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Sample records for cherimola mill annonaceae

  1. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero Romero, María; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angio...

  2. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2012-09-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development. In this work, we study the influence of changes in temperature and humidity during the final stages of pollen development on subsequent pollen performance, evaluating pollen germination, presence of carbohydrates, number of nuclei, and water content. At 25 °C, which is the average field temperature during the flowering period of this species, pollen had a viability of 60-70 %, starch hydrolyzed just prior to shedding, and pollen mitosis II was taking place, resulting in a mixture of bi- and tricellular pollen. This activity may be related to the pollen retaining 70 % water content at shedding. Temperatures above 30 °C resulted in a decrease in pollen germination, whereas lower temperatures did not have a clear influence on pollen germination, although they did have a clear effect on starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, slightly higher dehydration accelerated mitosis II, whereas strong dehydration arrested starch hydrolysis and reduced pollen germination. These results show a significant influence of environmental conditions on myriad pollen characteristics during the final stages of pollen development modifying subsequent pollen behavior and contributing to our understanding of the variability observed in pollen tube performance.

  3. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  4. Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: Potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia Gonçalves; Santos, Filipa; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Beatriz Oliveira, M; Bento, Ana Cristina; Costa, Helena S

    2016-02-15

    Annona cherimola Mill., commonly known as cherimoya, is a tropical fruit well known due to its tasty flavour. In the present study the antioxidant activity of pulp, peel and seeds of four cultivars from A. cherimola Mill. from Madeira Island (Madeira, Funchal, Perry Vidal and Mateus II) was analysed. Moreover, nutritional composition (proximates and vitamins) and bioactive compounds content were determined. The peel of Madeira cultivar showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with an EC50 of 0.97mg/mL, and total flavonoids (44.7 epicatechin equivalents/100g). The most abundant carotenoid was lutein, with values ranging from 129 to 232μg/100g. The highest l-ascorbic acid content (4.41mg/100g) was found in the peel of Perry Vidal cultivar. These results highlight A. cherimola Mill. antioxidant properties, especially in its by-products and encourage their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food processing industries, as added value natural extracts.

  5. Micropropagation and determination of the in vitro stability of Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona muricata L.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridg, Hannia

    2000-01-01

    A. cherimola und A. muricata sind als Halblaubbäume in den tropischen Hochländern Südamerikas und besonders auf den Karibischen Inseln endemisch. Beide besitzen ein großes Potential als Handelsfrüchte aufgrund ihrer wohlschmeckenden Früchte und ihrer Eigenschaften als Heilpflanzen. Die Forschung über diese Obstarten wurde in Kolumbien, Peru, Ekuador, Venezuela und in der Dominikanischen Republik vernachlässigt. Deshalb sollte die wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung, das Sammeln, die Konservieru...

  6. Efeito da desfolha de ramos sobre a indução de brotos e flores em atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito do desfolhamento de ramos na produção de brotos e flores em plantas adultas de atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L.) var. Gefner. O experimento foi realizado em plantio comercial no município de Maceió - AL. Foram utilizadas 24 plantas podadas com altura de 1.5 m e espaçadas de 4 x 2 m. Os ramos maduros tiveram seus ápices removidos na altura da 4ª folha, sendo depois submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos de desfolha manual: 1) desfolha total dos ramos; 2) re...

  7. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3 e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon

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    Marcos Campos de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3, do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. , cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. As concentrações de GA3 empregadas foram: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1.000 mg L-1 i.a.e de ethephon: 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 mg L-1 i.a.. Os tratamentos com os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados na semente por imersão das mesmas nas soluções de GA3 e ethephon por período de 36 horas. As sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel germitest e levadas à câmara de germinação onde permaneceram no escuro, com temperatura alternada entre 20ºC por 8 horas e 30ºC por 16 horas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem, tempo e índice de velocidade de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e percentagem de sementes dormentes. Existe interação da ação dos reguladores vegetais estudados no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia, o que permite concluir que a percentagem de germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' é aumentada com o emprego de 778 mg L-1 de GA3, enquanto a associação entre elevadas concentrações de GA3 e 75 a 100 mg L-1 de ethephon incrementam o índice de velocidade de germinação e a percentagem de plântulas normais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon, besides the interaction of both plant growth regulators, on the germinative process of atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill. X A. squamosa L., cultivar 'Gefner'. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5

  8. Efeito da desfolha de ramos sobre a indução de brotos e flores em atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L.

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    Lemos Eurico Eduardo Pinto de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do desfolhamento de ramos na produção de brotos e flores em plantas adultas de atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L. var. Gefner. O experimento foi realizado em plantio comercial no município de Maceió - AL. Foram utilizadas 24 plantas podadas com altura de 1.5 m e espaçadas de 4 x 2 m. Os ramos maduros tiveram seus ápices removidos na altura da 4ª folha, sendo depois submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos de desfolha manual: 1 desfolha total dos ramos; 2 remoção das cinco primeiras folhas dos ramos a partir dos ápices podados; 3 remoção de cinco folhas compreendidas entre 6ª a 10ª gemas dos ramos; 4 controle = sem desfolha dos ramos. Os resultados coletados 30 dias após a desfolha mostraram que o número de brotações nos tratamentos com desfolha total e desfolha das cinco gemas superiores foi estatisticamente superior aos tratamentos sem desfolha e desfolha da 6ª à 10ª gema. O tratamento com desfolha das cinco gemas superiores apresentou o maior número de ramos florados (61%.

  9. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  10. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill. and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques

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    WALTER N.L. DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.. The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC and total flavonoids (TF were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI, the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03 °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA, which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  11. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) in Puerto Rico using commercial lures and food attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae) and has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit-set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We used Universal moth t...

  12. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner submetidas a tratamento lento e rápido com auxinas Rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner cuttings subjected to slow and fast treatment with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de concentrações de diferentes auxinas no enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner, empregando-se tratamento lento e rápido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x7 (auxinas x concentrações, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas por parcela, para cada método de aplicação de auxina (lento e rápido. As estacas foram tratadas com os reguladores vegetais, por meio da imersão da base em soluções, contendo IBA, NAA e 2,4-D, durante 24 horas (tratamento lento nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg L-1 de cada regulador e 5 segundos (tratamento rápido nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 mg L-1 de cada regulador. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas, sobreviventes com calos, comprimento de raiz por estaca, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotação e com folhas remanescentes e brotação. Para o enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira cv. 'Gefner' conclui-se que, o tratamento lento, com 200 mg L-1 de NAA, proporcionou incremento ao processo, da mesma forma que o tratamento rápido com IBA, independente da concentração.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different auxin concentrations in the rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner stacks, employing slow and fast treatments. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in 3x7 factorial arrangement (auxins x concentrations, with 5 replicates of 12 stacks per plot, for each auxin application method (slow and fast. Stacks were treated with plant growth regulators by bottom immersion in a solution containing IBA, NAA and 2,4-D for 24 hours (slow treatment at the following concentrations: 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg L-1 of each growth regulator

  13. Effect of Harvest Time and L-Cysteine as an Antioxidant on Flesh Browning of Fresh-Cut Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. Efecto del Momento de Cosecha y L-Cisteína como un Antioxidante en el Pardeamiento de Pulpa de Chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. Precortada

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    Reinaldo Campos-Vargas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Browning development is the most important factor limiting the quality of fresh-cut cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.. However, there is little information available about its causes and methods of control. The effectiveness of L-cysteine (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5% in fresh-cut cherimoya harvested on two occasions (October and November and stored for 6 and 12 days at 0 °C was studied. In order to understand the biological basis of browning, polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme activity and total phenolic content in fresh-cut pieces were measured. Quality measurements and sensory analysis indicated that 0.5% L-cysteine was somewhat effective in reducing browning development, without affecting other quality attributes. In terms of physiological parameters, PPO activity did not show differences between mature (at harvest and ripe fruit (at processing in both harvest times, but cherimoya fruits picked in November presented lower PPO activity than fruit from October. In general, PPO activity and total phenolic content of L-cysteine treated fruits did not show consistent differences with untreated fruit at 6 or 12 days at 0 °C. PPO activity analyses demonstrated that PPO activity was higher in the outer part of cherimoya flesh compared to the middle or inner sector. These results would support the possibility of using L-cysteine as a postharvest treatment to reduce browning development in fresh-cut cherimoya.El desarrollo de pardeamiento es uno de los factores limitantes en la calidad de chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. precortada (fresh-cut. No obstante, existe poca información disponible en relación a sus causas y métodos de control en esta fruta. Se estudió la efectividad de L-cisteína (0,125; 0,25 y 0,5% en chirimoya precortada cosechada en dos oportunidades (octubre y noviembre y almacenada por 6 y 12 días a 0 ºC. Con el objetivo de conocer las bases biológicas del pardeamiento, se estudió la actividad de polifenol oxidasa (PPO y contenido de

  14. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: A synergetic approach using multiple nitidulid lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya, a cross between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae), has the potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to production throughout the world is low fruit-set due to inadequate visits by pollinators, typically beetles in the family Nitidulid...

  15. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  16. Antiprotozoal Constituents from Annona cherimola Miller, a Plant Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diarrhea and Dysentery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Mendez-Luna, David; Yepez-Mulia, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments. Material and Methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A. cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin, and rutin. Results: The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different than metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Conclusion: Considering that PFOR is a target of metronidazole; kaempferol may be a lead compound for the development of novel antiprotozoal agent. Also, these findings give support to the use of A. cherimola in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. SUMMARY Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Annona cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin and rutin. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different that metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Abbreviations used: PFOR:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, G: lamblia: Giardia lamblia, E: histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica PMID:28216899

  17. Project Systematics of Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a multidisciplinary investigation program on the systematics of Annonaceae was started at Utrecht with special emphasis on the Neotropics. This project will be carried out largely within the framework of the UNESCO-project Flora Neotronica. The first goal is to provide a modern classificati

  18. The Annonaceae and the Annonaceae Project: a brief overview of the state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.

    1999-01-01

    The large tropical family Annonaceae is subject to systematic research by a group of scientists, who are collaborating within the framework of the Annonaceae Project. The significance of the Annonaceae is outlined briefly, and the achievements of the Annonaceae Project are summarized

  19. Studies in Annonaceae VI. A leafanatomical survey of genera of Annonaceae in the Neotropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setten, van A.K.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    SETTEN, A. K. van & KOEK-NOORMAN, J.: Studies in Annonaceae. VI. A leafanatomical survey of genera of Annonaceae in the Neotropics. — Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 108: 17—50. 1986. — ISSN 0006-8152. Within the scope of the multidisciplinary research project on systematics of Annonaceae, a survey of the leafana

  20. Synoptic revision of Stenanona (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, G.E.; Maas, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of a treatment of the Annonaceae for the Flora Mesoamericana necessitates the description of five new species of Stenanona (S. carrillensis, S. hondurensis, S. monticola, S. tuberculata and S. tubiflora); three additional new species are described from Colombia (S. columbiensis and S. na

  1. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

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    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  2. Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss

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    Aline Fernandes Pontes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte integrante do Projeto Flora Paraibana e teve como objetivo realizar o tratamento taxonômico da família Annonaceae para o Estado. Para sua elaboração foram realizadas coletas em diversos municípios do Estado, além do levantamento das exsicatas depositadas nos herbários JPB, EAN e IPA. A identificação do material foi feita com o auxílio de chaves analíticas, bibliografia especializada e fototipos. As descrições e as ilustrações foram elaboradas com base nas observações de material herborizado e/ou plantas vivas. Foram registrados para a Paraíba seis gêneros, compreendendo 15 espécies: Anaxagorea (1, Annona (6, Duguetia (2, Guatteria (2, Rollinia (2 e Xylopia (2, sendo 11 delas novas referências para o Estado.The objective of this study is to carry out a taxonomic treatment of the family Annonaceae for the Flora of Paraíba Project. Collections were made throughout Paraiba. In addition, specimens were studied from the following herbaria: JPB, EAN and IPA. The material available was identified using analytical keys, botanical literature, and photographs of type specimens. The descriptions and illustrations are based on living material or herbarium specimens. Six genera of Annonaceae, comprising a total of 15 species were found in Paraíba: Anaxagorea (1, Annona (6, Duguetia (2, Guatteria (2, Rollinia (2 and Xylopia (2, with 11 new records for the state.

  3. Studies in Annonaceae XXXII. A peculiar new species of Malmea (Annonaceae) from Panama and Colobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the multidisciplinary Annonaceae Project, a monograph of the neotropical genus Malmea is being prepared by the author. A new species of Malmea with dimerous flowers, exceptional for Annonaceae, is here described. An overview of deviations from the typical trimerous annonaceous pe

  4. Conservación y uso de los recursos genéticos de Annonaceae en México

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    Jorge Andrés Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis sobre la conservación y el uso de los recursos genéticos de especies frutales de la familia Annonaceae en México. El diagnóstico realizado en 2010 por la Red de Anonáceas (REMA del Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI sirvió para tal fin y fue complementado por estudios recientes. Partimos de una revisión de registros de herbarios de la Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (REMIB además de recoger información con productores de comunidades rurales y recorridos de campo en estados del país donde las anonáceas se distribuyen. En México se encuentran 14 géneros y 63 especies de Annonaceae distribuidas principalmente en regiones tropicales del Sureste de México. La conservación in situ es esporádica, se está dando en huertos de traspatio para la guanábana (Annona muricata, chirimoya (A. cherimola, chincuya (A. purpurea y saramuyo (A. squamosa principalmente. La anona (A. reticulata, ilama (A. diversifolia y chincuya (A. purpurea son fomentadas pero no multiplicadas. La conservación ex situ se mantiene en bancos de germoplasma in vivo o colecciones de trabajo para guanábana (30 colectas, chirimoya (70 colectas e ilama (100 colectas solamente. Las semillas de estas especies no son ortodoxas y su conservación a mediano y largo plazo no está resuelta en México. El potencial de cultivo para este grupo de frutales es alto pero problemas de falta de variedades, fitosanidad, falta de tecnología y mercados reducidos limitan el cultivo comercial.

  5. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: a synergistic approach using multiple nitidulid lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Cline, Andrew R; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Atemoya, a hybrid between Annona squamosa (L.) and A. cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to fruit production throughout the world is low fruit-set because of inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We identified beetle visitors to atemoya flowers in an orchard in Puerto Rico and used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures. The most common visitors to atemoya flowers were an unidentified Europs species (Coleoptera: Monotomidae), followed by Loberus testaceus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), neither of which have been previously reported as visitors to Annona flowers. The commercial lures attracted few or no beetles when used separately, but attracted a large number of beetles, especially Carpophilus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Europs, when used in combination. This attraction is synergistic and increases with dose at the doses assayed (0-4 lures), and decreases over time with >50% of trap captures occurring in the first week and no beetles collected after 5 wk. This is the first report of aggregation pheromone lures in nitidulids acting synergistically to attract other species, including beetles not in the Nitidulidae. The results are discussed as they pertain to increasing fruit set, as well as the potential for altering fruit size and shape in atemoya.

  6. Revision der Gattung Orophea Blume (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keßler, P.J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae: Saccopetaleae) has been revised with the following main results: — The genus in the circumscription of most authors is not monophyletic, but biphyletic. The genus Mezzettiopsis Ridley has to be reinstated. — Pseuduvaria, Mitrephora, Petalolophus, Oreomitra, Schef

  7. Annonaceae substitution rates - a codon model perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.; Velzen, van R.; Bakker, F.T.

    2014-01-01

    The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use app

  8. Keys to the genera of Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Maas, P.J.M.; Meinke, S.; Johnson, D.M.; Kessler, P.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification keys are provided for all genera currently recognized in Annonaceae. Separate keys are presented for the Neotropics (34 genera), Africa-Madagascar (40 genera) and Asia-Australasia (42 genera). These keys are based on a combination of vegetative and fertile characters. (c) 2012 The Lin

  9. Annonaceae seeds: Desiccation tolerant with unusual physiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw paw (Asimina triloba) is the only temperate species of the Annonaceae family. Wild paw paw trees can be found along the river valleys of the eastern and central United States and produce the largest fruits of any species native to North America. Paw paw seeds are reported to be classified as r...

  10. Antihyperglycemic Activity of the Leaves from Annona cherimola Miller and Rutin on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Solares-Pascasio, Jesús Iván; Ordoñez-Razo, R. M.; Velazquez, Claudia; Barbosa, Elizabeth; García-Hernández, Normand; Mendez-Luna, David; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The ethanol extract

  11. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  12. CHIRIMOYA (Annona cherimola Miller), FRUTAL TROPICAL Y SUB-TROPICAL DE VALORES PROMISORIOS

    OpenAIRE

    María Esther González Vega

    2013-01-01

    Los frutos de anonáceas, entre ellos la chirimoya, presentan altas cualidades organolépticas, digestivas y nutritivas, además, como especie, la Annona cherimola Miller también es apreciada por sus propiedades medicinales e industriales tanto en el mercado nacional como internacional. Sin embargo, aún existe desconocimiento sobre sus características y potencialidades como planta cultivada. En el presente trabajo se exponen informaciones sobre esta especie y se discute la importancia de la expa...

  13. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  14. Increasing diversity in the species-rich genus Guatteria (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.; Westra, L.Y.Th.; Maas, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    During a taxonomic treatment of Annonaceae for the Flora of the Guianas project, an unusual new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav., G. anteridifera from French Guiana and Amapá in Brazil (Northern South America) was found and described herein.

  15. Antitrypanosomal activity of polycarpol from Piptostigma preussi (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantchou, Igor; Nkwengoua, Ernestine; Nganso, Yves; Nyasse, Barthelemy; Denier, Colette; Hannaert, Veronique; Schneider, Bernd

    2009-04-01

    Polycarpol, sitosterol and sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated for the first time from Piptostigma preussi (Annonaceae) occur regularly in some Annonaceae such as Piptostigma genus. Polycarpol exhibits interesting antitrypanosomal activity with an ED(50) value of 5.11 microM on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Moreover, it inhibits T. brucei glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and PFK with IC(50) values of 650 and 180 microM respectively.

  16. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Annonaceae from Venezuela are described here: Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Klarobelia subglobosa Chatrou, and Pseudomalmea wingfieldii Chatrou. All three are represented by few collections (in comparison to those of other Neotropical species of Annonaceae). Klarobelia subg

  17. An updated index to genera, species, and infraspecific taxa of Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.I.T.; Rainer, H.; Lobao, A.Q.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Annonaceae form the most diverse family within the Magnoliales. In 1990 an Index to generic names of Annonaceae was published and in 1994 an Index to Neotropical species of Annonaceae was compiled. Especially the latter proved an immensely useful tool for Neotropical botanists. Here, we present an u

  18. Kaurenoic acid from pulp of Annona cherimolia in regard to Annonaceae-induced Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillopé, R; Escobar-Khondiker, M; Guérineau, V; Laprévote, O; Höglinger, G U; Champy, P

    2011-12-01

    Guadeloupean Parkinsonism has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Annonaceae fruits. These were proposed to be etiological agents for sporadic atypical Parkinsonism worldwide, because of their content of neurotoxins such as isoquinolinic alkaloids and Annonaceous acetogenins. The pulp of Annona cherimolia Mill. from Spain was screened for these toxic molecules using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation - Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and it was found not to be a source of exposure. However, kaurenoic acid, a diterpene considered to be cytotoxic, was detected in high amounts (66 mg/fresh fruit). Treatment of rat embryonic striatal primary cultures, up to a high concentration (50 µM), did not cause neuronal death nor astrogliosis, suggesting that this molecule is not at risk of implication in human neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  20. Floral development and floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K; Armstrong, Joseph E

    2011-10-01

    Background and Aims Anaxagorea is the phylogenetically basalmost genus in the large tropical Annonaceae (custard apple family) of Magnoliales, but its floral structure is unknown in many respects. The aim of this study is to analyse evolutionarily interesting floral features in comparison with other genera of the Annonaceae and the sister family Eupomatiaceae. Methods Live flowers of Anaxagorea crassipetala were examined in the field with vital staining, liquid-fixed material was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and microtome section series were studied with light microscopy. In addition, herbarium material of two other Anaxagorea species was cursorily studied with the dissecting microscope. Key Results Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea is regularly whorled (with complex whorls) as in all other Annonaceae with a low or medium number of floral organs studied so far (in those with numerous stamens and carpels, phyllotaxis becoming irregular in the androecium and gynoecium). The carpels are completely plicate as in almost all other Annonaceae. In these features Anaxagorea differs sharply from the sister family Eupomatiaceae, which has spiral floral phyllotaxis and ascidiate carpels. Flat stamens and the presence of inner staminodes differ from most other Annonaceae and may be plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea. However, the inner staminodes appear to be non-secretory in most Anaxagorea species, which differs from inner staminodes in other families of Magnoliales (Eupomatiaceae, Degeneriacae, Himantandraceae), which are secretory. Conclusions Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea shows that there is no signature of a basal spiral pattern in Annonaceae and that complex whorls are an apomorphy not just for a part of the family but for the family in its entirety, and irregular phyllotaxis is derived. This and the presence of completely plicate carpels in Anaxagorea makes the family homogeneous and distinguishes it from the closest relatives in Magnoliales.

  1. An azafluorenone alkaloid and a megastigmane from Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Nidia C., E-mail: nidiayoshida@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Divinpolis, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Ricardo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Correia, Rodolfo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Garcez, Walmir S., E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The azafluorenone alkaloid 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-azafluoren-9-one and the megastigman (-)-(5R*, 6S*)-megastigman-3-one-10,7-olide were isolated from aerial parts of Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae), along with the known compounds (3S*,5S*,8R*)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (grasshopper ketone), N-trans-feruloyltyramine, (-)-anonaine, (-)-asimilobine, liriodenine and (-)-syringaresinol. This is the first description of the presence of megastigmanes in Annonaceae. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. (author)

  2. Estudio preliminar del potencial bioactivo de la Annona cherimola (anona) y Prunus domestica (ciruelo) cultivadas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos; Ileana Moreira-González; Elizabeth Arnáez-Serrano; Renato Murillo-Masís; Silvia Quesada-Mora; William Zamora-Ramírez; Meliza Cordero-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos beneficiosos de principios activos como alcaloides, triterpenos y más recientemente de los polifenoles en la nutrición y la salud han incrementado a nivel internacional el consumo de productos naturales reconocidos como fuentes de los mismos, así como la importancia de su caracterización estructural en cuanto a la correlación con su bioactividad. Las especies Annona cherimola (anona) y Prunus domestica (ciruelo), cultivadas en Costa Rica, fueron objeto de la presente investigación...

  3. Revision of the Neotropical genera Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum, and Unonopsis (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.; Vermeer, M.

    2007-01-01

    (Annonaceae). The closeness of these three genera was expressed by Fries when he placed them in his (informal) Unonopsis group (Fries, 1959), and the close relationship is supported by more recent phylogenetic research as well. Four species are recognized in Bocageopsis and two species in Onychopeta

  4. Plants of the annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frausin, G.; Lima, R.B.S.; Hidalgo, A.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Pohlit, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Species of the Annonaceae family are used all over the tropics in traditional medicine in tropical regions for the treatment of malaria and other illnesses. Phytochemical studies of this family have revealed chemical components which could offer new alternatives for the treatment and control of mala

  5. Annonaceae: bio-resource for tomorrow's drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Nematollahi, Alireza; Wiart, Christophe

    2011-05-01

    One of the rich sources of lead compounds is the Angiosperms. Many of these lead compounds are useful medicines naturally, whereas others have been used as the basis for synthetic agents. These are potent and effective compounds, which have been obtained from plants, including anti-cancer (cytotoxic) agents, anti-malaria (anti-protozoal) agents, and anti-bacterial agents. Today, the number of plant families that have been extensively studied is relatively very few and the vast majorities have not been studied at all. The Annonaceae is the largest family in the order Magnoliales. It includes tropical trees, bushes, and climbers, which are often used as traditional remedies in Southeast Asia. Members of the Annonaceae have the particularity to elaborate a broad spectrum of natural products that have displayed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-protozoal effects and have been used for the treatment of medical conditions, such as skin diseases, intestinal worms, inflammation of the eyes, HIV, and cancer. These special effects and the vast range of variation in potent compounds make the Annonaceae unique from other similar families in the Magnoliales and the Angiosperms in general. This paper attempts to summarize some important information and discusses a series of hypotheses about the effects of Annonaceae compounds.

  6. New species of Cremastosperma (Annonaceae) from Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    In advance of a taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Cremastosperma (Annonaceae) nine new species are described here: Cremastosperma antioquense, C. awaense, C. chococola, C. dolichocarpum, C. longipes, C. magdalenae, C. napoense, C. stenophyllum, and C. westrae. A key is presented for the id

  7. Studies in Annonaceae XXVIII. Macromorphological variation of recent invaders in northern Central America: the case of Malmea (annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is used to reveal patterns of macromorphological variation in a species complex of Malmea (Annonaceae) distributed in eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Of 53 characters, 24 are important for the clustering of 238 herbarium specimens into 12 clusters. No cluster is exc

  8. Studies in Annonaceae. XIII. The role of morphological characters in subsequent classifications of Annonaceae: A comparative survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.Y.Th.; Maas, P.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative survey of several historical classifications of Annonaceae down to the subtribal level is given. The role of various key characters is briefly discussed. The present paper at the same time may be considered as an introductory paper to forthcoming publications of general studies on flow

  9. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities in vitro of Colombian Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Edison; Arango, Gabriel Jaime; Jiménez, Nora; Alzate, Fernando; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Paco, Marco Antonio; Giménez, Alberto; Robledo, Sara

    2007-05-22

    Ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies for antiparasitic activity of Colombian Annonaceae were carried out. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of 36 extracts obtained from six different species was determined against promastigotes of three Leishmania species, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and both chloroquine sensitive (F32) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in U-937 cells. Active extracts were selected according their selectivity index (SI). Extracts from Annona muricata, Rollinia exsucca, Rollinia pittieri and Xylopia aromatica were active against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi showing IC50 values lower than 25 microg/ml. Hexane extract from Rollinia pittieri leaves was the most selective against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. (IS=10 and 16, respectively). The extracts from Desmopsis panamensis, Pseudomalmea boyacana, Rollinia exsucca and Rollinia pittieri showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 Annonaceae extracts. Results presented here also demonstrate which plants and/or plant parts could be useful in the treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and malaria.

