maps work No longer seen as simply tools for communicating known information, maps can be employed to discover the unknown patterns in any phenomenon that possesses a spatial dimension. Rather than attempting to construct the "best" map, modern computer technology can allow for the construction of a multitude of representations of a phenomenon that can be used to answer different questions posed by individual researchers and reveal hitherto unrealized patterns in the data (data exploration. This new approach is termed "cartographic visualization". Based upon research in other fields, including computer graphics, the neurophysiology of the eye-brain system, cognitive science, and semiotics (the science of symbol systems, this newest thrust in cartographic theory has opened up broad new horizons for cartographic research. This has energized the discipline and promises to lead to new insights which will enable us to make better maps. This paper outlines these new approaches to cartographic research.

  16. Plantar pressure cartography reconstruction from 3 sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ghaida, Hussein; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Foot problem diagnosis is often made by using pressure mapping systems, unfortunately located and used in the laboratories. In the context of e-health and telemedicine for home monitoring of patients having foot problems, our focus is to present an acceptable system for daily use. We developed an ambulatory instrumented insole using 3 pressures sensors to visualize plantar pressure cartographies. We show that a standard insole with fixed sensor position could be used for different foot sizes. The results show an average error measured at each pixel of 0.01 daN, with a standard deviation of 0.005 daN.

  17. Magrit: a new thematic cartography tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viry, Matthieu; Giraud, Timothée; Lambert, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    The article provides an overview of the features of the Magrit web application: a free online thematic mapping tool, presenting a strong pedagogical dimension and making possible to mobilize all the elements necessary for the realization of a thematic map. In this tool, several simple modes of representation are proposed such as proportional maps or choropleth maps. Other, more complex modes are also available such as smoothed maps and cartograms. Each map can be finalized thanks to layout and customization features (projection, scale, orientation, toponyms, etc.) and exported in vector format. Magrit is therefore a complete, light and versatile tool particularly adapted to cartography teaching at the university.

  18. Kinetics of heterogeneous systems; La cinetique des milieux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniz, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    In this report, a general transport theory treatment is presented for the kinetics study as applied to finite heterogeneous systems. The theory is applicable to experiments near the critical point as well as to pulsed neutron experiments on multiplying or non-multiplying lattices. The general method is also applied to exponential experiments on infinite non-diverging lattices. The particularity of the present study is the explicit introduction of heterogeneity in the formulation and the search for the dependence of the parameters on the buckling of the finite medium. As a result of this, the finite medium parameters are in the first place expressed in terms of the corresponding infinite medium ones through the buckling and the anisotropic migration areas, and in the second place all the parameters are expressed as integrals only over an unit cell instead of over the whole pile. A preliminary less detailed study is first made in order to distinguish clearly between what are called 'dynamic parameters' and 'static parameters', and to define the meanings given in this report to these two terms. In the appendices are given approximate one-group treatments for the study of the dynamic fine structure, the time constant in infinite lattices, and the anisotropic diffusion coefficients in non-multiplying lattices. (author) [French] On presente dans ce rapport une methode generale, utilisant la theorie du transport pour l'etude de la cinetique des milieux finis heterogenes. La theorie est applicable aussi bien aux experiences pres de la criticite qu'aux experiences par sources pulsees de neutrons sur des reseaux multiplicateurs ou non-multiplicateurs. La methode generale est aussi appliquee aux experiences exponentielles sur des reseaux infinis non-divergents. La particularite de l'etude est l'introduction explicite de l'heterogeneite dans la formulation et la recherche de la dependance des parametres par rapport au laplacien du reseau fini. Il en resulte d'une part que les

  19. Career Cartography: From Stories to Science and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deleise S; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Visovatti, Moira; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Feetham, Suzanne

    2017-05-01

    To present four case scenarios reflecting the process of research career development using career cartography. Career cartography is a novel approach that enables nurses, from all clinical and academic settings, to actively engage in a process that maximizes their clinical, teaching, research, and policy contributions that can improve patient outcomes and the health of the public. Four early-career nurse researchers applied the career cartography framework to describe their iterative process of research career development. They report the development process of each of the components of career cartography, including destination statement, career map, and policy statement. Despite diverse research interests and career mapping approaches, common experiences emerged from the four nurse researchers. Common lessons learned throughout the career cartography process include: (a) have a supportive mentorship team, (b) start early and reflect regularly, (c) be brief and to the point, (d) keep it simple and avoid jargon, (e) be open to change, (f) make time, and (g) focus on the overall career destination. These four case scenarios support the need for nurse researchers to develop their individual career cartography. Regardless of their background, career cartography can help nurse researchers articulate their meaningful contributions to science, policy, and health of the public. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Chernobyl's living legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years later, the April 1986 Chernobyl accident lives on in different ways: in fact and fiction. Today, national and international experts from eight United Nations agencies including the IAEA are working to sift fact from fiction. They are teamed with Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine to evaluate, document and report the accident's true scale. Known as the Chernobyl Forum, the group issued its comprehensive report in September 2005. It covers health and environmental consequences, and includes recommendations to channel assistance to where it is most needed. Dr. Fred Mettler is a member of the Forum, and a Chernobyl veteran researcher who served as the health team leader in an IAEA-led international project that first presented on-site assessments of Chernobyl's effects in the early 1990s, and participated in the International Chernobyl Conference in 1996 that summed up what was scientifically known then. In this essay, he revisits Chernobyl's health picture from personal and professional perspectives

  1. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  2. The message of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Morris

    1986-01-01

    Public attitudes towards the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 are discussed. Although affected by the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl, people in West Germany were still prepared to vote, only 3 months later, for political parties who would not change the nuclear situation, not for the 'Greens' who would. The whole issue is seen as a question of values and alternatives. (UK)

  3. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  4. Lunar and planetary cartography in Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladislav; Michael, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to document in depth the history of lunar and planetary cartography in Russia. The first map of the far side of the Moon was made with the participation of Lomonosov Moscow University (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, MSU) in 1960. The developed mapping technologies were then used in preparing the “Complete Map of the Moon” in 1967 as well as other maps and globes. Over the years, various maps of Mars have emerged from the special course “Mapping of extraterrestrial objects” in the MSU Geography Department, including the hypsometric map of Mars at a scale of 1:26,000,000, compiled by J.A. Ilyukhina and published in 2004 in an edition of 5,000 copies. A more detailed version of this map has since been produced with a new hypsometric scale. In addition, maps of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars have been compiled for the hypsometric globe of Mars.  Relief maps of Venus were made in 2008, 2010, and 2011, and hypsometric maps of Phobos and Deimos at a scale of 1:60,000...

  5. Chernobyl five years after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigna, A A

    1991-10-01

    In conjunction with an April 27-May 4, 1991 radioecological seminar at Kiev, European Communities' researchers were given the opportunity to visit the Chernobyl site and make observations on the state of the local environment and public health. This paper reports on these observations and compares the findings with those contained in a recent (1991) IAEA report on Chernobyl. The researchers' findings confirm those of the IAEA report and evidence that the most notable overall impact that the Chernobyl accident had on human health was psychological stress caused by misleading statements from mass media.

  6. Paradigms in cartography an epistemological review of the 20th and 21st centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Azócar Fernández, Pablo Iván

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the trends, concepts and directions in cartography and mapping in modernism and post-modernism. It explores philosophical and epistemological issues in cartography from positivist-empiricist, neo-positivist and post-structuralist stances.

  7. Lunar geodesy and cartography: a new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Smith, David; Robinson, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory; Danton, Jacob; Oberst, Juergen; Archinal, Brent; Glaeser, Philipp

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) ushers in a new era in precision lunar geodesy and cartography. LRO was launched in June, 2009, completed its Commissioning Phase in Septem-ber 2009 and is now in its Primary Mission Phase on its way to collecting high precision, global topographic and imaging data. Aboard LRO are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA -Smith, et al., 2009) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC -Robinson, et al., ). LOLA is a derivative of the successful MOLA at Mars that produced the global reference surface being used for all precision cartographic products. LOLA produces 5 altimetry spots having footprints of 5 m at a frequency of 28 Hz, significantly bettering MOLA that produced 1 spot having a footprint of 150 m at a frequency of 10 Hz. LROC has twin narrow angle cameras having pixel resolutions of 0.5 meters from a 50 km orbit and a wide-angle camera having a pixel resolution of 75 m and in up to 7 color bands. One of the two NACs looks to the right of nadir and the other looks to the left with a few hundred pixel overlap in the nadir direction. LOLA is mounted on the LRO spacecraft to look nadir, in the overlap region of the NACs. The LRO spacecraft has the ability to look nadir and build up global coverage as well as looking off-nadir to provide stereo coverage and fill in data gaps. The LROC wide-angle camera builds up global stereo coverage naturally from its large field-of-view overlap from orbit to orbit during nadir viewing. To date, the LROC WAC has already produced global stereo coverage of the lunar surface. This report focuses on the registration of LOLA altimetry to the LROC NAC images. LOLA has a dynamic range of tens of km while producing elevation data at sub-meter precision. LOLA also has good return in off-nadir attitudes. Over the LRO mission, multiple LOLA tracks will be in each of the NAC images at the lunar equator and even more tracks in the NAC images nearer the poles. The registration of LOLA

  8. Chernobyl and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettemeyer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The accident of 26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with the immense activity release was a catastrophe which took many victims and will still take many. This fact should not be hidden. This brochure represents an attempt to reflect the poor information from Chernobyl in a generally understandable manner and to assess them. Its goal is especially to make clear why even in maximum accidents in German nuclear power plants there is no danger to the population. The effects of the radioactive substances released after the accident in Chernobyl on Germany are described and put into relation. All presentations and descriptions were kept as models and were simplified and are therefore incomplete. This brochure was not meant to be an educational book; it only tries to respond to the questions raised by the accident in Chernobyl in the minds of non-professionals thus taking away the fear and strengthening the confidence in the safety of German reactors. (orig.) [de

  9. Chernobyl: fourteen years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhno, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

  10. 20 years with Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The newsletter describes briefly the Chernobyl accident and it's consequences. The emphasis is on food production, nutrition and radiation doses in the Norwegian population. Some heath risks are mentioned. Resource and preparedness aspects are briefly discussed

  11. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbyin, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  12. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  13. Chernobyl new town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the Russian people evacuated following the Chernobyl reactor accident, now two years into their new lives. A brief description is given of the evacuation from the Chernobyl area to Makarov in the Ukraine, where new jobs and housing were provided for the evacuees. The health of the people is regularly monitored to assess the effects of the radiation. Costs to eliminate the consequences of the accident, including the evacuation programme, is estimated to be $8 billion. (U.K.)

  14. Chernobyl and the media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibdin, T.

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared.

  15. Chernobyl and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibdin, T.

    1987-01-01

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared. (UK)

  16. Chernobyl and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteynberg, N.A.

    1992-01-01

    For protection against radioactive radiation, a sarcophagus was built around unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP. Construction works were carried out at dose rates of several thousand R/h. The reliability of the sarcophagus containment can be assessed only with great uncertainty. A fire in unit 2 has led now to the start of planning activities aimed at decommissioning the Chernobyl NPP. (DG) [de

  17. API, Cloud computing, WebGIS and cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Favretto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the digital mapping processes available on the Internet in order to analyse their cartographic congruence. It will focus on WebGIS-based cartography in relation to what is produced using Mash-up site maps. These websites often use Googlebased maps in order to produce their own cartography. Thus, we can identify two main typologies of Internet mapping sites, which are characterized by the ownership or non-ownership of their cartographic bases. This paper will critically assess the cartography employed in the two different instances. A concise introduction to the Cloud Computing Internet propagated phenomenon is also premised in order to provide the reader with an accurate frame of reference. Cloud Computing has encouraged a significant Internet participation via the Application Programming Interface software (API, leading to mash-up cartographic websites.

  18. Development Trends of Cartography and Geographic Information Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problems of cartography and geographic information engineering and increasing demands of national and military infomationization construction, the paper proposes six hotspots on the research of cartography and geographic information engineering for the future on the foundation of analyzing the development track of cartology, which are heterogeneous geospatial data assimilation, transferring from emphasizing geography infor-mation gaining to user-oriented geographic information deep processing, web or grid geographic information service. intelligent spatial data generalization. integration of GIS and VGE. cartography and geographic information engineering theory system with multi-mode(Map,.GlS..VGE spatial-temporal integrated cognition as the core. And discusses the necessity ,existing groundwork and research contents on studying these hotspots.

  19. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  20. Cinetique dans un Milieu Photochromique a Base de Thionine Selon Divers Types D'eclairement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Serge

    L'etude porte sur les changements chimiques induits par la lumiere dans un milieu photochromique constitue de thionine et de triethanolamine en solution solide dans l'alcool polyvinylique. Une reaction de photoreduction provoque le blanchiment de ce milieu. Des equations analytiques basees sur la cinetique photochimique ont ete developpees qui decrivent des reactions de photoblanchiment et de photonoircissement pour des milieux ideaux. Pour des milieux quelconques, une approximation utilisant une transformee de Laplace doit etre utilisee. Sous certaines conditions, le milieu etudie suit parfaitement la theorie. Ce milieu peut alors etre utilise pour mesurer la dimension de faisceaux gaussiens focalises. Il peut aussi etre utilise pour etudier l'enregistrement d'hologrammes. Pour cela, des equations a quatre ondes couplees ont ete resolues pour decrire l'enregistrement. Elles permettent d'expliquer le renforcement de la diffraction lorsqu'on passe d'un mode d'ecriture a un mode de lecture. Les resultats concordent avec la theorie.

  1. Kinetic equations for an unstable plasma; Equations cinetiques d'un plasma instable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval, G; Pellat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this work, we establish the plasma kinetic equations starting from the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy of equations. We demonstrate that relations existing between correlation functions may help to justify the truncation of the hierarchy. Then we obtain the kinetic equations of a stable or unstable plasma. They do not reduce to an equation for the one-body distribution function, but generally involve two coupled equations for the one-body distribution function and the spectral density of the fluctuating electric field. We study limiting cases where the Balescu-Lenard equation, the quasi-linear theory, the Pines-Schrieffer equations and the equations of weak turbulence in the random phase approximation are recovered. At last we generalise the H-theorem for the system of equations and we define conditions for irreversible behaviour. (authors) [French] Dans ce travail nous etablissons les equations cinetiques d'un plasma a partir des equations de la recurrence de Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood et Yvon. Nous demontrons qu'entre les fonctions de correlation d'un plasma existent des relations qui permettent de justifier la troncature de la recurrence. Nous obtenons alors les equations cinetiques d'un plasma stable ou instable. En general elles ne se reduisent pas a une equation d'evolution pour la densite simple, mais se composent de deux equations couplees portant sur la densite simple et la densite spectrale du champ electrique fluctuant. Nous etudions le cas limites ou l'on retrouve l'equation de Balescu-Lenard, les equations de la theorie quasi-lineaire, les equations de Pines et Schrieffer et les equations de la turbulence faible dans l'approximation des phases aleatoires. Enfin, nous generalisons le theoreme H pour ce systeme d'equations et nous precisons les conditions d'evolution irreversible. (auteurs)

  2. Chernobyl: closure by 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Discussions on the future of the Chernobyl nuclear plant between the Ukrainian government, the Group of Seven Industrial nations (GT) and the European Union (EU) are summarized. At the G7 meeting, a timetable for the closure of the entire station by 2000 was presented by Ukrainian officials. The timetable depends on financial commitments from Western governments. Without these, the project would take 10 to 15 years. Following this meeting, which took place on 16-17th May 1995. EU finance ministers authorized release of a ECU 85 million loan. On 23 May, the European Parliament's Committee on Research, Technology and Energy held a public hearing on the Chernobyl station. The primary topic was a feasibility study on the clean-up of Chernobyl 4 and plans for the sarcophagus. Other matters discussed included the effect of the delays and indecision in settling the plants's future. Safety improvements being made to other RBMKs were not being carried out at Chernobyl because of the expected closure. The replacement of the power now supplied to the Ukraine by the Chernobyl reactors is also an issue. The solution favoured by the Ukraine is to being on-line three VVER-1000s that are currently close to completion. Western governments find this solution difficult to accept, however. (UK)

  3. Art and cartography as a critique of borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Ribeiro, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between art and cartography. The main objective is to analyze how contemporary art uses maps to criticize borders. Inspired by the arguments raised by the Critical Cartography against the false neutrality of maps, we emphasize the potential of artworks to communicate different insights about how we experience and live the contemporary space. In that sense, art plays an important role not only to discuss the articulation of power and knowledge in cartography, but also to propose other categories of thought. Considering that borders are one of the most relevant visual elements on a map, we propose the following question: how the intersection between art and cartography can improve the critical thinking about borders? By questioning borders, art underlines that physical world is characterized by liminal spaces, not by absolute or strict separations. We briefly analyzed some examples of artworks that deal with political issues regarding this topic. Our findings suggest that art could reveal the impact of imposing borders in a space, whose arbitrary delimitation reflects power relations.

  4. Cartographie et ordinateur au lycée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry HATT

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Travail de cartographie automatique et d'analyse de données au lycée, destiné à promouvoir une initiation à la recherche scientifique et à la maîtrise de l'image. Présentation des objectifs, du logiciel SESAM, des productions réalisées.

  5. Chernobyl versus Basic Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G W

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the terms 'remaining risk to be accepted' and 'remainder of the aggregate risk', and explains the line of action to be adopted in compliance with the Constitution in order to respond to the event at Chernobyl: The Constitution demands maximum acceptable limits to be defined as low as possible. The author discusses the various dose estimations and the contradictions to be observed in this context. He states that the Chernobyl accident has done most harm to our legal system, as the basic right of freedom from injury has been ploughed under with the radioactivity that covered the soil after the Chernobyl accident. But, he says, a positive effect is that the idea of abandoning nuclear power as too dangerous a technology has gained more widespread acceptance. (HSCH).

  6. Chernobyl: the final warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.; Hauser, Thomas.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a book has been written with firstly an introduction to the basic principles and development of nuclear power, followed by a brief review of previous nuclear power plant accidents and then a short account of the Chernobyl accident itself. The main text of the book however contains the personal story of Dr. Robert Peter Yale, head of the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit at the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles who travelled to Russia six times to help the victims of the Chernobyl accident. The final part of the book discusses the safety of nuclear power and the dangers of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  7. Chernobyl versus Basic Law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the terms 'remaining risk to be accepted' and 'remainder of the aggregate risk', and explains the line of action to be adopted in compliance with the Constitution in order to respond to the event at Chernobyl: The Constitution demands maximum acceptable limits to be defined as low as possible. The author discusses the various dose estimations and the contradictions to be observed in this context. He states that the Chernobyl accident has done most harm to our legal system, as the basic right of freedom from injury has been ploughed under with the radioactivity that covered the soil after the Chernobyl accident. But, he says, a positive effect is that the idea of abandoning nuclear power as too dangerous a technology has gained more widespread acceptance. (HSCH) [de

  8. Exploding Chernobyl myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1991-01-01

    Misconceptions about the way thermal reactors really work, and the use of misleading terminology, have allowed the western nuclear industry to claim that the accident at the RBMK (water cooled, graphite moderated) type reactor at Chernobyl would not be possible in western type pressurized water reactors. The author contends that control of thermal reactors is only possible because a small but consistent fraction of the secondary neutrons are delayed. If the delayed neutron reaction is overridden by the prompt neutron reaction, control is irretrievably lost and a nuclear explosion, such as at Chernobyl, results. Parallels between the PWR and RBMK are drawn. The consequences of the Chernobyl explosion are discussed and the question is asked: can any combination of circumstances, however improbable, produce a prompt neutron explosion in any western reactors? (UK)

  9. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartau, S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    1987-01-01

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.) [de

  10. The Chernobyl syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear industry has failed in its communication with the public in the past. This failure has affected public reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. It has also alerted the nuclear industry to this failure and it will concentrate efforts to get the nuclear message over more effectively. At the moment the nuclear industry and the public interpret the same statements in different ways. This was evident after the Chernobyl accident. The author explains that the industry can only restore public confidence in nuclear power by being open, honest and speaking in terms that lay people can understand. (UK)

  11. The post Chernobyl society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenofontov, Ion.

    2011-01-01

    The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

  12. Chernobyl: fifteen years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel J.; )

    2001-01-01

    On Saturday 26 April 1986, an accident which was to have global repercussions occurred at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident involved the largest short term release from a single source of radioactive materials to the atmosphere ever recorded. The debate about the consequences of the accident of Chernobyl became a real saga, probably one of the most extensive controversial history of the modern technological era. There was a general concern among the population regarding the health consequences of such releases and the safety of nuclear facilities. (author)

  13. Come back to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, J.P.

    2006-04-01

    After a return to Chernobyl, the author exposes the gap between the official estimation of the United Nations Organization and what he saw: no more house, track of life. He shows that all official estimation should taking into account philosophical and ethical dimensions. Three main aspects appear in this book: a reportage on Chernobyl and the areas, a scientifical and educational investigation of the nuclear risks and stakes today and for the future and a plea against the government lies and for the humanist transparency. (A.L.B.)

  14. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  15. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  16. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Roehl, W.