  10. [Progress in study of flavonoids from Annonaceae and biological activities of these compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Jiu-Hong

    2007-05-01

    More than 50 new flavonoids derived from Annonaceae are reported in the last two decades. Many genuses in Annonaceae contain flavonoids having structural novelty and broad pharmacological activities. Due to the pharmacological interest of some of these compounds, chemical investigations on this topic have grown considerably in the decades. Here the biological activities of some of these flavonoids are also briefly discussed.

  11. Collection and establishment of annonaceae in El Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Eduardo; Deras, Héctor

    2006-01-01

    The national center of agricultural and forest technology (CENTA), through its unit of phytogenetic resources, under took a collecting survey of annonacea species in 1998, with the objective of exploring, collect, characterize and establish collections in the experimental stations. This survey was carried out at a national level visiting properties and markets. Evaluated traits for fruits were: weight , lenght and diameter, number of seeds, texture of shell and pulp, form of fruit and carpels...

  12. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akendengué, Blandine; Champy, Pierre; Nzamba, Joseph; Roblot, François; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bories, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Basic CH2Cl2 extract of the trunk bark of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae) exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata using an agar well-diffusion assay method. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of 8-hydroxysampangine. The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate.

  13. Evolutionary steps in the reproductive biology of Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of Annonaceae are characterized by fleshy petals, many stamens with hard connective shields and numerous carpels with sessile stigmas often covered by sticky secretions. The petals of many representatives during anthesis form a closed pollination chamber. Protogynous dichogamy with strong scent emissions especially during the pistillate stage is a character of nearly all species. Scent emissions can be enhanced by thermogenesis. The prevailing reproductive system in the family seems to be self-compatibility. The basal genus Anaxagorea besides exhibiting several ancestral morphological characters has also many characters which reappear in other genera. Strong fruit-like scents consisting of fruit-esters and alcohols mainly attract small fruit-beetles (genus Colopterus, Nitidulidae as pollinators, as well as several other beetles (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and fruit-flies (Drosophilidae, which themselves gnaw on the thick petals or their larvae are petal or ovule predators. The flowers and the thick petals are thus a floral brood substrate for the visitors and the thick petals of Anaxagorea have to be interpreted as an antipredator structure. Another function of the closed thick petals is the production of heat by accumulated starch, which enhances scent emission and provides a warm shelter for the attracted beetles. Insight into floral characters and floral ecology of Anaxagorea, the sister group of the rest of the Annonaceae, is particularly important for understanding functional evolution and diversification of the family as a whole. As beetle pollination (cantharophily is plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea and in Annonaceae, characters associated with beetle pollination appear imprinted in members of the whole family. Pollination by beetles (cantharophily is the predominant mode of the majority of species worldwide. Examples are given of diurnal representatives (e.g., Guatteria, Duguetia, Annona which function on the basis of fruit

  14. Alkaloids of the Annonaceae: occurrence and a compilation of their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Da-Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa Filho, Jos Maria

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the chemistry and pharmacology of the alkaloids found in species of the Annonaceae family. The occurrence of alkaloids from Annonaceae species, as well as their chemical structures and pharmacological activities are summarized in informative and easy-to-understand tables. Within the Annonaceae family, the genera Annona, Duguetia, and Guatteria have led to many important publications. Valuable and comprehensive information about the structure of these alkaloids is provided. The alkaloids of the aporphine type represent the predominant group in this family. Many of the isolated alkaloids exhibit unique structures. In addition to the chemical structures, the pharmacological activities of some alkaloids are also presented in this chapter. Thus, the leishmanicidal, antimicrobial, antitumor, cytotoxic, and antimalarial activities observed for these alkaloids are highlighted. The chapter is presented as a contribution for the scientific community, mainly to enable the search for alkaloids in species belonging to the Annonaceae family.

  15. An unusual new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from French Guiana and adjacent Brazil (Amapá)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Prévost, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    During a taxonomic treatment of Annonaceae for the Flora of the Guianas project, an unusual new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav., G. anteridifera from French Guiana and Amapá in Brazil (Northern South America) was found and described herein.

  16. Five new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Morawetz, W.

    2006-01-01

    As a precursor to a taxonomic treatment of Annonaceae for the Flora of the Guianas project, five new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav. from French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname (Northern South America) are described here.

  17. Five new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from the Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Morawetz, W.

    2005-01-01

    In advance of a taxonomic treatment for the Flora of the Guianas project, five new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav. (Annonaceae), from the Pakaraima Mountains in Western Guyana (northern South America) are described here.

  18. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  19. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  20. Aristololactams and aporphines from the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Shang, Ming-Ying; Zang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xuan; Bai, Yan-Jing; Li, Li; Komatsu, Katsuko; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-02-01

    Two aristololactams, aristololactam GI (1) and aristololactam GII (2), and three aporphines, fissistigamide A (3), fissistigamide B (4) and fissistigmine (5), together with nineteen known alkaloids, one flavone and one anthraquinone were isolated from the ethanol extracts of the stems of Fissistigma oldhamii (Annonaceae). Their structures were elucidated primarily by analysis of NMR, IR, UV, MS and CD data. Alkaloid 1 is a chiral aristololactam formed from a phenylpropanoid derivative attached to a 3,4-dihydroxy aristololactam scaffold. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by comparing experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude extracts and the five alkaloids were tested by measuring the amount of TNF-α and IL-6 released from LPS stimulated RAW264 cell via ELISA. The results demonstrated that the CHCl(3)-soluble part and alkaloid 2 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in both assays.

  1. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae.

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    Pui-Sze Li

    Full Text Available Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str. is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies, including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes

  2. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  3. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-07-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 64.6 {+-} 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC{sub 50} 3.6 {+-} 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 104.7 {+-} 0.2 and 34.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  4. A new species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae), endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, Th.L.P.; Luke, W.R.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania enclose high levels of plant and animal diversity with many yet to be described species. Here we describe a new species of the pan-tropical plant family Annonaceae named Uvariopsis lovettiana. It closely resembles another Eastern Arc endemic species, U. bisexual

  5. Phylogeny of Miliusa (Magnoliales: Annonaceae: Malmeoideae: Miliuseae), with descriptions of two new species from Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaowasku, T.; Kessler, P.J.A.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of Miliusa (Annonaceae) is reconstructed, with 27 (of ca. 50) species included, using a combination of seven plastid markers (rbcL exon, trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, matK exon, ndhF exon, psbA-trnH spacer, and ycf1 exon) constituting ca. 7 kb. In addition, two new species of M

  6. Studies in Annonaceae. II. A monograph of the genus Anaxagorea A. St. Hil. Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Anaxagorea A. St. Hil. is distinct from other Annonaceae by the fruits. Unlike most members of the family, it occurs both in the Neotropics and in the Palaeotropics. Several chapters are devoted to a.o. morphology, anatomy, karyology, palynology, chemistry, pollination and seed dispersal, geography

  7. Studies in Annonaceae. II. A monograph of the genus Anaxagorea A. St. Hil. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Anaxagorea A. St. Hil. is distinct from other Annonaceae by the fruits. Unlike most members of the family, it occurs both in the Neotropics and in the Palaeotropics. Several chapters are devoted to a.o. morphology, anatomy, karyology, palynology, chemistry, pollination and seed dispersal, geography

  8. Cremastosperma (and other evolutionary digressions) : Molecular phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic studies in Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael David

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented of research on a family of flowering plants, the Annonaceae, species of which are found in tropical rainforest across the world. The project focussed on one group of species, the genus Cremastosperma, which is found in the South and Central American tropics. A taxonomic revis

  9. Studies in Annonaceae XXXVI. The Duguetia alliance: where the ways part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Maas, P.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a cladistic analysis of morphological and anatomical data of the Duguetia alliance (Annonaceae) are presented. Several novel characters, or characters so far not incorporated into phylogenetic analyses, are used. Parsimony analysis resulted in two strongly supported clades: a Fusaea clade

  10. A new species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) associated with commercial species of Annonaceae in Brazil, and comments on other species of the genus causing damage to avocado trees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela De Cassia

    2015-01-14

    Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, state of São Paulo, Angatuba) is described from 73 specimens. The holotype and three paratypes from the same locality were reared from larvae collected in the basis region, near the ground, of an atemoya tree (a hybrid of the sugar-apple, "pinha" or fruta-do-conde"-Annona squamosa L., and the cherymoya, A. cherimoya (Mill.), Annonaceae). Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. can cause severe injury to commercial Annonaceae, and has been misidentified in the collections and the literature as Heilipus catagraphus Germar, 1834. The new species and H. catagraphus have a very similar color pattern, but can be easily distinguished by the rostrum shape in lateral view, being humped in H. gibbus sp. nov. but evenly arcuate in H. catagraphus. Illustrations of habitus and of male and female genitalia are provided to the new species and for avocado stem boring species of Heilipus which occur in Brazil (H. catagraphus and H. rufipes). Comments are made for H. elegans Guérin, 1844, which record to Brazil is probably based on a misidentification. 

  11. Evolution of syncarpy and other morphological characters in African Annonaceae: a posterior mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, T L P; Richardson, J E; Sosef, M S M; Erkens, R H J; Chatrou, L W

    2008-04-01

    The congenital fusion of carpels, or syncarpy, is considered a key innovation as it is found in more than 80% of angiosperms. Within the magnoliids however, syncarpy has rarely evolved. Two alternative evolutionary origins of syncarpy were suggested in order to explain the evolution of this feature: multiplication of a single carpel vs. fusion of a moderate number of carpels. The magnoliid family Annonaceae provides an ideal situation to test these hypotheses as two African genera, Isolona and Monodora, are syncarpous in an otherwise apocarpous family with multicarpellate and unicarpellate genera. In addition to syncarpy, the evolution of six other morphological characters was studied. Well-supported phylogenetic relationships of African Annonaceae and in particular those of Isolona and Monodora were reconstructed. Six plastid regions were sequenced and analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. The Bayesian posterior mapping approach to study character evolution was used as it accounts for both mapping and phylogenetic uncertainty, and also allows multiple state changes along the branches. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered a fully resolved clade comprising twelve genera endemic to Africa, including Isolona and Monodora, which was nested within the so-called long-branch clade. This is the largest and most species-rich clade of African genera identified to date within Annonaceae. The two syncarpous genera were inferred with maximum support to be sister to a clade characterized by genera with multicarpellate apocarpous gynoecia, supporting the hypothesis that syncarpy arose by fusion of a moderate number of carpels. This hypothesis was also favoured when studying the floral anatomy of both genera. Annonaceae provide the only case of a clear evolution of syncarpy within an otherwise apocarpous magnoliid family. The results presented here offer a better understanding of the evolution of syncarpy in Annonaceae and within angiosperms in general.

  12. In vitro antileishmanial activity of acetogenins from Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud-Le Grandic, S; Fourneau, C; Laurens, A; Bories, C; Hocquemiller, R; Loiseau, P M

    2004-01-01

    Twelve acetogenins from Annonaceae were evaluated in vitro for their antileishmanial activities in order to search for new lead-compounds having antileishmanial properties. The compounds were comparatively evaluated by the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determination on promastigote forms of wild-type and four drug-resistant lines of Leishmania donovani. In addition, after testing the toxicity on mouse peritoneal macrophages, the compounds were evaluated on amastigote infected macrophages and a therapeutic index was calculated. The IC50 of the acetogenins against promastigote forms of L. donovani was in a range 4.7-47.3 microM. The most active compound was Rolliniastatin 1 (IC50 at 4.7 microM). On the intramacrophage amastigote in vitro model, only seven compounds exhibited measurable antileishmanial activity with IC50 values in a range 2.5-29.7 microM. Rollinistatin 1 was the most interesting compound with IC50 of 2.5 microM and it appears as the most promising one on the basis of therapeutic index (18.08). Isoannonacin, which is active against intramacrophagic amastigotes (IC50 of 6.2 microM) with a therapeutic index of 2.05, exhibited a strong action on drug-resistant strains (IC50 from 5.1 to 9.8 microM). Acetogenins are a new chemical series with interesting in vitro antileishmanial activity and further studies will be focused on the understanding of this selectivity in regard to the membrane and mitochondrial action using specific probes.

  13. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  14. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  15. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Mehran Fadaeinasab; Sonia Nikzad; Gokula Mohan; Hapipah Mohd Ali; Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communiti...

  16. A new flavone and cytotoxic activity of flavonoid constituents isolated from Miliusa balansae (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, D T; Luong, D V; Thao, T T P; Sung, T V

    2005-08-01

    A new flavone named miliufavol [8-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one or 8-C-(o)-hydroxybenzylpachypodol] from Miliusa balansae (Annonaceae) was isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic means besides four known flavones: ombuine, chrysosplenol B, pachypodol and chrysosplenol C. These flavonoids exhibited interesting cytotoxic activity against three human cell lines (KB, Hep-G2, RD) with IC50 values < 5 microg/ml.

  17. A new Bephratelloides (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) from seeds of Cymbopetalum (Annonaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissell, E.E.; Foster, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bephratelloides ablusus Grissell and Foster, new species, is described and illustrated based upon specimens that emerged from seeds of Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae) in southern Mexico. This is the first species of Bephratelloides that is associated with a host other than Annona. Bephratelloides ablusus is compared with its congeners from which it differs in minor character states. No external morphological characteristics suggest a specialized association with Cymbopetalum.

  18. A new species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae), endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Th.L.P.; Luke, W.R.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania enclose high levels of plant and animal diversity with many yet to be described species. Here we describe a new species of the pan-tropical plant family Annonaceae named Uvariopsis lovettiana. It closely resembles another Eastern Arc endemic species, U. bisexualis, and its possible relationships with this species are discussed. A description with illustrations is presented as well as a suggestion for the IUCN conservation status of this new taxon.

  19. A new combination in Orophea (Annonaceae for Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G.Don. (Annonaceae has not been considered for 180 years. The plant is only known from material grown in the Calcutta Botanic Garden in India following introduction from, reportedly, the Moluccas. Examination of a specimen from the Brussels Herbarium, designated here as lectotype, indicates that the species is a member of Orophea subgenus Sphaerocarpon, similar to Orophea gabra Merr. A new combination in Orophea is made. 

  20. Isolation and cytotoxicity evaluation of some oxoaporphine alkaloids from Annonaceae; Isolamento e avaliacao da atividade citotoxica de alguns alcaloides oxaporfinicos obtidos de annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise Brentan da; Matos, Maria de Fatima Cepa; Nakashita, Simone T.; Misu, Carina K.; Yoshida, Nidia Cristiane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Fabri, Joao Roberto; Miglio, Hercules da Silva; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2007-07-01

    A different methodology was used to isolate and purify oxoaporphine alkaloids, as they are difficult to separate by the usual workup when in mixture. Alkaloid extracts from Annonaceae species were obtained by base/acid extraction. The extracts were concentrated and submitted to partition in solutions of acids of different pKa values, followed by separation by preparative TLC using 1 mm thick silica gel impregnated with oxalic acid (11.2% w/w). Liriodenine, lisycamine, lanuginosine, and O-methylmoschatoline were obtained and tested against tumoral cells (line Hep{sub 2}, ATCC-CCL 23, larynx carcinoma). Only O-methylmoschatoline (IC{sub 50} 12.4 muM) was more active than cisplatin (18.0 muM). (author)

  1. Phytochemistry study from bark of stem of Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using toxicity assays for Artemia salina; Estudo fitoquimico das cascas do caule de Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Joao Maximo de; Ziminiani, Maria Graziela [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia Bioquimica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2001-04-01

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10 {beta}, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained. (author)

  2. Revealing the secrets of African annonaceae : systematics, evolution and biogeography of the syncarpous genera Isolona and Monodora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this PhD project was to study the evolution, systematics and biogeography of two African genera from the pan-tropical Annonaceae family: Isolona and Monodora. Both genera are unique within the family in that the female reproductive parts (or carpels) are fused into a single unit. All oth

  3. Influence of seasonal variation on the phenology and liriodenine content of Annona lutescens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Moreno, Marisol; Tinoco-Ojangurén, Clara Leonor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2013-07-01

    Annona lutescens Saff. (Annonaceae) grows as a native tree in Chiapas, Mexico in Tropical Dry Forest habitat. Like most Annonaceae, it biosynthesizes benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, mostly liriodenine. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in the accumulation of liriodenine, the monthly variation of liriodenine content in roots, stems and leaves of mature and young trees was observed. These parts of young and mature A. lutescens trees were collected monthly over a 1 year period and the alkaloids were extracted; the liriodenine was quantified by high-resolution liquid chromatography. The phenological stages of the species were also assessed (leaf development, flowering and fruiting) using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The analysis of both young and mature trees showed a significant increase in the liriodenine concentration occurs within roots during the dry season, which coincides with leaf fall. A significant decrease also occurred at the beginning of the rainy season (the period of leaf growth); the liriodenine content for the next rainy season did not reach the levels of the previous dry season. The climatic variation induced phenological and physiological changes in this species.

  4. Chemical constituents of the underground stem bark of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise B. da; Tulli, Elaine C.O.; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Garcez, Walmir S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Evandro A. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    In the present investigation the underground parts of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae) were used to conduct a phytochemical study that included the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. The substances (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide, (-)-duguetine, dicentrinone, (-)-Nmethyltetrahydropalmatine, and (+)-N-methylglaucine were isolated from the alkaloid extract of the bark of the underground stem, and the ureide allantoin was also isolated by precipitation from the ethanol extract of the wood of the underground stem. A fresh volatile oil and a nonpolar extract were also obtained from the underground stem bark. The substances 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-gurjunene, aromadendrene, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-methylisoeugenol, and {alpha}-asarone were isolated from the fresh volatile oil and polycarpol, {beta}-caryophyllene oxide, 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-asarone, and asaraldehyde were obtained from the petroleum ether extract. The present study describes for the first time the alkaloid (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide and the occurrence of (-)-N-methyltetrahydropalmatine and (+)-N-methylglaucine in the family Annonaceae. All extracts were active in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (author)

  5. Historical biogeography of two cosmopolitan families of flowering plants: Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J E; Chatrou, L W; Mols, J B; Erkens, R H J; Pirie, M D

    2004-10-29

    Annonaceae are a pantropically distributed family found predominantly in rainforests, so they are megathermal taxa, whereas Rhamnaceae are a cosmopolitan family that tend to be found in xeric regions and may be classified as mesothermal. Phylogenetic analyses of these families are presented based on rbcL and trnL-F plastid DNA sequences. Likelihood ratio tests revealed rate heterogeneity in both phylogenetic trees and they were therefore made ultrametric using non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood. Divergence times were then estimated using fossil calibration points. The historical biogeography of these families that are species rich in different biomes is discussed and compared with other published reconstructions. Rhamnaceae and most lineages within Annonaceae are too young to have had their distribution patterns influenced by break-up of previously connected Gondwanan landmasses. Contrasts in the degree of geographical structure between these two families may be explained by differences in age and dispersal capability. In both groups, long-distance dispersal appears to have played a more significant role in establishing modern patterns than had previously been assumed. Both families also contain examples of recent diversification of species-rich lineages. An understanding of the processes responsible for shaping the distribution patterns of these families has contributed to our understanding of the historical assembly of the biomes that they occupy.

  6. [Biology of Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on three species of Annonaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Josilene M; Gondim, Manoel G C; Lofego, Antônio C

    2010-01-01

    The mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) is considered a pest of a variety of plant species in the Americas. Although this mite apparently causes economic damage to Annonaceae, little is known about its biology. Here we studied the biology of T. mexicanus on soursop (Annona muricata), sweetsop (Annona squamosa) and araticum (Annona coriaceae). The first two species are the most important economical Annonaceae species in northeast Brazil; araticum is commonly found in the region, but not commercially explored. The mites were collected in the field from leaves of A. muricata and maintained in the laboratory for six months on detached leaves of A. muricata, A. squamosa and A. coriaceae, respectively, before observations started. Tetranychus mexicanus developed more slowly on A. squamosa than on the two other hosts, but oviposition was considerably lower on A. coriaceae. As indicated by the calculated life table parameters, biotic potential was higher on A. muricata than on the other hosts. Despite the observed differences in the T. mexicanus biology on the different evaluated hosts, development and reproduction were satisfactory in all of the hosts used.

  7. In vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates to extracts from Cameroonian Annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemgne, Eugénie Aimée Madiesse; Mbacham, Wilfred Fon; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Tsamo, Etienne; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    In a search for new plant-derived antimalarial extracts, 19 fractions were obtained from three Annonaceae species, Uvariopsis congolana (leaf, stem), Polyalthia oliveri (stem bark), and Enantia chlorantha (stem, stem bark) with yields ranging from 0.33% to 4.60%. The extracts were prepared from 500 g of each plant part, using organic solvents to afford five methanolic fractions (acetogenin rich), five water fractions, five hexane fractions, and four interface precipitates. Evaluation of the activity of fractions in vitro against field isolates of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum showed that acetogenin-rich fractions and interface precipitates were the most potent, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.05 to 8.09 μg/ml. Sensitivity of parasite isolates to plant extracts varied greatly, with over 100-fold difference from isolate to isolate in some cases. The active acetogenin-rich fractions and interface precipitates were assessed in combination with chloroquine in the same conditions, and showed additive interaction in the huge majority of cases. Synergistic interactions were found in some cases with acetogenin-rich fractions. Acute toxicity of promising fractions was evaluated through oral administration in Swiss albino mice. Tested fractions appeared to be safe, with LD(50) values higher than 2 g/kg. In summary, acetogenin-rich fractions from Annonaceae species showed high potency against P. falciparum field isolates and safety by oral administration in mice, supporting their detailed investigation for antimalarial drug discovery.

  8. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chun-Chiu; Scharaschkin, Tanya; Su, Yvonne C F; Saunders, Richard M K

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The phenology and pollination ecology of the Australian endemic species Pseuduvaria mulgraveana are studied in detail, including evaluations of floral scent chemistry, pollen viability, and floral visitors. Results showed that the flowers are pollinated by small diurnal nitidulid beetles and are protogynous. Pollen from both hermaphroditic and staminate flowers are shown to be equally viable. The structurally hermaphroditic flowers are nevertheless functionally pistillate as anther dehiscence is delayed until after petal abscission and hence after the departure of pollinators. This mechanism to achieve functional unisexuality of flowers has not previously been reported in angiosperms. It is known that protogyny is widespread amongst early-divergent angiosperms, including the Annonaceae, and is effective in preventing autogamy. Delayed anther dehiscence represents a further elaboration of this, and is effective in preventing geitonogamy since very few sexually mature flowers occur simultaneously in an individual. We highlight the necessity for field-based empirical interpretations of functional floral sex expression prior to evaluations of evolutionary processes.

  9. The olfactory component of floral display in Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine R; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Floral scent is a key component of floral display, and probably one of the first floral attractants linking insect pollinators to the radiation of Angiosperms. In this article, we investigate floral scent in two extra-tropical genera of Annonaceae. We discuss floral scent in the context of differing pollination strategies in these genera, and compare their scent to that of a close tropical relative. Floral volatiles were collected for Annona glabra, Asimina and Deeringothamnus whole flowers and dissected floral organs, using a standardized static-headspace solid phase microextraction method. Scents were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and identified using known standards. The floral scents of these species are highly dynamic, varying between floral organs, sexual stages and species. Maroon-flowered species of Asimina produce 'yeasty' odors, dominated by fermentation volatiles and occasionally containing sulfurous or nitrogenous compounds. White-flowered species of Asimina and Deeringothamnus produce pleasant odors characterized by lilac compounds, benzenoids and hydrocarbons. Annona glabra produces a strong, fruity-acetonic scent dominated by 3-pentanyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. The fermented/decaying scents of maroon-flowered species of Asimina suggest mimicry-based pollination strategies similar to aroids and stapeliads, whereas the pleasant scents of white-flowered species of Asimina suggest honest, reward-based pollination strategies. The scent of Annona glabra is typical of specialized beetle pollination systems common to tropical Annonaceae.

  10. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  11. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  12. Phylogeny of Miliusa (Magnoliales: Annonaceae: Malmeoideae: Miliuseae, with descriptions of two new species from Malesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawat Chaowasku

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular phylogeny of Miliusa (Annonaceae is reconstructed, with 27 (of ca. 50 species included, using a combination of seven plastid markers (rbcL exon, trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, matK exon, ndhF exon, psbA-trnH spacer, and ycf1 exon constituting ca. 7 kb. In addition, two new species of Miliusa are described from the Malesian area: M. butonensis sp. nov. from Buton Island, Indonesia and M. viridiflora sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea. The former is included in the molecular phylogenetic analysis. The reconstructed phylogeny corresponds well to the informal morphological grouping proposed earlier. A revised key to 13 Austro-Malesian species of Miliusa is provided.

  13. New species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae) and Laccosperma (Arecaceae/Palmae) from Monts de Cristal, Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Niangadouma, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Monts de Cristal National Park in northwest Gabon is one of the most species rich places in Central Africa. Here, we describe two new species, one in Annonaceae and one in palms. Uvariopsis citrata Couvreur & Niangadouma, sp. nov. is unique in the genus by emitting a strong lemon scent from the crushed leaves and young branches. Laccosperma cristalensis Couvreur & Niangadouma, sp. nov. is a rattan that lacks acanthophylls on the cirrus and has few pinnae. Complete descriptions, photographic illustrations, ecological information and preliminary IUCN conservation status are provided. For both species a data deficient (DD) status is proposed. These new species underline once again that the Monts de Cristal National Park is yet incompletely known botanically. PMID:27698570

  14. Notes on the floral anatomy of Deeringothamnus Small (Annonaceae: cortical vascular systems in a chaotic pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Deroin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Floral anatomy of Deeringothamnus Small, an endemic and endangered annonaceous genus from Florida comprising 2 species, was studied. It is mainly distinguished by missing any sclerenchyma at anthesis – apart from anthers – and by a chaotic vasculature exhibiting a partial perianth-stamen cortical vascular system, appearing as an over-evolution of the pattern previously described in the neighbouring Asimina and other paracarpous and pseudosyncarpous genera. Such a pattern is amazingly similar to that previously recognized in the most basal annonaceaous genera, as e.g. Ambavia, and might be considered as a reversion to an ancestral state. These alterations toward decrease are related to the receptacle flatness and lack of pollination chamber, and seem parallel with the dwarf habit of this genus.