    1990-01-01

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  18. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The accident in the fourth reactor plant in Chernobyl in Ukraine occurred ten years years ago, caused the death of 31 people while the health consequences have turned out to be difficult to assess. This review describes the accident, its consequences and effects to health, studies carried out at the present state as well as the comparison with the other accidents and disaster. (author)

  19. Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    1997-01-01

    The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

  20. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Mycio

    2007-01-01

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  1. International Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The film documents the work of the radiation experts of 8 international organizations in the area around the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant. During this evaluation, radiation measurements and medical examinations of the population were carried out and samples of soil, water, plants and food taken

  2. A cathedral for Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    2004-01-01

    A containment shell will protect the Chernobyl reactor. The candidate enterprises for this containment shell construction, proposed gigantic buildings, which will be a great technical challenge. The author presents the project and wonders on the cost and the financing. (A.L.B.)

  3. Seven years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwicki, R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper contains information of the WHO about the state of public health in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus seven years after the Chernobyl accident. The results of medical investigations obtained after two years run of IPHECA project have been also presented

  4. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  6. Maps and civilization cartography in culture and society

    CERN Document Server

    Thrower, Norman J W

    2008-01-01

    In this concise introduction to the history of cartography, Norman J. W. Thrower charts the intimate links between maps and history from antiquity to the present day. A wealth of illustrations, including the oldest known map and contemporary examples made using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), illuminate the many ways in which various human cultures have interpreted spatial relationships.The third edition of Maps and Civilization incorporates numerous revisions, features new material throughout the book, and includes a new alphabetized bibliography. Praise for previous editions of Maps and Civilization:"A marvelous compendium of map lore. Anyone truly interested in the development of cartography will want to have his or her own copy to annotate, underline, and index for handy referencing."-L. M. Sebert, Geomatica

  7. Cartographie des zones d'intervention des partenaires techniques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cartographier les zones d'intervention des partenaires techniques et financiers au Bénin. L'approche méthodologique utilisée a consisté à la recherche documentaire, à la collecte de données auprès des partenaires techniques et financiers et à l'analyse de ces données. Les résultats ont permis de constater que cent dix ...

  8. Assessing population exposure for landslide risk analysis using dasymetric cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo A. C.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Zezere, Jose L.

    2015-04-01

    Exposed Population is a major topic that needs to be taken into account in a full landslide risk analysis. Usually, risk analysis is based on an accounting of inhabitants number or inhabitants density, applied over statistical or administrative terrain units, such as NUTS or parishes. However, this kind of approach may skew the obtained results underestimating the importance of population, mainly in territorial units with predominance of rural occupation. Furthermore, the landslide susceptibility scores calculated for each terrain unit are frequently more detailed and accurate than the location of the exposed population inside each territorial unit based on Census data. These drawbacks are not the ideal setting when landslide risk analysis is performed for urban management and emergency planning. Dasymetric cartography, which uses a parameter or set of parameters to restrict the spatial distribution of a particular phenomenon, is a methodology that may help to enhance the resolution of Census data and therefore to give a more realistic representation of the population distribution. Therefore, this work aims to map and to compare the population distribution based on a traditional approach (population per administrative terrain units) and based on dasymetric cartography (population by building). The study is developed in the Region North of Lisbon using 2011 population data and following three main steps: i) the landslide susceptibility assessment based on statistical models independently validated; ii) the evaluation of population distribution (absolute and density) for different administrative territorial units (Parishes and BGRI - the basic statistical unit in the Portuguese Census); and iii) the dasymetric population's cartography based on building areal weighting. Preliminary results show that in sparsely populated administrative units, population density differs more than two times depending on the application of the traditional approach or the dasymetric

  9. The Future of Cartography --- Budućnost kartografije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important changes in cartography are associated with the development of computer technology, and regarding the function and usage of maps, the accent has been given to cartographic visualisation. Animation, multimedia presentation, Internet, WWW, market economy and politics have remarkably influenced cartography. The paper emphasises the need for closer collaboration of experts in informatics, geodesists, geographers, spatial planners and others with cartographers. The future of cartography is associated with map production, GIS, visualisation of spatial databases, and the production of detailed three-dimensional landscape presentations.Najvažnije promjene u kartografiji vezane su uz razvoj računalne tehnologije i geoinformacijskih sustava (GIS-a, a glede funkcije i upotrebe karata naglasak je na kartografskoj vizualizaciji. Na kartografiju također znatno utječu animacija, multimedijski prikazi, Internet, WWW, tržišno gospodarstvo i politika. Kartografija se mijenja od ponudom vođene do zahtjevom vođene kartografije. U radu je posebno istaknuta potreba uže suradnje informatičara, geodeta, geografa, prostornih planera i drugih s kartografima. Budućnost kartografije nije samo u izradi karata, već i u GIS-ovima, vizualizaciji prostornih baza podataka i izradi detaljnih trodimenzionalnih prikaza krajolika.

  10. Impossible cartographies: approaching Raúl Ruiz’s cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goddard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Ruiz (1931-2011, while considered one of the world’s most significant filmmakers by several film critics, is yet to be the subject of any thorough academic engagement with his work in English. My book Impossible Cartographies sets out on this task by mapping, as fully as possible, Ruiz’s cinematic trajectory across more than five decades of prolific work ranging from his earliest work in Chile to high budget ‘European’ costume dramas culminating in the recent Mysteries of Lisbon (2010. It does this by treating Ruiz’s work, with its surrealist, magic realist, popular cultural and neo-Baroque sources, as a type of ‘impossible’ cinematic cartography, mapping real, imaginary and virtual spaces, and crossing between different cultural contexts, aesthetic strategies, and technical media. In argues that across the different phases of Ruiz’s work identified, there are key continuities such as the invention of singular cinematic images and the interrogation of their possible and impossible combinations. This article will present some of the key themes of Ruiz’s cinema and use ideas of virtual cartography, tableaux vivants and the neo-baroque to illuminate a range of Ruiz’s films from the Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting (1978 to Mysteries of Lisbon, his last major project.

  11. Mapping out Patience: Cartography, Cinema and W.G. Sebald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taien Ng-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinematic cartography can be an especially powerful tool for deep mapping, as it can convey the narratives, emotions, memories and histories, as well as the locations and geography that are associated with a place. This is evident in the documentary film Patience (After Sebald by Grant Gee, which follows in the footsteps of W.G. Sebald and his walking tour of Suffolk, England, as described in his book The Rings of Saturn. A variety of strategies in cinematic cartography are used quite consciously in Gee’s exploration of space, place and story. Using Teresa Castro’s three cartographic shapes of cinema, I structure an analysis of the film’s opening scene through a discussion of cinematic cartography, or the plotting of geospatial data onto a map, as well as what I will differentiate as cartographic cinema, or the mapping of space through the cinematographic image. I argue that both are necessary not only to have a deep understanding of the world and our place in it, but also in how to transmit that knowledge to others.

  12. Cartography in the Age of Spatio-temporal Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartography is an ancient science with almost the same long history as the world's oldest culture.Since ancient times,the movement and change of anything and any phenomena,including human activities,have been carried out in a certain time and space.The development of science and technology and the progress of social civilization have made social management and governance more and more dependent on time and space.The information source,theme,content,carrier,form,production methods and application methods of map are different in different historical periods,so that its all-round value is different. With the arrival of the big data age,the scientific paradigm has now entered the era of "data-intensive" paradigm,so is the cartography,with obvious characteristics of big data science.All big data are caused by movement and change of all things and phenomena in the geographic world,so they have space and time characteristics and thus cannot be separated from the spatial reference and time reference.Therefore,big data is big spatio-temporal data essentially.Since the late 1950s and early 1960s,modern cartography,that is,the cartography in the information age,takes spatio-temporal data as the object,and focuses on the processing and expression of spatio-temporal data,but not in the face of the large scale multi-source heterogeneous and multi-dimensional dynamic data flow(or flow datafrom sky to the sea.The real-time dynamic nature,the theme pertinence,the content complexity,the carrier diversification,the expression form personalization,the production method modernization,the application ubiquity of the map,is incomparable in the past period,which leads to the great changes of the theory,technology and application system of cartography.And all these changes happen to occur in the 60 years since the late 1950s and early 1960s,so this article was written to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the "Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica".

  13. Analyse spatiale, évaluation et cartographie du risque glissement de terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Malet , Jean-Philippe; Thiery , Yannick; Maquaire , Olivier; Puissant , Anne

    2006-01-01

    International audience; RÉSUMÉ : Pour évaluer et cartographier le risque « glissement de terrain », les techniques d'analyse spatiale et les technologies SIG sont rarement utilisées. En particulier, aucune étude concerne la cartographie automatique du risque « glissement de terrain » à grande échelle (1:10,000 è), échelle de travail correspondant à la cartographie règlementaire du risque naturel en France. Cet article présente une procédure en trois étapes pour évaluer et cartographier le ris...

  14. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillwald, K.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.) [de

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. The consequences of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Madero, Carlos.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. The international Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The findings of the International Chernobyl Project are summarized herewith. The project focused on four key issues related to the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident which are of concern to the population and policy makers: the true extent of the current contamination in inhabited areas of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine; the past, current and future radiation exposure of the population; the actual and potential health effects; and the adequacy or measures being taken to protect the public. The project findings are expected to contribute towards alleviating the consequences of the accident by presenting factual information to allow future policy and worldwide assistance to be channelled to where it is most needed and where it can be best used. (author)

  19. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  20. Chernobyl 25 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a brief recall on radioactivity measurement units and on radioactivity itself, this report describes and comments the Chernobyl accident, its consequent releases, the scattering of the radioactive plume over Europe, the formation of radioactive deposits in Europe, the contamination of the different environments and of the food chain, the health impact in the most contaminated areas, the doses received in France and their associated risks. It finally draws some lessons from this accident

  1. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident and its consequences are briefly outlined in order to provide a synthesis of the facts from the most reliable sources. The paper describes in main lines the accident and the measures that were taken to mitigate its effects. The data on the radiation doses received by the population and the effects of the accident on the human health as well as on the environment are summarized. (author) [es

  2. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzaniga, R.; Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Sangalli, E.

    1989-01-01

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  3. Chernobyl - consequences and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident has taught mankind very plainly that nuclear energy bears a deadly potential and thus is to be ranked as a key problem of future decisions in the sector of power engineering. Decisions to be taken in future have to be seen in the context of the ecological, economic, and social needs. The statements given reflect the FEST's opinion on nuclear energy and the biological, economic, political, and ethical implications. (DG) [de

  4. 8 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

  5. Chernobyl source term estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the 131 I and 90 Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  7. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  8. Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raestrup, R.; Kundke, J.

    1986-01-01

    The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP) [de

  9. Chernobyl's other legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenemser, C.; Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    A number of accounts of the Chernobyl accident argue that governments and the public were overwhelmed by the transnational impact of the accident, and that their response was in some sense irrational or exaggerated. This article describes the essential features of what is now known about the radiation release at Chernobyl, its world-wide dispersion, the resulting exposures, and the expected health consequences. With this basis the fallout exposure is related to changes in public attitudes about nuclear power, to the extent of protective action achieved, and to the level commitment to nuclear power in several countries. This analysis allows a number of questions to be posed, as follows: 1. Were shifts in public opinion related to the level of exposure, and if so, what does this suggest? 2. Were protective actions, as measured by radiation exposure averted (dose savings), proportional to the danger posed? 3. Were protective actions related to the change in public attitudes toward nuclear power? 4. Was a country's degree of commitment to nuclear energy, as measured by the nuclear share of electricity generation, a factor in its response to the Chernobyl accident? Analysis of these questions, which is largely based on data for the Western democracies, suggests that, with some significant exceptions, both public and government responses were surprisingly rational in that they were proportional to the public's level of exposure. This finding speaks in turn to the central importance of public information in fashioning a response to risky technology. 41 notes, 6 figures, 4 tables

  10. Return to Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosovsky, Anatolij

    1995-09-01

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country`s electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK).

  11. Return to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovsky, Anatolij.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country's electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK)

  12. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J.F.; Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C.; Cort, M. de; Joulia, J.P.; Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M.; Kenigsberg, J.; Hindie, E.; Havenaar, M.

    2006-01-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  13. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J F [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F; Govaerts, P; Eggermont, C [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J P [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A H; Balonov, M [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  14. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  15. GIS cartography a guide to effective map design

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Gretchen N

    2009-01-01

    Maps, either printed or digital, can create effective communication with bosses, clients, other scientists, and the public. However, entry level GISers often find that map design was given short shrift in their pre-professional life. It is time for the GIS field, which is maturing in other ways, to improve its skills in this area. Based on the author's more than ten years of research and practice in map design, GIS Cartography: A Guide to Effective Map Design provides the tools to create truly sophisticated maps. Packed full of in-depth information and advice, this book covers all facets of ma

  16. DOCUMENTARY STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT THROUGH THE CONCEPTUAL CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fabiola Ortega-Carbajal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to implement strategies that promote knowledge management in order to transcend the management of information in a society marked by change problem solving context and the influence of technology in scientific innovation processes. The methodology used for the conceptual cartography in order to organize information collected, primary and secondary sources were recovered mainly from academic google. The results show four key aspects in the management of knowledge from socioformation. As a consecuence we have the basis of a key concept in the transformation of education in Latin America that requires empirical studies to consolidate in future pedagogical reforms.

  17. Cartographie par carroyage et précision spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice LANGLOIS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d'une cartographie par carroyage, on étudie la désagrégation de variables zonales, en revenant sur l'hypothèse de l'équirépartition spatiale des populations. L'objectif est d'approcher des règles différenciées de désagrégation des variables en fusionnant des plans d'information de nature morphologique, topologique et environnementale.

  18. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures......-information is actually not possible at all without having a usage (a project identity and a purpose) in mind. Objective and neutral geo-information does not exist. Therefore the overall philosophy of the geo-domain will be that it is a communication discipline....

  19. Open Contents Modules Available for E-Learning Multimedia Cartography and Location Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Swiss Virtual Campus (SVC is a federal program, which began in 2000th and was completed in 2008th. Its goal was to improve Internet-based learning in Swiss higher education institutions. One of the projects within the SVC was dedicated to cartography: CartouCHe (Cartography for Swiss Higher Education.

  20. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbridge, R.; Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author)

  1. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  2. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  3. Chernobyl - and then?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestroem, Ulla

    1990-01-01

    The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

  4. Chernobyl - facts and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaefer, H

    1986-07-01

    The article summarizes and comments on the activities started in the FRG after the Chernobyl MCA, and tries to assess whether the legal provisions currently applicable, or emergency plans available, are apt to efficiently cope with such an emergency situation. The author discusses the Soviet Union's initial efforts towards minimizing the disastrous significance of events, the lack of preparedness of German authorities and provisions, the non-availability of persons responsible during weekends and night hours, the confounding mess of measured data and units published by the information media and authorities, and the lack of a suitable information scheme and infrastructure supported both by the Land governments and the Federal Government. (HSCH).

  5. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  6. One year after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    It is now one year since the accident which destroyed the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Its principal cause was a flagrant disregard by operating personnel of well-established operating rules and procedures, which placed Unit 4 in an unstable state. This booklet reviews some aspects of what had already been done before the accident, and what has taken place since. It describes, in particular, the Agency's programmes in the field of nuclear safety

  7. Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall Bake, D.A. van den; Geut, L.; Zorn, G.W.H.

    1986-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

  8. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  9. Chernobyl's lengthening shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marples, D.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the April 26, 1986 nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The information presented was gathered through talks between the author and scientists, citizens, and hospital workers in Belarus and Ukraine, as well as from library research. What is currently believed to have occurred at the time of the accident is related. The short and long term health effects of the accident as they are now understood are analyzed. The numbers of people evacuated and the location and severity of land contamination are described. Political and economic consequences of the accident are also explored. 2 refs

  10. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  11. A redesign of OGC Symbology Encoding standard for sharing cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Bocher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite most Spatial Data Infrastructures offering service-based visualization of geospatial data, requirements are often at a very basic level leading to poor quality of maps. This is a general observation for any geospatial architecture as soon as open standards as those of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC are applied. To improve the situation, this paper does focus on improvements at the portrayal interoperability side by considering standardization aspects. We propose two major redesign recommendations. First to consolidate the cartographic theory at the core of the OGC Symbology Encoding standard. Secondly to build the standard in a modular way so as to be ready to be extended with upcoming future cartographic requirements. Thus, we start by defining portrayal interoperability by means of typical-use cases that frame the concept of sharing cartography. Then we bring to light the strengths and limits of the relevant open standards to consider in this context. Finally we propose a set of recommendations to overcome the limits so as to make these use cases a true reality. Even if the definition of a cartographic-oriented standard is not able to act as a complete cartographic design framework by itself, we argue that pushing forward the standardization work dedicated to cartography is a way to share and disseminate good practices and finally to improve the quality of the visualizations.

  12. Chernobyl: the long shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    Chernobyl: the Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are. It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries, and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world. It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailed scientific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reactions to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context, and will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems. (author)

  13. The puzzle of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischetti, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    News of the event itself-the world's worst nuclear reactor accident-emerged in an agonizing trickle. Answers about the cause of the explosion at Chernobyl and what can be done to prevent similar catastrophes in the electric utility industry may be even slower in coming. But already top nuclear experts in the United States and Europe have put forth plausible hypotheses. The scenarios note that the accident occurred in an inherently hazardous type of reactor, little used in any country but the Soviet Union. Yet the incident has raised questions about safety measures in all reactors. As for the long-range health damage from radioactive iodine, cesium, and other products released by the Chernobyl meltdown, there is little precise knowledge. Some scientists have predicted an increase in the incidence of cancer and premature deaths in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in the years ahead, but they concede their estimates are only tentative. This article presents an analysis of the accident as known at the time of publication

  14. The international Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the official report of the International Advisory Committee at the conference of the International Chernobyl Project held in Vienna, May 1991. More details will be found in the actual report, ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive

  15. Chernobyl, an opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freslon, Herve; Vignon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  16. Career cartography: a conceptualization of career development to advance health and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feetham, Suzanne; Doering, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a conceptualization of career development that emphasizes the interdependence between research, practice, and policy. Career cartography applies three decades of career development experience to lay out a systematic, comprehensive, and iterative approach for planning and communicating the outcomes of science at any career stage. To inform practice and policy, nurse researchers must be clear on the intended destination and trajectory of the science, and be skilled in communicating that science and vision to diverse stakeholders. Career cartography builds on the science of cartography, is developed within the context of public and health policy, and is composed of several components, including a destination statement, career mapping, a supportive career cartography team, and use of communication and dissemination strategies. The successful utilization of career cartography may accelerate advancement of individual careers, scientific impact, and the discipline as a whole by guiding nurse researchers to be deliberative in career planning and to communicate successfully the outcomes of research across a wide variety of stakeholders. Career cartography provides a framework for planning a nurse researcher's program of research and scholarship to advance science, policy, and health of the public. Career cartography guides nurse researchers to realize their full potential to advance the health of the public and inform public and health policy in academic and practice environments. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  18. Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

    1987-11-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult.

  19. Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult. (UK)

  20. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokumejko, J.M.; Matveyenko, I.I.; Germenchuk, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  1. Nuclear Energy Law after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.; Hancher, L.; Kuhn, W.

    1988-01-01

    This publication contains a serie of presentations on effects of the accident at Chernobyl from a legal viewpoint and the actions taken at the international and the national level. They illustrate the scope and seriousness of the challenges posed by an accident having a substantial impact on a large number of countries. Some papers deal with the Chernobyl accident itself, while others examine the current legislative and regulatory context, highlighting particular problem areas (NEA) [fr

  2. [The radioecological lessons of Chernobyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksakhin, R M

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radioecological studies undertaken within the area exposed to ionizing radiation after Chernobyl disaster. Conclusions are made concerning the major regularities in radionuclide migration within various natural media and action of ionizing radiation on natural and artificial ecosystems. The efficiency of basic protective ecological measures in eliminating the accident consequences has been determined. The contribution of radioecological studies to the elimination of Chernobyl disaster sequences assessed.

  3. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  4. The legacy of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1990-01-01

    The essential message in this book is that the true impact of the accident at Chernobyl is far greater than the Soviet government is willing to admit. The author says that he remains skeptical of the official version of the accident. The many key mistakes or shortcomings that figured prominently in the accident and that the Soviets have been reluctant to publicize are highlighted in this book. Problems with initial construction, the lack of instruments in the first hours and days after the accident to adequately measure the radiation level, the deliberate initial under-reaction to the accident, the evaluation fiasco, the mistakes made in taming the reactor fire, and the botched cleanup are all traced back to certain longstanding features of the Soviet system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is faulted for helping the Soviets coverup the accident effects at the August 1986 IAEA International meeting by not questioning deeply enough the Soviet reports concerning the accident

  5. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbyina, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

  6. One decade after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The European Commission, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with other international organisations, sponsored a major conference in Vienna in April 1996. The conference, One Decade After Chernobyl: Summing Up the Consequences of the Accident, was attended by more than 800 delegates from over 70 countries and organisations. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancer and the major psychological stress reaction of the relocated populations show that the aftermath of the accident is not yet at an end. Nevertheless, the conference was an excellent opportunity for politicians and scientists of the affected republics to report on these issues and for the overall consequences to be put into perspective. (Author)

  7. The effects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that the Chernobyl accident will result in an (undetectable) increase of cancer in the U.K. over the next 40-50 years-probably 400-500 cases occurring, less than half of which would be fatal. Preventive measures which could have been instigated would have had doubtful effects in terms of total health detriment in the population. The overall governmental response was marked by confusion. The need for independent monitoring and assessment, and effective public communication was highlighted by the number of unofficial bodies and 'instant experts' approached for advice and information. There is an obvious need for some consensus about intervention or action levels among European countries. (U.K.)