  15. Tryptamine-derived alkaloids from Annonaceae exerting neurotrophin-like properties on primary dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fanny; Le Douaron, Gael; Champy, Pierre; Amar, Majid; Séon-Méniel, Blandine; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Figadère, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    N-fatty acyl tryptamines constitute a scarce group of natural compounds mainly encountered in Annonaceous plants. No biological activity was reported so far for these rare molecules. This study investigated the neurotrophic properties of these natural tryptaminic derivatives on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. A structure-activity relationships study led us to precise the role of a nitrogen atom into the aliphatic chain conferring to the compounds a combined neuroprotective and neuritogenic activity in the nanomolar range. The potent antioxidant activity of these natural products seems to be involved in part of their mechanism of action. This study provides the first description of natural neurotrophin mimetics present in Annonaceae extracts, and led to the biological characterization of compounds, which present a potential interest in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

  16. Range extension of two poorly known endemic species of the genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankararao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orophea malabarica Sasidh. & Sivar. and Orophea sivarajanii Sasidh., of the family Annonaceae were found growing in close proximity as undergrowth with restricted distribution in the evergreen forest of Makutta Ghat, Kodagu District, Karnataka State, India.  Earlier reports suggest that these are endemic to Kerala state of the Western Ghats and found distributed only in their type localities viz., Thrissur and Wayanad districts respectively. However, the present article reports extension of their range to new locations in Karnataka state and therefore become addition to the floral wealth of the state, as they were neither previously collected nor recorded from this region. The updated nomenclature, detailed description, flowering-fruiting seasons, distribution map, scanned herbarium specimens, field photographs, proposed conservation status and other relevant notes are provided in this communication. 

  17. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.N. Formagio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50 values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%. Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  18. Floral evolution in the Annonaceae: hypotheses of homeotic mutations and functional convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard M K

    2010-08-01

    The recent publication of hypotheses explaining the homeotic control of floral organ identity together with the availability of increasingly comprehensive and well-resolved molecular phylogenies presents an ideal opportunity for reassessing current knowledge of floral diversity and evolution in the Annonaceae. This review summarizes currently available information on selected aspects of floral structure and function, including: changes in the number of perianth whorls and the number of perianth parts per whorl; the evolution of sympetaly; the diversity and evolution of pollination chambers (with a novel classification of seven main structural forms of floral chamber based on the different arrangement, size and shape of petals); the evolution of perianth glands; floral unisexuality and hypotheses explaining the unexpectedly high frequency of occurrence of androdioecy; the origin and possible function of inner and outer staminodes; the evolution of stamen connective diversity and theca septation; and the origin of 'true' syncarpy and functionally equivalent extragynoecial compita. In each case, current ideas on the origin, evolution and function are discussed. The information presented in this review enables two main conclusions to be drawn. The first is that changes in the homeotic control of floral organ identity may have had a profound impact on floral structure in several disparate lineages in the family. This is most obvious in Fenerivia, in which a centrifugal shift of floral organ identity has occurred, and in Dasymaschalon, in which a reverse (centripetal) shift has occurred. Other genera that have gained or lost entire perianth whorls are likely to have undergone similar homeotic changes. Attention is also drawn to the extensive functional convergence in Annonaceae flowers, with widespread homoplasy in many characters that have previously been emphasized in higher-level classifications.

  19. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  20. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagio, A S N; Vieira, M C; Volobuff, C R F; Silva, M S; Matos, A I; Cardoso, C A L; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  1. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C. [Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S. [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Matos, A.I. [Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, C.A.L. [Curso de Química, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E. [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  2. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  3. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  4. Avaliação da atividade citotóxica das sementes de Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of seeds of Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.R.S. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Na família Annonaceae, especialmente o gênero Annona é muito apreciado por fornecer frutos comestíveis. Espécies desse gênero são utilizadas na medicina popular contra diabetes, malária e infecções. Muitas dessas atividades biológicas têm sido relacionadas às acetogeninas de anonáceas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade citotóxica dos grupos e de uma acetogenina pura (cornifolina obtidos a partir do extrato etanólico das sementes de Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae. Esta atividade foi avaliada pelo ensaio colorimétrico MTT. Cornifolina (1, a única substância pura testada, apresentou citotoxicidade positiva sobre todas as linhagens tumorais avaliadas. Os grupos testados, todos caracterizados por espectroscopia no infravermelho (IV, apresentaram 68,7% dos valores de CI50 menores que 20,0 µg mL-1, sendo também considerados citotóxicos. As amostras testadas foram mais ativas que o taxol sobre melanoma humano (MeWo e, ainda, o grupo G10-5 apresentou melhor atividade sobre fibroblasto tumorigênico de camundongo (L929. Além disso, os grupos mostraram menor citotoxidade do que o taxol sobre a linhagem normal (CHO.The family Annonaceae, especially the genus Annona, is greatly appreciated for providing edible fruits. Species of this genus are used in folk medicine against diabetes, malaria and infections. Many of these biological activities have been related to annonaceous acetogenins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of groups and a pure acetogenin (cornifolin obtained from the ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae. This activity was evaluated by using MTT colorimetric assay. Cornifolin (1, the only tested substance that was pure, showed positive cytotoxicity on all evaluated tumor cell lines. The tested groups, all characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, showed 68.7% of the IC50 values lower than 20.0 µg mL-1, also considered cytotoxic. The

  5. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Divisao de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2013-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values lower than 20.0 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -}1 (10.5and 16.2 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu molL{sup -1}, respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  6. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  7. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  8. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

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    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  9. Analysis of essential oil constituents of three Dasymaschalon species (Annonaceae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Do N; Huong, Le T; Thang, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of essential oils of the leaves and stem barks of three Vietnamese species of Dasymaschalon J. D. Hooker & Thomson. (Annonaceae) were determined by means of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dasymaschalon longiusculum (Bân) yielded oils in which the major components were α-pinene (28.9% and 12.5%, respectively), β-pinene (26.5% and 13.3%, respectively), β-myrcene (12.0% and 6.0%, respectively) for the leaf and stem. The main compounds of the leaf and stem oils of Dasymaschalon glaucum Merr. & Chun. were α-pinene (14.4% and 10.5%, respectively), β-pinene (14.4% and 10.3%, respectively) and bicycloelemene (5.2% and 30.0%, respectively). The essential oil of Dasymaschalon robinsonii Jovet-Ast was different, mainly comprising α-copaene (12.7% and 16.6%, respectively), germacrene B (11.3% and 7.5%, respectively), δ-cadinene (5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) for the leaf and stem.

  10. Essential oil from the leaves of Xylopia langsdorfiana (Annonaceae) as a possible spasmolytic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana Carolina de C; Ferreira, Tamyris F; Martins, Italo Rossi R; Macêdo, Cibério L; Monteiro, Fabio de S; Costa, Vicente Carlos O; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Buri, Marcus V; Rigoni, Vera L S; Nouailhetas, Viviane L A; Da Silva, Bagnólia A

    2015-01-01

    Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. &Tul. (Annonaceae) is popularly known in the northeast of Brazil as 'pimenteira da terra', and an essential oil (XL-OE) was extracted from its leaves. Since Xylopia species are cited in folk medicine and diterpenes from X. langsdorfiana have spasmolytic activity, this study aimed to investigate a possible spasmolytic action of XL-OE on smooth muscle models. XL-OE (243 and 729 μg/mL) showed low pharmacologic efficacy on guinea pig trachea and rat aorta and uterus. However, in guinea pig ileum, XL-OE (27-729 μg/mL) inhibited carbachol or histamine-induced phasic contractions (1 μM) in a significant and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, XL-OE (81 μg/mL) reduced fluorescence intensity in ileal myocytes stimulated by histamine, indicating a decrease in cytosolic calcium concentration, which could explain the spasmolytic activity. Thus, XL-OE proved to be a promising natural product to be used in gastrointestinal diseases acting by modulating the cytosolic calcium concentration.

  11. Rust fungi on Annonaceae II: the genus Dasyspora Berk. & M.A. Curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Zoller, Stefan; Berndt, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Dasyspora gregaria, the single species of the allegedly monotypic rust genus Dasyspora (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales), was investigated by light microscopy and DNA sequencing (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, partial LSU and SSU of the nuclear rDNA, mt cytochrome oxidase subunit 3). Both methods indicated that D. gregaria is not a single species but can be split in 11 distinct taxa, each of which appear confined to a single Xylopia species (Annonaceae) host. Herein nine of these are described as new. Both the phylogenetic analyses and morphology show that the species are grouped into two main clades designated Dasyspora gregaria and D. winteri. The first comprises D. gregaria, the type species of the genus, which is restricted to X. cayennensis, two new species on X. aromatica, D. segregaria from northern South America and D. echinata from Brazil. The second clade is formed by D. winteri, recombined from Puccinia winteri on X. sericea, and the new species D. amazonica on X. amazonica, D. emarginatae on X. emarginata, D. frutescentis on X. frutescens, D. ferrugineae on X. frutescens var. ferruginea, D. guianensis on X. benthamii, D. mesoamericana on X. frutescens, and D. nitidae on X. nitida. Dasyspora frutescentis and D. mesoamericana were not clearly distinguishable by their morphology and host associations but differed from another in their sequences and geographic distributions. They are considered cryptic species. An identification key and the distributions are given for all recognized species. Along with molecular data we discuss the systematic position of Dasyspora in the Pucciniales.

  12. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable.

  13. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL).

  14. Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics support the description of a second species of Tridimeris (Annonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Escobar-Castellanos, Marcos Alberto; Pérez-Farrera, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence, Tridimeris chiapensis Escobar-Castellanos & Ortiz-Rodr., sp. n. (Annonaceae), a new species from the karst forest of southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Tridimeris hahniana, the only described species in the genus, in that the latter has flowers with sepals densely tomentose outside, one (rarely two) carpel(s) per flower and fruits densely covered with golden-brown hairs, while Tridimeris chiapensis has flowers with glabrous sepals outside, two to five carpels per flower and glabrous fruits. Furthermore, a shallow triangular white patch at the base of the inner petals is found in Tridimeris chiapensis, a morphological character shared with the sister genus Sapranthus but absent in Tridimeris hahniana. Geographically, both species occur allopatrically. With just one known locality and seven individuals of Tridimeris chiapensis recorded in one sampling hectare, and based on application of the criteria established by the IUCN, we conclude tentatively that the species is critically endangered. PMID:28127237

  15. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae

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    Luciana de Á. Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas’ disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 μg/mL. Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL, which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid. Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (α,α'-dimacro-carpoyl-β-oleylglycerol and α-macrocarpoyl-α'-oleylglycerol were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives.

  16. A nonet of novel species of Monanthotaxis (Annonaceae) from around Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Paul H.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Chatrou, Lars W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As part of an ongoing revision of the genus Monanthotaxis Baill. (Annonaceae), nine new species are described and one variety is reinstated to species rank. Two new species from West Africa (Monanthotaxis aquila P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov. and Monanthotaxis atewensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), four new species from Central Africa (Monanthotaxis couvreurii P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov., Monanthotaxis latistamina P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov., Monanthotaxis tripetala P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov. and Monanthotaxis zenkeri P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from Tanzania (Monanthotaxis filipes P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from the area around Maputo (Monanthotaxis maputensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.), one new species from the Comoro Islands (Monanthotaxis komorensis P.H.Hoekstra, sp. nov.) and Monanthotaxis klainei (Engl.) Verdc. var. angustifolia (Boutique) Verdc. is raised to species level leading to the replacement name Monanthotaxis atopostema P.H.Hoekstra, nom. nov. (not Monanthotaxis angustifolia (Exell) Verdc.). Complete descriptions, comparisons with related species, ecological information and IUCN conservation assessments are given for the new species. Five species were classified as critical endangered, two species as endangered, one as vulnerable and one as least concern, warranting the need of further collecting and studying those species. PMID:27698586

  17. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Á Santos, Luciana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Tempone, Andre G; Correa, Daniela S; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Quintiliano, Natalia F; Rodrigues-Oliveira, André F; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-05-07

    Chagas' disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 μg/mL). Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL), which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid). Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (α,α'-dimacro-carpoyl-β-oleylglycerol and α-macrocarpoyl-α'-oleylglycerol) were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives.

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aporphinoids and other alkaloids from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; da Cruz, Pedro Ernesto Oliveira; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; de Souza Moraes, Valéria Regina; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Salvador, Marcos José

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL method and antimicrobial activity using the broth microdilution method of aporphinoids (liriodenine 1, anonaine 2 and asimilobine 3) and other alkaloids (reticuline 4 and cleistopholine 5) isolated from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae) were evaluated. For antioxidant activity, the most active alkaloid was asimilobine with ORAC value of 2.09 relative trolox equivalents. For antimicrobial activity, some alkaloids showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 25-100 µg mL(-1). The most active compounds were the aporphinoids liriodenine, anonaine and asimilobine, some of them more active than the positive control.

  19. A new species of Goniothalamus (Annonaceae from Palawan, and a new nomenclatural combination in the genus from Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Goniothalamus palawanensis C.C.Tang & R.M.K.Saunders, sp. nov. (Annonaceae, is described from Palawan, Philippines. Goniothalamus palawanensis is most closely related to G. amuyon (Blanco Merr., but differs in its shorter inner petals, hairy ovaries, and funnel-shaped stigmas. A new nomenclatural combination, G.angustifolius (A.C.Sm. B.Xue & R.M.K.Saunders, comb. nov., is furthermore validated to reflect the phylogenetic affinities of a Fijian species previously assigned to Polyalthia.

  20. 'Andean-centred' genera in the short-branch clade of Annonaceae: testing biogeographical hypotheses using phylogeny reconstruction and molecular dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Chatrou, L.W.; Mols, J.B.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Oosterhof, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim We test biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin of Andean-centred plant groups by reconstructing phylogeny in the short-branch clade (SBC) of Annonaceae, and estimating the timing of diversifications in four apparently Andean-centred genera: Cremastosperma R.E.Fr., Klarobelia Chatrou, Ma

  1. Perfume-collecting male euglossine bees as pollinators of a basal angiosperm: the case of Unonopsis stipitata (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, H; Dötterl, S; Zimma, B; Ayasse, M; Gottsberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Pollination of Unonopsis stipitata (Annonaceae) by males of two perfume-collecting bees, Euglossa imperialis and Eulaema bombiformis (Euglossini) is described. This is the first detailed account of this pollination mode in a member of a basal angiosperm family. Pollinator behaviour, identification of the odour bouquet and electrophysiological reaction of one of the two pollinators to the odour bouquet were determined. The collected odour is produced by 'osmophores' located adaxially on the petals. Starch and polysaccharides accumulated in petals are metabolized during odour emission. Mainly monoterpenes were detected in the scent samples, among them trans-carvone oxide. This molecule is thought by several authors to be the key attractant for male Eulaema bees and may be pivotal for convergent evolution of the perfume-collecting syndrome among dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. It is speculated that Unonopsis, which on the basis of molecular age dating is considered a relatively recent genus of the Annonaceae (being 15-30 million years old), has diversified in relation to male euglossine bee pollinators.

  2. Detection and determination of reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in the Annonaceae family using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yaichiro; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Kamizono, Machiko; Matsumoto, Naoki; Tanahashi, Takao; Hara, Hiroshi; Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Ohta, Shigeru

    2004-06-25

    In Guadeloupe, the French West Indies, there is a high incidence of atypical parkinsonism or progressive supranuclear palsy, and all of the investigated patients had taken herbal tea or tropical fruits of the Annonaceae family. Local inhabitants consume the fruits, and also drink tea made from the leaves. In the present study, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect low-molecular-weight neurotoxic benzylisoquinoline derivatives in the Annonaceae family. We detected reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in every Annona muricata sample examined, except for pulp and seed. They were not detected in sweetsop fruits. Norreticuline was not detected in any sample. These three compounds were toxic to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and inhibited mitochondrial respiratory complex I. It is possible that uptake of the benzylisoquinoline derivatives reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine and their accumulation in the brain may be related to the pathogenesis of the local endemic disease.

  3. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  4. Leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of compounds from two Annonacea species cultivated in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Soares Vila-Nova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, with a total of 12 million people infected and 350 million at risk. In the search for new leishmanicidal agents, alkaloids and acetogenins isolated from leaves of Annona squamosa and seeds of Annona muricata were tested against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. METHODS: Methanol-water (80:20 extracts of A. squamosa leaves and A. muricata seeds were extracted with 10% phosphoric acid and organic solvents to obtain the alkaloid and acetogenin-rich extracts. These extracts were chromatographed on a silica gel column and eluted with a mixture of several solvents in crescent order of polarity. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested against Leishmania chagasi, which is responsible for American visceral leishmaniasis, using the MTT test assay. The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated for all isolated compounds, and for this assay, RAW 264.7 cells were used. RESULTS: O-methylarmepavine, a benzylisoquinolinic alkaloid, and a C37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin were isolated from A. squamosa, while two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone, were isolated from A. muricata. Against promastigotes, the alkaloid showed an IC50 of 23.3 µg/mL, and the acetogenins showed an IC50 ranging from 25.9 to 37.6 µg/mL; in the amastigote assay, the IC50 values ranged from 13.5 to 28.7 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity assay showed results ranging from 43.5 to 79.9 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These results characterize A. squamosa and A. muricata as potential sources of leishmanicidal agents. Plants from Annonaceae are rich sources of natural compounds and an important tool in the search for new leishmanicidal therapies.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  6. Antitumor effect of the essential oil from leaves of Guatteria pogonopus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do N Fontes, José Eraldo; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Britto, Anny C S; Carvalho, Adriana A; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Guatteria pogonopus Martius, a plant belonging to the Annonaceae family, is found in the remaining Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In this study, the chemical composition and antitumor effects of the essential oil isolated from leaves of G. pogonopus was investigated. The chemical composition of the oil was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against three different tumor cell lines (OVCAR-8, NCI-H358M, and PC-3M), and the in vivo antitumor activity was tested in mice bearing sarcoma 180 tumor. A total of 29 compounds was identified and quantified in the oil. The major compounds were γ-patchoulene (13.55%), (E)-caryophyllene (11.36%), β-pinene (10.37%), germacrene D (6.72%), bicyclogermacrene (5.97%), α-pinene (5.33%), and germacrene B (4.69%). The essential oil, but neither (E)-caryophyllene nor β-pinene, displayed in vitro cytotoxicity against all three tumor cell lines tested. The obtained average IC50 values ranged from 3.8 to 20.8 μg/ml. The lowest and highest values were obtained against the NCI-H358M and the OVCAR-8 cell lines, respectively. The in vivo tumor-growth-inhibition rates in the tumor-bearing mice treated with essential oil (50 and 100 mg/kg/d) were 25.3 and 42.6%, respectively. Hence, the essential oil showed significant in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity.

  7. Chemical constituents and cytotoxic evaluation of essential oils from leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Erica Biolcati P; Matsuo, Alisson L; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Chaves, Mariana H; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2013-02-01

    This work reports the chemical composition and cytotoxic evaluation of the essential oils from three different samples of the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). The crude oils, obtained by hydrodistillation procedures, were chemically analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained data indicated the predominance of sesquiterpenes (89.8 +/- 0.7%), the main compounds being germacrene D (47 +/-+/- 1%) and bicyclogermacrene (37 +/- 1%). These oils also contained the monoterpene verbanyl acetate (0.5 +/- 0.06%) and the diterpene phytol (1.2 +/- 0.3%). The crude oils obtained from leaves were pooled and tested in vitro against six cancer cell lineages--murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human leukemia (HL-60), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (SKBr), and human melanoma (A2058), as well as against a non-tumorigenic human cell line (HFF). Since the essential oil reduced more than 50% of the viability of several tumor cells at 100 microg/mL, indicating the presence of active compounds, the crude material was subjected to fractionation over a SiO2/AgNO3 column. This procedure afforded different fractions composed of pure as well as different mixtures of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, which were tested against the same tumor cell lines, indicating a significant cytotoxic potential against HL-60 cells. These results suggested that the crudeoils and their components, mainly germacrene D, could be used as prototypes for the development of new anti-cancer agents for the treatment of human leukemia.

  8. New Meliolaceae from the Brazilian Atlantic forest 2: species on host families Annonaceae, Cecropiaceae, Meliaceae, Piperaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Tiliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Danilo Batista; Firmino, André Luiz; Ferreira-Junior, Walnir Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini

    2013-01-01

    Continuing the study of black mildews in fragments of the Atlantic forest, three new species and five new records are described herein. Irenopsis luheae-grandiflorae, Meliola vicosensis and Meliola xylopia-sericiae are new species. Cecropia hololeuca, Piper gaudichaudianum and Trichilia lepidota are new hosts for Asteridiella leucosykeae, Asteridiella glabroides and Meliola trichiliae respectively. Asteridiella obesa and Meliola psychotriae var. chiococcae are reported for the first time from Brazil. The new species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy and tables with main characteristics of morphologically similar specimens with species collected in Viçosa are provided. Other species belonging to Meliolaceae collected on hosts belonging to the Annonaceae, Meliaceae and Tiliaceae in Brazil also were studied.

  9. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (Pmuricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  10. Aporphine alkaloid contents increase with moderate nitrogen supply in Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae) seedlings during diurnal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Castillo, José Agustín; Cruz-Ortega, Rocío; Martinez-Vázquez, Mariano; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Aporphine alkaloids are secondary metabolites that are obtained in low levels from species of the Annonaceae family. Nitrogen addition may increase the alkaloid content in plants. However, previous studies published did not consider that nitrogen could change the alkaloid content throughout the day. We conducted this short-term study to determine the effects of nitrogen applied throughout the diurnal period on the aporphine alkaloids via measurements conducted on the roots, stems and leaves of Annona diversifolia seedlings. The 60-day-old seedlings were cultured with the addition of three levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 mM), and alkaloid extracts were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest total alkaloid content was measured in the treatment with moderate nitrogen supply. Further, the levels of aporphine alkaloids changed significantly in the first few hours of the diurnal period. We conclude that aporphine alkaloid content increased with moderate nitrogen supply and exhibited diurnal variation.

  11. Reassessing morphological homologies in the early-divergent angiosperm Fenerivia (annonaceae) based on floral vascular anatomy: significance for interpreting putative homeotic mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bine; Saunders, Richard M K

    2013-01-01

    Fenerivia species (Annonaceae) are characterized by a prominent flange immediately below the perianth, which has been interpreted as synapomorphic for the genus. The homology of this flange is controversial: previous studies of Fenerivia heteropetala (an aberrant species, with 12 perianth parts in three whorls) have suggested that the flange may represent a vestigial calyx resulting from a disruption to the homeotic control of organ identity during floral development. Comparative data on floral vasculature in Fenerivia capuronii are presented to elucidate the homology of the flange in other Fenerivia species (which possess nine perianth parts in three whorls, typical of most Annonaceae). The flange in F. capuronii differs from that in F. heteropetala as it is unvascularized. It is nevertheless suggested that the flange is likely to be homologous, and that a homeotic mutation in the F. heteropetala lineage resulted in the formation of a vestigial but vascularized calyx that fused with the otherwise unvascularized flange.

  12. Highly cytotoxic and neurotoxic acetogenins of the Annonaceae: new putative biological targets of squamocin detected by activity-based protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbré, Séverine; Gil, Sophie; Taverna, Myriam; Boursier, Céline; Nicolas, Valérie; Demey-Thomas, Emmanuelle; Vinh, Joëlle; Susin, Santos A; Hocquemiller, Reynald; Poupon, Erwan

    2008-11-01

    Acetogenins of the Annonaceae are strong inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I but discrepancies in the structure/activity relationships pled the search for other targets within the whole cell proteome. Combining hemisynthetic work, Cu-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition and proteomic techniques we have identified new putative protein targets of squamocin ruling out the previously accepted 'complex I dogma'. These results give new insights into the mechanism of action of these potent neurotoxic molecules.

  13. NOISE IN TEXTILE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meshgi

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean noise levels were measured in the different sections of six representative mills in the Isfahan area, and audiometric measurements were made in 282 male workers employed in these mills. The mean noise levels were on average 95 dBA in the weaving sections and 88 d BA in the spinning sections. The audiometric findings showed a significant loss of gearing in the textile workers as compared to controls who were employed in a quiet environment. The study indicated that noisiness depended; on the whole, on the age and number of machines deployed per unit area of shop-floor. On the basis of this study certain recommendations were made to improve the working conditions.

  14. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accommodate a trial run of inert single base pellet feed for use in a twin screw extruder. 15. SUBJECT TERMS INIT248, Advanced Propellant Technology...Bldg. 4909-5 – Shear Roll Mill Pilot Plant at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) in order to produce pellet feed for a twin screw extruder used...propellant to simulate feed for a twin screw extruder. Preventive maintenance procedures were in progress in final preparation for running with

  15. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  16. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  17. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  18. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large d...

  19. Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae, including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015 [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated.

  20. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  1. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal activities of the essential oils of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; de Jesus, Hugo César Ramos; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; dos Santos, Roseli La Corte; Prata, Ana Paula do Nacimento

    2011-06-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae) growing in Sergipe, northeastern region of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. salzmannii and twenty-seven in that of A. pickelii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (20.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.9%), delta-cadinene (15.3%), alpha-copaene (10.0%), and allo-aromadendrene (5.7%) were the main components of A. salzmannii, and bicyclogermacrene (45.4%), (E)-caryophyllene (14.6%), and alpha-copaene (10.6%) of A. pickelii. The essential oils showed significant antioxidant capacity in the ORAC(FL) and DPPH assays. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils was also evaluated against bacteria and fungi, as well as the larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae.

  3. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Annona pickelii and Annona salzmannii (Annonaceae), and their antitumour and trypanocidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Salvador, Marcos José; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona pickelii and Annona salzmannii (Annonaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus, and analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 21 compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. pickelii and 23 in that of A. salzmannii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (38.0%), (E)-caryophyllene (27.8%), α-copaene (6.9%) and α-humulene (4.0%) were the main components of A. pickelii, while δ-cadinene (22.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (21.4%), α-copaene (13.3%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%) and germacrene D (6.9%) were the main components of A. salzmannii. The biological activities of the essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms and cytotoxicity against tumour cell lines (antitumour) were investigated. The essential oils showed potent trypanocidal and antitumour activities with values of IC50 lower than 100 µg mL(-1).

  4. Phylogeny of the basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) inferred from five chloroplast DNA regions, with interpretation of morphological character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Smith, Gavin J D; Saunders, Richard M K

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the magnoliid basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) are investigated using chloroplast DNA sequences from five regions: psbA-trnH spacer, trnL-F, matK, rbcL, and atpB-rbcL spacer. Over 4000 nucleotides from 51 species (of the total 53) were sequenced. The five cpDNA datasets were analyzed separately and in combination using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all three phylogenetic methods, based on the combined data, strongly support the monophyly of Pseuduvaria following the inclusion of Craibella phuyensis. The trees generated using MP were less well resolved, but relationships are similar to those obtained using the other methods. ML and Bayesian analyses recovered trees with short branch lengths, showing five main clades. This study highlights the evolutionary changes in seven selected morphological characters (floral sex, stamen and carpel numbers, inner petal color, presence of inner petal glands, flowering peduncle length, and monocarp size). Although floral unisexuality is ancestral within the genus, several evolutionary lineages reveal reversal to bisexuality. Other phylogenetic transitions include the evolution of sapromyophily, and fruit-bat frugivory and seed dispersal, thus allowing a wide range of adaptations for species survival.

  5. Gastroprotective Effect of Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae: Involvement of Endogenous Sulfhydryls Compounds and Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Albuquerque Montenegro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul., belonging to the Annonaceae family, popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra" was selected for study on the basis of chemotaxonomic criteria because various chemical compounds (among these the diterpenes with pharmacological activities have been isolated. We investigated the acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EtOHE and hexane phase (HexPh obtained from the leaves of X. langsdorffiana (XL and its ability to prevent gastric mucosa ulceration in animal models. The results suggest that XL-EtOHE has low toxicity to mice treated with a single dose of 2000 mg/kg (p.o. and the inhibition the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol, restraint-hypothermic stress and NSAIDs. In the pylorus ligature model, XL-EtOHE (500 mg/kg and XL-HexPh (250 mg/kg showed gastric protection with both oral (p.o. and intraduodenal (i.d. administration, yet without altering the gastric juice parameters (pH, [H +], and volume. XL-HexPh (250 mg/kg did not increase mucus production, and both EtOHE and HexPh induced gastroprotection with a certain dependency on sulfhydryls groups and nitric oxide.

  6. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  7. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Falcao, Emanuela Viana; Silva, Luana de Morais e; Soares, Gabriela Cristina da Silva; Scotti, Marcus Tullius, E-mail: mtscotti@ccae.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente

    2012-07-01

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  8. INVESTIGATION ON HARDENED STEEL MILLING WITH MICRO-END MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYing-ning; WANGCheng-yong; WUXue-qi; QINZhe; ZENGBao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Tool wear and breakage of the micro-milling tool is an important problem for high speed machining of hardened steel die and mould. Dry milling of S136 hardened steel is carried out using TiA1N coated carbide micro-end mill (Ф2 mm). The effect of cutting speed, feed per tooth and radial depth of cut on cutting force is analyzed. Cutting parameters adapting to dry machining and strategy optimized for higher rate of material removal with lower cutting force are attained. Results of SEM observation show that the main failure patterns of micro-end mill are breakage of tool tip, wear and drop-off of surface coating, micro-chipping, and breakage of flank.

  9. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  10. Insecticidal Effect of Fruit Extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Efecto Insecticida de Extractos de Fruta de Xylopia aethiopica y Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae contra Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A . Ukeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and repellent activities of fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. and Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz belonging to the family Annonaceae was studied against Sitophilus oryzae (L., an economic, primary post-harvest pest of rice, and other cereal products. Infested rice grains (100 g treated with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (w/w powders of both plants were evaluated for toxicity against S. oryzae every 24 h for 3 d, and during Fi progeny emergence. The essential oils of both plants were also applied at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg cm-2 filter paper in Petri dishes for toxicity bioassays at 24 h exposure. Repellence bioassay with 10 μL solution of essential oils on filter paper was performed in a Y-Tube airflow olfactometer. Results indicate that powders of both plants significantly (P La actividad insecticida y repelente de los extractos frutales de Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. y Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz pertenecientes a la familia Annonaceae fueron evaluados contra Sitophilus oryzae (L., plaga primaria de importancia económica en poscosecha de arroz y otros cereales. Granos de arroz (100 g infestados tratados con polvos de ambas plantas al 1, 2, 3, 4, y 5% (p/p fueron evaluados para la toxicidad contra S. oryzae cada 24 h por 3 d y durante la emergencia de la progenie F1. Los aceites esenciales de ambas plantas también fueron aplicados en papel filtro a 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 mg cm-2 en cajas de Petri para bioensayos de toxicidad con exposición de 24 h. Bioensayos de repelencia con 10 μL de solución de los aceites esenciales impregnados en papel filtro fueron realizados en un olfatómetro de flujo de aire Y-Tube. Los resultados indican que los polvos de ambas plantas causan una mortalidad significativa de estos insectos (P < 0,001 y una reducción en la emergencia de la progenie F1 con relación al control. Los aceites esenciales también mostraron un efecto adulticida significativo (P < 0,001 despu

  11. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  12. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  13. La situación de las annonaceae en México: principales plagas, enfermedades y su control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Librado Vidal Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia económica de las especies de la familia Annonaceae en México es diversa y no se restringe a las especies comestibles, pues además incluye especies con propiedades aromáticas para la extracción de aceites esenciales, medicinales, insecticidas y tóxicos a peces. En general esta familia no se ha formalizado agronómica ni económicamente, sin embargo, presenta grandes perspectivas dentro de programas de mejoramiento genético, en el uso como portainjertos o bien como cultivos alternativos. Las principales plagas asociadas al género Annona son: Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead, Cerconota anonella Sepp., Corythuca gossypii Fab., Planococcus citri, Chrysobotris sp., Talponia batesi Heinrich., Acantocephala femorata Fab.. Las principales enfermedades de las anonáceas reportadas son: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, Rhizopusstolonifer Ehr., Phyllosticta sp., Pestalotia sp., Macrophoma sp., Fusarium sp y Phytopthora sp.. Siendo la primera la principal enfermedad de mayor importancia en el cultivo del guanábano dado que disminuye el rendimiento y calidad de los frutos. En chirimoyo y guanábano es muy poca la información bibliográfica existente sobre plagas y enfermedades, y en las demás especies de Annona es nula. No se han realizado evaluaciones de las pérdidas que ocasionan las plagas y enfermedades en las Anonáceas, ocasionando un desconocimiento pleno sobre los daños ocasionados por este factor biótico.

  14. Antiplasmodial volatile extracts from Cleistopholis patens Engler & Diels and Uvariastrum pierreanum Engl. (Engl. & Diels) (Annonaceae) growing in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Ngouana, Vincent; Kemgne, Eugenie Aimée Madiesse; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Menut, Chantal; Bessiere, Jean Marie; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip Jon

    2011-05-01

    In a search for alternative treatment for malaria, plant-derived essential oils extracted from the stem barks and leaves of Cleistopholis patens and Uvariastrum pierreanum (Annonaceae) were evaluated in vitro for antiplasmodial activity against the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The oils were obtained from 500 g each of stem barks and leaves, respectively, by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus with the following yields: 0.23% and 0.19% for C. patens and 0.1% and 0.3% for U. pierreanum (w/w relative to dried material weight). Analysis of 10% (v/v) oil in hexane by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry identified only terpenoids in the oils, with over 81% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in C. patens extracts and U. pierreanum stem bark oil, while the leaf oil from the latter species was found to contain a majority of monoterpenes. For C. patens, the major components were α-copaene, δ-cadinene, and germacrene D for the stem bark oil and β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and germacrene B for the leaf oil. The stem bark oil of U. pierreanum was found to contain mainly β-bisabolene and α-bisabolol, while α- and β-pinenes were more abundant in the leaf extract. Concentrations of oils obtained by diluting 1-mg/mL stock solutions were tested against P. falciparum in culture. The oils were active, with IC(50) values of 9.19 and 15.19 μg/mL for the stem bark and leaf oils, respectively, of C. patens and 6.08 and 13.96 μg/mL, respectively, for those from U. pierreanum. These results indicate that essential oils may offer a promising alternative for the development of new antimalarials.

  15. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  16. Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Leaf Essential Oils of Six Species of Annonaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Palazzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of six members of the Annonaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica (Desmopsis bibracteata, Desmopsis microcarpa, Guatteria costaricensis, Guatteria diospyroides, Guatteria oliviformis, and Unonopsis costaricensis have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS in order to compare and contrast the volatile chemical compositions of these species. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T human breast tumor cells, and antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The principal components of D. bibracteata were germacrene D (29.9%, (E-caryophyllene (11.5%, and δ-cadinene (9.2%. D. microcarpa was dominated by bicyclogermacrene (45.5% and germacrene D (28.3%. G. costaricensis was rich in α- and β-pinenes (36.3% and 48.2%, respectively. The leaf oil of G. diospyroides was composed largely of germacrene D (46.4%, (Z-β-ocimene (17.4%, (E-β-ocimene (12.0%, and (E-caryophyllene (10.3%. Germacrene D dominated the leaf oil of G. oliviformis (73.3% as well as U. costaricensis (62.9%. The leaf essential oils of D. bibracteata, G. diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and U. costaricensis, showed notable cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells ( ³ 99% kill at 100 m g/mL but only D. bibracteata leaf oil was cytotoxic to Hs 578T. D. bibracteata, G. diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and U. costaricensis leaf oils showed marginal antibacterial activity against B. cereus (MIC = 156 m g/mL. A cluster analysis of Guatteria species, based on the abundant essential oil components, has revealed a spathulenol-rich cluster (Brazilian species and a germacrene D cluster (Costa Rican species.

  17. YANG-MILLS FIELD CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the capacitor in the Yang-Mills theory. Model capacitor represents the equipotential surfaces separated by a space. To describe the mechanism of condensation chromodynamics field used numerical models developed based on an average of the Yang-Mills theory. In the present study, we used eight-scalar component model that in the linear case is divided into two groups containing three or five fields respectively. In contrast to classical electrodynamics, a static model of the Yang-Mills is not divided into independent equations because of the nonlinearity of the model itself. However, in the case of a linear theory separation is possible. It is shown that in this particular case, the Yang-Mills theory is reduced to Poisson theory, which describes the electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena. In the present work it is shown that in a certain region of the parameters of the capacitor of the Yang-Mills theory on the functional properties of the charge accumulation and retention of the field is similar to the capacitor of the electrostatic field or a magnet in magnetostatics. This means that in nature there are two types of charges, which are sources of macroscopic Yang-Mills field, which are similar to the properties of electric and magnetic charges in the Poisson theory. It is shown that in Yang-Mills only one type of charge may be associated with the distribution density of the substance, while another type of charge depends on the charge distribution of the first type. This allows us to provide an explanation for the lack of symmetry between electric and magnetic charges

  18. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator′s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of

  19. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  20. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae) in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52–56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers) in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this investigation

  1. Insights into the influence of priors in posterior mapping of discrete morphological characters: a case study in Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L P Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Posterior mapping is an increasingly popular hierarchical Bayesian based method used to infer character histories and reconstruct ancestral states at nodes of molecular phylogenies, notably of morphological characters. As for all Bayesian analyses specification of prior values is an integrative and important part of the analysis. He we provide an example of how alternative prior choices can seriously influence results and mislead interpretations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For two contrasting discrete morphological characters, namely a slow and a fast evolving character found in the plant family Annonaceae, we specified a total of eight different prior distributions per character. We investigated how these prior settings affected important summary statistics. Our analyses showed that the different prior distributions had marked effects on the results in terms of average number of character state changes. These differences arise because priors play a crucial role in determining which areas of parameter space the values of the simulation will be drawn from, independent of the data at hand. However, priors seemed to fit the data better if they would result in a more even sampling of parameter space (normal posterior distribution, in which case alternative standard deviation values had little effect on the results. The most probable character history for each character was affected differently by the prior. For the slower evolving character, the same character history always had the highest posterior probability independent of the priors used. In contrast, the faster evolving character showed different most probable character histories depending on the prior. These differences could be related to the level of homoplasy exhibited by each character. CONCLUSIONS: Although our analyses were restricted to two morphological characters within a single family, our results underline the importance of carefully choosing prior values for posterior

  2. Insights into the Influence of Priors in Posterior Mapping of Discrete Morphological Characters: A Case Study in Annonaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Gort, Gerrit; Richardson, James E.; Sosef, Marc S. M.; Chatrou, Lars W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Posterior mapping is an increasingly popular hierarchical Bayesian based method used to infer character histories and reconstruct ancestral states at nodes of molecular phylogenies, notably of morphological characters. As for all Bayesian analyses specification of prior values is an integrative and important part of the analysis. He we provide an example of how alternative prior choices can seriously influence results and mislead interpretations. Methods/Principal Findings For two contrasting discrete morphological characters, namely a slow and a fast evolving character found in the plant family Annonaceae, we specified a total of eight different prior distributions per character. We investigated how these prior settings affected important summary statistics. Our analyses showed that the different prior distributions had marked effects on the results in terms of average number of character state changes. These differences arise because priors play a crucial role in determining which areas of parameter space the values of the simulation will be drawn from, independent of the data at hand. However, priors seemed to fit the data better if they would result in a more even sampling of parameter space (normal posterior distribution), in which case alternative standard deviation values had little effect on the results. The most probable character history for each character was affected differently by the prior. For the slower evolving character, the same character history always had the highest posterior probability independent of the priors used. In contrast, the faster evolving character showed different most probable character histories depending on the prior. These differences could be related to the level of homoplasy exhibited by each character. Conclusions Although our analyses were restricted to two morphological characters within a single family, our results underline the importance of carefully choosing prior values for posterior mapping. Prior

  3. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  4. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  5. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  6. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  7. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  8. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  9. ROLLING MILL SYSTEM DYNAMIC DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is studied how the aluminum foil chatter mark is produced and controlledThe stableness of hydraulic AGC system,fluid vibration of capsule system,and electromechanical coupling of AC/AC VVVF system and dec oupling are also studiedIt is shown that rolling mill design should go to syst em dynamic design from traditional designThe framed drawing of system dynamic design program is presented

  10. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  11. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to

  12. Novel spin glasses by mechanical milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国富; H.Bakker

    1996-01-01

    Novel spin-glass alloys were synthesized by milling intermetallic compounds and also by milling mixtures of crystalline elemental powder in a high-energy ball mill.Spin glass behaviour was found in amorphous Co2Ge,which was amorphised by milling in mechanically disordered crystalline GdAl2 in ball-milled crystalline and amorphous CoZr,and in mechanically alloyed Co-Cu,which formed a supersaturated f.c.c.solid solution.All these materials are binary alloys and tlie concentration of the magnetic element is high,which makes them novel types of spin glasses.It is shown that ball milling may not only lead to structural metallic glasses,but can also generate the magnetic pendant of a structural glass,namely the spin glass.

  13. Formation of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成国; 齐宝森; 王瑞华

    2002-01-01

    The formation regularity of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders was investigated, revealing that the plastic deformation of the balls surface plays an important role in the formation of coating and that the stronger affinity between the powders and the balls is a necessary pre-condition for the coating. The size of Cr powders, the coating thickness and the microhardness vary consistently with milling time during milling. At initial milling stage, the powder size decreases, while the coating thickness and the microhardness increase, however, after milling for 24h, they all change slightly with prolonged milling, indicating a dynamic equilibrium between the powders cold welding and crashing, i.e. an almost equal rate for the powders attaching to and breaking off the milling balls.

  14. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...

  15. STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING MILL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Y.I.Murthy

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of black cotton soil mixed with mill scale in varying proportions and comparing the same with the results of pure black cotton soil. The mechanical properties of mill scale and black cotton soil are individually determined first and then the two are combined in varying proportions. The properties like plastic limit, CBR and Permeability of the same are evaluated. It is found that mixing mill scale in varying proportions ...

  16. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  17. Robotic milling for rapid ceramic pototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guang-chao; ZHANG Hai-ou; WANG Gui-lan

    2005-01-01

    Robotic milling is a developing method for rapidly producing prototypes and parts, but the application is limited for materials such as wax, wood, plastic and light metal, etc. The reason for this is because of the robotic weak rigidity. In this paper, a method of robotic milling for ceramic prototyping is developed, one that has been successfully applied in a new rapid hard tooling technology-Direct Prototype Spray Tooling[1]. At first, the appropriate ceramic materials mixed with metal powder are confirmed for the robotic milling and the following plasma spraying process. Then the 6 - DOF robotic milling paths are extracted from the NC code and transformed into the robotic JBI type file, the NC code generated through the general CAD/CAM software such as UG -NX.Finally, the robotic milling characteristics such as moving path accuracy and milling force are tested to find the best milling parameters and to ensure the executable, accurate and efficient ceramic prototype milling technology.The development of this method not only broadens the robotic milling material range but also extends the rapid prototyping fields. It can also be used for producing ceramic parts that are difficult to machine.

  18. Structural evolution of ball-milled permalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzozka, K., E-mail: kbrzozka@poczta.f [Technical University, Department of Physics (Poland); Oleksakova, D.; Kollar, P. [P.J. Safarik University, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gorka, B.; Gawronski, M. [Technical University, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Two series of Fe{sub 19.8}Ni{sub 80.2} samples obtained by ball milling and differing in the form of starting material were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the case of milled elemental powder, strong structural evolution was stated: both {alpha} and {gamma} phases arise and a small amount of pure iron is present as well. The annealing of as-milled powder at 490{sup o}C causes faster forming of {gamma}-(Ni-Fe) phase. Only slight changes in atomic order were stated in the series of milled polycrystalline ribbon.

  19. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  20. Process engineering with planetary ball mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Christine Friederike; Kwade, Arno

    2013-09-21

    Planetary ball mills are well known and used for particle size reduction on laboratory and pilot scales for decades while during the last few years the application of planetary ball mills has extended to mechanochemical approaches. Processes inside planetary ball mills are complex and strongly depend on the processed material and synthesis and, thus, the optimum milling conditions have to be assessed for each individual system. The present review focuses on the insight into several parameters like properties of grinding balls, the filling ratio or revolution speed. It gives examples of the aspects of grinding and illustrates some general guidelines to follow for modelling processes in planetary ball mills in terms of refinement, synthesis' yield and contamination from wear. The amount of energy transferred from the milling tools to the powder is significant and hardly measurable for processes in planetary ball mills. Thus numerical simulations based on a discrete-element-method are used to describe the energy transfer to give an adequate description of the process by correlation with experiments. The simulations illustrate the effect of the geometry of planetary ball mills on the energy entry. In addition the imaging of motion patterns inside a planetary ball mill from simulations and video recordings is shown.

  1. 四种番荔枝科植物花粉形态%Pollen Morphology of Four Selected Species in the Annonaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 徐凤霞

    2012-01-01

    Pollen grains of four species representing four genera of Annonaceae were examined by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and transmission electron microscopy ( TEM). The pollen grains are tetrads in Annona muricata and Pseuduvaria trimera under SEM. The type of tetrad is various, being tetragonal, rhomboidal, T-shaped, decussate and tetrahedral. The sculpture of pollen in A. Muricata is psilate and foveolate, but rugulate in P. Trimera. The pollen grains are monad in Oncodostigma hainanense and Uvaria macclurei. In the former species, the ornamentation is rugulate, and in the latter it is coarsely folded. Under TEM, the tectum is thick and continuous in O. Hainanense and U. Macclurei. The materials from infratectal layer are less accumulated. There is an intermediate infratectal layer in O. Hainanense, for some irregular columellae and sparse granules are both observed, but there is a granular infratectal layer in U. Macclurei. Basal layer consists of an outer layer and a foliated inner layer. The outer layer is thick, and flat or fluctuant. The inner layer is composed of two to four foliations. The morphological differences are great among different genera or different species in the same genus, indicating a high diversity of pollen morphology in Annonaceae. There are both primitive and derived characters in O. Hainanense or P. Trimera. Such as in P. Trimera, small size pollen grain and imperforate tectum are primitive characters, but tetrad and columellar infratecal layer are derived.%利用扫描和透射电子显微镜,观察了番荔枝科(Annonaceae)4属4种植物的花粉形态与结构.刺果番荔枝(Annona muricata)和金钩花(Pseuduvaria trimera)为四合花粉,有四角形、偏菱形、T-型、十字形和四面体形.前者花粉表面具小穿孔,后者为皱波状纹饰.蕉木(Oncodostigma hainanense)和那大紫玉盘(Uvaria macclurei)为单花粉,前者表面为皱波状纹饰,后者为粗褶皱状纹饰.透射电子显微镜下,蕉木和那大

  2. Acetogenins from Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Liou, Jing-Ru; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, annonaceous acetogenins have become highly studied plant secondary metabolites in terms of their isolation, structure elucidation, synthesis, biological evaluation, mechanism of action, and toxicity. The aim of the present contribution is to summarize chemical and biological reports published since 1997 on annonaceous acetogenins and synthetic acetogenin mimics. The compounds are considered biologically in terms of their cytotoxicity for cancer cell lines, neurotoxicity, pesticidal effects, and miscellaneous activities.

  3. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  4. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  5. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik

    2017-01-01

    Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

  6. Vertical mill simulation applied to iron ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of vertical mills in regrind circuits is consolidated. This type of mill is now attracting interest in primary grinding applications, due to its higher efficiency when compared to ball mills, which are usually used at this stage. In this study, a coarse sample of iron ore was tested in a pilot scale grinding circuit with a vertical mill. Other three samples of pellet feed had already been tested with the methodology used in this study. The sample of coarse iron ore was characterized in laboratory tests carried out in a small batch ball mill. Selection and breakage function parameters were determined from the laboratory tests. The parameters were then used for simulating the pilot scale tests using Modsim™ software. The model previously implemented in Modsim™ has been successfully applied to represent the vertical mill operated with different ores. The simulations produced particle size distributions that were very close to the actual size distributions, and the predictions were accomplished only by imputing the calibrated parameters from the batch tests, the power draw and the feed size distribution of the pilot tests. The methodology is therefore useful for scale-up and simulation of vertical mills, only requiring laboratory tests that can be carried out in standard laboratory batch ball mills with small amounts of samples.

  7. Jiangsu Mills Attempt to Adjust Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The profit squeeze on China’s textile mills continues. In Jiangsu Province, a very important market, mills are reacting in a variety of ways to this situation. Spinners and weavers of man-made fiber appear to be the most adversely affected,

  8. Improvement of the stone elimination roller mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Elimination roller mill as raw materials preparing equipments is universally used in brick making industry. Stone Elimination Roller Mill should have following characteristics: high machine strength and good wearresistant of roller shell, safety reliability, high machinery intensity (impact strength) and rigidity, reliable hermetically sealed construction.

  9. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  10. Effects of environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation on the reproductive phenology of the cerrado savanna tree Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Maria Gabriela G; Souza, Regina M; Reys, Paula; Morellato, Leonor P C

    2011-09-01

    The Brazilian cerrado has undergone an intense process of fragmentation, which leads to an increase in the number of remnants exposed to edge effects and associated changes on environmental conditions that may affect the phenology of plants. This study aimed to verify whether the reproductive phenology of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae) differs under different light conditions in a cerrado sensu stricto (a woody savanna) of southeastern Brazil. We compared the reproductive phenology of X. aromatica trees distributed on east and south cardinal faces of the cerrado during monthly observations, from January 2005 to December 2008. The east face had a higher light incidence, higher temperatures and canopy openness in relation to south face. X. aromatica showed seasonal reproduction at both faces of the cerrado, but the percentage of individuals, the synchrony and duration of phenophases were higher at the east face. The study demonstrated the influence of the environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation of the cerrado faces on the phenological pattern of X. aromatica. Similar responses may be observed for other species, ultimately affecting patterns of floral visitation and fruit production, which reinforces the importance of considering the cardinal direction in studies of edge effects and fragmentation.

  11. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  12. First fossil record of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. (Annonaceae) from the Late Oligocene sediments of Assam, India and comments on its phytogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, Rakesh C

    2013-01-01

    A new fossil leaf impression of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. of the family Annonaceae is described from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. This is the first authentic record of the fossil of Alphonsea from the Tertiary rocks of South Asia. The Late Oligocene was the time of the last significant globally warm climate and the fossil locality was at 10°-15°N palaeolatitude. The known palaeoflora and sedimentological studies indicate a fluvio-marine deltaic environment with a mosaic of mangrove, fluvial, mire and lacustrine depositional environments. During the depositional period the suturing between the Indian and Eurasian plates was not complete to facilitate the plant migration. The suturing was over by the end of the Late Oligocene/beginning of Early Miocene resulting in the migration of the genus to Southeast Asia where it is growing profusely at present. The present study is in congruence with the earlier published palaeofloral and molecular phylogenetic data. The study also suggests that the Indian plate was not only a biotic ferry during its northward voyage from Gondwana to Asia but also a place for the origin of several plant taxa.