  8. Ten years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1996-01-01

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the open-quotes liquidatorsclose quotes with doses ∼100 mSv, of the ∼150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical 'radiation sickness.' As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, 'the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.' It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial (∼ 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident

  9. Value Assessment in Managing Cartography and Geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    dramatic changes particularly within the following areas: technology, availability of geo-information, professional skills and mobility of labour, conventions as well as resources. It was recognized at the KMS that the existing professional skills and methods were no longer sufficient for the design...... and the management in modern cartography and in modern geo-spatial communication projects. It was recognized that there was a lack of adequate theories, models, methods and tech-niques. This forced the cartographers and the project managers to lock several parameters to well known values. One example...... is that the prevalent processes for design revision, if any, were based on historical conditions. Previously it was common praxis to make changes in each separate step of the whole process without recognizing the overall aspects of the entire process or the entire project. The aim of the project was to create...

  10. The Chernobyl silences: the contaminated future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandazzi, G.

    2004-01-01

    This analyse provides the sanitary actuality of the Chernobyl accident which occurred in 1986. Testimonies, politicians, scientists, philosophers and artists reflexions are provided. It wonders on the information evolution and the notion of ''accident'' since Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  11. Actor-network Theory and cartography of controversies in Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, Ramon Fernandes; TOMAÉL, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to discuss the interactions between the Actor-network Theory and the Cartography of Controversies method in Information Science research. A literature review was conducted on books, scholarly articles, and any other sources addressing the Theory-Actor Network and Cartography of Controversies. The understanding of the theoretical assumptions that guide the Network-Actor Theory allows examining important aspects to Information Science research, seeking to identif...

  12. Geospatial big data and cartography : research challenges and opportunities for making maps that matter

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Anthony C.; Demsar, Urska; Moore, Antoni B.; Buckley, Aileen; Jiang, Bin; Field, Kenneth; Kraak, Menno-Jan; Camboim, Silvana P; Sluter, Claudia R

    2017-01-01

    Geospatial big data present a new set of challenges and opportunities for cartographic researchers in technical, methodological, and artistic realms. New computational and technical paradigms for cartography are accompanying the rise of geospatial big data. Additionally, the art and science of cartography needs to focus its contemporary efforts on work that connects to outside disciplines and is grounded in problems that are important to humankind and its sustainability. Following the develop...

  13. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Prister, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  14. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  15. Chernobyl the health consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waight, P J

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident.

  16. The future since Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, Mary.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews three books about energy policy, particularly in relation to nuclear energy. From these, which were all published before the Chernobyl disaster, the reviewer identifies two main problems relating to nuclear energy - immediate safety and disposal of nuclear waste. Risk analysis is seen as unhelpful in allaying public fears as it is the nature of the risk of nuclear accidents, rather than its numerical probability, that is frightening. A paper on the assessment of Best Practical Environmental Options (BPEO) for management of low and intermediate-level solid radioactive waste, is referred to when commenting on nuclear waste disposal. Ordinary people have two political obligations with respect to nuclear energy - first to demand knowledge and examine further reassuring information. Risks taken will then be taken with proper information obtained first. Secondly, to look beyond the short-term consequences of a nuclear programme. To fulfill these obligations policy-makers have to be educated to be open and honest about the nuclear future and to be seen to be looking further ahead than the immediate future. (U.K.)

  17. Variable radius cartography - History and perspectives of a new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    The map that Toscanelli sent to Columbus was an unconscious application of cartography at a smaller radius than the real. The first really conscious attempts to represent the geography of Earth on globes of radius less than the current one occurred after the formulation of the concept of expanding Earth through geological time. The American chemist and geologist Richard Owen (1810-1890) in his book Key to the geology of the globe (1857) described the principles of what he himself called Anatomical Geology, with the Earth growing as a biological organism. The book contained a global paleogeographic map of the Earth that would have had a radius of about 4000 kilometers. In 1928 J.A.H. Kerkhoff (under the pseudonym Aero-dilettant) published a series of paleogeographic globes on which the modern oceans disappeared. With the same artisan methods of transfer continental outlines from a sphere to a smaller one, in 1933 O.C. Hilgenberg represented three different geological epochs, and, later, for the first time mapped paleopoles with their site-pole segments of meridian. Even today the traditional method of Hilgenberg is followed by senior researchers (Klaus Vogel, 2003) and younger geologists (James Maxlow). In England Hugh Owen applied the methods of traditional cartography to the variable radius one. His Atlas of Continental Displacement was in the 70s and 80s, for this discipline, a real milestone. While in the field of constant radius paleogeography the adherents to plate tectonics created many computer codes of automatic mapping (Bullard et al., 1965; Smith & Hallam, 1970; Scotese et al., 1979; and many others), in the variable radius field few tried to reach the same task. In 1972 in United States a first very simple attempt (but was not further developed) came from a private, R.B. Perry, followed by the still not-computerized Atlas of Owen, and both them constituted inspiration for the construction of a FORTRAN variable radius mapping code at INGV, with which it

  18. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, J.Q.; Snell, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  19. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  20. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the US has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident. The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements. For example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with US Environmental Protection Agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is constrasted with typical US evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. La cartographie au service de l’action publique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Martinais

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Au moment où les usages de la cartographie dans les domaines d’action publique comme l’environnement bénéficient d’un regain d’intérêt de la communauté scientifique, cet article se propose d’analyser la contribution des outils cartographiques à la prévention des risques industriels. Omniprésents dans les diverses procédures qui participent de cette politique (information du public, organisation des secours, maîtrise de l’urbanisation, etc., les documents cartographiques apparaissent sous diverses formes et remplissent des missions très spécifiques : ils sont tour à tour dispositifs de simplification du réel, vecteur d’informations, outil de communication et instrument de légitimation pour un certain nombre d’acteurs a priori non spécialistes de la sécurité industrielle mais participant néanmoins à la décision. De ce point de vue, l’apport de la carte n’est pas de donner une représentation juste ou objective du risque, mais de faciliter la mise en œuvre de l’action publique. Mots-clés : cartographie ― usages sociaux ― risque industriel ― action publique. This article is dealing with the usual forms of maps in implementation of environmental policies, and more precisely, in prevention of industrial and technological risks. It also aims to analyze the role those iconographic tools play in risk assessment and management, and how they govern the relationships between stakeholders involved in decision process. They are used at each step of each risk evaluation procedure (public information, safety device implementation, risk mapping, urban planning, etc. and carry out many different tasks: simplification of complexity, data source for decision, communication tool, and legitimization instrument. From this point of view, the most important contribution of maps is less to give a true representation of risk than to make the law implementation easier. Key words: risk mapping ― social uses

  2. Chernobyl pollution in forest biogeocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, E.; Bettoli, M.G.; Tubertini, O.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl pollution on forest biogeocenoses are described. Spruce, scotch pine, larch, beech, lichens and soils samples were analysed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry. In the established tree organs radioactivity was related to their structural and physiological features, as well as to their surface/dry weight ratios. In the developing organs growth dilution and translocation caused a lower radioactivity. Lichens retained remarkable amounts of radionuclides. The abnormal 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios in the organic soils were explained by analysing the 'before Chernobyl' soils sampled in the same area. (orig.)

  3. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  5. Spatial-Frequency Azimuthally Stable Cartography of Biological Polycrystalline Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ushenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new azimuthally stable polarimetric technique processing microscopic images of optically anisotropic structures of biological tissues histological sections is proposed. It has been used as a generalized model of phase anisotropy definition of biological tissues by using superposition of Mueller matrices of linear birefringence and optical activity. The matrix element M44 has been chosen as the main information parameter, whose value is independent of the rotation angle of both sample and probing beam polarization plane. For the first time, the technique of concerted spatial-frequency filtration has been used in order to separate the manifestation of linear birefringence and optical activity. Thereupon, the method of azimuthally stable spatial-frequency cartography of biological tissues histological sections has been elaborated. As the analyzing tool, complex statistic, correlation, and fractal analysis of coordinate distributions of M44 element has been performed. The possibility of using the biopsy of the uterine wall tissue in order to differentiate benign (fibromyoma and malignant (adenocarcinoma conditions has been estimated.

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  7. Chernobyl its effect on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; MacNeill, G.; Pollard, D.

    1987-03-01

    This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

  8. A pyramid solution at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the Kiev '92 competition to find a solution to the problem of containing the stricken Chernobyl unit 4, the PPROTECTOR proposal, put forward by a British-led international consortium, ranked fifth after the first round of judging. It made extensive use of advanced CAD techniques. (Author)

  9. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Howieson, J.Q.

    1987-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  10. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  11. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  12. The Space of Cartography (en inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Carrascal Aguirre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract“All perceiving is also thinking, all reasoning is also intuition, all observation is also invention” Rudolph Arnheim Among the places found inside contemporary cities, a certain  kind of space exists, the importance of which is often   overlooked, even by those who are charged with creating them. This could be explained by the fact that, singularly, these spaces  do not have a specific location, since they are in essence symbolic or conceptual in character. I am referring to our way of graphically representing our environment: maps. As will soon be explained, the map in itself is a place that substitutes the reality that it represents. It is a surrogate space that operates fundamentally through analogy and abstraction.The production and use of this type of space carries important  implications in the configuration of our physical environment at any scale, be it that of a project, a city or the land. The transformative capacity of cartographic activity will be comparable  here to project design, refuting the usual conception about both as having essentially different natures; project design is usually seen as being dynamic in character and tinged with specific actions leading to a transformation of the environment over time, while maps are reduced to being a static projection of an existing physical reality onto a smaller surface. The fundamental idea behind putting maps and projects on the same level rests on the fact that any form of spatial representation entails an exercise of acting upon the  represented object.Key wordsplace, cartography, landscape, abstraction, geometry

  13. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  14. The Future of Past Skies: Historical Celestial Cartography at the Adler Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Pedro M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The Adler Planetarium is home to a world-class collection of scientific instruments, rare books and works on paper. Since 2014, Adler staff has been digitizing a wide selection of items relating to celestial cartography, including: more than 236 rare books and atlases; 97 works on paper; globes and other artifacts, amounting to 58 objects; and approximately 3,750 Carte du Ciel prints. This work has been carried out under the auspices of the Celestial Cartography Digitization Project (CCDP), which is sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities. This poster presentation will include: 1) an update on the project; 2) a description of related resources and tools available to the research community; 3) examples of how the Adler Planetarium is integrating the history of celestial cartography with its public programs; 4) an overview of a prospective citizen science project involving the identification of constellations in historical atlases and charts.

  15. The social impact of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marples, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The book entitled the 'Social impact of the Chernobyl disaster' examines the aftermath of the reactor accident, using information culled from a fact-finding visit to the USSR in 1987, and from a wide variety of Soviet source materials. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:-the cause of the Chernobyl accident, the victims of Chernobyl, the environmental impact, the economic and political repercussions, and the nuclear power debate. (U.K.)

  16. World nuclear developments after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1987-01-01

    1986 will inevitably go down in history as the year of Chernobyl, the consequences of which must be delays in and even withdrawals from the development of nuclear power. On the credit side, the Soviet Union has done a rapid and remarkable job in sealing the damaged reactor and rehabilitating the station and the area while improving the safety of its total program. Equally effective has been the response of the IAEA. In terms of nuclear power's claim as a major source of energy, nothing has changed as a result of Chernobyl. 15% of the world's electricity is now produced from nearly 400 power reactors. In comparison with any other energy form nuclear energy must rank high in terms of economy, safety and environmental effects. What has changed is the public perception of nuclear power, and the effort world-wide which will need to be made to restore public confidence

  17. Tracking the cloud from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, Helen; Wilson, Julian

    1986-01-01

    In the aftermath of the accident at Chernobul nuclear power station, many scientists are studying how the radionuclides from the reactor's core dispersed across Europe and became deposited on the ground. A group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College have developed a computer model, MESOS, specifically to study the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere over very large distances. In the past, this model has been used to study the potential consequences of hypothetical accidents at nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries. Now it has been used to estimate where the radioactivity from Chernobyl went. The Chernobyl model is explained and some estimates from the MESOS model are presented. By comparing the model estimates with observations a full assessment of the environmental consequences of the accident will be possible. It should be possible to find out the way in which pollutants travel long distances, how they are deposited on the ground and their transport through food chains. (U.K.)

  18. The Nordic Chernobyl data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.

    1990-01-01

    The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE (NCDB) is established for scientific purposes. The aim is to collect valid data on radiation and radioactivity resulting from measurements made in the Nordic countries particularly after the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the so called C-base data system, which can handle input from a variety of sources, including multiple information on each sample. The system permits output to various other computer programs for furhter data treatment. The data base can be used from personal computers and as well as from VAX-computers. Data can be displayed in time- or geographical scales and they can be arranged so as to fit different system for statistical analysis. (author)

  19. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Erat, S.; Fessler, H.; Hempelmann, S.; Maurer, K.; Pimpl, M.; Radziwill, A.

    1986-08-01

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.) [de

  20. Chernobyl accident: Assessing the data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B

    1986-01-01

    Data presented in the official Soviet report to the IAEA on the Chernobyl reactor accident are critically assessed. Special attention is given to the derivation of release fractions from fallout measurements, a procedure which is demonstrated to involve large elements of uncertainty. Further comments relate to estimates of plume rise and deposition velocity. A comparison is made with the predictions of previously published theoretical reactor safety studies.

  1. Chernobyl: A series of mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.; Janssen, K.H.; Sontheimer, M.

    1986-01-01

    Chernobyl - does it mark the beginning of the end of nuclear energy. Or is it just a spectacular accident as the one at Harrisburg in 1979. Six months after the disaster in the Ukraine released the terrible radiation clouds, the article in hand starts a series intended to draw a balance: deadly experiments in an April night - damage all over Europe that sums up to billions - the Brokdorf nuclear power plant said to be the safest in the world. (orig.) [de

  2. Monstrosities - an outcome of Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In the western parts of Turkey, which have been particularly hard hidden by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, an extremely high number of malformations in newborns have been recorded. There is reason to attribute this to the high radioactivity level measured in this region after the accident. But most radiation experts refuse to accept any connection between the miscarriages or malformation and the reactor accident. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, F.A.; El Messiry, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  4. Kinetic ion exchange studies in ultramarines by the radioactive tracer method; Etudes cinetiques d'echanges d'ions dans les outremers par la technique des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S; Goenvec, H; Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The possibility of ion exchanges in various ultramarines has been studied in the aqueous phase. The kinetics of the exchange reactions is followed by studying the behaviour of a radioactive ion, either in the solution of the exchanging salt or in the ultramarine itself. The sodium in the make-up of the ultramarine, is found to exchange with various ions in solution. The reaction speeds appear to be governed by a diffusion process inside the grains of ultramarine. The diffusion coefficients and the activation energies are determined for the exchanges studied. Several exchange studies were carried out in an organic medium. The kinetics of ion exchange is also investigated in ultramarines from which most of the constituent sulphur has been eliminated. The results obtained in these ultramarines are compared with the exchange kinetics of the same ions in ordinary ultramarine. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'echanges ioniques dans differents outremers, en phase aqueuse. L'etude cinetique des reactions d'echanges est suivie en etudiant le comportement d'ion radioactif, soit dans la solution du sel echangeant, soit dans l'outremer lui-meme. C'est le sodium de constitution de l'outremer qui s'echange avec differents ions en solution. Les vitesses de reactions semblent etre controlees par un processus de diffusion a l'interieur des grains d'outremer. Les coefficients de diffusion et les energies d'activation sont determines pour les echanges etudies. Quelques etudes sont realisees en milieu organique ou quelques echanges ont ete etudies. La cinetique d'echange d'ions est egalement etudie dans des outremers dans lesquels la majorite du soufre de constitution a ete eliminee. On compare les resultats obtenus dans ces outremers avec les cinetiques d'echanges des memes ions dans l'outremer ordinaire. (auteur)

  5. Black Girl Cartography: Black Girlhood and Place-Making in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tamara T.

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on research in education, Black Girlhood studies, and conversations connected to girlhood and cartography, this chapter calls for transdisciplinary analyses of Black girls' sociocultural and geopolitical locations in education research. In reviewing education research documenting the practices and interrogating the experiences of Black…

  6. THE ROLE OF CARTOGRAPHY IN THE TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY: PERSPECTIVES FROM AN EXTENSION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika do Carmo Cerqueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the role of cartography in the teaching of geography. In order to do so it brings theoretical and practical results of the research project and extension called “Popularization of cartography and its new technologies in public school,” held in the State School Dona Mora Guimarães (Cazajeiras X, Salvador- BA. It is considered that the teaching of cartography, despite the epistemological advances, has experienced several difficulties in its implementation. To analyze the barriers, potentialities, and examples of pedagogical practice, workshops were held focusing on the concepts of cartographic literacy - vision vertical/horizontal, laterality, decoding of symbols, proportionality, two-dimensional X three-dimensional representation and use of new technologies. It is advocated that cartographic literacy can be used as an innovative methodology for the teaching of geography in schools. In parallel, the difficulties found in a university and school context are discussed. Finally, successful experiences are shared with more than 400 students involved directly, who used technical and methodological resources, from where they live and constructivist approach, namely: mapping of the human body, of the classroom and building of models. It is concluded that the theme has many challenges, but lacks mainly the expansion of this debate to overcome the dissociative barriers, putting the cartography as means of communication of the geographical science.

  7. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Carr, F. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  8. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  9. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  10. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrill, A.D.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Howson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  11. Chernobyl: lessons of the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a drastic increase the incidents of thyroid cancer in children living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The incidents of hemoblastoses which are etiologically closely related to radiation did not change after the incident. The lessons of the decade that passed since the accident necessitate measures aimed at alleviation of the medical consequences of the accident which are to be implemented for many years. The program of such measures should be based on a strictly scientific evaluation of each factor, that will be conductive to a most adequate state financing of this work [ru

  12. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these

  13. 10th anniversary of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means

  14. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131 I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137 Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and

  15. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  16. Chernobyl: Lessons in nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwaczek, A.S.; Mooney, S.; Kerr, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Chernobyl dumped significant quantities of radioactive fallout as far as 1,300 miles away, causing severe economic loss in nations stretching from Sweden to Greece. It cost innocent sheep growers in Wales, fishermen in Switzerland, reindeer-dependent Laplanders in Norway, dairymen in Sweden and Austria, and cheese makers in Greece. European nations have calculated costs from deposition of nuclear materials in the hundreds of millions report the authors. The accident at chernobyl and the European experience with the consequences can offer several insights relevant to the US commercial nuclear industry, the authors note: (1) the aggregate effect of such an accident is extremely large and unpredictable; (2) adequate disaster planning can significantly reduce costs and ease the disruption; and (3) the experience raises questions about the adequacy of the nation's nuclear insurance and liability programs. given the number of commissioned nuclear reactors today, the present scheme would provide financial compensation of approximately $7 billion per incident. Depending on the circumstances, the authors say this may not be sufficient

  17. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  18. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lvov, G.

    1992-01-01

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  19. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihab-Eddine, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  20. Chernobyl and nuclear power in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marples, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Drawing extensively upon Soviet newspapers and journals, Soviet television and radio reports, records in the Krasnyi Arkhib (Red Archive) and contacts with workers involved in the building of the Chernobyl plant, the author provides the first detailed account of the Soviet nuclear power industry and of the nature, impact and consequences of the Chernobyl accident of late April 1986. The author raises the key questions: are Soviet nuclear power plants inherently unsafe, and what impact will the Chernobyl accident have on the Soviet nuclear energy program and on nuclear power development throughout the world?

  1. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  2. Image processing for an automatic detection of defect signals from electromagnetic cartographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, B.; Marqueste, L.; Birac, C.

    1994-01-01

    As the population of nuclear power plants ages, new defects are appearing in steam generator tubes (stress corrosion, corrosion pitting and intergranular corrosion). For more sophisticated expert appraisal of these defects, tubes can be examined by multifrequency eddy-current testing with an absolute coil (diameter value of 1 mm). A device, consisting of a push-puller mechanism and a motor-driven probe carrying this absolute coil, gives a helical movement to scan the inner surface of the tube. The signals obtained can be represented in the form of cartographies (3D representation in which the coordinates are the circumference, the length and amplitude of the X or Y component at a given frequency). The detection of defect signals by visual examination of these eddy-current cartographies is not always reproducible. The article describes an image processing procedure for the detection of defect signals which leads to a better reproductibility for more safety

  3. Cinquante ans d’enseignement de la cartographie à l’université

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Béguin

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Créée en 1934 par E. de Martonne, l’École Supérieure de Cartographie, actuellement DESS de cartographie thématique de l’Université de Paris I, forme des cartographes-géographes capables de réaliser des cartes depuis leur conception jusqu’à leur fabrication. Très orientée à l’origine vers la pratique manuelle du dessin, la formation des cartographes, aujourd’hui, doit aussi inclure la maîtrise du traitement de l’information par les outils statistiques et informatiques et de la conception cartographique assistée par ordinateur.

  4. After Chernobyl: science made too simple?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, Brian

    1991-01-01

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl, British scientists and bureaucrats bungled the task of explaining the effects of fallout. Sheep farmers in the Cumbrian hills feel particularly aggrieved at the way they were treated. (author)

  5. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jampsin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  6. Chernobyl. Radioactivity measurements in Belgium and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, P.; Gillard, J.; Declercq, H.; Avaux, J.L.; Binet, J.; Flemal, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of the fallout on the Belgian territory after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Contamination of air, soil, water milk, grass and vegetables is considered. Figures for other countries are also given. (MCB)

  7. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  8. Chernobyl. Radioactivity measurements in Belgium and abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejeune, P; Gillard, J; Declercq, H; Avaux, J L; Binet, J; Flemal, J M

    1986-01-01

    A survey of the fallout on the Belgian territory after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Contamination of air, soil, water milk, grass and vegetables is considered. Figures for other countries are also given. (MCB).

  9. Chernobyl plume: commentary about a discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Paris appeal court has dismissed the charges against P. Pellerin who was the head of the SCIRP (service of protection against the ionizing radiations) at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The appeal court confirms that P.Pellerin never said that the Chernobyl plume stopped at the French border but instead he said that the Chernobyl plume entered the French territory but the radioactivity level was so low that it was unnecessary to take sanitary steps. P.Pellerin based his decision on the results of 6500 controls performed by the SCIRP in May and June 1986. Seven other European countries recommended not to take sanitary measures. The increase of thyroid cancers that has happened in all industrialized countries and that affect only adults, can not due to Chernobyl contamination because child's thyroid is far more sensitive than adult's. The increase of thyroid cancer is mainly due to a better detection of the tumors. (A.C.)

  10. Origin of the Chernobyl myths and stereotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A.V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the origin of main negative Chernobyl myths and stereotypes in Belarus' society which do not meet the reality, hinder the revival and development processes of affected territories. (authors)

  11. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine.

  12. Project for the Space Science in Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M.; Oberst, J.; Malinnikov, V.; Shingareva, K.; Grechishchev, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Konopikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Based on the proposal call of the Government of Russian Federation 40 of international scientists came to Russia for developing and support-ing research capabilities of national educational institutions. Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) and invited scientist Prof. Dr. Jurgen Oberst were awarded a grant to establish a capable research facility concerned with Planetary Geodesy, Cartography and Space Exploration. Objectives: The goals of the project are to build laboratory infrastructure, and suitable capability for MIIGAiK to participate in the planning, execution and analyses of data from future Russian planetary mis-sions and also to integrate into the international science community. Other important tasks are to develop an attractive work place and job opportunities for planetary geodesy and cartography students. For this purposes new MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) was organized. We involved professors, researchers, PhD students in to the projects of Moon and planets exploration at the new level of Russian Space Science development. Main results: MExLab team prepare data for upcom-ing Russian space missions, such as LUNA-GLOB and LUNA-RESOURSE. We established cooperation with Russian and international partners (IKI, ESA, DLR, and foreign Universities) and actively participated in international conferences and workshops. Future works: For the future science development we investigated the old Soviet Archives and received the access to the telemetry data of the Moon rovers Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. That data will be used in education purposes and could be the perfect base for the analysis, development and support in new Russian and international missions and especially Moon exploration projects. MExLab is open to cooperate and make the consortiums for science projects for the Moon and planets exploration. Acknowledgement: Works are funded by the Rus-sian Government (Project name: "Geodesy, cartography and the

  13. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  14. Chernobyl - state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems

  15. Chernobyl radioactivity persists in reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Gaare, Eldar; Eikelmann, Inger Margrethe; Hove, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of 137 Cs in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain was studied in central (Ostre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vaga) during 2000-2003. Reindeer from these areas have been continuously subjected to countermeasure application since the 1986 Chernobyl accident. In both areas no decline in 137 Cs concentrations was detectable in reindeer slaughtered in autumn since 1995, or in reindeer slaughtered in winter since 1998-1999. Seasonal differences in 137 Cs concentrations in reindeer have been less pronounced in recent years, with 137 Cs concentrations occasionally higher in autumn than in winter. Soil-to-plant 137 Cs transfer was significantly higher in Ostre Namdal than in Vaga. Climatic influences on lichen growth and abundance, and on soil properties that influence the availability of 137 Cs for plant uptake, are hypothesized to have a larger impact on long-term transfer of radiocaesium in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain than has been previously observed

  16. PLANETARY CARTOGRAPHY AND MAPPING: WHERE WE ARE TODAY, AND WHERE WE ARE HEADING FOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naß

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance. It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission’s lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs are stored in archives – and eventually into maps and higher-level data products – to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  17. Planetary Cartography and Mapping: where we are Today, and where we are Heading For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naß, A.; Di, K.; Elgner, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Hare, T.; Hargitai, H.; Karachevtseva, I.; Kersten, E.; Manaud, N.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Skinner, J., Jr.; Wählisch, M.

    2017-07-01

    Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning) and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance). It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission's lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs) are stored in archives - and eventually into maps and higher-level data products - to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  18. When Chernobyl came to Chilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    When the Chernobyl accident occurred, there existed in the UK an organisation with respected and experienced scientific staff, well known to its 6,000 clients and to the media science correspondents. But because the public information campaigns of large commercial organisations were, and still are, beyond the financial resources of NRPB, it was not well known to the general public apart from those who take part in the nuclear debate. On 28 April, it all began to change. The accident at Chernobyl involved a large explosion in a nuclear reactor. The explosion blew the top off the plant and released a cloud of radioactive material which spread across Europe, north to Norway and south to the Mediterranean, with remnants travelling west as far as the British Isles. It dispersed and diluted as it travelled but as the radioactivity spread across the continent country after country was placed on alert. There had been no warning from the Soviet government and the advance of the cloud caught Russia's neighbours by surprise. There were many more calls from the media and a call to Sweden, it was clear that an accident had occurred in Russia. The next two days were dominated by requests from the media for information on all aspects of nuclear accidents - hypothetical and real. Then the calls from the public came, mainly about the risks of holidays in Europe but some from people concerned about relatives abroad. International connections are highly developed in radiological protection and NRPB staff set about collecting information from contacts in western Europe as the radioactive cloud drifted across the continent

  19. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  20. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed

  1. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Bouville, A.; Hall, P.; Savkin, M.; Storm, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  2. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  3. Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, C.

    2000-01-01

    The risk information to the public failed after the Chernobyl accident, also in countries where radiation protection authorities and experts initially enjoyed public confidence. In contrast to many other large accidents, the responsibility for the information failure stays mainly with the authorities and experts themselves, not with the mass media. Many factors together caused the radiation risk information from SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), and its sister authorities in many other countries, to be confusing and inadequate, despite the best of intentions. The two major malefactors were the handling of food contamination restrictions and the short-sighted risk optimisation by applying the ALARA principle. In addition, the assurance that the Chernobyl contamination was fairly harmless made no sense to the layman, as a massive array of controlling procedures was enforced simultaneously. The food regulations became unfortunately focused on becquerel per kilogram limits instead of the primary goal, a dose reduction per year, corresponding to an yearly intake of Cs-137. The lesson learned is that the risk significant long-term intake ambition must be understood and digested by laymen and media, before any secondary limits, e.g. the activity concentration of foodstuffs expressed as becquerel per kg, for controlling or trading purposes, are introduced. As it were, the experts and authorities lost credibility, due to what people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative

  4. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvetajlov, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  5. Chemical kinetics: on the heterogeneous catalysis processes leading to an exchange between two phases. Example: isotopic exchange reactions; Cinetique chimique: sur les processus de catalyse 'heterogene' conduisant a un echange entre deux phases. Exemple: reactions d'echange isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, G; Grandcollot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    For an exchange reaction between a gaseous and a liquid phase proceeding by 'heterogeneous' catalysis in the liquid phase, diffusion in the liquid and the chemical reaction are two simultaneous and indivisible processes. We have nevertheless been able to establish criteria making it possible to distinguish between a really homogeneous kinetic process and a pseudo-homogeneous one. (author) [French] Pour une reaction d'echange entre une phase gazeuse et une phase liquide procedant par catalyse 'heterogene' en phase liquide, la diffusion dans le liquide et la reaction chimique sont deux etapes simultanees et indissociables. Nous avons pu neanmoins etablir des criteres permettant de distinguer entre une cinetique homogene vraie et une cinetique pseudo-homogene. (auteur)

  6. Sanitary study of the population living in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Briggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The populations of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation affected by Chernobyl accident are anxious about the radiation effects on their healthy. The International Chernobyl Project has, in a great part, looked for the pathology increase and to assess its incidence on their healthy. This study does not prove that the Chernobyl accident would have important effects on population healthy of contaminated areas

  7. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A; Labunska, I; Blokov, I; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Stringer, R; Sadownichik, T [eds.; Antipkin, Yu G [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L P [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D A [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  8. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T.; Arabskaya, L.P.; Bazyka, D.A.

    2006-04-01

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  9. Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

  10. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  11. Chernobyl - ethical and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Frederick

    1987-01-01

    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the United Kingdom for Cs 137 varied in the ratio 10 : 4000 Bq/m 2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the differing characteristics of the several radionuclides (15 are listed), and the different units used in the USSR and the UK. Very complete information on fallout in the British Isles was obtained from meteorological data and the atmospheric dispersion models operated at Imperial College. Transfer through food chains depended on the variety of circumstances: the monitoring programmes and control measures were found to be in need of improvement, as no criteria existed for the amounts that justify intervention in the supply of foodstuffs to the public. Long-term effects in the UK of the measured radiation from this incident, in terms of deaths per year attributed to cancer are given and compared with other health hazards. The disaster has underlined the responsibilities of top management and of professional engineers, the need to promote a 'safety culture', and the value of effective organisation, the international exchange of experience, and the role of the media in improving public information. (author)

  12. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  13. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  14. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  15. A kinetic study of the reaction of water vapor and carbon dioxide on uranium; Cinetique de la reaction de la vapeur d'eau et du dioxyde de carbone sur l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-15

    The kinetic study of the reaction of water vapour and carbon dioxide with uranium has been performed by thermogravimetric methods at temperatures between 160 and 410 deg G in the first case, 350 and 1050 deg C in the second: Three sorts of uranium specimens were used: uranium powder, thin evaporated films, and small spheres obtained from a plasma furnace. The experimental results led in the case of water vapour, to a linear rate of reaction controlled by diffusion at the lower temperatures, and by a surface reaction at the upper ones. In the case of carbon dioxide, a parabolic law has been found, controlled by diffusional processes. (author) [French] L'etude cinetique de la reaction de la vapeur d'eau et du dioxyde de carbone sur l'uranium a ete entreprise au moyen de methodes thermogravimetriques, dans te premier cas entre 160 et 410 deg C et dans le second entre 350 et 1050 deg C. Le materiau utilise se presentait sous trois formes: poudres, couches minces evaporees et billes obtenues par fusion en chalumeau a plasma. Les resultats experimentaux ont permis de mettre en evidence, dans le cas de la vapeur d'eau, une cinetique lineaire controlee par la diffusion a basse temperature et d'interface a haute temperature. Dans le cas du dioxyde de carbone par contre, on trouve une cinetique parabolique controlee par la diffusion. (auteur)

  16. Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligalo, V.M.; Nosovs'kij, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  17. Chernobyl and the international liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.; Schmidt, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Federal German citizens would have any success in claiming compensation for damage as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in a Soviet court, and the answer is positive in terms of substantive law. Actions would have to be filed against the AES at Chernobyl to the Chernobyl county court, which would examine the claims according to Soviet (Ukrainian) civil law, and taking into account two aspects of liability, namely strict liability, and liability in tort. However, it would indeed be more realistic to expect that any such action would be dismissed by the court upon the directive of political authorities, as the Soviet Government certainly would have no interest at all to give any foreign citizen the chance to win a case in such a politically significant matter. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Chernobyl - Could it happen here? [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    Following the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station at Chernobyl in April 1986, the CEGB produced this video which has now been updated in the light of the information provided by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference in Vienna. At this conference it was made clear that the Chernobyl accident would have been impossible in any nuclear reactor operational outside the USSR. This video explains why. It examines the main reasons for the failure of the reactor at Chernobyl and the two fundamental design flaws which resulted in the sequence of events leading up to the accident. It shows how British reactors have built-in protection to compensate for failure in any part of the system, and how the reactors are tolerant to operator error. The programme also explains the safety standards and regulations which are enforced in CEGB nuclear power stations and the rigorous training that reactor operators have to undergo.

  19. Chernobyl - system accident or human error?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, E.

    1996-01-01

    Did human error cause the Chernobyl disaster? The standard point of view is that operator error was the root cause of the disaster. This was also the view of the Soviet Accident Commission. The paper analyses the operator errors at Chernobyl in a system context. The reactor operators committed errors that depended upon a lot of other failures that made up a complex accident scenario. The analysis is based on Charles Perrow's analysis of technological disasters. Failure possibility is an inherent property of high-risk industrial installations. The Chernobyl accident consisted of a chain of events that were both extremely improbable and difficult to predict. It is not reasonable to put the blame for the disaster on the operators. (author)

  20. 3D molecular cartography using LC-MS facilitated by Optimus and 'ili software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Ivan; Melnik, Alexey V; Nothias, Louis-Felix; Rappez, Luca; Phapale, Prasad; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bouslimani, Amina; Ryazanov, Sergey; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Alexandrov, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    Our skin, our belongings, the world surrounding us, and the environment we live in are covered with molecular traces. Detecting and characterizing these molecular traces is necessary to understand the environmental impact on human health and disease, and to decipher complex molecular interactions between humans and other species, particularly microbiota. We recently introduced 3D molecular cartography for mapping small organic molecules (including metabolites, lipids, and environmental molecules) found on various surfaces, including the human body. Here, we provide a protocol and open-source software for 3D molecular cartography. The protocol includes step-by-step procedures for sample collection and processing, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics, quality control (QC), molecular identification using MS/MS, data processing, and visualization with 3D models of the sampled environment. The LC-MS method was optimized for a broad range of small organic molecules. We enable scientists to reproduce our previously obtained results, and illustrate the broad utility of our approach with molecular maps of a rosemary plant and an ATM keypad after a PIN code was entered. To promote reproducibility, we introduce cartographical snapshots: files that describe a particular map and visualization settings, and that can be shared and loaded to reproduce the visualization. The protocol enables molecular cartography to be performed in any mass spectrometry laboratory and, in principle, for any spatially mapped data. We anticipate applications, in particular, in medicine, ecology, agriculture, biotechnology, and forensics. The protocol takes 78 h for a molecular map of 100 spots, excluding the reagent setup.

  1. Nagasaki symposium on Chernobyl: Update and future. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains valuable, up-to-date scientific information on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, obtained from almost all the leading international and national organizations. The purpose of the Nagasaki symposium on Chernobyl was to present and discuss the available data from all over the world independent of psychological, social, economic, and political bias, and thus to make conclusions that would further medical science. To this end, the symposium consisted of two sessions, 'Chernobyl update' and 'Chernobyl in the future'. Along with the proceedings of these two sessions, the proceedings of the Japan-NIS Chernobyl thyroid symposium, held in December 1993 are included in this book. (orig.)

  2. The creation in question: a brief cartography of a theoretical course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Rodrigues Dassoler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of discussions produced during a theoretical course aboutcreativity in advertising. Instead of teaching how to create, the proposal of the course was to question what characterizes creation. Departing from this question, the route of a theoretical cartography is presented, trough the deconstruction of the idea of creation, the advertising device is shown in its creative demands. Mobilizing different theoretical perspectives, the text approaches creativity’s myth when problematizes the concept of authorship and presents creation as becomings produced by the very advertising device.

  3. The Nordic Chernobyl data base project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, J.

    1991-01-01

    Chernobyl Data Base has been established with the purpose of collecting the large amount of data resulting from measurements made in several laboratories in the period following the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the C data base handling system developed especially for this kind of environmental data. The C base data handling system allows for easy input from a variety of sources and easy output to other computer programs for further data treatment. This paper describes the structures, codes and methods used and the present status of the project. (au)

  4. Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddekinge, F.W. van

    1986-01-01

    Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

  5. Reactor Physics Behind the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are some fourteen Chernobyl type of power reactors (1000 MWe) in operation at five different sites in Eastern Europe. In Russia; in St. Petersburg (4). in Smolensk (3). and in Kursk (4) in the Ukraine in Chernobyl (l) and in Lithuania in Ignalina (2). The oldest one is west of St. Petersburg and the most powerful one is in Ignalina. The reactors at St. Petersburg and in Lithuania are near to the Baltic sea. An intricate reactor construction was the most important cause of the accident. There were other reasons too: human error. politics and economics

  6. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar T he lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  7. International Chernobyl project [AEA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA have co-ordinated the first international assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the affected areas outside the 30km prohibited zone around the reactor. These areas have a total population of about 1 million people, living in approximately 2700 settlements. The main aim of the project was to answer the question 'Is it safe for the population to go on living in the affected areas?'. The project did not investigate radiological health effects among more than 100 000 people evacuated from the 30 km prohibited zone. Nor did it study effects among the emergency personnel temporarily brought into the region for accident management and recovery work (the so-called 'liquidators'). Project teams reviewed official data on environmental contamination from 500 settlements, data collection practices and reporting and also official information on radiation doses received by people living in seven settlements. Other project teams reviewed official data at key medical centres and institutes. Then they examined people both from surveyed contaminated settlement and from surveyed control settlements. The team concluded that there were significant non-radiation related health disorders in populations of both contaminated and control settlements. None of the disorders could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. In particular, no evidence was found for a significant increase in foetal abnormalities; infant and prenatal mortality rates had fallen since the accident. Children were found to be generally healthy with no abnormalities in either thyroid stimulating or thyroid hormones. The accident had created substantial negative psychological consequences, manifesting themselves in terms of anxiety and stress due to continuing high levels of uncertainty. (author)

  8. Integrating Research on Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl — the Chernobyl Tissue Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.A.; Bethel, J.A.; Galpine, A.; Krznaric, M.; Unger, K.

    2011-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated cooperation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. PMID:21345659

  9. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  10. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  11. Dispersion of Chernobyl radioactive plume over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergel, A.

    1988-01-01

    A long-range pollutant transport and removal model, is used to analyse the Chernobyl radioactive plume dispersion over the Europe Continent. Model predictions are compared to field measurements of Cs-137 activity in the air from April 26th, to May 5th 1986 [fr

  12. Reactor accidents. Chernobyl and Three Miles Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the facilities at Chernobyl and TMI, as well as of the course of the accidents is given. Supplementary information relates to the quantities and types of radionuclides released and to the size of the group of persons concerned. (DG) [de

  13. Chernobyl: A first-hand account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voina, V.

    1990-01-01

    The author, living in Moscow at the time, was traveling by night train to visit family in Kiev at the time of the chernobyl accident. He recalls a passenger in his compartment asking if anyone had noticed in the morning press about the explosion in Chernobyl. In Kiev, about 50 mi from Chernobyl by air, he noted on arrival that everyone was calm - the city quiet with no rumors or gossip. He contrasts this with the world being alert, in despair, full of alarm. On failure to reach old friends by phone, he thought they had left the city for at least 4-day vacations - May 1 and 2 holidays plus Saturday and Sunday. He continues to recount the life as usual situation aided and abetted by the governments lack of information and misinformation on the perilously dangerous radioactivity and extent of the disaster. He notes friends showing him a January 1986 copy of Izvestia with an article about the Chernobyl unit, several months before, being named winner in a competition among all nuclear power stations in the USSR

  14. Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  16. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  17. Nuclear power plants management from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three mile island and Chernobyl accidents developed a change for the operation and management of nuclear power plants. The present articles studies the state of the art the management of NPPs, the foundation of INPO and WANO and the future of operation in NPPs

  18. Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.).

  19. Since Chernobyl: A World of Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Alice

    1991-01-01

    This article chronicles the international collaboration behind the technological review and the subsequent upgrading of operational safety procedures at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants within the Soviet Union and various Eastern European countries in the aftermath of the tragedy at Chernobyl. (JJK)

  20. Chernobyl in perspective. Tjernobyl i perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullander, S; Larsson, B

    1986-01-01

    This booklet addressed to the general public gives an orientation about radiation effects, radiation measures and the radiation ambience in the modern society. Health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident are discussed as well as environmental/health effects from different energy sources. (L.E.).

  1. The British official response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.

    1988-01-01

    The author criticizes the British authorities' response to Chernobyl fallout, briefly examines the deficiencies in monitoring arrangements in Scotland, in particular the lack of weather radar cover for that region, and comments on the new National Response Plan and monitoring network, with reference to venison, rainwater, freshwater fish and game, and milk. (U.K.)

  2. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  3. Decision conferencing and the International Chernobyl Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, S.; . Radiation Protection Research Programme); Morrey, M.

    1991-12-01

    As part of the International Chernobyl Project, five decision conferences were held with the Soviet authorities to identify the major factors driving decision making in relation to relocation and other protective measures which are being applied in the affected regions of Byelorussia, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. This report describes the running of those conferences and the conclusions reached from them. (Author)

  4. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, V.N.; Panin, A.V.; Ivanova, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that fallout of 137 Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137 Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137 Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137 Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137 Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137 Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137 Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

  5. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  6. Chernobyl, the sarcophagus of the human kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Back from a short trip within the 'thirty kilometre area' around Chernobyl where he has been moved and shocked by what he saw, the author criticises the content of the 2005 Chernobyl forum report, notably about the assessment of casualties. He more particularly criticises the importance given by this report to so-called psychological mechanisms which would produce strange pathologies. He states that Chernobyl is the symbol of the energetic and environmental future of our planet and of mankind. He discusses how health consequences of Chernobyl are assessed, and more particularly that epidemiological studies could not be performed properly, that the model adopted by international bodies of radiation protection is not a good one to assess the victims of radioactivity. He extends his reflection on the role of nuclear energy to nuclear deterrence, discusses how the safety of nuclear plant has been considered in the 1960's. He notices that US plants were not protected against the impact of a lorry loaded with explosives whereas such an attempt occurred against a building in Oklahoma City, killing about two hundred persons, not as much as terrorists on the 9/11. He finally accuse expertise of thoughtlessness (a term used by Hannah Arendt)

  7. Chernobyl - A chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area, are shown.

  8. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarov, I.V.; Terebov, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  9. Could a 'Chernobyl' nuclear disaster happen here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heerden, A.