  13. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of the species-rich angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) inferred from nine chloroplast DNA regions: Synapomorphies and putative correlated evolutionary changes in fruit and seed morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-11-01

    A phylogenetic study of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) is presented using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, with 65 species sampled (48.5% of the genus) based on sequences of nine chloroplast DNA regions (11,214 aligned positions). The resultant phylogeny clearly indicates that Goniothalamus is monophyletic. Preliminary research initially focused on identifying synapomorphies and estimating the phylogenetic signal of selected morphological characters based on parsimony and likelihood ancestral character state reconstructions. This prescreening of characters enabled 40 to be selected for further study, and of these 15 are shown here to demonstrate significant phylogenetic signal and to provide clear synapomorphies for several infrageneric clades. Although floral structure in Goniothalamus is comparatively uniform, suggesting a common basic pattern of pollination ecology, fruit and seed morphology in the genus is very diverse and is presumably associated with different patterns of frugivory. The present study assesses correlations amongst fruit and seed characters which are putatively of functional importance with regard to frugivory and dispersal. One-way phylogenetic ANOVA indicates significant phylogenetically independent correlation between the following fruit and seed characters: fruits borne on older branches and/or on the main trunk have larger monocarps than fruits borne on young branches; and monocarps that contain seeds with a hairy testa are larger than those with glabrous seeds. We discuss fruit morphologies and potential explanations for the inferred correlations, and suggest that they may be the result of adaptation to different frugivores (birds, larger non-volant animal and primate seed dispersers, respectively).

  15. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) fruit methanol extract on gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, O A; Popoola, Bosede O; Farombi, E O

    2010-09-01

    Xylopia aethiopica (XA) (Annonaceae) possesses great nutritional and medicinal values. This study was designed to investigate the effects of XA fruit methanol extract on oxidative stress in brain of rats exposed to whole body gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 rats each. One group served as control, two different groups were treated with XA and VC (250 mg/kg), 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. The antioxidant status, viz. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated. Results indicate a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of brain LPO after irradiation. LPO increased by 90% and 151%, after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation, respectively. Irradiation caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in levels of GSH and GST by 61% and 43% after 1 week and, 75% and 73%, respectively, after 8 weeks of exposure. CAT and SOD levels were decreased by 62% and 68%, respectively, after 8 weeks of irradiation. Treatment with XA and VC ameliorated the radiation-induced decreases in antioxidant status of the animals. These suggest that XA could have beneficial effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in brain of exposed rats.

  16. The key role of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in the attraction of scarab beetle pollinators: a unique olfactory floral signal shared by Annonaceae and Araceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Dötterl, Stefan; Kaiser, Roman; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, Ilse; Teichert, Holger; Gibernau, Marc; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Schlindwein, Clemens; Gottsberger, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    Cyclocephaline scarabs are specialised scent-driven pollinators, implicated with the reproductive success of several Neotropical plant taxa. Night-blooming flowers pollinated by these beetles are thermogenic and release intense fragrances synchronized to pollinator activity. However, data on floral scent composition within such mutualistic interactions are scarce, and the identity of behaviorally active compounds involved is largely unknown. We performed GC-MS analyses of floral scents of four species of Annona (magnoliids, Annonaceae) and Caladium bicolor (monocots, Araceae), and demonstrated the chemical basis for the attraction of their effective pollinators. 4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole, a nitrogen and sulphur-containing heterocyclic compound previously unreported in flowers, was found as a prominent constituent in all studied species. Field biotests confirmed that it is highly attractive to both male and female beetles of three species of the genus Cyclocephala, pollinators of the studied plant taxa. The origin of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in plants might be associated with the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1), and we hypothesize that the presence of this compound in unrelated lineages of angiosperms is either linked to selective expression of a plesiomorphic biosynthetic pathway or to parallel evolution.

  17. Catálogo sistemático dos pólens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil meridional: I - Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae e Myristicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique P. Veloso

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available Wir beginnen mit dieser Arbeit einen Katalog der Baumpollen Suedbrasiliens, der als Unterlage zum spaeteren Studium der Humusablagerungen in Brasilien dienen soll. Die Reihenfolge der Familien stuetzt sich auf die Phylogenie der Pflanzenfamilien, weshalb wir mit den Polycarpicae, im besonderen der Magnoliaceae s. lat., Lauraceae, Annonaceae und Myristicaceae, beginnen. Obwohl die Abstammungsfolge der verschiedenen Familien noch sehr hypothetisch ist (vergleiche zum Beispiel WETTSTEIN, 1944, und HUTCHINSON, 1946 und 1959, konnten wir Aehnlichkeiten zwischen den Pollen der behandelten Familien feststellen. Vergleiche zwischen den verschiedenen Gattungen dieser Familien fuehren zu keinem sicheren phylogenetischen Schluss. Die Pollen der verschiedenen Lauraceengattugen, ausser Cryptocarya, aehneln sich untereinander so, dass dadurch die Gattungs-und Artbestimmungen unmoeglich gemacht werden. Im Gegensatz treffen wir bei den Annonaceengattungen, so wie auch bei den Magnoliaceen s. lat., typische Formen und Strukturen an. Hierzu machen wir auf die pollensystematische Zusammenfassung am Ende der Arbeit aufmerksam. Die Praeparate wurden nach der Acetolysemethode (beschrieben in ERDTMAN, 1952 und 1954 hergestellt. Da alle Pollen, ausser Drimys und Virola, eine sehr duenne Exine besitzen, war groesste Vorsicht geboten, um sie nicht zu zerstoeren. Gleichzeitig wurde zum Vergleich jeweils ein Objekt nach der Wodehouse'schen Methode (WODEHOUSE, 1935 behandelt.

  18. First fossil record of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. (Annonaceae from the Late Oligocene sediments of Assam, India and comments on its phytogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Srivastava

    Full Text Available A new fossil leaf impression of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. of the family Annonaceae is described from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. This is the first authentic record of the fossil of Alphonsea from the Tertiary rocks of South Asia. The Late Oligocene was the time of the last significant globally warm climate and the fossil locality was at 10°-15°N palaeolatitude. The known palaeoflora and sedimentological studies indicate a fluvio-marine deltaic environment with a mosaic of mangrove, fluvial, mire and lacustrine depositional environments. During the depositional period the suturing between the Indian and Eurasian plates was not complete to facilitate the plant migration. The suturing was over by the end of the Late Oligocene/beginning of Early Miocene resulting in the migration of the genus to Southeast Asia where it is growing profusely at present. The present study is in congruence with the earlier published palaeofloral and molecular phylogenetic data. The study also suggests that the Indian plate was not only a biotic ferry during its northward voyage from Gondwana to Asia but also a place for the origin of several plant taxa.

  19. Einstein--Yang--Mills strings

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V; Volkov, M S; Davydov, Evgeny A.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2006-01-01

    We present globally regular vortex-type solutions for a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills field coupled to gravity in 3+1 dimensions. These gravitating vortices are static, cylindrically symmetric and purely magnetic, and they support a non-zero chromo-magnetic flux through their cross section. In addition, they carry a constant non-Abelian current, and so in some sense they are analogs of the superconducting cosmic strings. They have a compact central core dominated by a longitudinal magnetic field and endowed with an approximately Melvin geometry. This magnetic field component gets color screened in the exterior part of the core, outside of which the fields approach exponentially fast those of the electrovacuum Bonnor solutions with a circular magnetic field. In the far field zone the solutions are not asymptotically flat but tend to vacuum Kasner metrics.

  20. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Palladium nanoparticles obtained by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampedro, B.; Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (RENFE-UCM-CSIC), P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rojas, T.C.; Fernandez, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro mixto CSIC-UNIV, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Opposed to the existing chemical methods, we have used a physical one in order to obtain palladium nanoparticles. In this work we present the HRTEM observation of Pd nanoparticles obtained by mechanical milling. These particles are around 6 nm in size. The Pd milled samples have exhaustively been structurally characterized. We have also studied its magnetic properties as a function of the milling time and magnetic measurements are according to those previously carried out by us in palladium nanoparticles obtained by chemical methods. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Yang-Mills origin of gravitational symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, A; Duff, M J; Hughes, L J; Nagy, S

    2014-01-01

    By regarding gravity as the convolution of left and right Yang-Mills theories, we derive in linearised approximation the gravitational symmetries of general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance and local supersymmetry from the flat space Yang-Mills symmetries of local gauge invariance and global super-Poincar\\'e. As a concrete example we focus on the new-minimal (12+12) off-shell version of simple four-dimensional supergravity obtained by tensoring the off-shell Yang-Mills multiplets (4 + 4, N_L = 1) and (3 + 0, N_R = 0).

  3. Wilson Loops in Noncommutative Yang Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, N; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the correlation functions of the Wilson loops in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory based upon its equivalence to twisted reduced models. We point out that there is a crossover at the noncommutativity scale. At large momentum scale, the Wilson loops in noncommmutative Yang-Mills represent extended objects. They coincide with those in ordinary Yang-Mills theory in low energy limit. The correlation functions on D-branes in IIB matrix model exhibit the identical crossover behavior. It is observed to be consistent with the supergravity description with running string coupling. We also explain that the results of Seiberg and Witten can be simply understood in our formalism.

  4. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  5. GENERALIZED SIMULATION MODEL FOR MILLED SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY-APPLICATION TO PERIPHERAL MILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analyzing various factors influencing milled surface topography, firstly, a generalized model for milled surface topography is proposed. Secondly, using the principles of transformation matrix and vector operation, the trajectory equation of cutting edge relative to workpiece is derived. Then, a three-dimensional topography simulation algorithm is constructed through dividing the workpiece into regular grids. Finally, taking the peripheral milling process as an example, the generalized model is simplified, and the corresponding simulation examples are given. The results indicate that it is very efficient for the generalized model to be used to analyze and simulate the peripherally milled surface topography.

  6. Continuous grinding mill simulation using Austin's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comminution is a frequently-required step in mineral processing and is responsible for almost 90% of all energy consumption in a mineral processing plant. Tumbling mill design has been studied since the middle of the XIX century. There are many comminution models in the literature, with preponderance, however, of Austin’s model (2002 for mineral impact breakage. In this paper, Austin’s model was applied to tubular tumbling mills. Once Austin's model was proposed for batch processing of narrowly-distributed fraction sizes, an artifice has allowed it to be used in continuous grinding mill processes with widely-distributed fraction sizes. Interesting results were obtained with errors less than 0.005 for mills with sharp residence time distributions.

  7. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  8. Dynamic study of milling low depth channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Dorin Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of dynamic aspects of the milling cutters used in particular case of low depth channels. A new calculation method was developed, taking into account the high variations of cutting forces during milling small depth channels with peripheral cutting tools. A new formula was established for the minimal value of channel depth that allows cutting process to be performed in conditions of dynamic stability.

  9. Mills' ratio: Reciprocal concavity and functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Baricz, Árpád

    2010-01-01

    This note contains suficient conditions for the probability density function of an arbitrary continuous univariate distribution such that the corresponding Mills ratio to be reciprocally convex (concave). To illustrate the applications of the main results, the Mills ratio of some common continuous univariate distributions, like gamma, log-normal and Student's t distributions, are discussed in details. The application to monopoly theory is also summarized.

  10. Effects of environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation on the reproductive phenology of the cerrado savanna tree Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela G. Camargo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado has undergone an intense process of fragmentation, which leads to an increase in the number of remnants exposed to edge effects and associated changes on environmental conditions that may affect the phenology of plants. This study aimed to verify whether the reproductive phenology of Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae differs under different light conditions in a cerrado sensu stricto (a woody savanna of southeastern Brazil. We compared the reproductive phenology of X. aromatica trees distributed on east and south cardinal faces of the cerrado during monthly observations, from January 2005 to December 2008. The east face had a higher light incidence, higher temperatures and canopy openness in relation to south face. X. aromatica showed seasonal reproduction at both faces of the cerrado, but the percentage of individuals, the synchrony and duration of phenophases were higher at the east face. The study demonstrated the influence of the environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation of the cerrado faces on the phenological pattern of X. aromatica. Similar responses may be observed for other species, ultimately affecting patterns of floral visitation and fruit production, which reinforces the importance of considering the cardinal direction in studies of edge effects and fragmentation.O cerrado brasileiro vem sofrendo um processo intenso de fragmentação, que levou ao aumento de remanescentes sujeitos aos efeitos de borda e a alterações nas condições ambientais que podem afetar a fenologia das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a fenologia reprodutiva de Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae difere sob diferentes condições de luz em um cerrado sensu stricto no sudeste do Brasil. Comparamos a fenologia reprodutiva de árvores de X. aromatica distribuídas nas faces leste e sul do cerrado, observadas mensalmente de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2008. A face leste apresentou

  11. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  12. The seasonal variation of the chemical composition of essential oils from Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Erica Biolcati P; Soares, Marisi G; Mariane, Bruna; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the impact of seasonal variation on the chemical composition of essential oils from the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae) obtained over the course of one year (January-December 2011) and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the ripe fruits of the same plant. Furthermore, the essential oils of the leaves were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial activity. The essential oils of the leaves contain a mixture of monoterpenes, one diterpene and several sesquiterpenes. The main components were identified as the sesquiterpenes germacrene D (29%-50%) and bicyclogermacrene (24%-37%). No significant variation was observed for the composition of the essential oil of the leaves over the course of the year, except for the month of November, when the ripe fruit were collected. In this month, substantially decreased concentrations of germacrene D (28.8 ± 0.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (23.9 ± 0.6%) were measured and the emergence of spathulenol (10.4 ± 0.2%) was observed. The essential oils extracted from the ripe fruit revealed the presence of a variety of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and hydrocarbons. The main constituents of these oils were neryl (8.8 ± 0.2%) and geranyl (27.3 ± 0.7%) formates, γ-muurolene (10.3 ± 0.9%) and dendrolasin (8.23 ± 0.06%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of P. macrocarpa towards a range of bacterial and yeast strains was examined. In order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils obtained from the January collection of the leaves, broth microdilution assays were carried out, which showed a significant antimicrobial activity towards Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A and D as well as C. gattii serotypes B and C.

  13. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (pmuricata extract has a protective, beneficial effect on hepatic tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress, possibly by decreasing lipid peroxidation and indirectly enhancing production of insulin and endogenous antioxidants.

  14. STUTIES ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE SEEDS FROM ARTABOSTRYS HEXAPETALUS (ANNONACEAE)%鹰爪种子化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余竞光; 李彤梅; 孙兰; 罗秀珍; 丁卫; 李德宇

    2001-01-01

    目的研究药用植物鹰爪Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.) Bhandari的化学成分。方法利用各种色谱技术进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据进行结构鉴定。结果从鹰爪种子分得4种木脂素:异洋商陆素A(isoamericanin A, 1)、异洋商陆醇A(isoamericaninol A, 2)、洋商陆素B(americanin B, 3)、鹰爪木脂醇(artabotrycinol, 4),以及(R)-鹰爪三醇[(R)-artabotriol, 5]、棕榈酸(6)、β-谷甾醇(7)和胡萝卜苷(8)等。结论鹰爪木脂醇(4)和鹰爪三醇(5)为新化合物,其余3种木脂素为首次从该植物分得。%AIM To study the chemical constituents of the seeds from Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.) Bhandari (Annonaceae). METHODS Various chromatographic techniques were used to separate and purify the constituents. Their structures were elucidated on the physico-chemical properties and spectral data. RESULTS Eight compounds were isolated from the seeds of A.hexapetalus. They were identified as four neolignans: isoamericanin A (1), isoamericanol A (2), americanin B (3) and artabotrycinol (4), a semiterpenoid: (R)-artabotriol (5) and others: palmitic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7) and daucosterol (8). CONCLUSION Artabotrycinol (4) and (R)-artabotriol (5) are new compounds. Three other neolignans were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. neo-Lignans and Hemiterpenoid from the Seeds of Artabostrys hexapetalus(Annonaceae)%鹰爪种子的木脂素和半萜化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余竞光; 李彤梅; 孙兰; 罗秀珍; 丁卫; 李德宇

    2002-01-01

    Four neo-lignans: isoamericanin A(1), isoamericanol A(2), americanin B(3), artabotrycinol(4), a be miterpenoid: (R)-artabotrtiol(5) and other compounds: Pcid(6),β-sitosterol(7)and daucosterol(8) were isolated from the seeds of Artabostrys hexapetalus(L.f.) Bhadari(Annonaceae). Artabotrycinol(4)is a new neo-ligan and (R)-artabotriol(5) is a new hemiterpenoid. Their structures were established by IR, UV, MS, ID and 2D NMR. Three other neo-lignans 1, 2, 3 were isolated from this plant for the first tome.%从药用植物鹰爪种子分得4个木个木脂素: 异洋商陆素 A(isoamericanin A,1),异洋商陆醇A(isoamericanol A,2),洋商陆素B(americanin B, 3),鹰爪木脂醇(artabotrycinol, 4) 和一个半萜:(R)-鹰爪三醇[(R)-artabotriol, 5],以及棕榈酸(6),β-谷甾醇(7) 和胡萝卜苷 (8). 根据光谱数据(IR, UV, MS,ID, 2D-NMR)分析,确定它们的化学结构.其中,鹰爪木脂醇(4)是一个新木脂素,(R)-鹰爪三醇(5) 是一个新半萜醇.木脂素化合物1,2 和3 是首次从该植物分得.

  16. Isolation of modulators of the liver-specific organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 from Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Megan; Araya, Juan J; Timmermann, Barbara N; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are liver-specific transporters that mediate the uptake of a broad range of drugs into hepatocytes, including statins, antibiotics, and many anticancer drugs. Compounds that alter transport by one or both of these OATPs could potentially be used to target drugs to hepatocytes or improve the bioavailability of drugs that are cleared by the liver. In this study, we applied a bioassay-guided isolation approach to identify such compounds from the organic extract of Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae). Fractions of the plant extract were screened for effects on OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of the model substrates estradiol-17β-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate. We isolated three compounds, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and 8-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-α-terpineol, which inhibited estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake by OATP1B1 but not OATP1B3. In addition, a rare compound, quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, was identified that had distinct effects on each OATP. OATP1B1 was strongly inhibited, as was OATP1B3-mediated transport of estradiol-17β-glucuronide. However, OATP1B3-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate was stimulated 4- to 5-fold. Kinetic analysis of this stimulation revealed that the apparent affinity for estrone-3-sulfate was increased (decreased K(m)), whereas the maximal rate of transport (V(max)) was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a mechanism through which the hepatic uptake of drug OATP substrates could be stimulated.

  17. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

  18. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  19. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time...... is achieved. Drift independence is obtained for small critical features using a radial scan strategy, and a back scan routine ensures minimal line width deviation removing redeposited material. Milling a design similar to a nano four-point probe with a pitch down to 400nm we display what optimized FIB milling...

  20. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  1. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  2. Milling Stability Analysis Based on Chebyshev Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, Jianwei; LI, He; HAN, Ping; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-09-01

    Chebyshev segmentation method was used to discretize the time period contained in delay differential equation, then the Newton second-order difference quotient method was used to calculate the cutter motion vector at each time endpoint, and the Floquet theory was used to determine the stability of the milling system after getting the transfer matrix of milling system. Using the above methods, a two degree of freedom milling system stability issues were investigated, and system stability lobe diagrams were got. The results showed that the proposed methods have the following advantages. Firstly, with the same calculation accuracy, the points needed to represent the time period are less by the Chebyshev Segmentation than those of the average segmentation, and the computational efficiency of the Chebyshev Segmentation is higher. Secondly, if the time period is divided into the same parts, the stability lobe diagrams got by Chebyshev segmentation method are more accurate than those of the average segmentation.

  3. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  4. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  5. Structural characterization of mechanically milled ZnO: influence of zirconia milling media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojisavljevic, K; Sreckovic, T; Brankovic, Z; Brankovic, G [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Scepanovic, M; Grujic-Brojcin, M [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: katarina@cms.bg.ac.yu

    2008-11-26

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained by milling in a planetary ball mill with a zirconia milling assembly for up to 5 h in air. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy methods. The deviation of the lattice parameters from single crystal values was related to defect creation and increase of strain inside the hexagonal lattice of milled ZnO nanoparticles. The observed redshift and peak broadening of the major first-order Raman modes were ascribed to the formation of intrinsic defects by mechanical milling combined with the effects of phonon confinement in nanosized powders. To investigate the type of intrinsic defects and impurities introduced during milling, it was necessary to analyze both milled and thermally treated ZnO. After thermal treatment, the intensity of the Raman spectra increased and the peak positions reverted to values similar to those in unmilled ZnO powder, pointing to defect annihilation. XRD patterns of sintered samples confirmed the existence of zirconia impurities and the Rietveld analysis revealed a small amount of zirconium introduced in the ZnO crystal lattice on the Zn sites or interstitial sites. The large influence of those impurities on the micro-Raman spectra of thermally treated samples was observed in this study.

  6. Structural characterization of mechanically milled ZnO: influence of zirconia milling media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojisavljević, K.; Šćepanović, M.; Srećković, T.; Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Branković, Z.; Branković, G.

    2008-11-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained by milling in a planetary ball mill with a zirconia milling assembly for up to 5 h in air. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy methods. The deviation of the lattice parameters from single crystal values was related to defect creation and increase of strain inside the hexagonal lattice of milled ZnO nanoparticles. The observed redshift and peak broadening of the major first-order Raman modes were ascribed to the formation of intrinsic defects by mechanical milling combined with the effects of phonon confinement in nanosized powders. To investigate the type of intrinsic defects and impurities introduced during milling, it was necessary to analyze both milled and thermally treated ZnO. After thermal treatment, the intensity of the Raman spectra increased and the peak positions reverted to values similar to those in unmilled ZnO powder, pointing to defect annihilation. XRD patterns of sintered samples confirmed the existence of zirconia impurities and the Rietveld analysis revealed a small amount of zirconium introduced in the ZnO crystal lattice on the Zn sites or interstitial sites. The large influence of those impurities on the micro-Raman spectra of thermally treated samples was observed in this study.

  7. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  8. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  9. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  10. Supermembrane limit of Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theory with $N{=}1$ super translation group in eleven auxiliary dimensions as the structure group. The gauge theory is defined on a direct product manifold $\\Sigma_3\\times S^1$, where $\\Sigma_3$ is a three-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and $S^1$ is a circle. We show that in the infrared limit, when the metric on $S^1$ is scaled down, the Yang-Mills action supplemented by a Wess-Zumino-type term reduces to the action of an M2-brane.

  11. Wollstonecraft, Mill, and Women's Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Eileen Hunt

    2016-01-01

    This book argues that Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill are the two primary architects of the modern theory of women’s rights as human rights. It only through addressing women’s rights, Botting argues, that the idea of human rights was given universal scope and application. Botting describes the development of the idea of women’s human rights beginning with the work of Wollstonecraft and Mill, and gives an account of their reception in both western and nonwestern contexts. Her goal is ...

  12. Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, Jose A R

    2015-01-01

    Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations are well known from long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists from their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories.

  13. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  14. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  15. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

  16. Investigation of the milling capabilities of the F10 Fine Grind mill using Box-Behnken designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Tay, Justin Yong Soon; Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-01

    Size reduction or milling of the active is often the first processing step in the design of a dosage form. The ability of a mill to convert coarse crystals into the target size and size distribution efficiently is highly desirable as the quality of the final pharmaceutical product after processing is often still dependent on the dimensional attributes of its component constituents. The F10 Fine Grind mill is a mechanical impact mill designed to produce unimodal mid-size particles by utilizing a single-pass two-stage size reduction process for fine grinding of raw materials needed in secondary processing. Box-Behnken designs were used to investigate the effects of various mill variables (impeller, blower and feeder speeds and screen aperture size) on the milling of coarse crystals. Response variables included the particle size parameters (D10, D50 and D90), span and milling rate. Milled particles in the size range of 5-200 μm, with D50 ranging from 15 to 60 μm, were produced. The impeller and feeder speeds were the most critical factors influencing the particle size and milling rate, respectively. Size distributions of milled particles were better described by their goodness-of-fit to a log-normal distribution (i.e. unimodality) rather than span. Milled particles with symmetrical unimodal distributions were obtained when the screen aperture size was close to the median diameter of coarse particles employed. The capacity for high throughput milling of particles to a mid-size range, which is intermediate between conventional mechanical impact mills and air jet mills, was demonstrated in the F10 mill. Prediction models from the Box-Behnken designs will aid in providing a better guide to the milling process and milled product characteristics.

  17. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors...... milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling...... revealed that the process induced disorder was negligible with regard to the dissolution rate. The predicted primary particle size of 1.4 µm could be confirmed experimentally, but due to agglomeration of the primary particles a dissolution rate advantage was not shown, highlighting the importance...

  18. Complete Mill Simulation of the Rolling Process of 1660 mm Hot Strip Continuous Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingrui WANG; Zhenshan CUI; Yingjie WANG; Hongmin LIU

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional plastic deformations of strip are analyzed using the stream surface strip element method, the elastic deformations of rolls are analyzed using the influence coefficient method, the analyzing and computing model of shape and crown of 4-high mill was established by combining them, and the rolling process of 1660 mm hot strip continuous mills was simulated. The simulated results tally well with the experimental results. The model and the method for simulation of shape analysis and control of hot strip mills were provided.

  19. The mycotoxin distribution in maize milling fractions under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, H-M; Shephard, G S; Louw, W; Rheeder, J P; Gelderblom, W C A

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of maize and maize-based food and feed products poses a health risk to humans and animals if not adequately controlled and managed. The current study investigates the effect of dry milling on the reduction of fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize. Five composite samples, constructed to represent different mycotoxin contamination levels were degermed yielding degermed maize and the germ. The degermed maize was milled under laboratory conditions and four major milling fractions (SPECIAL, SUPER, semolina (SEM) and milling hominy feed) collected. The whole maize, degermed maize and total hominy feed (germ+milling hominy feed) were reconstructed to ensure homogenous samples for mycotoxin analyses. For comparison, commercial dry milling fractions (whole maize, SPECIAL, SUPER and total hominy feed), collected from three South African industrial mills, were analysed for the same mycotoxins and hence a more accurate assessment of the distribution between the different milling fractions. The distribution of the mycotoxins during the experimental dry milling of the degermed maize differs, with FB mainly concentrated in the SPECIAL, DON in the SEM whereas ZEA was equally distributed between the two milling fractions. Distribution of mycotoxins between the fractions obtained during commercial dry milling generally provided similar results with the total hominy feed containing the highest and the SUPER milling fractions the lowest mycotoxin levels although variations existed. Although milling is an effective way to reduce mycotoxins in maize, kernel characteristics and resultant fungal colonisation may impact on the distribution of specific mycotoxins among the different milling fractions. Differences in industrial dry milling practices and problems encountered in sampling bulk maize remain a large problem in assessing mycotoxin contamination in milling fractions intended for human consumption.

  20. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  1. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Gemert, J.C. van; Gevers, T.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M. van; Rooij, O. de; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only, te

  2. Reusable neoprene jacket protects parts for chemical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Reusable neoprene jacket is used to prepare metal part or panel for chemical milling. Jacket covers back and upper rim of part and is sealed before the masking solution is applied to surface to be milled. This reduces amount of masking material required for milling identical parts and increases production.

  3. 46 CFR 50.25-3 - Manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer or mill certification. 50.25-3 Section 50... PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-3 Manufacturer or mill certification. (a) A manufacturer or mill producing materials used in certain products for installation on inspected vessels,...

  4. Focused ion beam milling of photonic crystals in bulk silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Wenbin; Ridder, de René M.; Tong, Xing-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) direct milling was used to fabricate photonic crystals in bulk silicon. The milling requires the sidewalls as nearly perpendicular to the slab as possible and the top profile of the holes to be smooth. The re-deposition of milled material exaggerates the hole profiles. The eff

  5. Strip shape control capability of hot wide strip rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzhong Wang; Quan Yang; Anrui He; Jian Shao; Haitao Bian

    2008-01-01

    The elasticity deformation of rolls was analyzed by means of two-dimensional f'mite element method (FEM) with vari-able thickness. Three typical mills were used as objects for analysis. A thorough study was done on the control capabilities of these mills on the strip shape. Then the strip shape control capabilities of the three mills was compared synthetically.

  6. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment. 58.419 Section... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.419 Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment. Knives, hand rakes... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed...

  7. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  8. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  9. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Motozuka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the {001} planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method.

  10. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology, 2236-2 Kamimakuwa, Motosu, Gifu 501-0495 (Japan); Tagaya, M. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Morinaga, M. [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method.

  11. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  12. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  13. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaini...

  14. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  15. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  16. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaining...

  17. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  18. 29 CFR 570.54 - Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or cooperage stock mill (Order 4). 570.54 Section 570.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...

  19. 77 FR 43369 - Alumax Mill Products, Inc. Doing Business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana a Subsidiary of Alcoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Alumax Mill Products, Inc. Doing Business as Alcoa Mill Products..., Inc., doing business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana, a subsidiary of Alcoa, Inc., Nash, Texas,...

  20. Variação química no óleo essencial das folhas de seis indivíduos de Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae Chemical variability of the essential oil of the leaves from six individuals of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina L. Valter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Duguetia furfuracea, Annonaceae, uma invasora de pastagens, é também usada na medicina tradicional em diversos estados no Brasil. Devido à significante diferença de odor entre dois grupos de indivíduos desta planta em um remanescente de cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, seis amostras foram selecionadas de acordo com a intensidade de odor em suas folhas: In-01, In-03 e In-05: odor pronunciado (Perfil A; In-02, In-04 e In-06: odor fraco ou ausência de odor (Perfil B. As folhas foram coletadas e submetidas a hidrodestilação para obtenção dos óleos essenciais, os quais foram analisados por CG/EM. Uma boa compatibilidade foi encontrada entre os resultados obtidos por CG/EM e a análise olfativa adotada para as amostras: espécimes odor pronunciado apresentaram uma alta porcentagem de monoterpenos e alguns sesquiterpenos: In-01 (β-felandreno, 42,2%; mirceno, 6,8%; α-felandreno, 4,6%; In-03 (terpin-4-ol, 21,6%; sabineno, 17,3%; p-cimeno, 5,6%; In-05 (sabineno, 25,1%; terpin-4-ol, 16,2%; p-cimeno, 8,3%. Apenas sesquiterpenos foram encontrados nos espécimes que apresentaram odor fraco ou ausência do mesmo (com constituinte majoritário biciclogermacreno: 21,4%, 24,0%, and 29,1%, respectivamente, para os In-02, In-04 e In-06.Duguetia furfuracea, Annonaceae, a pasture weed, is also used in folk medicine in several Brazilian states. Because of the significant difference in odor between two groups of this plant in a remnant patch of savanna in Campo Grande county, Mato Grosso do Sul, six samples were selected according to the odor intensity in the leaves (In-01, In-03, and In-05: pronounced odor; In-02, In-04, and In-06: weak odor or its absence. The leaves were collected and subjected to steam distillation for extraction of essential oils, which were analyzed by GC-MS. A good agreement was found between CG/MS results and olfactory evaluation of the samples: specimens exhibiting leaf scent had a high percentage of monoterpenes and

  1. Vibrations in High Speed Milling of Thin-walled Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tongyue; HE Ning; LI Liang

    2006-01-01

    Thin-walled structures have been widely used in the aerospace industry. The dynamic interaction between the milling cutter and thin-walled workpiece can easily lead to vibration. This paper investigates the vibration caused during milling the thin-walled workpiece on the NC machining center, presents a theoretical milling vibration model of thin-walled beam. The model was verified by using milling experiments and numerical simulations. Some valuable conclusions are derived, this will be references to scientific research and guides to the vibration-free milling of thin-walled structures at different cutting speeds.

  2. Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture, UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture with poreformer, M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

  3. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  4. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  5. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  6. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  7. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  8. Analytic representations of Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Feng, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space-fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  9. Paper mill wastewater detoxification by solar photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, C.; Funken, K.H.; Oliveira, L. de; Tzschirner, M. [German Aerospace Center, Inst. of Technical Thermodynamics - Solar Research, Cologne (Germany); Machado, A.E.H. [Lab. de Fotoquimica - Inst. de Quimica, Univ. Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the WATER project the German Aerospace Center, DLR, and the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, UFU, analyse the possibilities of treating paper mill effluents by solar photocatalysis for the paper mill of the Brazilian paper producer Votorantim Celulose e Papel, VCP, at Luiz Antonio, SP, Brazil. The degradation of the bio-polymer lignin is a vast problem in paper production. The tests have shown that treatment by the photocatalyst TiO{sub 2} and solar radiation is an ecological future oriented approach to solve this problem. The treatment of lignin containing process water by solar photocatalysis was optimised and the economics for solar treatment plants of different sizes was estimated to check the possibilities for implementing the technology in industrial processes. (orig.)

  10. Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  11. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  12. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  13. Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F^2 + α^2F^4) which are globally supersymmetric up to order α^2 in six- and ten-dimensional spacetimes are given. The F^4-terms turn out to occur in the combination α^2[tr F^4 - ¼(tr F^2)^2], where the trace is over the Lorentz i

  14. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  15. Chemical-milling solution for invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuk, W.

    1980-01-01

    Excellent surface finishes and tolerances are achieved using two formulations. Solution A gives finish of 3.17 micrometers after milling at 57 to 63 deg C. Constituents of A are: Hydrofluoric acid (70%), 5,8 oz/gal; nitric acid (40-42) degrees Baume), 40 oz/gal. Alternative solution gives 2.16 micrometer finish, and differs from A by addition of 7% phosphoric acid. Formulations eliminate channeling at root fillets, dishing, island formation, and overhangs.

  16. Homogeneity of ball milled ceramic powders: Effect of jar shape and milling conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broseghini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains data and supporting information of and complementary to the research article entitled “Effect of jar shape on high-energy planetary ball milling efficiency: simulations and experiments” (Broseghini et al., [1]. Calcium fluoride (CaF2 was ground using two jars of different shape (cylindrical and half-moon installed on a planetary ball-mill, exploring different operating conditions (jar-to-plate angular velocity ratio and milling time. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images and X-Ray Powder Diffraction data (XRPD were collected to assess the effect of milling conditions on the end-product crystallite size. Due to the inhomogeneity of the end product, the Whole Powder Pattern Model (WPPM, (Scardi, 2008 [2] analysis of XRPD data required the hypothesis of a bimodal distribution of sizes – respectively ground (fine fraction and less-to-not ground (coarse fraction – confirmed by SEM images and suggested by the previous literature (Abdellatief et al., 2013 [3,4]. Predominance of fine fraction clearly indicates optimal milling conditions.

  17. Cutting force prediction for circular end milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baohai; Yan Xue; Luo Ming; Gao Ge

    2013-01-01

    A deduced cutting force prediction model for circular end milling process is presented in this paper.Traditional researches on cutting force model usually focus on linear milling process which does not meet other cutting conditions,especially for circular milling process.This paper presents an improved cutting force model for circular end milling process based on the typical linear milling force model.The curvature effects of tool path on chip thickness as well as entry and exit angles are analyzed,and the cutting force model of linear milling process is then corrected to fit circular end milling processes.Instantaneous cutting forces during circular end milling process are predicted according to the proposed model.The deduced cutting force model can be used for both linear and circular end milling processes.Finally,circular end milling experiments with constant and variable radial depth were carried out to verify the availability of the proposed method.Experiment results show that measured results and simulated results corresponds well with each other.

  18. EQUIVALENT NORMAL CURVATURE APPROACH MILLING MODEL OF MACHINING FREEFORM SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xianzhong; MA Weiguo; QI Haiying; YAN Zesheng; GAO Deli

    2008-01-01

    A new milling methodology with the equivalent normal curvature milling model machining freeform surfaces is proposed based on the normal curvature theorems on differential geometry. Moreover, a specialized whirlwind milling tool and a 5-axis CNC horizontal milling machine are introduced. This new milling model can efficiently enlarge the material removal volume at the tip of the whirlwind milling tool and improve the producing capacity. The machining strategy of this model is to regulate the orientation of the whirlwind milling tool relatively to the principal directions of the workpiece surface at the point of contact, so as to create a full match with collision avoidance between the workpiece surface and the symmetric rotational surface of the milling tool. The practical results show that this new milling model is an effective method in machining complex three- dimensional surfaces. This model has a good improvement on finishing machining time and scallop height in machining the freeform surfaces over other milling processes. Some actual examples for manufacturing the freeform surfaces with this new model are given.

  19. Twin Supergravities from Yang-Mills Squared

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, A; Duff, M J; Hughes, M J; Marrani, A; Nagy, S; Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    We consider `twin supergravities' - pairs of supergravities with $\\mathcal{N}_+$ and $\\mathcal{N}_-$ supersymmetries, $\\mathcal{N}_+>\\mathcal{N}_-$, with identical bosonic sectors - in the context of tensoring super Yang-Mills multiplets. It is demonstrated that the pairs of twin supergravity theories are related through their left and right super Yang-Mills factors. This procedure generates new theories from old. In particular, the matter coupled $\\mathcal{N}_-$ twins in $D=3,5,6$ and the $\\mathcal{N}_-=1$ twins in $D=4$ have not, as far as we are aware, been obtained previously using the double-copy construction, adding to the growing list of double-copy constructible theories. The use of fundamental matter multiplets in the double-copy construction leads us to introduce a bi-fundamental scalar that couples to the well-known bi-adjoint scalar field. It is also shown that certain matter coupled supergravities admit more than one factorisation into left and right super Yang-Mills-matter theories.

  20. Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    2016-11-01

    It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on X10 =R4 ×Y6, where Y6 is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on Σ2 ×R2, where Σ2 is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on R2 ⊂Σ2 ×R2 with a moduli space X10. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of Σ2, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on Σ2 × Tp2, where Tp2 is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture p. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on Tp2, depending on the choice of the gauge group. The full Green-Schwarz sigma model requires extending the gauge group to a supergroup and augmenting the action with a topological term.

  1. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sales Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p17Este artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  2. Folate in oats and its milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Nyström, Laura; Piironen, Vieno

    2012-12-01

    Total folate content in oat varieties from three harvesting years (2006-2008), and in oats milling fractions, was determined using microbiological assay. Furthermore, folate vitamer distribution in milling fractions were examined with the UPLC method, which was taken in use and validated. The total folate content of the cultivars varied moderately within each year. The average content in the 2008 samples was 685ng/gdm. The UPLC method proved fast and sensitive for determining seven folate monoglutamates in cereal samples. Folate content in fractions, which are normally discarded, such as flour from oat cutting and flaking, were 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than in native grain. The main folate vitamers found in the oat fractions were 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate, 5-HCO-H(4)folate, and 5,10-CH(+)-H(4)folate. The UPLC results more closely matched the microbiological results compared to those that are usually achieved with HPLC methods. This study illustrates that oats and, especially, by-products of milling are good sources of folate.

  3. Influence of milling time on fineness of Centella Asiatica particle size produced using planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, M. Z.; Ahmad, R.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-11-01

    Centella Asiatica (C. Asiatica)contains asiaticoside as bioactive constituent which can be potentially used in skin healing process. Unfortunately, the normal powders are difficult to be absorbed by the body effectively. In order to improve the value of use, nano C. Asiatica powder was prepared. The influence of milling time was carried out at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours and 10 hours. The effect of ball milling at different times was characterized using particles size analysis and FTIR Spectroscopy. The fineness of ground product was evaluated by recording the z-Average (nm), undersize distribution and polydispersity index (PdI). The results show that the smallest size particles by mean is 233 nm while FTIR spectra shows that there is no changing in the major component in the C. Asiatica powders with milling time.

  4. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Mauro Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo

  5. Effects of mechanical milling on the carbothermal reduction of oxide of WC/Co hardmetal scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Geun; Ha, Gook-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of mechanical milling on the carbothermal reduction of oxidized WC/Co hardmetal scrap with solid carbon were examined. Mixed powders were manufactured by milling the WC/Co hard metal scrap oxide and carbon powder in either a tumbler-ball mill or a planetary-ball mill. The milling type affected the carbothermal reduction of the oxide owing to the differing collision energies (mechanical milling energies) in the mills. The hardmetal scrap oxide powder (WO3, CoWO4) milled at high energy was more greatly reduced and at a lower temperature than that milled at lower mechanical energy. The formation of WC by the carburization reaction with solid carbon reached completion at a lower temperature after higher-energy milling than after lower-energy milling. The WC/Co composite particles synthesized by the combined oxidationmechanical milling-carbothermal reduction process were smaller when the initial powder was milled at higher mechanical energy.

  6. Design and Manufacturing of Ultra-Hard Micro-Milling Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战忠波; 李亮; 何宁; 卞荣; 赵孟

    2014-01-01

    Based on the study of existing typical micro-milling tools and the actual demand for micro-milling tools, the P3 design principle and design flow for ultra-hard micro-milling tool were introduced to give basic guidance for the optimization of micro-milling tools. Then, according to the P3 design flow, the manufacturing process of polycrystal-line diamond (PCD) micro-milling tool was proposed, and the PCD micro-milling tool with diameter of 0.5 mm was developed. Finally, the micro-milling test on the slot was carried out to study the milling performance of PCD micro-milling tool.

  7. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  8. Fractal and Chaos Characteristics in Rock Milled Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxu LUO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the mechanism and to reveal the natural characteristics in rock milled process, the milling load was deemed to be a component of the deterministic nonlinear dissipation system. The characteristic factor model of milling load was built on the basis of time delay method, and the phase-space of milling load was rebuilt. the dimensional phase-type of broken attractor was described. The results indicated that the broken attractor was a fractal set ,which acquired through the scale conversion of phase-space developed by each dimension. The relevant dimension of broken attractor can be as the identification to reflect the change of rock broken mechanism. And the Lyapunov exponential spectrum and the maximum Lyapunov exponent were acquired by confirming the system reconstruction dimension. The chaos phenomenon was existed in the rock milled process, which provides the basis for building the deterministic model of rock milled process.

  9. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...... in order to detect faults in the coal mill when they emerge. This paper deals with the second objective. Based on a simple dynamic model of the energy balance a residual is formed for the coal mill. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate this residual. The estimated residual is following...... tested on measured data of a fault in a coal mill, it can hereby be concluded that this residual is very useful for detecting faults in the coal mill....

  10. Research on Frequency Response Characteristics of Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiZhengguo; ZhangKenan

    2005-01-01

    The measurement method of frequency response characteristics for rolling mill is established by imposing different signal excitation on PID input of rolling mill under the different rolling conditions. The analysis results declare that sweep sine signal was relative efficient to evaluation for the frequency response character of hydraulic system. The practical application shows that the corresponding relationship between the parameters and the frequency response range of the rolling mill is helpful for parameters verification of process control and condition monitoring of hydraulic system.

  11. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  12. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  13. HEAT FLOW FOR YANG-MILLS-HIGGS FIELDS, PART I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Yang-Mills-Higgs field generalizes the Yang-Mills field. The authors establish the local existence and uniqueness of the weak solution to the heat flow for the Yang-Mills-Higgs field in a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian 4-manifold, and show that the weak solution is gauge-equivalent to a smooth solution and there are at most finite singularities at the maximum existing time.

  14. Simulation of Vertical Planetary Mill Based on Virtual Prototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical model of vertical planetary mill is set up, whose dynamic and kinetic characteristics are described as well. Based on the analysis of system dynamics of vertical planetary mill, virtual prototyping technology is applied in the simulation of this mill. The development of virtual prototype of equipment, virtual test and optimization of virtual prototype are stated in detail. Some useful conclusions which have theoretical meaning for the manufacturing of vertical planetary mill have been obtained. Furthermore, it is pointed out that virtual prototyping technology shows great advantage and is bound to become a main method of developing product in the future.

  15. Model Predictive Control for an Industrial SAG Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    identication. When applied to MIMO systems we call this controller a MIMO-ARX based MPC. We use an industrial Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill to illustrate the performance of this controller. SAG mills are the primary units in a grinding chain and also the most power consuming units. Therefore, improved...... control of SAG mills has the potential to signicantly improve eciency and reduce the specic energy consumption for mineral processes. Grinding circuits involving SAG mills are multivariate processes. Commissioning of a control system based on a classical single-loop controllers with logic is time...

  16. Preparation of iron sulphides by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, R.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Larsen, R.K.;

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of a powder mixture consisting of 50 a.% Fe and 50 a.% S during high energy ball milling has been studied by x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. After around 19 h of milling FeS2 and FeS havebeen formed. By further milling the FeS compound becomes dominating and only Fe......S with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm was observed after milling times longer than 67 h. Mossbauer spectra obtained with applied fields show that the particles are antiferromagnetic or have a strongly canted spin structure....

  17. Studies in Annonaceae. XXXV. Phylogeny of the Guatteria-group and Related Genera%番荔枝科研究35.Guatteria类群和有关属的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; Noor.,JK

    1999-01-01

    Guatteria类群由4个新热带的属组成,即Guatteria,Guatteriopsis,Guatteriella和Heteropetalum.不同的作者基于不同的证据得出的它在番荔枝中的地位各不相同.基于宏观和微观的形态特征,对该类群进行了表型和分支分析.分支分析表明,所研究属的系统发育分支方式仅由极少数共同衍征支持,同型现象非常明显,所获得的唯一的最简约分支图可分为两个基本部分,即一个(假)合生心皮分支和一个离生心皮grade.在表征聚类图和主成分分析的三维构象图中同样可以区分出离生心皮和(假)合生心皮两个表征群,表征分析表明Guatteria类群处在其它离生心皮类和(假)合生心皮类的中间位置.然而分支分析表明Guatteria类群与番荔枝科中最进化的(假)合生心皮类有姊妹群关系.Guatteria类群是离生心皮类中最进化的一类.番荔枝科中离生心皮类和(假)合生心皮类在漫长的进化过程中经历了强烈的形态分化而显示出极大的形态差异,然而在系统发育上它们可以通过Guatteria类群作为纽带而联系起来.%The Guatteria-group consists of four neotropical genera, Guatteria, Guatteriopsis, Guatteriella, and Heteropetalum. Its systematic position within Annonaceae, interpreted by different authors based on various sources of evidence, is quite questionable. In this paper phylogenetic and phenetic analyses were carried out by using 44 phylogenetically informative characters from morphology, leaf and wood anatomy, as well as palynology of 38 annonacaeous genera with Magnoliaceae as outgroup. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the phylogeny of selected genera in Annonaceae is weakly supported with branching patterns determined by few, mostly homoplasious, characters. Homoplasy in the studied genera is pervasive. The single most parsimonious tree obtained can be divided into two basic parts, i.e., a (pseudo)syncarpous clade and an apocarpous grade. The

  18. Nutritional Impacts of Different Whole Grain Milling Techniques: A Review of Milling Practices and Existing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.; Adams, J.; Harriman, C.; Miller, C.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2015-01-01

    The majority of whole grain flour is produced using modern milling techniques, usually with steel rollers, in which a batch of grain is separated into multiple millstreams, sifted, and recombined. In some cases constituent millstreams are purchased and combined by a supplier or end user to achieve a

  19. Nutritional impacts of different whole grain milling techniques : A review of milling practices and existing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.; Adams, J.; Harriman, C.; Miller, C.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2015-01-01

    The majority of whole grain flour is produced using modern milling techniques, usually with steel rollers, in which a batch of grain is separated into multiple millstreams, sifted, and recombined. In some cases constituent millstreams are purchased and combined by a supplier or end user to achieve a

  20. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuchter, C.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  1. Highly Productive Tools For Turning And Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilko, Karol

    2015-12-01

    Beside cutting speed, shift is another important parameter of machining. Its considerable influence is shown mainly in the workpiece machined surface microgeometry. In practice, mainly its combination with the radius of cutting tool tip rounding is used. Options to further increase machining productivity and machined surface quality are hidden in this approach. The paper presents variations of the design of productive cutting tools for lathe work and milling on the base of the use of the laws of the relationship among the highest reached uneveness of machined surface, tool tip radius and shift.

  2. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andres; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  3. Landau gauge Yang-Mills correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Fister, Leonard; Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-09-01

    We investigate Landau gauge S U (3 ) Yang-Mills theory in a systematic vertex expansion scheme for the effective action with the functional renormalization group. Particular focus is put on the dynamical creation of the gluon mass gap at nonperturbative momenta and the consistent treatment of quadratic divergences. The nonperturbative ghost and transverse gluon propagators as well as the momentum-dependent ghost-gluon, three-gluon and four-gluon vertices are calculated self-consistently with the classical action as the only input. The apparent convergence of the expansion scheme is discussed and within the errors, our numerical results are in quantitative agreement with available lattice results.

  4. String Scale in Noncommutative Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, N; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    We identify the effective string scale of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory (NCYM) with the noncommutativity scale through its dual supergravity description. We argue that Newton's force law may be obtained with 4 dimensional NCYM with maximal SUSY. It provides a nonperturbative compactification mechanism of IIB matrix model. We can associate NCYM with the von Neumann lattice by the bi-local representation. We argue that it is superstring theory on the von Neumann lattice. We show that our identification of its effective string scale is consistent with exact T-duality (Morita equivalence) of NCYM.

  5. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt, and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s, Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrication process and characteristics & specifications of wind turbine has been mentioned

  7. Children's Rights, "die Antipadagogen," and the Paternalism of John Stuart Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenbo, Sven Erik

    1989-01-01

    Examines how John Stuart Mill would have viewed present-day educational liberalists' claims that children should be included in Mill's principle of individual liberty. Concludes that educational liberalists cannot rightly claim Mill as spokesman for their views. (KO)

  8. Mechanically milled aluminium matrix composites reinforced with halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work describes fabrication of aluminium AlMg1SiCu matrix composite materials reinforced with halloysite nanotubes by powder metallurgy techniques and hot extrusion.Design/methodology/approach: Mechanical milling, compacting and hot extrusion successively are considering as a method for manufacturing metal composite powders with a controlled fine microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties. It is possible by the repeated welding and fracturing of powders particles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: The milling process has a huge influence on the properties of powder materials, changing the spherical morphology of as-received powder during milling process to flattened one due to particle deformation followed by welding and fracturing particles of deformed and hardened enough which allows to receive equiaxial particles morphology again. The investigation shows that so called brittle mineral particles yields to plastic deformation as good as ductile aluminium alloy particles. That indicates that the halloysite powder can play a role of the accelerator during mechanical milling. High energy ball milling as a method of mechanical milling improves the distribution of the halloysite reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing the size of particles. The apparent density changes versus milling time can be used to control the composite powders production by mechanical milling and the presence of halloysite reinforcements particles accelerates the mechanical milling process.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to knowledge about technology, structure and properties of aluminium alloy matrix composite material reinforced with mineral nanoparticles.Practical implications: Conducted research shows that applied technology allows obtaining very good microstructural characteristics.Originality/value: It has been confirmed that halloysite nanotubes can be applied as an effective

  9. Effect of milling time on the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by wet milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Musa Mutlu [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Ozcan, Sadan, E-mail: sadan@hacettepe.edu.tr [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Ceylan, Abdullah; Firat, Tezer [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, nanosize magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles have been prepared directly from metallic iron (Fe) powder within distilled water (H{sub 2}O) by using a planetary ball mill, and the effect of milling time has been investigated. According to Rietveld refinement result obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, the amount of Fe decreases from 98.2% to 0.0%, and it is transformed into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, from 1.8% to 100.0%, with the increasing milling time from 1 to 48 h. Due to similar crystal structure of the magnetite and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as a chemical analysis method was used to verify the magnetite structure. FTIR spectra have clearly revealed absorption peaks around 628, 581 and 443 cm{sup -1}, which are in good agreement with the characteristic absorption peaks of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. In addition Raman analysis verified the formation of magnetite phase with a clear main band peak at 671 cm{sup -1}. Chemical analyses have shown that the total amount of Fe in the milled sample for 48 h is 73.04%, which contains 24.10% Fe{sup 2+} and 49.34% Fe{sup 3+}. These results are consistent with the theoretically estimated values of the magnetite. It has been observed that the saturation magnetization decreased from 146.02 to 63.68 emu/g with increasing milling time due to the formation of the ferrimagnetic magnetite phase.