    1986-01-01

    At 1.23 a.m. (Soviet European Time) on Saturday 26 April 1986 an accident occurred in reactor number four of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power-Station in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The hydrogen in the core of the reactor exploded while the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance, and a cloud of radioactivity was blasted high into the atmosphere. The radioactive plume drifted north-westwards to Sweden where, on 28 April, a radiation detector at the Forsmark nuclear complex gave the first public warning of the Chernobyl disaster. South Africa possesses one nuclear power-station, at Koeberg some 30 kilometres north of Cape Town. Is Koeberg safe? Could a Chernobyl-style disaster occur here? The difference in design between the Chernobylsk-4 reactor and Koeberg reactor is discussed. Differences in the design of the two power-stations preclude the same type of accident from happening at Koeberg. The chances of an accident affecting the environment seriously remain remote, given a design philosophy which includes minimising the possibility of an accident, containing it should it happen, and pre-planning the emergency response in case it cannot be contained. That, in a nutshell, is why we believe Koeberg will never become a 'Chernobyl'

  10. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sabino, J.F.; Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  11. GIS and Cartography: An Introductory Overview; Breve Introduccion a la Cartografia y a los Sistemas de Informacion Geografica (SIG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This Technical Report concerns to some relevant concepts in Cartography and GIS. We will define terms and functions as scale , projection, cartographic syntaxes. We'll specify some Geographic Information, formats, sources... Finally, We will study about GIS applications and, special, how CIEMAT is working with that, and what is the future of this technology. (Author) 71 refs.

  12. GIS and Cartography: An Introductory Overview; Breve Introduccion a la Cartografia y a los Sistemas de Informacion Geografica (SIG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This Technical Report concerns to some relevant concepts in Cartography and GIS. We will define terms and functions as scale , projection, cartographic syntaxes. We'll specify some Geographic Information, formats, sources... Finally, We will study about GIS applications and, special, how CIEMAT is working with that, and what is the future of this technology. (Author) 71 refs.

  13. (Re)Educating the Senses to Multicultural Communities: Prospective Teachers Using Digital Media and Sonic Cartography to Listen for Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Cassie J.; Wargo, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Attuning to the acoustic ecologies of multicultural education, this critical qualitative project interrogated how elementary prospective teachers (PST) used digital media to write community through and with sound. Examining PST produced soundscapes and the practice of sonic cartography, this study inquired how "hearing" difference and…

  14. Kinetic distribution of the radio-sodium among the rabbit in hypothermia; Cinetique de la distribution du radio-sodium chez le lapin en hypothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F; Combrisson, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The experimental hypothermia, by the deep modifications of the circulatory hemodynamic, which it drags, and by the huge reduction of the oxidative processes that it characterizes, represent a particular physiological state that must permit to specify physico-chemical mechanisms which order the exchanges of the partition of the blood in capillaries and notably electrolytes exchanges. To do this study we followed the distribution kinetics of the sodium 24 in the blood system of 30 rabbits that was either in hypothermia, either to normal temperature. (M.B.) [French] L'hypothermie experimentale, par les modifications profondes de l'hemodynamique circulatoire qu'elle entraine, et par la diminution considerable des processus oxydatifs qui la caracterise, represente un etat physiologique particulier qui doit permettre de preciser experimentalement les mecanismes physico-chimiques qui commandent les echanges dont la paroi des capillaires sanguins est le siege, et notamment les echanges d'electrolytes. Pour cela on a suivi la cinetique de la distribution du sodium 24 dans le systeme sanguin de 30 lapins qui etaient soit en hypothermie, soit a temperature normale. (M.B.)

  15. Study of the kinetics of strontium elimination in the rat; Etude de la cinetique de l'elimination du strontium chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloux, M J; Michon, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A kinetic study of strontium elimination was made on rats after a single oral administration of 3 to 5 {mu}curies of carrier free Sr{sup 90}. The curve showing the body burden in function of time may be considered as the sum of three exponential terms with half-lives of 14 hours, 72 days, 153 days. The term with a half-live of 153 days represents the metabolism of strontium in the bone; it is predominant since the 17. day and its extrapolation to time zero shows that things seem to proceed as if 18 per cent of the administered amount were deposited in the skeleton. (author) [French] La cinetique de l'elimination du strontium chez le rat a ete etudiee apres une administration orale unique de 3 a 5 {mu}curies de {sup 90}Sr repute sans entraineur. La courbe representant la quantite presente dans l'organisme en fonction du temps peut etre assimilee a la somme de trois termes exponentiels de periode 14 heures, 72 jours, 153 jours. Le terme de periode 153 jours represente le metabolisme osseux du strontium, il est preponderant des le 17. jour et son extrapolation au temps zero nous montre qu'en definitive, tout se passe comme si 18 pour cent de la quantite administree etaient deposes dans le squelette. (auteur)

  16. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  17. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  18. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation des metaux alcalins par l'oxygene sec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzain, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [French] L'oxydation du lithium, du sodium, du potassium, du rubidium, du cesium et des alliages sodium-potassium par l'oxygene sec est etudiee a diverses temperatures et a des pressions comprises entre 40 et 400 mmHg d'oxygene. On distingue trois processus d'oxydation differents (l'inflammation, l'ignition et la combustion lente) dont les domaines en fonction de la temperature sont precises. Les lois cinetiques d'oxydation lente, la nature des oxydes formes ainsi que les causes des colorations de ces oxydes sont determinees. Enfin les resultats obtenus sont interpretes theoriquement. (auteur)

  19. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation des metaux alcalins par l'oxygene sec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzain, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [French] L'oxydation du lithium, du sodium, du potassium, du rubidium, du cesium et des alliages sodium-potassium par l'oxygene sec est etudiee a diverses temperatures et a des pressions comprises entre 40 et 400 mmHg d'oxygene. On distingue trois processus d'oxydation differents (l'inflammation, l'ignition et la combustion lente) dont les domaines en fonction de la temperature sont precises. Les lois cinetiques d'oxydation lente, la nature des oxydes formes ainsi que les causes des colorations de ces oxydes sont determinees. Enfin les resultats obtenus sont interpretes theoriquement. (auteur)

  20. Collection and processing of information in biological kinetics studies with radioactive tracers; Collecte et traitement de l'information dans les etudes de cinetique biologique avec traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, J; Lafuma, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The authors present an automatic method for the collection and treatment of information in biological kinetics experiments using radioactive tracers. The recording are made without any time constant on magnetic tape. The information recorded is sampled by a 400 channel multi-scale analyzer and transferred to punched cards. The digital analysis is done by an I.B.M. computer. The method is illustrated by an example: the hepatic fixation of colloidal gold in the pig. Its advantages and requirements are discussed. In the appendix are given the FORTRAN texts for two programmes used in treating the example presented. (authors) [French] Les auteurs presentent une methode automatique de collecte et de traitement de l'information dans les experiences de cinetique biologique utilisant les traceurs radioactifs. Les enregistrements sont realises sans constante de temps sur bande magnetique. L'information enregistree fait l'objet d'un echantillonnage a l'aide d'un analyseur a 400 canaux en mode multi-echelle puis est transferee sur cartes perforees. L'exploitation digitale est confiee a un ordinateur I.B.M.. La methode est illustree par un exemple d'etude de la fixation hepatique de l'or colloidal chez le porc. Ses avantages et ses exigences sont discutes. En annexe figurent les textes en FORTRAN de deux programmes utilises pour le traitement de l'exemple cite. (auteurs)

  1. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'; Materialy 2-j Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii 'Otdalennye Meditsinskie posledstviya Chernobyl'skoj katastrofy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Sushkevitch, G N [eds.

    1998-07-01

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors.

  2. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  3. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  4. Retrospective dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.V.; Bakhanova, E.V.; Sholom, S.V.; Pasalskaya, L.F.; Bouville, A.; Krjuchkov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The numerous cohort of Chernobyl liquidators is a very attractive subject for epidemiological follow up due to high levels of exposure, age-gender distribution and availability of patients for medical examination. However, dosimetric information related to this population is incomplete, in many cases the quality of available dose records is doubtful and uncertainties of all dose values are not determined. Naive attempts to evaluate average doses on the basis of such factors as 'distance from the reactor' obviously fail due to large variation of tasks and workplace contamination. Therefore, prior to any sensible consideration of liquidators as a subject of epidemiological study, their doses should be evaluated (reevaluated) using the methods of retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry in general got significant development over the last decade. However, most of the retrospective dosimetry techniques are time consuming, expensive and possess sensitivity threshold. Therefore, application of retrospective dosimetry for the needs of epidemiological follow up studies requires development of certain strategy. This strategy depends, of coarse, on the epidemiological design of the study, availability of resources and dosimetric information related to the time of clean up. One of the strategies of application of retrospective dosimetry may be demonstrated on the example of a cohort study with occasional nested case control consideration. In this case, the tools are needed for validation of existing dose records (of not always known quality), screening of the study cohort with express dosimetric method called to determine possible dose ranges, and 'state-of-the-art' assessment of individual doses for selected subjects (cases and controls). Verification of dose records involves analysis of the statistical regularities of dose distributions and detection of possible extraneous admixtures (presumably falsified dose records). This work is performed on impersonified data

  5. Chernobyl NPP decommissioning efforts - Past, Present and Future. Decommissioning Efforts on Chernobyl NPP site - Past, Present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskiy, V.

    2017-01-01

    Two unique large-scale projects are underway at the moment within the Chernobyl - Exclusion zone - Shelter object transformation into ecologically safe system and the decommissioning of 3 Chernobyl NPP Units. As a result of beyond design accident in 1986 the entire territory of the industrial site and facilities located on it was heavily contaminated. Priority measures were carried out at the damaged Unit under very difficult conditions to reduce the accident consequences and works to ensure nuclear and radiation safety are continuous, and the Unit four in 1986 was transformed into the Shelter object. Currently, works at the Shelter object are in progress. Under assistance of the International Community new protective construction was built above the existing Shelter object - New Safe Confinement, which will ensure the SO Safety for the long term - within up to 100 years. The second major project is the simultaneous decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Currently existing Chernobyl NPP decommissioning Strategy has been continuously improved starting from the Concept of 1992. Over the years the following was analyzed and taken into account: the results of numerous research and development works, international experience in decommissioning, IAEA recommendations, comments and suggestions from the governmental and regulatory bodies in the fields of nuclear energy use and radioactive waste management. In 2008 the final decommissioning strategy option for Chernobyl NPP was approved, that was deferred gradual dismantling (SAFSTOR). In accordance with this strategy, decommissioning will be carried out in 3 stages (Final Shutdown and Preservation, Safe Enclosure, Dismantling). The SAFSTOR strategy stipulates: -) the preservation of the reactor, the primary circuit and the reactor compartment equipment; -) the dismantling of the equipment external in relation to the reactor; -) the safe enclosure (under the supervision); -) the gradual dismantling of the primary

  6. The united fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A. V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The United Fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues was created in Russian-Belarusian Information Center on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP branch RSRUE 'Institute of Radiology' Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. It contains accumulated during the post-Chernobyl period systematized maps, scientific and practical, educational, documentary, journalistic, artistic, photographic and other information. (authors)

  7. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  8. America Peruana and Oceanus Peruvianus: a different cartography of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Doré

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1550 to the first decades of the 18thcentury, the news about the Inca Empire and the mineral wealth of the western portion of South America influenced the cartographic production about the continent in many ways. This article analyzes a series of maps produced from the 1590s onwards, especially by some Dutch and Portuguese cartographers, in which the centrality of Peru manifests in different forms and has different purposes. Among these forms are the naming of the continent and of the Pacific Ocean, and the emphasis placed on the Potosi mountain. We also propose the inclusion of the expedition commanded by the English pirate Bartholomew Sharp along the western coast of South America in the 1680s as a case of dissemination of maps and of news on the riches explored by the Spaniards during this period, as well as its impact on cartography.

  9. Mapping china and managing the world culture, cartography and cosmology in late imperial times

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    From the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE to the present, the Chinese have been preoccupied with the notion of ordering their world. Efforts to create and maintain order are expressed not only in China's bureaucratic institutions and methods of social and economic organization but also in Chinese philosophy, religious and secular ritual, and comprehensive systems of classifying all natural and supernatural phenomena. Mapping China and Managing the World focuses on Chinese constructions of order (zhi) and examines the most important ways in which elites in late imperial China sought to order their vast and variegated world. This book begins by exploring the role of ancient texts and maps as the two prominent symbolic devices that the Chinese used to construct cultural meaning, and looks at how changing conceptions of 'the world' shaped Chinese cartography, whilst both shifting and enduring cartographic practices affected how the Chinese regarded the wider world. Richard J. Smith goes on to examine the si...

  10. The teaching of Social Sciences in Argentina and Colombia: cartographies of a “pre-future”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferney Quintero Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of history and social sciences in Latin America has been closely linked to the corresponding research that emerged in the decade of the 1980s —being more detailed the production of this tendency than the one of the school institutions’ experience—. In the context of the historical particularities of Argentina and other Latin-American countries, the traumatic events and the Human Rights violations these countries experienced at the end of the last century, emerged a strong school of thought in the teaching of recent history, but in Colombia the memories of politics have emerged as pedagogical experiences cut off from school. In this sense, we think it’s necessary to think of some cartographies of a “pre-future” —an educational challenge— in order to enter into the potential present in which we live.

  11. Anti-Machiavellian Rancière: Aesthetic Cartography, Sites of Incommensurability and Processes of Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Fjeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that Rancière’s philosophy is anti-Machiavellian in the sense that his distinction between police and politics is not an originary division, but rather a gap in the sensible fabric of society. He thus moves from politics as a theory of agency to an aesthetic cartography of situations. It is a question of mapping the emergence of a political problem within a singular situation, and the ethics of such mapping is the insistence on the irreducible contingency of an existential choice of the problem. I will elaborate some new concepts (“sites of incommensurability,” “experimentation,” “fragmentation of social space” and specify how the three logics of identification, dis-identification, and over-identification are three ways of constructing and dealing with situated problems.

  12. Observation spatiale et SIG: des outils pour cartographier les zones sensibles aux mouvements de terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves SCANVIC

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les niveaux de sensibilité des sols aux mouvements de terrain ont été cartographiés dans différents bassins de risques en Bolivie, en Colombie et à Taïwan, selon une méthodologie développée au BRGM et fondée en partie sur l’extraction visuelle et numérique d’informations contenues dans les données de télédétection spatiale stéréoscopiques et leur gestion-valorisation dans un SIG. Ces cartes font apparaître l’intérêt de l’imagerie Spot pour la gestion du risque naturel.

  13. Lessons from Chernobyl post-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has shown that the long-term management of its consequences is not straightforward. The management of the consequences has revealed the complexity of the situation to deal with. The long-term contamination of the environment has affected all the dimensions of the daily life of the inhabitants living in affected territories: health, environment, social life, education, work, distribution of foodstuffs and commodities... The experience from the Chernobyl accident shows 4 key issues that may be beneficial for the populations living in territories affected by the Fukushima accident: 1) the direct involvement of the inhabitants in their own protection, 2) the radiation monitoring system and health surveillance at the local level, 3) to develop a practical radiation protection culture among the population, and 4) the setting up of economic measures to favour the local development. (A.C.)

  14. Chernobyl experience of emergency data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.; Ossipants, I.

    1998-01-01

    Experience of work on the Chernobyl problem carried out by the Nuclear Safety Institute within 1990-95 for the information analytic support of the USSR and Russian government bodies is briefly examined. During this period approaches to the problem have become more corresponding to those realised by the government of a democratic State responsible to its population. Within the limits of the information analytic support of Russian government bodies an information management system was created. It included: Central bank of generalised data, Bank of models, Information systems for federal and local authorities intercommunicated with information systems of departments and scientific database. Analysis of results of this practical exercise permits to ascertain that the preparation of argued proposals on the population protection in time-limit conditions as well as the material resource insufficiency and the available information incompleteness are difficult problems. The acquired experience of work with the Chernobyl area databases is constantly developing and expanding. (R.P.)

  15. Chernobyl: The end of the nuclear dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.; Lean, G.; Leigh, D.; Mc Kie, R.; Pringle, P.; Wilson, A.

    1987-01-01

    Chernobyl - once the name of an obscure Soviet nuclear plant in the Ukraine - has become a global household word because of the April 1986 explosion that destroyed one of its reactors and spread radioactive fallout over most of the northern hemisphere. A September 1986 study from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory revealed that this disaster released as much radioactivity into the soil, air, and water as all the nuclear tests and bombs exploded since the 1940s. In this book by a team of correspondents from the London Observer, all the essential information is given: a description of Chernobyl town and its nuclear plant; a vivid account of the events surrounding the accident, in which many people acted heroically; the delays in reporting the disaster; the problems of evacuating people and of coping with the injured; the reactions in the Soviet Union and around the world; and the immediate and possible longterm effects of the release of so much radioactivity

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

  18. Chernobyl experience of emergency data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Linge, I.; Arutyunyan, R.; Ilushkin, A.; Kanevsky, M.; Kiselev, V.; Melikhova, E.; Ossipiants, I.; Pavlovsky, O.

    1997-01-01

    The use of the Chernobyl experience in emergency data management is presented. Information technologies for the generalization of practical experience in the protection of the population after the Chernobyl accident are described. The two main components of this work are the development of the administrative information system (AIS) and the creation of the central data bank. The current state of the AIS, the data bank and the bank of models is described. Data accumulated and models are used to estimate the consequences of radiation accidents and to provide different types of prognosis. Experience of accumulated analysis data allows special software to be developed for large-scale simulation of radiation consequences of major radiation accidents and to organize practical exercises. Some examples of such activity are presented. (orig.)

  19. Chernobyl today and compared to other disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, L.

    2000-01-01

    The disaster in Unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, now Ukraine, occurred fourteen years ago. Although much has been written about the accident, the public still has no proper yardstick by which to assess realistically the risk involved. This is true not only with respect to nuclear power plants of the type found in Germany and almost anywhere in the western world, but also in relation to non-nuclear disasters, which tend to be accepted by the public much more readily. As far as the number of persons killed or injured is concerned, the scope of the Chernobyl disaster turned out to be smaller than, or at least comparable to, other disasters. This is true even in comparison with other power generation technologies, for instance, accidents in coal mining or dam bursts. Even major railway accidents, airplane crashes, or the large number of people regularly killed in road traffic, are soon forgotten by the media. (orig.) [de

  20. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  1. Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

  2. Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Linge, I.; Arutyunyan, R.; Ilushkin, A.; Kiselev, V.; Melikhova, E.; Ossipiants, I.; Pavlovsky, O.

    1996-01-01

    Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia included the following: Central bank of generalized data, Bank of models, Information system for federal and local authorities. The analysis of many phenomena demanded retrospective data collection. In that way, banks of primary data were created and experience of analysis of directly accident information was acquired. The main element of the system-analytic support is the administrative information system of the Department for elimination of consequences of radiological and other disaster of EMERCOM of the Russian Federation. Administrative information system is intended for providing specialized program-technical complexes and systematized data related to the Chernobyl accident effects and measures on their elimination for heads and specialists of Central staff and territorial and regional administrative bodies, all other interested ministries, departments and organization

  3. 111Ag in the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of a re-evalution of the gamma-ray spectra of air filter samples collected immediately after Chernobyl accident at Munich-Neuherberg 111 Ag has been found to contribute significantly to the total activity within the first days of the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum air concentration was measured on 1 May 1986 to be 5.4 Bq/m 3 compared with 9.7 Bq 137 Cs per m 3 . Referred to this date the total activity deposition to ground was 12±3 kBq 111 Ag per m 2 . Referred to 26 April 1986 the 111 Ag to 110m Ag ratio was found to be 53±3 and the 111 Ag to 137 Cs ratio was 1.0±0.1. It is estimated that the cesium isotopes were depleted during release and atmospheric transport by a factor of about 2 compared with the silver isotopes. (orig.)

  4. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  5. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodymyr, S

    1987-07-01

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project.

  6. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  7. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station

  8. Measured radioecological parameters after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1989-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail. The change of the different radionuclies in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The most important data obtained like deposition velocity, washout coefficient, retention factor, removal rate constant, and transfer factor food-milk, food-beef, and soil-grass are reported. (orig.)