  10. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  11. Deformations of Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cofano, Marco; Krasnov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study a new class of power-counting non-renormalisable gauge theories in four space-time dimensions. The Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the self-dual part of the field strength. The resulting perturbation theory has the property that whenever two derivatives act on an internal line propagator, the result is a delta-function and the line collapses to a point. This means that there remains at most one derivative on each internal line, which gives improved ulta-violet behaviour. For many purposes, this class of theories behaves just like ordinary Yang-Mills theory. In particular, they all share the Yang-Mills theory MHV amplitudes. Moreover, these theories remain constructible in the sense that higher-point tree level scattering amplitudes can be obtained from the lower-point amplitudes using the BCFW recursion relations. Also, the square of these gauge-theory amplitudes gives the scattering amplitudes of "deformations" of General Relativity, at least for the low particle numbers that we...

  12. Quantum Yang--Mills Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua co...

  13. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces ca...

  16. Stonecutter Mills, Inc., Isothermal Community College. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Greg

    Stonecutter Mills, Inc., is a textile manufacturing company with a major production facility in Spindale, North Carolina. In the past few years, Stonecutter Mills employees have been given an opportunity to spend up to 2 hours a week on company time to participate in PLATO-supported learning at Isothermal Community College. Employees could choose…

  17. The MediaMill TRECVID 2010 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; de Rooij, O.; Huurnink, B.; Gavves, E.; Odijk, D.; de Rijke, M.; Gevers, T.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2010 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: semantic indexing, known-item search, and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill concept detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2009

  18. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  19. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  20. Dynamic Model of Gap Loop for HCW Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-ming; YANG Qiu-xia; CHE Hai-jun; CHANG Ling-fang

    2004-01-01

    The hydraulic automatic gauge control system using gap loop for cold mill was designed. The stiffness of HCW cold mill was defined for gap loop, and the dynamic model of gauge control system for gap loop was built with mechanism analysis. The stiffness for gap loop and the cylinder displacement loop were measured.

  1. 33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel....

  3. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  4. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom;

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control of the c......This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  5. Simulation and Optimization of Turning-Milling Complex Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the turning-milling complex processing simulation platform is established based on the simulation and optimization platform of VERICUT NC machining, with WFL M65 turning-milling complex machining center as the research object; taking barrel body parts as an example, the simulation machining and related process issues checking in machining process is made and the analysis and optimization of effect factors is made for processing efficiency. The application indicates that: the research results effectively realize the simulation of the turning-milling complex machining process and the correctness verification and process optimization of the NC machining program, improve the processing efficiency and the processing quality, well improve the application level of enterprise turning-milling complex machining center, promote the development of the turning-milling complex machining technology.

  6. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  7. Milling of organic solids in a jet mill. Part 1 : Determination of the selection function and related mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, O; Vromans, H; Faassen, F; Maarschalk, KV

    2005-01-01

    The particle size distribution of pharmaceutically active materials and other fine chemicals determines the performance of the final product to a large extent. Often milling of these particles is necessary. It is not possible to determine the milling conditions solely on the basis of the particle si

  8. Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adefegha SA; Oboh G

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and seeds of Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)]. Methods: Both spices were each extracted with methanol and 1M HCl (1:1, w/v) mixture to give the phenolic-rich extracts, which were used for the in vitro analyses [total phenol, total flavonoid and antioxidant properties (reducing properties, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS*) radical scavenging abilities]. Thereafter, thirty male albino rats were divided into five groups of six. Group I represented control group; Group II & III were fed diet containing 2%Ethiopian pepper & 4% XA while Group IV & V ate diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ashanti pepper. Results: The results suggest that diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper could enhance some in vivo antioxidant status, maintain membrane integrity and protect the liver against oxidative stress. Conclusions: This could be attributed to the phenolic contents and the in vitro antioxidant properties of the Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper. However, dietary supplementation with 4% Ethiopian pepper showed the most promising protective potentials.

  9. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  10. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  11. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  12. Dry face milling of titanium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Hassan; Zhenqiang Yao

    2004-01-01

    In machining titanium alloys, cutting tools generally wear out very rapidly because of the high cutting temperature resulted from the low thermal conductivity and density of the work material. In order to increase the tool life, it is necessary to suppress the cutting heat as much as possible by applying an abundant amount of coolant, but this will entail serious techno-environmental and biological problems. To study the performance and avoid these limitations, a PVD-coated insert was used to the dry face mill of (α +β) titanium alloys. As a result it was found that the inserts exhibit an excellent cutting performance at low cutting speeds and feed rates, and there is no significant difference in the dominant insert failure mode between the wet and dry cutting in discontinuous cutting.

  13. Band Structure in Yang-Mills Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    We show how Yang-Mills theory on $S^3\\times R$ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different theta sectors coexist but are not mixed by local operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that $B+L$ violation at LHC is unsuppressed.

  14. Quantum Yang-Mills field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We show that the Dyson-Schwinger set of equations for the Yang-Mills theory can be exactly solved till the two-point function. This is obtained given a set of nonlinear waves solving the classical equations of motion. Translation invariance is maintained by the proper choice of the solution of the equation for the two-point function as devised by Coleman. The computation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is performed in the same way as devised by Bender, Milton and Savage providing a set of partial differential equations whose proof of existence of the solutions is standard. So, the correlation functions of the theory could be proved to exist and the two-point function manifests a mass gap.

  15. Steel mill products analysis using qualities methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the subject matter of steel mill product analysis using quality tools. The subject of quality control were bolts and a ball bushing. The Pareto chart and fault mode and effect analysis (FMEA were used to assess faultiness of the products. The faultiness analysis in case of the bolt enabled us to detect the following defects: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper roughness, lack of pre-machining, non-compatibility of the electroplating and faults on the surface. Analysis of the ball bushing has also revealed defects such as: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper surface roughness, lack of surface premachining as well as sharp edges and splitting of the material.

  16. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  17. Distribution of Fusarium mycotoxins in UK wheat mill fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S G; Dickin, E T; MacDonald, S; Buttler, D; Hazel, C M; Patel, S; Scudamore, K A

    2011-12-01

    The EU has set maximum limits for the Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON). The maximum permitted level decreases from unprocessed wheat, through intermediary products, e.g. flour, to finished products such as bakery goods and breakfast cereals. It is, therefore, important to understand the effects of processing on the mycotoxin distribution in mill fractions. Between 2004 and 2007, samples were taken at commercial flour mills at various points in the milling process and analysed for trichothecenes and ZON. Samples with a range of mycotoxin concentrations harvested in 2004 and 2005 were processed in a pilot mill and the mycotoxins in the different mill fractions quantified. In the commercial samples, DON was the predominant mycotoxin with highest levels detected in the bran fraction. Analysis of the pilot mill fractions identified a significant difference between the two years and between mycotoxins. The proportion of DON and nivalenol in the mill fractions varied between years. DON and nivalenol were higher in flour fractions and lower in bran and offal in samples from 2004 compared to samples from 2005. This may be a consequence of high rainfall pre-harvest in 2004 resulting in movement of these mycotoxins within grains before harvest. There was no significant difference in the distribution of ZON within mill fractions between the two years. For DON, higher concentrations in the grain resulted in a greater proportion of DON within the flour fractions. Understanding the factors that impact on the fractionation of mycotoxins during milling will help cereal processors to manufacture products within legislative limits.

  18. Yang-Mills Instanton Sheaves with Arbitrary Topological Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Lai, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    We use a set of ADHM 3-instanton data to systematically construct a class of SU(2) Yang-Mills instanton solutions with arbitrary topological charges. Moreover, by using the biquaternion calculation with biconjugation operation developed recently, these new ADHM data are used to construct a class of SL(2,C) Yang-Mills instanton sheaves on CP^3 with arbitrary topological charges k greater than 3. This result extends the previous construction of Yang-Mills 2-instanton sheaves to arbitrary higher k-instanton sheaves.

  19. Formation of ball-milled Fe-Mo nanostructured powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moumeni, H. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba-Algerie (Algeria) and Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et de l' Ingenierie, Universite de Guelma, B.P. 401, 24000 Guelma-Algerie (Algeria)]. E-mail: hmoumeni@yahoo.fr; Alleg, S. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba-Algerie (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Faculte des Sciences, F-72085, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-08-10

    Nanostructured Fe-6 wt.%Mo powders were prepared by mechanical alloying in a high-energy planetary ball-mill. The structural changes and the kinetics of Mo dissolution were studied by using X-ray diffraction. The crystallite size reduction down to about 11 nm is accompanied by the introduction of internal strains up to 1.1% (root-mean square strain, rms). After 24 h of milling, a bcc Fe(Mo) solid solution is formed. The kinetics of Mo dissolution into the Fe matrix during the milling process can be described by two regimes characterized by small values of Avrami parameter which do not exceed unit.

  20. The Parisi-Sourlas Mechanism in Yang-Mills Theory?

    CERN Document Server

    Magpantay, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Parisi-Sourlas mechanism is exhibited in pure Yang-Mills theory. Using the new scalar degrees of freedom derived from the non-linear gauge condition, we show that the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory is equivalent to a 4D O(1,3) sigma model in a random field. We then show that the leading term of this equivalent theory is invariant under supersymmetry transformations where (x^{2}+\\thetabar\\theta) is unchanged. This leads to dimensional reduction proving the equivalence of the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory to a 2D O(1,3) sigma model.

  1. Noncommutative Yang-Mills in IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Iso, S; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Tada, T

    2000-01-01

    We show that twisted reduced models can be interpreted as noncommutative Yang-Mills theory. Based upon this correspondence, we obtain noncommutative Yang-Mills theory with D-brane backgrounds in IIB matrix model. We propose that IIB matrix model with D-brane backgrounds serve as a concrete definition of noncommutative Yang-Mills. We investigate D-instanton solutions as local excitations on D3-branes. When instantons overlap, their interaction can be well described in gauge theory and AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that IIB matrix model gives us the consistent potential with IIB supergravity when they are well separated.

  2. Frequency Modulation of High-Speed Mill Chatter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mill chatter is a common phenomenon in the metal strip rolling process. Product defects caused by mill vibration were reported worldwide during last two decades, which is usually classified as torque vibration of the driving system with low frequencies and vertical vibration of the mill stand with comparative higher frequencies. The frequency range of the vertical vibration is wide (in general from more than 100 Hz to more than 1 000 Hz), and the vibration phenomena are very complex, even it is very diffic...

  3. Simulation of type selection for 6-high cold tandem mill based on shape control ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; LIU Hong-min; WANG Dong-cheng

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical method for selecting strip rolling mill type that considered shape control ability was established using the figure alteration range that was worked by the alteration track of vector expressing strip's cross section (crown) to express the shape control ability of rolling mill. With the mathematical models and simulation software that were developed by the authors' own models, four types of mills were aimed, including HCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC (high crown) -mill), HCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill), UCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender) and UCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender), and the shape and crown control ability of every mill type was analyzed and compared. An appropriate arrangement mode of tandem mill was brought forward. The results show that UCMW mill is a perfect choice for controlling shape and crown, and the area of control characteristics curve of UCMW (or UCM) is twice than that of HCM, but UCM mill is also a good choice for its simple frame. In other word, the shape and crown controlling ability of UCMW mill is better than that of UCM mill, but the frame of UCM mill is simpler than that of UCMW mill. As for the final type of mill, should be synthetically decided by thinking over fund and equipment technology.

  4. Jet milling from a particle perspective : predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a giv

  5. 29 CFR 1910.216 - Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in accordance with this section and Subpart S of this part. (4) Mill roll heights. All new mill...) Mill safety controls—(1) Safety trip control. A safety trip control shall be provided in front and in back of each mill. It shall be accessible and shall operate readily on contact. The safety trip...

  6. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application... feasibility of the Imperial Mill Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 13631, to be located at the existing...

  7. 46 CFR 50.25-5 - Products requiring manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Products requiring manufacturer or mill certification... manufacturer or mill certification. (a) Products required to be certified by a manufacturer or by mill... will not normally be subject to mill inspection by the Coast Guard except as required by § 50.25-7....

  8. Study on the Method for Collecting Vibration Signals from Mill Shell Based on Measuring the Fill Level of Ball Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the method for measuring the fill level which used the vibration signal of mill shell shows its advantage compared with other methods. However, this method is developed late, and the technique for collecting the vibration signal from mill shell is immature. In this paper, a novel method for collecting the vibration data from mill shell is proposed. Firstly, the layout scheme of vibration sensors on mill shell is given by analyzing the axial and circumferential movement of coal powder in roller. And a special data acquisition system is developed, which can acquire vibration data from different axial and circumferential positions on mill shell. Then the sampling frequency is obtained based on impact model and hierarchical model of steel balls. At the same time, the impact region on mill shell caused by steel balls is considered as the collecting region of vibration signals. Experimental result shows that vibration signals collected by the method proposed in this paper present a high sensitivity to the changes on fill level compared with vibration data of mill bearing, which provides a reliable basis for accurate measurement of the fill level.

  9. Roll Gap Crown Adjustment Characteristics of 1700 mm Cold Rolling Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-bin

    2014-01-01

    The 4-hi cold mill is one of the key wide strip tandem cold rolling mills and has many advantages and characteristics. The mill type is the most important, fundamental and long-term effective factor for the strip shape control. Many advanced mill types such as CVC-4, HCW and PC-4, etc are created based on the conventional four-roll mill. The factors of mill type which affect the deformation of roll system, such as strip width, rolling force, bending force, work roll diameter, backup diameter and so on, are studied how to affect roll gap crown. It provides a good foundation for improving the shape performance of mill.

  10. Synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by wet milling iron powder in a planetary ball mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 30 to 80nm were synthesized by wet milling iron powders in a planetary ball mill. The phase composition and the morphologies of the as-synthesized products were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanosized Fe3O4 particles were prepared by wet milling metallic iron powder (-200 mesh, 99%)rotation speed of 300 rpm. The use of the iron balls in this method played a key role in Fe3O4 formation. The present technique is simple and the process is easy to carry out.

  11. Flatness and Profile Integration Control Model for Tandem Cold Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using the effective matrix methods of flatness and profile control synthetically, the flatness and profile in- tegration control scheme for tandem cold mills is built in order to increase flatness and profile control precision of tan- dem cold mills. Corresponding control strategies are adopted for various control objectives of different stands and the coordination control strategies of various stands are given, which makes the on-line flatness control cooperate with on-line profile control and implements the parallel control of different stands. According to the measured flatness and profile data of some 1550 mm tandem cold mills, the control scheme is verified and the result indicates that the scheme has high flatness and profile control precision with steady and reliable control process. A new way and method is supplied for researching shade control of tandem cold mills.

  12. Raske retk, mille auhinnaks on veelgi raskem retk / Mihkel Loide

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loide, Mihkel

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade Valgamaal 14.-15. mail 2004 toimunud Kaitseliidu-sisesest Eel-Erna patrullvõistlusest, mille tulemusena selgusid Erna retkest osavõtjad. Tabel: Kaitseliidu patrullvõistluse Eel-Erna 2004 lõpuprotokoll

  13. Nanocrystalline Al Composites from Powder Milled under Ammonia Gas Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cintas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of high hardness and thermally stable nanocrystalline aluminium composites is described. Al powder was milled at room temperature in an ammonia flow for a period of less than 5 h. NH3 dissociation during milling provokes the absorption, at a high rate, of nitrogen into aluminium, hardening it by forming a solid solution. Controlled amounts of AlN and Al5O6N are formed during the subsequent sintering of milled powders for consolidation. The pinning action of these abundant dispersoids highly restrains aluminium grain growth during heating. The mean size of the Al grains remains below 45 nm and even after the milled powder is sintered at 650°C for 1 h.

  14. Research on product size and grinding dynamics of vibration mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhong-jun; HAN Tian; CHEN Bing; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve vibration mills grinding effect and increase productive efficiency, prime factors of vibration mills were gained much attention. The purpose of this study is to reveal product size distribution and grinding dynamics of vibration mills by orthogonal experi-ments. The metallurgical refractory materials were used as research object. In order to explore the relationships between grinding effect and primary factors, lots of milling experiments were carried out. Based on the results, the conclusions can be summarized: as time runs, the size distri-bution shows exponential trend, and range becomes more and more narrow. Also the quantitative analysis result between grinding effect and primary factors was obtained by non-linear regres-sion: high frequency, high amplitude and low fill ratio can increase grinding speed.

  15. Genetic Evolutionary Approach for Cutting Forces Prediction in Hard Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih; Kayacan, Cengiz

    2011-11-01

    Hard milling is a very common used machining procedure in the last years. Therefore the prediction of cutting forces is important. The paper deals with this prediction using genetic evolutionary programming (GEP) approach to set mathematical expression for out cutting forces. In this study, face milling was performed using DIN1.2842 (90MnCrV8) cold work tool steel, with a hardness of 61 HRC. Experimental parameters were selected using stability measurements and simulations. In the hard milling experiments, cutting force data in a total of three axes were collected. Feed direction (Fx) and tangential direction (Fy) cutting forces generated using genetic evolutionary programming were modelled. Cutting speed and feed rate values were treated as inputs in the models, and average cutting force values as output. Mathematical expressions were created to predict average Fxand Fy forces that can be generated in hard material milling.

  16. Cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, R. P.

    1985-02-01

    Two solutions are obtained for coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs fields with cylindrical symmetry and rigid rotation. The Higgs fields are responsible for the creation of singularities and infinite energy densities at the cylinder's axis.

  17. Chemical milling solution produces smooth surface finish on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, H. C.

    1966-01-01

    Elementary sulfur mixed into a solution of caustic soda and salts produces an etchant which will chemically mill end-grain surfaces on aluminum plate. This composition results in the least amount of thickness variation and pitting.

  18. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  19. John Stuart Mill, labour issue and the problem of socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurković Miša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the analysis of Mill's attitude to socialism The author starts from the contemporary libertarian dogma about Mill as the spoiler of liberalism who supposedly turned this ideology towards socialist trends. The detailed and taxonomic analysis based on Mill's Principles of Political Economy and Chapters on Socialism shows that this theory in not correct; that the opposite is true - Mill actually, as the first serious critic of socialism, set all the relevant arguments which the liberal theory would later use to challenge this rival ideology. The emphasis is placed on the problems of redistribution and extension of the right to vote, but the author also tackles the issues of corporations, protectionism and tax policy.

  20. Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L

    2016-01-01

    In these lectures we review how the symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of "Yang-Mills squared". We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, $p$-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality.

  1. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  2. Power generation and export: a new strategy for the survival of the Kamloops pulp mill

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Anthony John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy for survival of the Kamloops Cellulose Fibers softwood pulp mill. The mill currently competes exclusively in the North American softwood segment of the global kraft market, and is not generating returns sufficient to cover the cost of capital. The mill?s boilers need replacing or rebuilding in five years and the mill faces a more stringent environmental permit. Pressures on production costs make it increasingly difficult to continue operating profitably. By ...

  3. Jet milling from a particle perspective: predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a given application is based on accumulated experiences of the manufactures. It is not for lack of either interest or investigation that a quantitative theory of milling does not exist. In contrast, the...

  4. Impact of Modal Parameters on Milling Process Chatter Stability Lobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqun; LIU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Modals of the machine/tool and machine/part system are the principal factors affecting the stability of a milling process. Based on the modeling of chatter stability of milling process, the influence of modal parameters on chatter stability lobes independently or jointly has been analyzed by simulation. Peak-to-valley specific value, lobe coefficient and the corresponding calculation formula have been put forward. General laws and steps of modal simplification for multimodality system have been summarized.

  5. Calculation Method for Media in Ball Mills by Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志强; 张荣曾; 曾鸣

    2002-01-01

    Based on analyzing the moving principle of media in ball mill, it is implicated that there is the significant difference of movement situation among each single layer. A new method to calculate each single was put forward. The results from lab experiment and actual data from 26 sets industrial mills state indicate that the new calculation method reaches the high accuracy with excellent practicab ility.

  6. A QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; KOU Li-Na

    2007-01-01

    Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative,which contains both vector and scalar gauge bosons.Based on this theory,we construct a strong interaction model by using the group U(4).By using this U(4)generalized Yang-Mills model,we also obtain a gauge potential solution,which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.

  7. Exact solutions for classical Yang-Mills fields

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We provide a set of exact solutions of the classical Yang-Mills equations. They have the property to satisfy a massive dispersion relation and hold in all gauges. These solutions can be used to describe the vacuum of the quantum Yang-Mills theory and so, they provide a general framework to build a quantum field theory. The components of the field become separated on a generic gauge but are all equal just in the Lorenz (Landau) gauge.

  8. Modeling for driving systems of four-high rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建军; 喻寿益; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    A modeling method for driving systems of four-high rolling mill was put forward in order to analyze the origin of rolling mill's chatter that brings about light and shade streaks on the surface of steel strip from aspect of electromechanical coupling. The process and steps of modeling method was introduced by means of an example. The correctness of the model and the feasibility of the modeling method were verified in simulation experiment.

  9. Mineral-vegetal co-milling: An effective process to improve lignocellulosic biomass fine milling and to increase interweaving between mixed particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Delenne, J-Y; Rouau, X; Mayer-Laigle, C

    2015-09-01

    Fine-milling is a crucial objective for lignocellulosic biomass valorization. Co-milling appears to be a promising technique to improve its efficiency. However, the mechanisms occurring while co-milling remain poorly understood. In this study, an experimental work was performed to produce co-milled powders from both lignocellulosic (wheat, straw or pine sawdust) and mineral materials (limestone, quartzite or tile) with very contrasted physicochemical properties. The main consequences of co-milling were studied for both materials. A two-component mixing law for the prediction of the blend properties was proposed (particle sizes and true densities) to highlight the gain of this single processing step compared to separate milling and mixing. The predicted values were compared with experimental data for co-milled powders at 7 biomass contents from 0% to 100%. In all cases, co-milling leads to a reduction in particle size of lignocellulosic materials and create strong interweaving with mineral particles.

  10. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  11. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  12. A study on rheological characteristics of roller milled fenugreek fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-01-01

    Fenugreek seeds were fractionated by roller milling to get various fractions. The roller milled fractions and whole fenugreek flour (WFF) were evaluated for the flow behavior and time-dependent flow properties using a rotational viscometer at the temperatures of 10-60 (0)C. The samples subjected to a programmed shear rate increase linearly from 0 to 300 s(-1) in 3 min and successive decrease linearly shear rate from 300 s(-1) to 0 in 3 min. The roller milled fractions and WFF paste exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Difference in hysteresis loop area was observed among the roller milled fractions and WFF, being more noticeable at lower temperatures. Power law and Casson models were used to predict flow properties of samples. The power law model described well the flow behavior of the roller milled fractions and WFF at temperatures tested. Except flour (FL) fraction, consistency coefficient, m, increased with the temperature both in the forward and backward measurements. The roller milled fractions and WFF exhibited rheopectic behavior that increased viscosity with increasing the shear speed and the temperature. For all the sample tested, initial shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and temperature.

  13. Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M J

    1985-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  15. On maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Movshev, M

    2004-01-01

    We consider ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (10D SUSY YM theory) and its dimensional reductions, in particular, BFSS and IKKT models. We formulate these theories using algebraic techniques based on application of differential graded Lie algebras and associative algebras as well as of more general objects, L_{\\infty}- and A_{\\infty}- algebras. We show that using pure spinor formulation of 10D SUSY YM theory equations of motion and isotwistor formalism one can interpret these equations as Maurer-Cartan equations for some differential Lie algebra. This statement can be used to write BV action functional of 10D SUSY YM theory in Chern-Simons form. The differential Lie algebra we constructed is closely related to differential associative algebra Omega of (0, k)-forms on some supermanifold; the Lie algebra is tensor product of Omega and matrix algebra . We construct several other algebras that are quasiisomorphic to Omega and, therefore, also can be used to give BV formulation of 10D SUSY YM theory...

  16. Curving Yang-Mills-Higgs Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Established fundamental physics can be described by fields, which are maps. The source of such a map is space-time, which can be curved due to gravity. The map itself needs to be curved in its gauge field part so as to describe interaction forces like those mediated by photons and gluons. In the present article, we permit non-zero curvature also on the internal space, the target of the field map. The action functional and the symmetries are constructed in such a way that they reduce to those of standard Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) gauge theories precisely when the curvature on the target of the fields is turned off. For curved targets one obtains a new theory, a curved YMH gauge theory. It realizes in a mathematically consistent manner an old wish in the community: replacing structures constants by functions depending on the scalars of the theory. In addition, we provide a simple 4d toy model, where the gauge symmetry is abelian, but turning off the gauge fields, no rigid symmetry remains---another possible manife...

  17. [Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources.

  18. Generalisation of the Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Savvidy, George

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an extension of the gauge principle which includes tensor gauge fields. In this extension of the Yang-Mills theory the vector gauge boson becomes a member of a bigger family of gauge bosons of arbitrary large integer spins. The proposed extension is essentially based on the extension of the Poincar\\'e algebra and the existence of an appropriate transversal representations. The invariant Lagrangian is expressed in terms of new higher-rank field strength tensors. It does not contain higher derivatives of tensor gauge fields and all interactions take place through three- and four-particle exchanges with a dimensionless coupling constant. We calculated the scattering amplitudes of non-Abelian tensor gauge bosons at tree level, as well as their one-loop contribution into the Callan-Symanzik beta function. This contribution is negative and corresponds to the asymptotically free theory. Considering the contribution of tensorgluons of all spins into the beta function we found that it is leading to the theo...

  19. Yang-Mills-Vlasov system in the temporal gauge. Systeme de Yang-Mills-Vlasov en jauge temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Noutchegueme, N. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (FR))

    1991-01-01

    We prove a local in time existence theorem of a solution of the Cauchy problem for the Yang-Mills-Vlasov integrodifferential system. Such equations govern the evolution of plasmas, for instance of quarks and gluons (quagmas), where non abelian gauge fields and Yang-Mills charges replace the usual electromagnetic field and electric charge. We work with the temporal gauge and use functional spaces with appropriate weight on the momenta, but no fall off is required in the space direction.