  9. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131 I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131 I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10 6 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10 7 person-rem (2 x 10 5 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  10. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzel, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  11. Chernobyl. Review of consequences after years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl the experts and the public turned again their attentions to the lesson leaned. Several international and national conferences were held to summarize data and to draw conclusions. The present review is based on this experience including that of the Hungarian scientists with special attention to the extent of contamination, early and late health effects and further problems. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serduk, A.M.; Bobylyova, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

  13. Radionuclide localization at the Chernobyl' NPP territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaev, L.A.; Galkin, G.A.; Khrabrov, S.L.; Polyakov, A.S.; Mikhejkin, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Experience is generalized of using different dust suppression (DS) compounds during Chernobyl' accident consequence elimination. Polymer DS compounds were used at the NPP operating site; the compounds kept dust-like radioactive contaminations during 1-2 months. DS at the country was realized by means of the compound on base of latex. The conclusion is made that the DS measures improved radiation situation in the NPP zone. 7 refs

  14. Legal aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuck, R.

    1986-01-01

    The brief article presents questions arising after the Chernobyl reactor accident, primarily those of compensation for damage and the relationship between citizens and the state. As existing laws do not offer suitable instruments for reacting to such a disaster, the author outlines ways and means that should be created on an international level in order to be able to react more efficiently in future. (HSCH) [de

  15. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  16. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  17. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  18. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation

  19. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  20. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Nedvecktaite, T.; Filistovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  1. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well-documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer endpoints. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers (“liquidators”) have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other hematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  2. Chernobyl: the plant that refuses to die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, Chris.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the cracking of the Sarcophagus enclosing Reactor 4 and recent observations of increased radiation inside, no decision on the future of the Chernobyl plant has been made. There is pressure from the G7 countries to close it down, but reluctance in Ukraine for a variety of reasons. Closure of the remaining functioning reactors at the plant would require new capacity to be substituted in order to meet the Ukraine's power demand and support its already ailing economy. Controversially, the Ukraine would like the new capacity to come from the completion of two VVER plants at Rovno and Khmelnitsky but it would embarrass the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to be seen to be financing the replacement of Chernobyl by more nuclear reactors. Opposition to plant closure also comes from those concerned for the future of the town of Slavutich which houses the Chernobyl workforce of 6,000 and their families. The fear is that closure would mean a sudden slide into poverty for the 24,000 inhabitants. Moreover, should the workforce disappear, who would look after the Sarcophagus? It is the future of the Sarcophagus which should be the priority of all parties to the debate. Opinions differ on the consequences of the collapse of the present structure but they could constitute another disaster. (UK)

  3. Socio-economic consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Social protection of the citizens, affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.; Kovalchuk, V.

    2003-01-01

    The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens

  4. "Carta geologica totius Poloniae, Moldaviae, Transilvaniae et partis Hungariae et Valachiae" by S. Staszic and its importance for European geology and geological cartography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czarniecki, S.; Grigelis, A.; Kozák, Jan; Narebski, W.; Wójcik, Z.

    -, č. 6 (2008), s. 81-101 ISSN 1507-0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : history of geology * geological cartography * Stanislaw Wawrzyniec Staszic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  5. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external γ dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on

  6. Some problems connected with the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The description of the eruption of radionuclides caused by the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident, including the effective time of the accident, quality and quantity of radio waste, is presented. A particular attention is given to the spotty structure of Chernobyl's contamination. The assumption that the spots distribution may be a consequence of the turbulent processes in the atmosphere is made

  7. Celerity, pulse and wavelength of De broglie for a nucleon (proton or neutron), according to its kinetic energy. - Formulas and curves; Vitesse, impulsion et longueur d'onde de de broglie d'un nucleon (proton ou neutron), en fonction de son energie cinetique. - Formules et courbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozmski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The celerity curves, pulse and wavelength of De Broglie for a nucleon (proton or neutron) have been calculated and traced accordingly to its kinetic energy. (M.B.) [French] Les courbes de vitesses, d mpulsion et de longueur d nde de Broglie d n nucleon (proton ou neutron) ont ete calcule et trace en fonction de son energie cinetique. (M.B.)

  8. Chernobyl is not everywhere. A critical review of emergency preparedness 10 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl shock had positive consequences for emergency preparedness. But have the right conclusions been drawn and the lessons really learnt? Some countries which were not ready when Chernobyl happened, have based their new concepts too closely on the Chernobyl scenario and do not seem to realize that a next accident may be completely different. Many concepts and developments are too academic and not adapted to the severe operational requirements of real emergency conditions. The information of the public still shows most of the deficiencies which were the cause of the only real 'catastrophic' consequences of Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union: the information failure. A critical review of the developments in the various aspects of emergency preparedness, based on international comparisons (a.o. from NEA International Emergency exercise INEX-1 and both NEA and FS Workshops) shows both real improvements and mistakes or weak points and leads to the following positive and negative observations, conclusions and proposals for future action (given in short-hand form due to limited space). (author)

  9. Integrating research on thyroid cancer after Chernobyl--the Chernobyl Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G A; Bethel, J A; Galpine, A; Mathieson, W; Krznaric, M; Unger, K

    2011-05-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Sushkevitch, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  11. ADAPTIVE CARTOGRAPHY FOR THE MODERN INFORMATION SOCIETY: FROM MULTI-PURPOSE MAP RESOURCE TO «SMART» MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Dyshlyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the conceptual foundations of cartography was influenced by the needs of human activities and possibilities of technical realization of basic processes. In the midtwentieth century, the international community understood the science of cartography maps as a specific way of modeling and image of the surrounding space, their creation and use. At the same time, which is very important, cartography has been focused on the visual perception of the world through map compositions in the form of specific figurative-symbolic metric model. This model served as an information product, had a number of useful properties, characterized by a set of assumed functions, but have some limitations [Lissitzky, 2015; strategic, 2015]. Card, as the basic product of cartography, is a specific information model of the earth's surface, surfaces of other celestial bodies, has a number of properties and characteristics, primarily the metric precision, the imagery, the symbolism, scalability, ability of the display with minimal distortion in the plane of the lengths, angles, areas, shapes of the objects and the surface. Many years of research and industrial practice brought the properties of modern cards to perfection, close to the idea of a «perfect map» [Ibañez, 2014], meet the requirements of consumers. However, in recent years the situation has changed significantly. The information (postindustrial era, accompanying scientific and technical progress in the field of Internet, mobile communication, portable computer technology led to the rapid pace of Informatization of humanity, leading eventually to the formation of the information society [Castells M., 2010].

  12. Planning the integration of residential students in the context of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) in cartography

    OpenAIRE

    Gkonos, Charalampos; Iosifescu Enescu, Ionuţ; Bär, Hans Rudolf; Hurni, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Cartography is a field that has fundamentally changed within the last years. The predominant changes have to do with the output media, as well as the map production technologies and dissemination channels. Existing Web mapping tools facilitate a great variety of users to produce maps in order to visually present the results of their projects. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how to successfully use these tools in order to develop cartographic products based on the established cartogra...

  13. Investigation of the kinetics of the reactions of oxidation, nitration, and hydrogenation of uranium; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation, de la nitruration et de l'hydruration de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    Various physico-chemical methods have been used to investigate the kinetics of the oxidation hydridation and nitridation of uranium. The experimental results show that the kinetics of these reactions are influenced by many factors also the Pilling and Bedworth rule is valid only under very limited conditions. The disagreement between this rule and the experimental results could be explained by the existence of numerous mechanical faults in the compounds obtained by the dry corrosion of the metal. (author) [French] Les cinetiques d'oxydation, d'hydruration et de nitruration de l'uranium ont ete etudiees au moyen de differentes methodes physico-chimiques. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus indiquent qu'un grand nombre de facteurs influencent les cinetiques d'attaque et que la regle de Pilling et Bedworth n'est verifiee que dans des cas tres limites. Les desaccords entre cette regle et les resultats experimentaux s'expliqueraient par l'existence de nombreux defauts mecaniques dans les composes obtenus par corrosion seche du metal. (auteur)

  14. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  15. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif

    2002-01-01

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  16. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  18. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  19. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  20. Chernobyl: the political fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1986-01-01

    The attitude to nuclear power of the major political parties in the United Kingdom is examined following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. In particular the Government policy, which is to reaffirm its commitment to nuclear energy, and that of the Labour opposition policy, which may be not to build any more nuclear power stations, are discussed. However, the Labour party policy is still open to debate and may be changed before the next general election. The Scottish and Welsh Nationalist parties and the Greens are all anti-nuclear. (U.K.)

  1. The international Chernobyl project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Separate chapters deal with the history of the accident and the Soviet emergency measures, environmental contamination, radiation exposure of the population, health impact, and protective measures. The conclusions and recommendations of the Project are presented, and an annex gives the available data on cesium 137 and strontium 90 contamination levels in populated areas of the BSSR, the RSFSR and the UkrSSR from June/July 1989: these data were used to draw up the area contamination maps. Ref, figs and tabs

  2. The consequences of Chernobyl. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, I.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation on the consequences of Chernobyl in Hessen served to formulate hypotheses for a research programme concept 'social ecology'. Its cope was restricted to groups of women, mothers, and parents, in order to confront the crisis perception of women, respectively women's vehemently publicized experience of catastrophe, with prevailing crisis theories, and hence to develop a programme concept. Furthermore, the brochure contains a description of the ways in which the limiting value problem was dealt with at the administrative-political and scientific level, and an interpretation of its research-political relevance. (DG) [de

  3. Current status of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Strategy of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning with the decommissioning license 2002-2064 is presented. The main activities at the stage of ChNPP units shutdown (2002 - 2012) are: units maintenance in safe state; decommissioning infrastructure construction; unloading of SNF – main activity determining the stage duration; systems and elements final shutdown; decommissioning life-support systems reconstruction; Comprehensive engineering and radiation survey (CERS); dismantling of the reactor facilities external equipment; removal of RAW from units; decommissioning documentation development. The decommissioning activities main results are presented

  4. After Chernobyl: has anything really changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancher, L.; Cameron, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding chapter the authors draw together the principal arguments made by the authors of the preceding chapters and summarize the state of law before and after Chernobyl, asking whether the accident has prompted significant changes. After acknowledging the successful adoption of the IAEA Conventions on notification of a nuclear accident and mutual assistance in case of emergencies, the authors conclude that greater co-operation between the countries is required to breach still existing gaps in the international norms regulating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (NEA) [fr

  5. Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzl, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

  6. Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.; Borovoj, A.A.; Demin, V.F.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

  7. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl accident has changed our life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambaroff, M.; Mies, M.; Stopczyk, A.; Werlhof, C. v.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents news paper articles and other contribution written by female authors, showing openly their determination to fight for their conception of life, and to put up opposition against the arguments and attitudes of men who so far have dominated events and developments in science, technology, and politics. The fear and worries of the women and mothers after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in great detail, explaining their view in contrast to the male world believing in science and technology, and showing the reasons why women have started to take a new turn, fighting for recognition of their conception life. (DG) [de

  9. Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

  10. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Chekin, Sergei; Malakhova, Irina V.; Polyakov, Semion; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Yuri; Golovanov, Ivan; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Maceika, Evaldas; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  12. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  13. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchertkoff, W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  14. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, under the Radiation Protection Research Action, a Panel of experts was set up to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl at the time of the nuclear reactor accident on 26 April 1986. The report written by this Panel documents their findings with their respect to the occurrence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus and the Northern Ukraine. The Panel arrives to a consensus opinion and makes strong recommendations for urgent technical and humanitarian assistance and research cooperation. The Panel report and the response of the European Commission to these recommendations are discussed. (Author). 1 ref

  15. ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

  16. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinkhal', G.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

  17. Cartographies of the Voice: Storying the Land as Survivance in Native American Oral Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Native places are made, named, and reconstructed after colonization through storytelling. Storying the land is a process whereby the land is invested with the moral and spiritual perspectives specific to Native American communities. As seen in the oral traditions and written literature of Native American storytellers and authors, the voices of indigenous people retrace and remap cartographies for the land after colonization through storytelling. This article shows that the Americas were storied by Native American communities long before colonial contact beginning in the fifteenth century and demonstrates how the land continues to be storied in the present as a method of decolonization and cultural survivance. The article examines manifestations of the oral tradition in multiple forms, including poetry, interviews, fiction, photography, and film, to demonstrate that the land itself, through storytelling, becomes a repository of the oral tradition. The article investigates oral narratives from precontact and postcolonial time periods and across numerous nations and geographical regions in the Americas, including stories from the Mayan Popol Vuh; Algonkian; Western Apache; Hopi; Haudenosaunee/Iroquois; and Laguna Pueblo stories; and the contemporary poetry and fiction of Joy Harjo (Mvskoke/Creek Nation and Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo.

  18. An interdisciplinary approach to mapping through scientific cartography, design and artistic expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Joanna; Cartwright, William; Duxbury, Lesley

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the initial findings of an interdisciplinary study exploring perceptions of space and place through alternate ways of mapping. The research project aims to bring depth and meaning to places by utilising a combination of diverse influences and responses, including emotional, sensory, memory and imaginary. It investigates mapping from a designer's perspective, with further narration from both the cartographic science and fine art perspectives. It examines the role of design and artistic expression in the cartographic process, and its capacity to effect and transform the appearance, reading and meaning of the final cartographic outcome (Robinson 2010). The crossover between the cartographic sciences and the work of artists who explore space and place enables an interrogation of where these fields collide or alternatively merge, in order to challenge the definition of a map. By exploring cartography through the overlapping of the distinct fields of science and art, this study challenges and questions the tipping point of when a map ceases to be a map and becomes art.

  19. A New Era in Geodesy and Cartography: Implications for Landing Site Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global dataset has ushered in a new era for Mars local and global geodesy and cartography. These data include the global digital terrain model (Digital Terrain Model (DTM) radii), the global digital elevation model (Digital Elevation Model (DEM) elevation with respect to the geoid), and the higher spatial resolution individual MOLA ground tracks. Currently there are about 500,000,000 MOLA points and this number continues to grow as MOLA continues successful operations in orbit about Mars, the combined processing of radiometric X-band Doppler and ranging tracking of MGS together with millions of MOLA orbital crossover points has produced global geodetic and cartographic control having a spatial (latitude/longitude) accuracy of a few meters and a topographic accuracy of less than 1 meter. This means that the position of an individual MOLA point with respect to the center-of-mass of Mars is know to an absolute accuracy of a few meters. The positional accuracy of this point in inertial space over time is controlled by the spin rate uncertainty of Mars which is less than 1 km over 10 years that will be improved significantly with the next landed mission.

  20. Cultural Landscapes in Historical Cartography: Landscape Gardens in the “Green” Bucharest of 1789

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OSACI-COSTACHE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 18th century, Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was a “green” city (having large orchards, vineyards and even patches of wood, which apparently was in no need of landscape gardens. However, historical cartography and the written documents testify their existence. The study relies on large-scale historical maps (1:2000 – 1:7250, which were processed in a GIS Open Source Environment (QGIS software. The Purcel map (1789 shows the existence of eleven landscape gardens totalling an area of 8.63 ha. The retrieval of their exact location may serve as a starting point for a future web page meant to offer virtual travels and to bring back to light the old townscapes through paintings, vintage photos, testimonials of foreign travelers, documents, etc. All these can prove to be very useful for understanding the emotional geography of the old Bucharest, which arouses a particular interest, as shown by the results of a questionnaire applied on 134 subjects.

  1. Cartography, new technologies and geographic education: theoretical approaches to research the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneme do Canto, Tânia

    2018-05-01

    In order to understand the roles that digital mapping can play in cartographic and geographic education, this paper discusses the theoretical and methodological approach used in a research that is undertaking in the education of geography teachers. To develop the study, we found in the works of Lankshear and Knobel (2013) a notion of new literacies that allows us looking at the practices within digital mapping in a sociocultural perspective. From them, we conclude that in order to understand the changes that digital cartography is able to foment in geography teaching, it is necessary to go beyond the substitution of means in the classroom and being able to explore what makes the new mapping practices different from others already consolidated in geography teaching. Therefore, we comment on some features of new forms of cartographic literacy that are in full development with digital technologies, but which are not determined solely by their use. The ideas of Kitchin and Dodge (2007) and Del Casino Junior and Hanna (2006) are also an important reference for the research. Methodologically, this approach helps us to understand that in the seek to comprehend maps and their meanings, irrespective of the medium used, we are dealing with a process of literacy that is very particular and emergent because it involves not only the characteristics of the map artifact and of the individual that produces or consumes it, but depends mainly on a diversity of interconnections that are being built between them (map and individual) and the world.

  2. Quantum Leap in Cartography as a requirement of Sustainable Development of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.; Tikunova, Iryna N.; Eremchenko, Eugene N.

    2018-05-01

    Sustainable development is one of the most important challenges for humanity and one of the priorities of the United Nations. Achieving sustainability of the whole World is a main goal of management at all levels - from personal to local to global. Therefore, decision making should be supported by relevant geospatial information system. Nevertheless, classical geospatial products, maps and GIS, violate fundamental demand of `situational awareness' concept, well-known philosophy of decision-making - same representation of situation within a same volume of time and space for all decision-makers. Basic mapping principles like generalization and projections split the universal single model of situation on number of different separate and inconsistent replicas. It leads to wrong understanding of situation and, after all - to incorrect decisions. In another words, quality of the sustainable development depends on effective decision-making support based on universal global scale-independent and projection-independent model. This new way for interacting with geospatial information is a quantum leap in cartography method. It is implemented in the so-called `Digital Earth' paradigm and geospatial services like Google Earth. Com-paring of both methods, as well as possibilities of implementation of Digital Earth in the sustain-able development activities, are discussed.

  3. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster.

  4. Abundance of birds in Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Kawatsu, Kencho; Nishiumi, Isao; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Keisuke; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of radiation on abundance of common birds in Fukushima can be assessed from the effects of radiation in Chernobyl. Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation, with a significant difference between Fukushima and Chernobyl. Analysis of 14 species common to the two areas revealed a negative effect of radiation on abundance, differing between areas and species. The relationship between abundance and radiation was more strongly negative in Fukushima than in Chernobyl for the same 14 species, demonstrating a negative consequence of radiation for birds immediately after the accident on 11 March 2011 during the main breeding season in March–July, when individuals work close to their maximum sustainable level. - Highlights: ► Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation in Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Effects of radiation on abundance differed between Chernobyl and Fukushima and among species. ► For 14 species common to the two areas the effects of radiation on abundance were stronger in Fukushima than in Chernobyl. - The negative effect of radiation on abundance of birds in Fukushima exceeded that for the same species in Chernobyl.

  5. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2001-01-01

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  6. Misleading Comparisons between Chernobyl and Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes illogical and often misleading comparisons between Fukushima and Chernobyl where the nuclear accidents have occurred. A letter by Takamura et al. published in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology makes comparisons between the exposure doses and the age distributions of childhood thyroid cancer cases in Belarus and Fukushima. Estimated exposure doses in highly contaminated areas in Belarus were compared with potentially underestimated Fukushima doses. Age distributions of thyroid cancer cases are compared at different times after the accidents: after 4-5 years in Belarus vs. first 4 years in Fukushima. The absence of cancer cases in ages 0-5 at exposure in Fukushima in the first 4 years after the accident is not surprising because the supposed latency of childhood thyroid cancer is considered 4-5 years based on the Chernobyl experience. Yet this absence is claimed as a basis leading to a premature conclusion to dismiss radiation effects on thyroid cancer cases in Fukushima. Similar illogical comparisons made in Japan and overseas are discussed. A possibility of a shorter latency period is entertained based on a carcinogenic potential of ionizing radiation as initiator as well as promoter. Lastly, a pooled analysis of 12 studies on thyroid cancer after childhood external exposure (2016) is introduced as an evidence that exposure doses below 100 mGy lead to an increase in relative risk of thyroid cancer with a linear dose-response. (author)

  7. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations (∼40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  8. sup 111 Ag in the Chernobyl fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, R.; Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1989-01-01

    In the course of a re-evalution of the gamma-ray spectra of air filter samples collected immediately after Chernobyl accident at Munich-Neuherberg {sup 111}Ag has been found to contribute significantly to the total activity within the first days of the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum air concentration was measured on 1 May 1986 to be 5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} compared with 9.7 Bq {sup 137}Cs per m{sup 3}. Referred to this date the total activity deposition to ground was 12{plus minus}3 kBq {sup 111}Ag per m{sup 2}. Referred to 26 April 1986 the {sup 111}Ag to {sup 110m}Ag ratio was found to be 53{plus minus}3 and the {sup 111}Ag to {sup 137}Cs ratio was 1.0{plus minus}0.1. It is estimated that the cesium isotopes were depleted during release and atmospheric transport by a factor of about 2 compared with the silver isotopes. (orig.).

  9. The social impact of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marples, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book focuses on the broader ramifications of the Chernobyl disaster,such as the impact upon the environment, agriculture, health, the media and the arts. The author feels that there is much information not yet available about the accident, and he says the Soviet Government has essentially developed an official line that is patently untrue. Many of the key mistakes and short comings that figured prominently in the accident and that the Soviets have been reluctant to publicize are highlighted. The part that what might be termed the Soviet system played in the accident and events following the accident is explored. This is not limited just to the incompetence of the plant operators when the accident occurred but is extended to the system that placed unqualified operators on the staff of a nuclear power plant, produced the defective reactor design, was responsible for the poor quality of the initial construction, etc. The author contends that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) did not really press the Soviets for complete truthful reports because it was not expedient to do so as the Chernobyl accident threatened the global nuclear industry of which IAEA is a part

  10. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Conny.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  11. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-28

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas.

  12. Doses of Chernobyl liquidators: Ukrainian prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, Vadim V.; Bakhanova, Elena V.; Sholom, Sergey V.; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nickolas K.; Skaletsky, Yuri N.; Kryuchkov, Viktor P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The issue of doses received by Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators) remains controversial both in terms of dose values (individual and collective) and reliability of available data. This deficiency became particularly evident during preparation of the Ukrainian contribution to the UNSCEAR report. Analysis showed that available official dose records (ODR) are neither representative nor unbiased and, therefore, cannot be used to indicate the impact of Chernobyl exposure on this cohort (∼230,000 individuals). Recent developments in the area of dosimetry for liquidators contributed to better understanding of this problem and added information regarding individual, group averaged, and collective doses to Ukrainian liquidators. It was established that majority (∼95%) of existing ODR are related to one particular category of clean-up workers military liquidators. All other categories of Ukrainian liquidators either do not have recorded doses or their doses are not presented in the Chernobyl State Registry of Ukraine (SRU). The main sets of new doses were derived from reassessment of about 8,600 ODRs performed within Ukrainian-American Chernobyl Ocular Study (UACOS) and results of independent dose reconstructions using a time-and-motion method called Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation (RADRUE) for about 1,000 subjects in the Ukrainian-American study of leukemia and related disorders among cleanup workers from Ukraine. A third source of independent dose assessments is the set of individual doses obtained using EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel; such estimates have been performed for about 800 Ukrainian liquidators. Analysis of dosimetric information related to military liquidators, who comprise about the 48% of Ukrainian liquidators, showed that as a rule ODRs for persons in this category systematically overestimate actual doses. Quantification of this overestimation gives a clue to retrospective adjustment of doses, at

  13. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  14. Forest and Chernobyl: forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: 1986-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatyev, V.; Bulavik, I.; Baginsky, V.; Goncharenko, G.; Dvornik, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports basic features of radionuclide migration and the prediction of the radionuclide redistribution and accumulation by forest phytocoenoses after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident. The current ecological condition of forest ecosystems is evaluated and scientific aspects of forest management in the conditions of the large-scale radioactive contamination are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  16. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  17. Chernobyl: disinformation. 2000 dead in Chernobyl: they were made by journalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    After having briefly recalled the scenario which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the differences between the Chernobyl reactor and the French graphite-based reactors, and that some modifications have been introduced in the alarm system of the Bugey reactor, the author reviews the chronology of events and information after the accident. He recalls the Soviet way to deal with the information, states that the authorities did not immediately understand the severity of the accident. He notably outlines and comments a statement reporting that 2.000 people died just after the accident. Thus, it appears that both sides could be criticized, the Russian side for its slow reaction, and the Western side for disinformation. He also denounces a fake documentary report made by a French journalist (images pretended to have been taken in Chernobyl had been in fact shot in an Italian factory). He also evokes the reactions of people in front of this kind information about risks of exposure. He analyses the content of an article written by a French journalist who denounced some kinds of plots elaborated by oil companies, by the USSR, by anti-nuclear activists

  18. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  19. Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, Oleg V.; Steinhaeusler, Friedrich; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger

    2000-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the data available from the scientific literature concerning clean-up workers, or so-called liquidators, of the Chernobyl accident. There are several different definitions of liquidators: Legal definitions of 'liquidators'. Their importance rests on the fact that some state Chernobyl registers are based on these definitions. Definitions from various scientific reports. Definitions for the purpose, which have been published in scientific papers and books. The simplified definition of liquidators would be people who were directly involved in clean-up operations in the exclusion zone in 1986-1991. Estimations of the number of liquidators vary from 100 000 to 800 000 people. Four major cohorts of liquidators are now split among Russia (168,000 people), Belarus (63,500 people), Ukraine (123,536 people) and the Baltic States (about 15,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The definition of liquidator and the formation of cohort are the most critical factor in liquidator-related studies and not enough attention is paid to this matter by researchers. The term 'liquidator' describes a very heterogeneous group of people. Liquidators may be grouped according to work performed in the exclusion zone or affiliation to various organisations. The majority of liquidators in 1986-1987 were conscripts and reservists of the Soviet Union Army. According to data from Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small subgroups of liquidators

  20. Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, Oleg V. [Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom); Steinhaeusler, Friedrich [University of Salzburg, Institute of Physic and Biophysics, Salzburg (Austria); Trott, Klaus-Ruediger [Univ. of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, St. Bartholomew' s and the Royal London Hospital School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the data available from the scientific literature concerning clean-up workers, or so-called liquidators, of the Chernobyl accident. There are several different definitions of liquidators: Legal definitions of 'liquidators'. Their importance rests on the fact that some state Chernobyl registers are based on these definitions. Definitions from various scientific reports. Definitions for the purpose, which have been published in scientific papers and books. The simplified definition of liquidators would be people who were directly involved in clean-up operations in the exclusion zone in 1986-1991. Estimations of the number of liquidators vary from 100 000 to 800 000 people. Four major cohorts of liquidators are now split among Russia (168,000 people), Belarus (63,500 people), Ukraine (123,536 people) and the Baltic States (about 15,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The definition of liquidator and the formation of cohort are the most critical factor in liquidator-related studies and not enough attention is paid to this matter by researchers. The term 'liquidator' describes a very heterogeneous group of people. Liquidators may be grouped according to work performed in the exclusion zone or affiliation to various organisations. The majority of liquidators in 1986-1987 were conscripts and reservists of the Soviet Union Army. According to data from Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small

  1. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  2. Radiation Dose to Post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation dose calculation for post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine - both external radiation exposure due to fallout and internal doses due to inhalation (I131 intake) or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.

  3. Management problems of this restricted zone around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.; Sobotovich, E.; Proscura, N.; Kozakov, S.; Korchagin, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this brief report are consider the main problems of minimization of the consequences of the accident and management of actions provided at present in the Chernobyl zone at the territory of Ukraine in decade retrospect

  4. Sediment-associated transport and redistribution of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.; Rowan, J.S.; Bradley, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fallout of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides over the United Kingdom evidenced marked spatial variation. Relatively high levels were recorded in central Wales, but they declined rapidly to the east. As a result the headwaters of the River Severn received significant inputs of fallout, whereas only low levels were recorded over the middle and lower reaches. Measurements of the caesium-137 content of suspended sediment transported by the River Severn and of channel and floodplain sediments collected from various locations within the basin have been used to assess the importance of fluvial transport and redistribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides. High concentrations of caesium-137 (up to 1450 mBqg -1 ) were recorded in suspended sediment collected from the lower reaches of the river shortly after the Chernobyl incident and substantial accumulations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides have been detected in floodplain and channel sediments collected from areas which received only low levels of fallout directly. (author)

  5. Chernobyl: Endless horror. Late effects of the reactor catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethlein, B.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the accident, the people of Chernobyl are trying to live a normal life, but the problems resulting from the catastrophe have not been solved. Some of them are just starting to emerge. (orig.) [de

  6. Medical cooperative projects. From Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have performed both fieldwork and research to clarify the late effects of radiation exposure around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site and participated in bilateral official medical assistance projects between Japan and Kazakhstan to strengthen the medical infrastructure in this area. Through these humanitarian and scientific projects, we have been collaborating closely with our counterparts in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the past 15 years. Here, we present a brief review of our past activities and future directions of international cooperative radiation research from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk. (author)

  7. Nuclear safety after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on nuclear safety after Three Mile island and Chernobyl. Topics covered include: Design for safety; Man-machine interaction; Source terms and consequence; and accident response

  8. Peut-on cartographier des taches urbaines à partir d’images Google Earth ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Baro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’étude présentée ici expose les résultats d’un traitement d’images Google Earth dont le but est la cartographie des agglomérations d’Afrique de l’Ouest de plus de 500 000 habitants. Les images accessibles ne disposant pas d’informations spectrales précises (s’agissant de simples images couleur RVB, la méthodologie développée pour l’identification des agglomérations se base sur l’exploitation d’images en teintes de gris pour en extraire les caractéristiques texturales des zones densément bâties. Certaines images couvrant les agglomérations étudiées résultent de la composition en mosaïque d’images satellites acquises dans des conditions différentes. Avant toute exploitation des images, un prétraitement d’égalisation est nécessaire afin d’obtenir une vue uniforme à partir de la mosaïque. Plus précisément, il s’agit d’annuler les différences entre les luminances sur chaque morceau de mosaïque. Nous présentons ici une méthode d’égalisation inspirée de l’algorithme « Midway ». Cet algorithme a originellement été proposé pour uniformiser les luminances sur des paires d’images stéréo. Dans le cas présent, la difficulté consiste à adapter cette technique dans le cas d’images ne présentant pas strictement la même information. Le principe d’égalisation va consister à repérer et à apparier les histogrammes de zones semblables sur les sous-images composant la mosaïque. L’extraction des taches urbaines à partir des images prétraitées est ensuite réalisée par la mise en œuvre de séquences d’opérateurs de la Morphologie Mathématique. Les résultats obtenus ont été validés par une comparaison avec les agglomérations qui ont été cartographiées par photo-interprétation à partir d’images Google Earth et présentées dans la base de données Africapolis.

  9. Mapping archaeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from Potaissa to Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN FODOREAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping archeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from potaissa to Napoca. We aim to analyze and correct several archaeological and historical data regarding some settlements included in an official document, issued by the Ministry of Culture from Romania, entitled the List of Historical Monuments (Lista Monumentelor Istorice / LMI. We focused our attention on the Roman road from Potaissa to Napoca, the main imperial road of Dacia. We described the route of the Roman road and corrected the old information in the list of historical monuments regarding the discoveries within the territory of the village of Aiton. Methodologically, we used data from the old literature, the modern Austro-Hungarian maps from the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, information from regional gazetteers and different journals. We aimed to offer new insights regarding the accurate location of these settlements and to debate upon the spatial relations of these settlements and their position within the landscape of Dacia. At the beginning of the study, we presented the present situation concerning the databases in Romania covering archaeological sites. The second part of our study discusses how the archaeological sites are recorded in the list of historical monuments. Then we offered several case studies This type of methodological approach will be applied in the future for other areas, in order to reconstruct the former landscape of the province of Dacia, as accurately as possible, using digital tools and modern maps. Our contribution also improved the quality of the data sets used for the topographical descriptions of archaeological sites in Romania.

  10. Nuclear energy in Switzerland after Chernobyl - theses of SVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In its theses on nuclear energy after Chernobyl, the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy (SVA) - in which all Swiss organizations promoting the safe use of nuclear energy co-operate - has summarized the most important arguments for further peaceful uses of atomic energy. The SVA theses will contribute to an evaluation of riks associated with nuclear energy in the discusssions of future energy sources following Chernobyl

  11. Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchenko, Yu.Yi.; Usatenko, O.G.; Romanenko, N.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

  12. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, D

    1986-01-01

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life. The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension.

  13. Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1987-02-01

    The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137 Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

  14. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  15. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  16. International Union of Radioecology response to the Chernobyl radioecological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.; Kirchmann, R.

    1995-01-01

    A review of International Union of Radioecology response to the Chernobyl radioecological situation is given. A scope of the activities ((1) Increase of contacts and cooperation with CIS scientists; (2) Organization, usually in collaboration with intergovernmental institution, of international scientific meetings; (3) Synthesis reports dealing with impacts of the Chernobyl fallout; (4) Collaboration with other international organizations and projects (SCOPE-RADPATH, UNESCO-CESN, IAEA); (5) Training of young scientists; and (6) Progress of current activities) is reviewed

  17. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl

  18. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, D.

    1986-01-01

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.) [de

  19. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240 Pu and 241 Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242 Cm was the dominant α emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  20. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl.

  1. Mental health of liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryzhanivska, L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical and psychological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster-related mental disorders. We evaluated both clinically and psychologically four hundred and fifty patients who were exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. They did not suffer from radiation sickness. The investigations started four years after the catastrophe took place in 1990 and continue to the present day. (orig.)

  2. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  3. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  4. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Reitan, J.B.; Harbitz, O.; Brynhildsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  5. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godovich, A.; Chernovskij, A.; Lyass, F.; Shapiro, I.; Kratov, Eh.; Markarov, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

  7. Aquatic environment impacts of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Washout of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the contaminated area around the Chernobyl power plant occurs mainly during intense rainfalls and snow-melts when up to 900 km 2 of highly contaminated soils can be flooded, like in 1988 and 1991, contributing to the contamination of Pripyat river. Flood barriers were built on the left bank and their efficiency was proven during the 1993, 1994 and 1999 floods. Flood barriers were also built on the right bank between 1999 and 2002 but the works have never been completed so far. Downstream, the Dnieper river flow is regulated by a series of dams the management of which has been optimized to limit the transfer of radionuclides to the Black Sea

  8. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.; Cawse, P.A.; Garland, J.A.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Johnson, P.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.; Wade, B.O.

    1987-02-01

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  9. Chernobyl: Symptom of a worrying psychological epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretre, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl psychological epidemic was already latent well prior to 1986 fully broke out after the accident, and continues to spread. It must be halted. But how can we counter a belief which has taken on the appearance of reality. It is the unknown, linked to alarming symbols, which sustains fear. To get beyond this state, radioactivity, ionizing radiation and nuclear energy have to become as ordinary as air travel and electronic calculators. In a climate of confidence and openness, it should be possible to successfully communicate several solid scientific reference points by first targeting teachers, doctors, and journalists. Thirty years ago, nuclear energy was presented as a universal panacea (clean, safe, and renewable). Now things have swung to the other extreme, and it is presented as diabolical. We have shifted from a symbolically white level to a symbolically black level, and both are misleading. It is high time to rejoin the world of facts, a world full of shades of gray

  10. Future of nuclear power after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    If nuclear power plants are to have a future in the US, existing plants must demonstrate a safe and accident-free operation, the public must perceive that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is independent and objective, safety corrections must make operating plants more reliable, and the US must develop an acceptable way to dispose of high-level radioactive wastes. Focusing on safe operation and public confidence in the NRC, the author examines the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and compares public opinion reactions with those following the Three Mile Island accident. He notes the recent NRC decisions have been counterproductive to the nuclear industry, but that other countries have demonstrated that the goal of safe nuclear power is achievable. The NRC will have to increase the level of public participation in the regulatory process if it hopes to restore its former level of credibility

  11. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG) [de

  12. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.; Paschke, M.; Schneider, K.; Uray, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  13. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  14. Psychosocial effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The psychological factors surrounding the Chernobyl disaster include the sudden trauma of evacuation, long-term effects of being a refugee, disruption of social networks, illness, separation and its effects on families, children's perception and effects on their development and the threat of a long-term consequence with an endless future. Added to this was the breakdown of the Soviet Union with consequent collapse of health services, increasing poverty and malnutrition. These complexities made necessary new individual and social treatment methods developed in UNESCO Community Centres, within which some positives have resulted, such as the development of individual and group self help and the professions of counselling, social work and community development, practices which did not previously exist in the Soviet Union.

  15. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  16. The reconstruction of thyroid dose following Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.; Kondrashov, A.; Yaskova, E.; Petin, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Parshkov, E.; Gavrilin, Yu.; Khrousch, V.; Shinkarev, S.; Makarenkova, I.; Volkov, V.; Zvonova, I.; Bratilova, A.; Kaidanovsky, J.; Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovsky, A.; Korneev, S.; Heinemann, K.; Pomplun, E.; Hille, R.; Bailiff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the overview of several approaches in working out the methods of thyroid internal dose reconstruction following Chernobyl. One of these approaches was developed (IBPh, Moscow; MRRC, Obninsk; IRM, Minsk) using the correlations between the mean dose calculation based on I 131 thyroid content measurements and Cs 137 contamination of territories. The available data on I 131 soil contamination were taken into account. The lack of data on I 131 soil contamination was supposed to be compensated by I 129 measurements in soil samples from contaminated territories. The semiempiric model was developed for dose reconstruction. The comparison of the results obtained by semiempiric model and empirical values are presented. The estimated values of average dose according semiempiric model were used for individual dose reconstruction. The IRH (St.-Petersburg) has developed the following method for individual dose reconstruction: correlation between the total I 131 radioiodine incorporation in thyroid and whole body Cs 137 content during first months after accident. The individual dose reconstruction is also mentioned to be performed using the data on individual milk consumption during first weeks after accident. For evaluation of average doses it is suggested to use the linear correlation: thyroid dose values based on radioiodine thyroid measurements vs Cs 137 contamination, air kerma rate, mean I 131 concentration in the milk. The method for retrospective reconstruction of thyroid dose caused by short-living iodine nuclides released after the Chernobyl accident has been developed by Research Centre, Juelich, Germany. It is based on the constant ratio that these nuclides have with the long-living I 129 . The contamination of soil samples by this nuclide can be used to assess thyroid doses. First results of I 129 contamination values and derived thyroid doses are to be presented

  17. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  18. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  19. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  20. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl. International conference of the Chernobyl Forum, 6 September 2005, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy. The lessons of this tragedy are interwoven with a recurrent theme: namely, the importance of international cooperation. With its recently released document - entitled 'Chernobyl's Legacy' - the Chernobyl Forum has solidly reinforced that theme. The major impacts of Chernobyl fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psychological and social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Europe and, in particular, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to substantial radiation doses, including workers from all three of these countries who participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The definitive numbers compiled in the Chernobyl Forum report are sobering: the 50 emergency rescue workers who died from acute radiation syndrome and related illnesses; the 4000 children and adolescents who contracted thyroid cancer - 9 of whom also died; and the hundreds of thousands of hectares of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres that were contaminated by environmental fallout. But as severe as these impacts were, the situation was made even worse by conflicting information and vast exaggerations - in press coverage and pseudo-scientific accounts of the accident - reporting, for example, fatalities in the tens or hundreds of thousands. The psychological and social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were immediately evacuated, and the total number of evacuees from contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000. While some of these

  1. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  3. PARTICIPATORY CARTOGRAPHY IN A TRADITIONAL GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF A SMALLHOLDER COMMUNITY IN NORTHERN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pinos Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A community mapping procedure was developed to identify and characterize communal land area used for a traditional goat production system. Participatory cartography indicated that producers have good knowledge of their territory; more than 80% of the spatial distribution and localization of the elements and shapes present in the community map agreed with the map constructed with GIS. All flocks were mainly grazed on communal rangelands where the most important native forage plants were Opuntia spp. Yucca filifera, Condalia mexicana, Dalea spp. and Euphorbia cinerasiens, and corn stover the main crop by-product supplement used during dry season.

  4. Cartography of memory in Chris Marker and W.G. Sebald: Notes about History, memory and maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Brito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to approach the artists Chris Marker and W.G. Sebald, trying to determine and develop pervasive questions in their works: the construction of a historiographic discourse, the ambiguities of memory, the erratic movement of their characters and essayistic thinking. We have tried to draft some starting points to make possible the writing of a memory as a cartography, created through walking on the world and also through the collection of images and of stories that tell about lives that went astray in the mis-paths of History.

  5. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  6. Introduction to Individual Contribution by the VI Scientific and Professional Conferences with International Participation Geodesy, Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Sabová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution contains a selection of articles from 6th Scientific Conference with International Participation "Geodesy,Cartography and Geographical Information Systems 2010". Particular articles are focused on the field of geodesy, engineeringsurveying, mining surveying, deformation analysis, digital photogrammetry, cartography, cadastre of real estates and terrestrial laserscanning. The reader will become familiar with the recent trends and results of research that have been achieved in these areasat universities, as well as in the commercial sector that act in branch of geodesy in the Czech and Slovak Republic.

  7. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  8. The experience of web technologies’ implementation into cartography of the protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іван Олійников

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoportals and web services containing information about protected territories of different countries of the world are considered, in particular, the analysis of their content, purpose, features of operation, data formats and information that can be obtained with their facilitation. Active development of web technologies contributes to the fact that cartographic web services can be divided into several types: statistical layered maps; Web-maps with the ability to generate queries; Web-maps of collective filling; map-services; cartographic software shells. In the world, when mapping the objects of the nature reserve fund, the first 3 types of cartographic web services are used most often. Statistical map layers are most characteristic of the United States, as they are the first country to integrate web technologies and approaches into classical cartography for mapping of protected areas. For Canada, the experience of regional mapping of protected areas is more widespread than national and local levels. In Australia, particular attention is paid to the mapping of protected areas located on the shores of the oceans and islands. The second category - “Web-maps with the ability to create queries” is the most widespread not only in the field of web mapping of protected areas, but also in general for this area. The development of the volunteer movement contributes to the significant dissemination of services whose thematic content is filled with ordinary people - “Web-maps of collective filling”. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (UK project, global mapping rojects that are not specific to a particular country or macro region (a series of interactive maps for the dissemination of information on rare species of animals, the Global Forest Watch geoportal designed to track the dynamics of changes in forest areas are among these mapping services. Web mapping in Ukraine is on the stage of becoming. In addition to the Atlas of the Natural

  9. Kinetic study of the reaction of uranium with various carbon-containing gases; Etude cinetique de la reaction sur l'uranium de differents gaz carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-09-15

    The kinetic study of the reaction U + CO{sub 2} and U + CO has been performed by a thermogravimetric method on a spherical uranium powder, in temperature ranges respectively from 460 to 690 deg. C and from 570 to 850 deg. C. The reaction with carbon dioxide leads to uranium dioxide. A carbon deposition takes place at the same time. The global reactions is the result of two reactions: U + 2 CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 CO U + CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + C The reaction with carbon monoxide leads to a mixture of dioxide UO{sub 2}, dicarbide UC{sub 2} and free carbon. The main reaction can be written. U + CO {yields} 1/2 UO{sub 2} + 1/2 UC{sub 2} The free carbon results of the disproportionation of the carbon monoxide. A remarkable separation of the two phases UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2} can be observed. A mechanism accounting for the phenomenon has been proposed. The two reactions U + CO{sub 2} and U + CO begin with a long germination period, after which, the reaction velocity seems to be limited in both cases by the ionic diffusion of oxygen through the uranium dioxide. (author) [French] L'etude cinetique des reactions U sol + CO{sub 2} gaz et U sol + CO gaz a ete effectuee par thermogravirnetrie sur une poudre d'uranium a grains spheriques, les domaines de temperature etudies s'etendant respectivement de 460 a 690 deg. C et de 570 a 850 deg. C. L'action du dioxyde de carbone conduit au dioxyde d'uranium UO{sub 2}; il se produit en meme temps un depot de carbone. La reaction globale resulte des deux reactions: U + 2 CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 CO U + CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + C Le mono-oxyde de carbone conduit a un melange de dioxyde UO{sub 2}, de dicarbure UC{sub 2} et de carbone libre. La reaction principale s'ecrit: U + CO {yields} 1/2 UO{sub 2} + 1/2 UC{sub 2} Le carbone libre provient de la dismutation du mono-oxyde de carbone. On observe une separation remarquable des deux phases UO{sub 2} et UC{sub 2}; un mecanisme rendant compte de ce phenomene a

  10. Geochemical consequences of the Chernobyl accident.; Geokhimicheskie posledstviya Chernobyl`skoj katastrofy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopejkin, V A [VNIIGEOLNERUD, Kazan` (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Geochemical features of Cs, Sr, U, Pu behaviour in the zone of their hypergenesis are presented in the article. Necessary conditions for these elements filtration on the natural geochemical barriers are shown. Data of radionuclide composition of water for five years of observation in << Ryzhiy Les >> and dissolved forms of radionuclides are described. Geologic and hydrogeologic conditions of the Chernobyl NPP site are shortly characterized. Radionuclide composition in the ground water of contaminated water pools is analyzed. It is proposed to cover by the law all {alpha}-elements (Pu, Am, Np) and not only plutonium as it currently takes place.

  11. The Phobos Atlas and Geo-portal: geodesy and cartography approach for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Konopikhin, Anatoliy; Garov, Andrey

    New Phobos mapping. Methods of image processing and modern GIS technologies provide the opportunity for high quality planetary mapping. The new Phobos DTM and global orthomosaic have been used for developing a geodatabase (Karachevtseva et al., 2012) which provides data for various surface spatial analyses: statistics of crater density, as well as studies of gravity field, geomorphology, and photometry. As mapping is the best way to visualize results of research based on spatial context we created the Phobos atlas. The new Phobos atlas includes: control points network which were calculated during photogrammetry processing of SRC images (Zubarev et al., 2012) and fundamental body parameters as a reference basis for Phobos research as well as GIS analyses of surface objects and geomorphologic studies. According to the structure of the atlas we used various scales and projections based on different coordinate system, including three-axial ellipsoid which parameters (a=13.24 km, b=11.49 km, c=9.48 km) derived from new Phobos shape model (Nadezhdina and Zubarev, 2014). The new Phobos atlas includes about 30 thematic original maps that illustrate the surface of the small body based on Mars Express data (Oberst et al., 2008) and illustrates results of various studies of Phobos:, geomorphology parameters of craters (Basilevsky et al., 2014), morphometry studies (Koknanov et al., 2012), statistics of crater size-frequency distributions based on multi-fractal approach (Uchaev Dm. et al., 2012). Phobos Geo-portal. The spatial data products which used for preparing maps for the Phobos atlas are available at the planetary data storage with access via Geo-portal (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/), based on modern spatial and web-based technologies (Karachevtseva et al., 2013). Now we are developing Geodesy and Cartography node which can integrate various types of information not only for Phobos data, but other planets and their satellites, and it can be used for geo

  12. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnik, Yu.G.; Bednaya, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  13. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  14. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

  15. Radioactive release during nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Ain Sulaiman, Siti; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Ab

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accidents that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima have initiated many research interests to understand the cause and mechanism of radioactive release within reactor compound and to the environment. Common types of radionuclide release are the fission products from the irradiated fuel rod itself. In case of nuclear accident, the focus of monitoring will be mostly on the release of noble gases, I-131 and Cs-137. As these are the only accidents have been rated within International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) Level 7, the radioactive release to the environment was one of the critical insights to be monitored. It was estimated that the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere due to Fukushima accident was approximately 10% of the Chernobyl accident. By referring to the previous reports using computational code systems to model the release rate, the release activity of I-131 and Cs-137 in Chernobyl was significantly higher compare to Fukushima. The simulation code also showed that Chernobyl had higher release rate of both radionuclides on the day of accident. Other factors affecting the radioactive release for Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents such as the current reactor technology and safety measures are also compared for discussion.

  16. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  17. Radiocaesium fallout in Ireland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Moran, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a radiocaesium deposition pattern over Ireland resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Contaminated grassland soils from over 110 sites were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K were measured in all samples. The Chernobyl 137 Cs was identified using an initial Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs to 134 Cs ratio of 1.90. The results show a mean deposition level of 3.2 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs due to Chernobyl. The range of deposition was from 0.3 to 14.2 kBq m -2 . The distribution pattern is presented both on a National grid sub-zone basis and a higher resolution shaded map. A similarly shaded map shows the rainfall levels responsible for most of the washout. It is pointed out that some areas on both east and west coasts with maximum rainfall did not have maximum caesium deposition. In other areas a better correlation between rainfall and caesium deposition exists. A mean figure for the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in surface soil is provided. (author)

  18. Four years after Chernobyl: the medical repercussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135 000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated [fr

  19. Chernobyl operators mesmerized by mind-set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, Simon.

    1986-01-01

    This post mortem report is based mainly on the information presented by Soviet specialists to a post accident review conference organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna in August 1986, and an analysis of that information reported to a special session of the IAEA General Conference in early September 1986. The Chernobyl accident is blamed on operator mind-set - a situation where control room operators fix their minds on one interpretation of instrument readings and doggedly follow a set of procedures without fully appreciating what is actually happening in the plant. The background to, and the step-by-step sequence of, operator actions, the reasons for taking them, the operating procedures these violated and the consequences of the actions are described. The RBMK type reactor design is also described to show how the operations relate to this particular reactor design. The main reactor parameters are given. A diary of events, starting at 01.00h on 25 April 1986 and leading to explosions at about 01.24h on 26 April is set out. The damage to the reactor building and the subsequent actions to put out the fire caused by the explosions is described. By May 6 the actions had resulted in temperature stabilization at the reactor and a reduction to a low level of the radioactivity release. (UK)

  20. The German Chernobyl project: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents results and lessons learned by one of the so far largest assessments of a post-accidental situation. Funded by the Federal Republic of Germany the German Chernobyl Project investigated in the years 1991-1993 the radiological situation in contaminated regions of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine. Measurements included a mass screening of the population in order to determine the Cesium body burdens of 250,000+ individuals in more than 240 settlements as well as the evaluation of external doses in selected settlements with soil contaminations varying from less than 74 kBq/m 2 to about 3700 kBq/m 2 including some, where decontamination measures had previously been taken. Also in many settlements environmental monitoring was undertaken. For most individuals doses did not exceed the international annual limits set for the general population. Open and comprehensive communication of results was favourably accepted by the public. In a few settlements the radiological situation has been followed up till to date. (author)

  1. Aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency organized the International Advisory Committee in April 1990 with the purpose of starting the international Chernobyl project. Twelve Japanese investigators participated in this project. This article introduces changes in hematopoietic findings in inhabitants as of August 1991. The subjects enrolled in the present project were 853 inhabitants living in 7 contaminated villages exposed to 15 Ci/km 2 or more (the contaminated group) and 803 inhabitants living in 6 villages exposed to 1 Ci/km 2 or less (the not contaminated group). According to age, the subjects were divided into 6 groups. Hematopoietic findings were analyzed on the international basis. Regarding hemoglobin levels, there was no significant difference between the contaminated and not contaminated groups. Nor was there significant difference in red blood cell counts, size and mean corpuscular volume between the groups. In none of the other hematopoietic findings, including whight blood cell counts, the ratio of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes, lymphocyte counts, and blood platelet counts, was there significant difference between the two groups. (N.K.)

  2. Mobile Radiological Laboratories Intercomparison Measurements - Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Glavic-Cindro, D.; Korun, M.; Pucelj, B.; Vodenik, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In last decade different institutions in European countries have organised periodic intercomparison exercises of mobile radiological laboratories to improve the preparedness of emergency monitoring teams. The 12th Regular Workshop on Mobile Radiological Laboratories was held in Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl NPP, Ukraine from September 13 to September 18, 1999 under the acronym MORAL-12. The European Centre of Technological Safety (TESEC), Kiev, Ukraine and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia organised Intercomparison Measurements 99 jointly under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nineteen teams from 9 countries and IAEA participated in the Workshop. Six field and personal and equipment contamination control exercises were prepared and conducted at two measuring sites with very different ambient dose rate levels. The Workshop pointed out that such exercises are very valuable for rapid, efficient and harmonised emergency response in case of nuclear or radiological emergency. The teams had an opportunity to test their ability to perform field measurements in the contaminated environment, and to report results on the spot, as well as to test their emergency preparedness and persistence. They gained new experiences for fieldwork under stress conditions. An overview and results of these intercomparison measurements are presented and lessons learned are discussed. (author)

  3. Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, W.; Beltz, D.; Handl, J.; Michel, R.

    1999-01-01

    Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.) [de

  4. Health effects of Chernobyl: newer perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Usha

    1996-01-01

    On the 26th of April 1986, the 4th unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the former Soviet Union exploded, following a scheduled but not-well-planned testing of a turbo-generator prior to a shutdown of the reactor. This led to a release of large amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere, resulting in a cloud not only over in the Soviet Union, but due to prevailing meteorological condition, over the Eastern Europe as well. Over the past ten years, a large number of agencies in the areas of human health and hygiene, agriculture and veterinary sciences in addition to those involved in radiation protection and radiation safety have studied the impact of the accident. These studies were also extended to evaluate and mitigate the consequences. The accident has been a warning, and has provided lessons in mitigating the consequences of any industrial accident. Newer perspectives have emerged in the area of early diagnosis and treatment of the acute effects of radiation. Research in the areas of genetics, molecular biology and radiation biology will contribute to better medical care in future. (author). 3 tabs

  5. Five years after Chernobyl: 1986 - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The accident to the fourth nuclear reactor at Chernobyl on 26th April 1986 had major impacts not only on the nuclear industries in the Soviet Union and elsewhere in the world but also on the daily life of those in the station and further afield. Some of the actions taken to safeguard the population outside the Soviet Union such as banning the sale of lamb from upland areas in the United Kingdom and the effects on the reindeer herds in Scandinavia inevitably received considerable publicity and interest. Material published by the popular media often fails to separate clearly opinion from fact or to give due weight to the important as compared to the trivial. The Watt Committee on Energy with a membership drawn from over 60 professional bodies covering a wide spectrum of technologies seemed to be ideally qualified to sift through the material and record what is known with reasonable certainty, indicate facts which have a general consensus of agreement among disinterested experts, and draw attention to areas where information is still not confirmed. (author)

  6. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Moberg, L.; Brasch, A.; Bengtsson, Aa.; Johansson, J.Aa.; Holmgren, S.

    1996-01-01

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137 Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137 Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137 Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  7. Post Chernobyl safety review at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frescura, G.M.; Luxat, J.C.; Jobe, C.

    1991-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chernobyl Unit 4 accident did not reveal any new phenomena which had not been previously identified in safety analyses. However, the accident provided a tragic reminder of the potential consequences of reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) and stimulated nuclear plant operators to review their safety analyses, operating procedures and various operational and management aspects of nuclear safety. Concerning Ontario Hydro, the review of the accident performed by the corporate body responsible for nuclear safety policy and by the Atomic Energy Control Board (the Regulatory Body) led to a number of specific recommendations for further action by various design, analysis and operation groups. These recommendations are very comprehensive in terms of reactor safety issues considered. The general conclusion of the various studies carried out in response to the recommendations, is that the CANDU safety design and the procedures in place to identify and mitigate the consequences of accidents are adequate. Improvements to the reliability of the Pickering NGSA shutdown system and to some aspects of safety management and staff training, although not essential, are possible and would be pursued. In support of this conclusion, the paper describes some of the studies that were carried out and discusses the findings. The first part of the paper deals with safety design aspects. While the second is concerned with operational aspects

  8. Communications strategy for the Chernobyl Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilchik, Mykola; Green, Len

    2000-01-01

    This Communications Strategy was developed for the International Chernobyl Centre (ICC) as part of a joint UK/Ukraine project, sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry and NNC Limited. The Plan was developed during four weeks of workshop discussions in the UK between staff from the centre and experienced PR Professionals from NNC Limited. The requirements for a sustained communications activity at the ICC go much further than simply enhancing or promoting the Centre's scientific and technical activities. Raising sufficient awareness of the Centre among potential funding agents and commercial partners is critical to its future development as a major centre for international co-operation and research. It is only through establishing and developing effective communications that the Centre will become well enough known and understood both within the Ukraine, and internationally, to secure its long term future. However, as the workshop programme unfolded, it also became clear that communications was in itself a legitimate and necessary function of the Centre, and part of the foundations of its existence. The Centre has a fundamental role as an 'information exchange', collecting and communicating information from within the Ukraine to the rest of the world, and interpreting world interest and attitudes to the Ukraine Government and nuclear industry. As such compliments the efforts of individual power plant and corporate PR functions within the Ukraine nuclear energy sector

  9. The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

  10. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the lessons of Chernobyl is that farming is vulnerable to the effects of a nuclear accident hundreds, even thousands, of miles away from the site. Therefore plans are needed for countermeasures that can reduce contamination of agricultural produce, regardless of whether or not a country has its own nuclear programme. The plans need to specify radiation levels for foods and feedstuffs at which intervention is necessary and to include a range of countermeasures to be taken to protect agriculture under a range of possible post-accident situations. The FAO/WHO Codes Alimentarius Commission has developed international standards for radionuclides contamination to be applied to food moving in international trade. The intervention levels are based on a number of conservative assumptions to be confident that there will be essentially no effect over a lifetime of exposure. An important purpose of agricultural countermeasures is to maximize the quantity of food produced which passes intervention criteria. The present report discusses how the Joint FAO/IAEA programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture has approached agricultural countermeasures

  11. Experimental approach to Chernobyl hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherkezian, V.; Shkinev, V.; Khitrov, L.; Kolesov, G.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental approach to the investigation of Chernobyl hot particles and some results are presented in this study. Hot particles (HP) were picked out from soil samples collected during the 1986-1990 radiogeochemical expeditions in the contaminated zone (within 30 km of the Nuclear Power Plant). A number of hot particles were studied to estimate their contribution to the total activity, investigate their surface morphology and determine the size distribution. Hot particles contribution to the total activity in the 30 km zone was found to be not less than 65%. Investigation of HP element composition (by neutron activation analysis and EPMA) and radionuclide composition (direct alpha- and gamma-spectrometry, including determination of Pu and Am in Hp) revealed certain peculiarities of HP, collected in the vicinity of the damaged Nuclear Power Plant. Some particles were shown to contain uranium and fission products in proportion to one another, correlating with those in the partially burnt fuel, which proves their 'fuel' origin. Another part of the HP samples has revealed element fractionation as well as the presence of some terrestrial components. (Author)

  12. Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, many publications appeared that overestimated its medical consequences. Some of them are discussed in this article. Among the motives for the overestimation were anti-nuclear sentiments, widespread among some adherents of the Green movement; however, their attitude has not been wrong: nuclear facilities should have been prevented from spreading to overpopulated countries governed by unstable regimes and regions where conflicts and terrorism cannot be excluded. The Chernobyl accident has hindered worldwide development of atomic industry. Today, there are no alternatives to nuclear power: nonrenewable fossil fuels will become more and more expensive, contributing to affluence in the oil-producing countries and poverty in the rest of the world. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will become possible only after a concentration of authority within an efficient international executive. This will enable construction of nuclear power plants in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographic, geologic, and other preconditions. In this way, accidents such as that in Japan in 2011 will be prevented.

  13. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligalo, V.M.; Nosovs'kij, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  14. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  15. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  16. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  17. Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, S.; Glieca, M.; Dombrowski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

  18. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  19. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  20. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.

    1997-01-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Chernobyl: getting to the heart of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, Richard.

    1996-01-01

    In the second of two linked articles on the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of 1986, the author explores the effects on local agriculture and the health of populations affected by the contamination from the fall-out, especially children. Agriculture around Chernobyl has resumed, with workers moving back from the cities to areas where radiation doses are similar to parts of Cornwall. Concern continues about the safety of milk from cows grazing contaminated grass and eating local mushrooms. The largest risk to children's health is not birth deformaties, but leukaemia, possibly in part due to iodine deficiency in their diet prior to contamination. Concern also continues about keeping power supplies going in areas heavily dependent on nuclear power. Reactor safety issues remaining operational RBMK reactors and the sarcophagus around Chernobyl-4 itself have yet to be resolved. (UK)

  2. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137 Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

  3. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Geodesy and cartography methods of exploration of the outer planetary systems: Galilean satellites and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, Anatoliy; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina

    elements of external orientation, provides new image processing of previous missions to outer planetary system. Using Photomod software (http://www.racurs.ru/) we have generated a new control point network in 3-D and orthomosaics for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus. Based on improved orbit data for Galileo we have used larger numbers of images than were available before, resulting in a more rigid network for Ganymede. The obtained results will be used for further processing and improvement of the various parameters: body shape parameters and shape modeling, libration, as well as for studying of the surface interesting geomorphological phenomena, for example, distribution of bright and dark surface materials on Ganymede and their correlations with topography and slopes [6]. Acknowledgments: The Ganymede study was partly supported by ROSKOSMOS and Space Research Institute under agreement No. 36/13 “Preliminary assessment of the required coordinate and navigation support for selection of landing sites for lander mission “Laplace” and partly funding by agreement No. 11-05-91323 for “Geodesy, cartography and research satellites Phobos and Deimos” References: [1] Nadezhdina et al. Vol. 14, EGU2012-11210, 2012. [2] Zhukov et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [3] Zubarev et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [4] Lazarev et al. Izvestia VUZov. 2012, No 6, pp. 9-11 http://miigaik.ru/journal.miigaik.ru/2012/20130129120215-2593.pdf (in Russian). [5] Kokhanov et al. Current problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space. 2013. Vol. 10. No 4. pp. 136-153. http://d33.infospace.ru/d33_conf/sb2013t4/136-153.pdf (in Russian). [6] Oberst et al., 2013 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space

  5. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  6. Environmental behaviour of radioactivity from Chernobyl: Brothers Water study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnett, P.J.P.; Appleby, P.G.; Oldfield, F.; Haworth, E.Y.; Hilton, J.; Davison, W.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been carried out to examine the short term behaviour of Chernobyl derived radionuclides together with the longer term patterns of transport of weapons fallout derived 137 Cs first studied on the Brothers Water catchment in the English Lake District in the 1970's. Chernobyl derived radiocaesium is observable in the soils and lake sediments of the catchment. 210 Pb dating and diatom analysis were used to confirm that the lake sediments sampled were undisturbed. A simple box model is used to estimate radionuclide inventories in Brothers Water Lake sediments. Estimates derived using this model are reasonably consistent with estimates obtained from a variety of other sources. (author)

  7. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  8. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Bjerke, H.; Rudjord, A.L.; Ugletveit, F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  10. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137 Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137 Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  11. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  12. Experience of soil rehabilitation in the scenario of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan Gomez, R.; Ronero, L.; Jouve, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl post-accident scenario became nowadays a natural radioecology laboratory, where a wide range of decontamination methods can be applied, validated or developed. This paper presents the application of a soil rehabilitation technique, the removal of vegetation and associated soil, in the experimental fields of Bourakovka and Chistogalovka surrounding the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained have shown soil decontamination factors higher than 90% for caesium and strontium. This technique involves the removal of deposited hot particles released at the accident, and the experience allowed a detailed study of one of them corresponding to a nuclear fuel fragment, probably generated at the beginning of the breakdown. 16 refs. (Author)

  13. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglite, A.; Ozola, G.; Curbakova, E.

    1998-01-01

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  14. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.; Aahman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  15. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Grebenkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  16. One year after Chernobyl - the world has changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The importance of the Chernobyl accidents for the antiatomic movement and nuclear power in Austria and other European countries is outlined. In the same number there several other very short contributions (without authors) whose content is indicated by the headings: The mentality of the proponents (of nuclear power). The callousness of the proponents. The feigned play of the atomic lobby shocks the Austrian public. West Germany on the march to an atomic state. First success against Wackersdorf (fuel reprocessing plant in West Germany). Temelin -the czechoslovakian Chernobyl/Cattenom- on the Austrian border. 5 figs., 1 tab. (qui)

  17. Photoindicational investigations in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyuta, P.G.; Dyidukh, Ya.P.

    1996-01-01

    The whole complex of landscapes, ecotopes, types of vegetation and stages of their reestablishment in the Chernobyl exclusion zone is shown in 480 phytosociologic stand made during the years passed from the Chernobyl accident. Changes in ecological conditions of habitats in the course of demutation and syngenetic processes were estimated according to the main climatic and edaphic factors on the basis of photoindicational scales. Directions of further development of plant communities are presented. The necessity of the constant phytoecological monitoring in the exclusion zone is substantiated

  18. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  19. Dispersal, deposition and collective doses after the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the dispersal, deposition and collective doses of the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. It explains that, although Belarus, Ukraine and Russia were heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout, more than half of the fallout was deposited outside these countries, particularly in Western Europe. Indeed, about 40 per cent of the surface area of Europe was contaminated. Collective doses are predicted to result in 30,000 to 60,000 excess cancer deaths throughout the northern hemisphere, mostly in western Europe. The article also estimates that the caesium-137 source term was about a third higher than official figures.

  20. Using the Chernobyl incident to teach engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William R

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses using the Chernobyl Incident as a case study in engineering ethics instruction. Groups of students are asked to take on the role of a faction involved in the Chernobyl disaster and to defend their decisions in a mock debate. The results of student surveys and the Engineering and Science Issues Test indicate that the approach is very popular with students and has a positive impact on moral reasoning. The approach incorporates technical, communication and teamwork skills and has many of the features suggested by recent literature.