  20. Tool Wear Analysis on Five-Axis Flank Milling for Curved Shape Part – Full Flute and Ground Shank End Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Azwan Sundi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study on full flute (extra-long tool and ground shank end mill wear analysis by utilizing five-axis CNC to implement flank milling strategy on curved shape part. Five-axis machining eases the user to implement variations of strategy such as flank milling. Flank milling is different from point milling. Point milling cuts materials by using the tip of the tool whereas the flank milling uses the cutting tool body to cut material. The type of cutting tool used was end mill 10 mm diameter with High Speed Steel (HSS material. One factor at a time was utilized to analyze the overall data. Feed rate and spindle speed were the two main factors that been set up equally for both full flute and ground shank end mill. At the end of this research, the qualitative analysis based on tool wear between full flute and ground shank end mill is observed. Generally, both types of cutting tools showed almost the same failure indication such as broken edge or chipped off edge, formation of pinned hole on the surface and serration formation or built-up edge (BUE on the primary flute. However, the results obtained from the enlarged images which were captured by Optical Microscope indicated that, the ground shank end mill is better than the full flute end mill.

  1. Inoculation of paperboard mill sludge versus mixed culture bacteria for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Danial, Amal

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of paperboard mill sludge (PMS) versus mixed culture bacteria (MCB) as inoculum for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater (PMW) was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different initial cultivation pHs, inoculums to substrate ratios (ISRs gVS/gCOD), and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The peak hydrogen yield (HY) of 5.29 ± 0.16 and 1.22 ± 0.11 mmol/gCODinitial was occurred at pH = 5 for MCB and PMS, respectively. At pH of 5, the HY and COD removal achieved the highest values of 2.26 ± 0.14 mmol/gCODinitial and 86 ± 1.6% at ISR = 6 for MCB, and 2.38 ± 0.25 mmol/gCODinitial and 60.4 ± 2.5% at ISRs = 3 for PMS. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 93.75 ± 8.9 mmol/day at HRT = 9.6 h from continuous upflow anaerobic reactor inoculated with MCB. Meanwhile, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments indicated a dominance of a novel hydrogen-producing bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for PMS microbial community. On the other hand, Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter hormaechei were the predominant species for MCB.

  2. EFFECT OF PAN-MILLING ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pan-milling on the rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied. An innovative milling apparatus, viz. an inlaid pan-mill, was used. Melt indexer, capillary rheometer, Haake Rheocord 90 singlescrew extruder and Brabender rheometer were used to evaluate the rheological properties ofHDPE. HDPE with higher initial molecular weight and larger particle size was easier to degrade under pan-milling stress, as indicated by the melt index.Pressure oscillation in capillary flow occurred at significantly higher shear stress and shear rate for milled HDPE than for unmilled HDPE. The apparent shear viscosity of HDPE decreased with increasing times of milling. After milling, the flow activation energy decreased and thus the sensitivity of viscosity to temperature was reduced. Die pressure and torque during single screw extrusion were reduced significantly after milling. Plasticizing time as measured in a Brabander mixer decreased markedly with increasing milling times.

  3. EFFECT OF PAN-MILLING STRESS ON CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study was performed on the crystal structures of pan-milled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallinity of HDPE first decreased slightly, followed by a gradual increase with increasing milling times. Monoclinic crystals appeared after 4 cycles of milling. With increasing times of milling, the proportion of monoclinic crystals increased significantly while the proportion of orthorhombic crystals decreased gradually. With increasing times of milling, the crystallite size of orthorhombic form decreased greatly, while the size of monoclinic crystallites kept almost constant during milling.

  4. SAXS study of nanocrystalline materials produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez van Raap, M.; Socolovky, L.; Mendoza Zelis, L.; Sanchez, F.H. [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Kellermann, Guinther; Torriani, Iris [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. SAXS characterization of nanocrystalline materials produced by ball milling was performed at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light-SAXS beam line. Two kind of sample were used: pure metals (Fe and Pd) milled in Ar atmosphere in a vibratory horizontal mill Resc MM2 for 12, 25 and 48 h. And Fe y Cu 1-y(05,0.10,0.14,0.18,0.20,0.35 and 0.45) alloys subjected to 75 milling hours in a low energy mill. SAXS data was collected with (formula) corresponding to a photon energy just below Fe absorption edge to avoid fluorescence, and with two camera length to be able to see Guinier and Porod regions. Mechanical work performed on any materials produces simultaneously reduction in particles sizes and in grain sizes up to the nanometer scale, increase in micro strain storage and defects. Broadening of the XRD reflection lines with milling time gives an estimation of grain sizes and volume deformation (micro strain), but no information is obtained on the nature of the defects, which due to the high milling intensity could be clustered as voids. On the other hand, for a mixture of two elements, besides the facts listed above, alloying in different metastable states (amorphous, extended solid solution, granular materials, etc.) can be obtained depending on the system and on composition. For the Fe y Cu 1-y alloys studied here, previous results indicates: the alloys are fcc, a dependence of the magneto resistivity on Fe concentration can be recorded (maximum at 0.20) and from HREM the existence of inclusion of 7.3 nm size was proposed. Our preliminary data analysis of the recorded SAXS patterns shows that for the metals no clear dependence with milling time can be established, a distribution of sizes can be predicted from the Guinier region behavior and a Porod region can be fitted indicating a fairly sharp density contrast. Patterns recorded Fe y Cu 1-y are similar of those recorded for milled metals, the possibility of distinguish from voids or from composition

  5. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  6. Rolling mill optimization using an accurate and rapid new model for mill deflection and strip thickness profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arif Sultan

    This work presents improved technology for attaining high-quality rolled metal strip. The new technology is based on an innovative method to model both the static and dynamic characteristics of rolling mill deflection, and it applies equally to both cluster-type and non cluster-type rolling mill configurations. By effectively combining numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solid mechanics, the devised approach delivers a rapid, accurate, flexible, high-fidelity model useful for optimizing many important rolling parameters. The associated static deflection model enables computation of the thickness profile and corresponding flatness of the rolled strip. Accurate methods of predicting the strip thickness profile and strip flatness are important in rolling mill design, rolling schedule set-up, control of mill flatness actuators, and optimization of ground roll profiles. The corresponding dynamic deflection model enables solution of the standard eigenvalue problem to determine natural frequencies and modes of vibration. The presented method for solving the roll-stack deflection problem offers several important advantages over traditional methods. In particular, it includes continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using pre-determined elastic foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, the ability to calculate dynamic characteristics, and a comparatively faster solution time. Consistent with the most advanced existing methods, the presented method accommodates loading conditions that represent roll crowning, roll bending, roll shifting, and roll crossing mechanisms. Validation of the static model is provided by comparing results and solution time with large-scale, commercial finite element simulations. In addition to examples with the common 4-high vertical stand rolling mill, application of the presented method to the most complex of rolling mill configurations is demonstrated

  7. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different ‘hardness’. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. PMID:28100826

  8. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  9. HA/Ti composite for biomedical application by mechanical milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘咏; 刘芳; 周科朝; 黄伯云

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of HA and the low bioactivity of Ti, HA/Ti com-posites with various compositions were prepared by mechanical milling. The effects of milling condition and the com-position on the microstructure, the density and the hardness of the composites were studied. The results show thatduring the ball milling process, Ti particles are refined and the homogeneity of the HA/Ti mixtures is improved;HA will partially decompose due to the existence of Ti and high sintering temperature. The microstructure of HA/Ti composites is highly dependent on the milling condition and the composition. In the microstructure, Ti phase con-nects to be a continuous network, and HA/Ti mixtures disperse in the network. The longer the milling time, the fi-ner the network will be. The density of HA/Ti composites decreases with the content of HA increasing and themilling time prolonging, because HA deteriorates the sinterability of Ti. The hardness of HA/Ti composites increa-ses firstly with the content of HA increasing, and then drops when the content of HA exceeds 30%. Addition ofHA will strengthen the HA/Ti composite but will decrease the density of the composite, which accounts for theeffect of HA on the hardness of the composites.

  10. Sugarcane Tandem Mills Operation at Two Hydraulic Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Michel Corrales-Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the areas with more energy consumption in a sugar factory is the tandem of mills. The applied hydraulic pressure on the superior mace is one of the variables that have influence on this energy consumption. Hydraulic pressures were decreased in a value that did not affect the extraction process efficiency to determine the possibilities of decreasing this energy consumption. The research was carried out in two sugar cane tandems of six mills. The pressures were only varied in the extraction mills in humid according to a statistical design of experiments in random blocks. The results were analyzed by means of the analysis of variance of double classification. The independent variables were the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills while the dependent variables were the % pol and % humidity of the final bagasse. The hydraulic pressures of the intermediate mills were reduced 3.45 MPa in the Tandem 1 and 2.07 MPa in the Tandem 2. It was demonstrated that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of working hydraulic pressures smaller than the usually established ones for each tandem did not affect the extraction process of the sugar cane sucrose significantly, but decreased 11.75% the power demand on tandem 1 and 8.17% on tandem 2.

  11. Effect of milling on DSC thermogram of excipient adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Kiong; Kwek, Jin Wang; Yuen, Aaron; Tan, Chin Lee; Tan, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate why and how mechanical milling results in an unexpected shift in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measured fusion enthalpy (Delta(fus)H) and melting point (T(m)) of adipic acid, a pharmaceutical excipient. Hyper differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) was used to characterize adipic acid before and after ball-milling. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate previous postulations such as electrostatic charging using the Faraday cage method, crystallinity loss using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal annealing using DSC, impurities removal using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Karl Fischer titration. DSC thermograms showed that after milling, the values of Delta(fus)H and T(m) were increased by approximately 9% and 5 K, respectively. Previous suggestions of increased electrostatic attraction, change in particle size distribution, and thermal annealing during measurements did not explain the differences. Instead, theoretical analysis and experimental findings suggested that the residual solvent (water) plays a key role. Water entrapped as inclusions inside adipic acid during solution crystallization was partially evaporated by localized heating at the cleaved surfaces during milling. The correlation between the removal of water and melting properties measured was shown via drying and crystallization experiments. These findings show that milling can reduce residual solvent content and causes a shift in DSC results.

  12. Effect of mechanical milling on the magnetic properties of garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseyphus, R.J. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Narayanasamy, A. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: ansuom@yahoo.co.in; Nigam, A.K. [Department of Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Krishnan, R. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et d' Optique, de Versailles, 45 Avenue des Etat-Unis 78035-Versailles Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    Rare earth garnets after milling to nanosizes are found to decompose into rare earth orthoferrite and other rare earth and iron oxide phases. The magnetization for the yttrium iron garnet decreases in the nano state due to the formation of antiferromagnetic phases. But for the gadolinium iron garnet when milled up to 25 h, the room temperature magnetization increases despite the formation of antiferromagnetic and non-magnetic phases. This is attributed to the uncompensated moments of the sublattices because of the weakening of the superexchange interaction due to change in bond angles and the breaking of some superexchange bonds on account of the defects and oxygen vacancies introduced on milling. For the 10 h milled gadolinium iron garnet at 5 K, after correcting for the non-magnetic phases present, there is an increase in the magnetic moment of about 10% as compared to the value for the as-prepared garnet. The magnetic hyperfine fields corresponding to the various phases were measured using {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy at 16 K. The isomer shift values indicate the loss of oxygen for the samples milled for larger duration.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF WOOD MILLING SCHEDULE – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia-Adela SALCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study applied to the milling process of solid wood specimens made of black alder wood (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. with a view to find the optimal cutting schedule when two main criteria, such as the minimum power consumption and the best surface quality are fulfilled.The experimental work was performed with black alder wood originating from mature trees from the Buzau Valley region in Romania. All samples were processed on their longitudinal edges by straight milling with a milling cutter having glued straight plates on the vertical milling machine under different cutting schedules. An electronic device connected to the machine engine and an acquisition board were used to record and compute the power consumption during milling. Roughness measurements of the samples were performed by employing an optical profilometer. All data were processed using the regression method and variance analysis. The study revealed that best results are to be obtained in terms of cutting power and surface quality when processing with low feed speeds and light cutting depths.

  14. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  15. Observer Based Fault Detection and Moisture Estimating in Coal Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing requirements to......In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing...... requirements to the general performance of power plants. Detection  of faults and moisture content estimation are consequently of high interest in the handling of the problems caused by faults and moisture content. The coal flow out of the mill is the obvious variable to monitor, when detecting non-intended drops in the coal...... flow out of the coal mill. However, this variable is not measurable. Another estimated variable is the moisture content, which is only "measurable" during steady-state operations of the coal mill. Instead, this paper suggests a method where these unknown variables are estimated based on a simple energy...

  16. The MillSOT-A Spiral Orbit Tribometer on a Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    A spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) intended to characterize friction and wear phenomena has been constructed on a milling machine. The instrument, essentially a retainerless thrust bearing with one ball and flat races, is exceedingly simple and inexpensive to construct. The capabilities of the tribometer to measure both the coefficient of friction and contact electrical resistance are demonstrated with clean specimens as well as with well known lubricants such as molybdenum disulphide and Krytox oil. Operation in a purged environment of inert gas is also demonstrated. The results with these lubricants are quite close to what is obtained by other methods. Suggestions for extending the capabilities of the tribometer are given. This arrangement may find use in university mechanical engineering laboratories to introduce and study rolling contact motion as well as for research in contact mechanics and tribology.

  17. Wet gringing of zeolite in stirred media mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucsi, G.; Bohács, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study the results of systematic experimental series are presented with the specific goal of optimizing the zeolite nanoparticles' production using a wet stirred media mill. The diameter of the grinding media as well as the rotor velocity were varied in the experiments. Particle size distribution and "outer" specific surface area of the ground samples were measured by a laser particle size analyser. Additionally, BET, XRD and FT-IR analyses were performed for the characterization of the "total" specific surface area as well as the crystalline and material structure, respectively. Based on the results of the laboratory experiments it was found that wet stirred media milling provided significant reductions in the particle size of zeolite. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the samples also decreased, so not only the physical but the mineralogical characteristics of zeolite can be controlled by stirred media milling.

  18. Modeling and identification of HAGC system of temper rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shang-hong; ZHONG Jue

    2005-01-01

    Including servo valve, hydraulic cylinder, mill and sensor and ignoring nonlinear factors, the linear dynamic model of hydraulic automatic gage control(HAGC) system of a temper rolling mill was theoretically derived. The order of the model is 4/4, and can be reduced to 2/2. Based on modulating functions method, utilizing numerical integration, we constructed the equivalent identification model of HAGC, and the least square estimation algorithm was established. The input and output data were acquired on line at temper rolling mill in Shangshai Baosteel Group Corporation, and the continuous time model of HAGC system was estimated with the proposed method. At different modulating window intervals, the estimated parameters changed remarkably. When the frequency bandwidth of modulating filter matches that of estimated system, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Finally, the dynamic model of the HAGC was obtained and validated based on the spectral analysis result.

  19. Exact, Schwarzschild-like solution for Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, D.

    1995-04-01

    Exploiting the connection between general relativity and Yang-Mills theory an exact, Schwarzchild-like solution is given for an SU(N) gauge field coupled to a scalar field in the Bogomolny, Prasad, Sommerfield limit. The SU(2) solution is found using the second order Euler-Lagrange formalism, while the SU(N) generalization is given using the first order Bogomolny formalism. In analogy with the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, these Yang-Mills solutions possess an event horizon with respect to the SU(N) charge. It is conjectured that this may be the confinement mechanism for QCD, since just as a Schwarzschild black hole will permanently confine anything which carries the charge of general relativity (mass-energy), so this Yang-Mills solution will confine any particle which carries the SU(N) charge.

  20. Quantum Yang-Mills theory: an overview of a programme

    CERN Document Server

    Milsted, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of a programme to understand the low-energy physics of quantum Yang-Mills theory from a quantum-information perspective. Our setting is that of the hamiltonian formulation of pure Yang-Mills theory in the temporal gauge on the lattice. Firstly, inspired by recent constructions for $\\mathbb{Z}/2\\mathbb{Z}$ lattice gauge theory, in particular, Kitaev's toric code, we describe the gauge-invariant sector of hilbert space by introducing a primitive quantum gate: the quantum parallel transporter. We then develop a nonabelian generalisation of laplace interpolation to present an ansatz for the ground state of pure Yang-Mills theory which interpolates between the weak- and strong-coupling RG fixed points. The resulting state acquires the structure of a tensor network, namely, a multiscale entanglement renormalisation ansatz, and allows for the efficient computation of local observables and Wilson loops. Various refinements of the tensor network are discussed leading to several generalisations. ...

  1. Yang-Mills Connections On Orientable and Nonorientable Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Nan-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    In math.SG/0605587, we studied Yang-Mills functional on the space of connections on a principal G_R-bundle over a closed, connected, nonorientable surface, where G_R is any compact connected Lie group. In this sequel, we generalize the discussion in "The Yang-Mills equations over Riemann surfaces" by Atiyah and Bott, and math.SG/0605587. We obtain explicit descriptions (as representation varieties) of Morse strata of Yang-Mills functional on orientable and nonorientable surfaces for non-unitary classical groups SO(n) and Sp(n). It turns out to be quite different from the unitary case. In the orientable case, we give a slightly modified version of Laumon and Rapoport's solution to the Atiyah-Bott recursion relation, and use it to write down explicit formulas of rational equivariant Poincar\\'{e} series of the top stratum for SO(n) and Sp(n).

  2. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  3. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler Lott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Matthews, Austin Colter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  4. Plate Shape Control Theory and Experiment for 20-high Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-wen YUAN; Hong XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Roll lfattening theory is an important part of plate shape control theories for 20-high mill. In order to improve the ac-curacy of roll lfattening calculation for 20-high mill, a new and more accurate roll lfattening model was proposed. In this model, the roll barrel was considered as a ifnite length semi-inifnite body. Based on the boundary integral equation method, the numerical solution of the ifnite length semi-inifnite body under the distributed force was obtained and an accurate roll lfattening model was established. Coupled with roll bending model and strip plastic deformation, a new and more accurate plate control model for 20-high mill was established. Moreover, the effects of the ifrst intermediate roll taper angle and taper length were analyzed. The ten-sion distribution calculated by analytical model was consistent with the experimental results.

  5. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  6. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

  7. [Pleasure and confusion. A footnote to Freud's translations of Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 1863 Theodor Gomperz came to England to propose to Helen Taylor Mill, step-daughter of J. S. Mill. For several months he delayed the proposal while studying transcripts of the Philodemus papyri in the Bodleian Library. There a threatening note, supposedly left on his desk, triggered an attack of paranoia. My study of this incident, initially a mere footnote, expanded into an examination of the obscure causes of this attack. The philosophical question of the nature of desire and the researcher's passion to reconstruct a fragmented classical text are related to Gomperz's unfocussed relationship with both Mill and his step-daughter, and his ensuing confusion between reality and fantasy. The incident is considered paradigmatic of the perils of scholarly research, when the desire to possess knowledge becomes entangled with transferential relationships.

  8. New Approach of Envelope Dynamic Analysis for Milling Process

    CERN Document Server

    Bisu, Claudiu-Florinel; Gérard, Alain; Vijelea, V; Anica, Marin

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to vibration analysis in order to on-line monitoring of milling process quality. Adapting envelope analysis to characterize the milling tool materials is an important contribution to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of milling capacity and a step by modeling the three-dimensional cutting process. An experimental protocol was designed and developed for the acquisition, processing and analyzing three-dimensional signal. The vibration envelope analysis is proposed to detect the cutting capacity of the tool with the optimization application of cutting parameters. The research is focused on FFT Fourier transform optimization of vibration analysis and vibration envelope to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the machine/ tool/workpiece

  9. Effect of Milling Time on Al-Fe-Cr-20 Wt. % Al2O3composite Prepared Through Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameedur Rehman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges towards achieving a homogeneous distribution of the ceramic phase in the metal matrix composites is agglomeration of the reinforcement particles. Mechanical alloying is among the most important processing techniques used for manufacturing of metal matrix composites (MMCs.An attempt was made to synthesize Al-Fe-Cr-Al2O3composites synthesized through mechanical alloying. Al2O3 is used as reinforcement. Ethanol (5 wt. % has been used as a process control agent (PCA. Mechanical alloying is carried out in a conventional ball mill using stainless steel grinding media at 115 rpm in the argon environment for 5h, 10h and 15h. The ball to powder weight ratio was maintained at 20:1. The characterization of the ball milled powder was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Showed the formation of a homogeneous phase for all compositions after milling for 15 h. XRD patterns were recorded for the milled powders, and analyzed using Williamson–Hall method and Scherrer’s equation to determine the lattice strain and grain size.EDX is performed to check the contamination of composites during the mechanical alloying.XRD is used to study structural evolution of synthesized aluminium composite. Effect of milling time is investigated on synthesized Al-Fe-Cr-20 wt. % Al2O3 composites.

  10. Multilayered piezoceramic microactuators formed by milling in the green state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simu, Urban; Johansson, Stefan A. I.

    1999-10-01

    Methods for the fabrication of piezoceramic microactuators that will be used in a miniaturized robot have been investigated. Multilayered structures for piezoceramic microactuators are usually fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The present structures are fabricated with a wet building process where thin layers of ceramic slurry and screen-printed electrodes are cast sequentially. The use of multilayered structures reduces the drive voltage to common levels for integrated circuits, but also result in difficulties forming complicated shapes. Dicing is a straightforward alternative to achieve a simple geometry, but it can not machine e.g. a hollow cylindrical structure. There are several methods that could be used, but only few that would be cost-efficient for large-scale production. One of these is milling with modern high-precision CNC machine tools. Conventional milling of sintered ceramic components would result in many problems since the material is rather brittle and cracks are easily formed. Cracks are detrimental to the mechanical properties as well as for the electrical properties. Milling in the ceramic green state appears to be a promising method, since microcracks does not arise. The relatively soft green body puts great demands on the milling process. A high speed of the spindle is necessary to achieve low cutting forces since sub-millimeter cutting tools are used. The paper present result from different milling test and discusses how the machining parameters affect the resulting shape. The resolution is comparable with other techniques and it can be concluded that it is sufficient for normal screen-printed multilayered components. The evaluation of resulting deformation of the material after milling and sintering is presented.

  11. Investigating Genetic Diversity of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill using Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Jadidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are considered valuable genetic resources in Iran. One of these medicinal as well as spice plants is Foeniculum Vulgare Mill from Umbellifetae family used in different industries such as food, medicine, and cosmetics. It seems that due to different climate conditions in Iran this plant represents a high and valuable genetic diversity; therefore, management of genetic resources protection and obtaining information about genetic diversity will help awareness of evolution processes as well as genetic erosion of this valuable plant. Genetic diversity in local masses of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill can be investigated using molecule markers such as AFLP, RAPD, ISSR, SRAP, RFLP, and so on. In investigation of over 30 ecotype of local Foeniculum Vulgare Mill, different markers have shown that mean polymorphic content (PIC is about 36% and mean genetic diversity is estimated about 40% in different samples. Data obtained from molecule software analyses help to categorize Foeniculum Vulgare Mill genotype in different groups based on climate and geographical conditions. Principle components analysis (PCOA has also confirmed the results of cluster analysis. Dendrogram obtained by cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient of simple matching (SM and UPGMA algorithm can also categorize population of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill in different groups. Results of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA have shown that most genetic variance between geographical groups can be seen in populations. In general, according to investigations, there is a significant genetic diversity regarding agronomic and molecular traits of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill masses in Iran and knowing this genetic diversity will help in breeding programs, complementary studies, categorization, and so on.

  12. The construction of the milling process simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślusarczyk, Ł.

    2016-09-01

    The paper has aimed at presentation of the possibilities of using computer-based techniques into scope of machine cutting processes, and mostly of analytical and numerical modeling of the milling process for austenitic high-alloy chromium-nickel steel X 5 CrNi 18-10 and verification of the results experiments. The study was mostly focused on measuring and assessment of deformations in the given sample with the specific load. The simulations were executed in modern computer simulation software which supports such activities. These include: NX by Siemens and Simulia Abaqus. The selection of parameters was based on the real values measured during the milling process.

  13. Equivariance on Discrete Space and Yang-Mills-Higgs Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ikemori, Hitoshi; Matsui, Yoshimitsu; Otsu, Hideharu; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the basic equivariant quantity $Q$ in the gauge theory on the noncommutative descrete $Z_{2}$ space, which plays an important role for the equivariant dimensional reduction. If the gauge configuration of the ground state on the extra dimensional space is described by the equivariant $Q$, then the extra dimensional space is invisible. Especially, using the equivariance principle, we show that the Yang-Mills theory on $R^{2}\\times Z_{2}$ space is equivalent to the Yang-Mills-Higgs model on $R^{2}$ space. It can be said that this model is the simplest model of this type.

  14. All tree amplitudes of supersymmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Roehrig, Kai A; Skinner, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a new formula for all tree amplitudes in four dimensional supergravity coupled to super Yang-Mills. Like the Cachazo-He-Yuan formula, our expression is supported on solutions of the scattering equations, but with momenta written in terms of spinor helicity variables. Supersymmetry and parity are both manifest. In the pure gravity and pure Yang-Mills sectors, it reduces to the known twistor-string formulae. We show that the formula behaves correctly under factorization. We sketch how these amplitudes may be obtained from a four-dimensional (ambi)twistor string.

  15. Global coupled equations for dynamic analysis of planishing mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敢为; 钟掘

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic properties of rolling mill are significantly influenced by many coupling factors. Accordingto the coupled mechanical and electric dynamics theory, the global coupled equations for the dynamic analysis ofplanishing mill CM04 of Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation were derived, by using finite element methods. Theseelasto-dynamic equations establish the coupling relations among the stand vibration system, torsional vibration sys-tem, driving motors, etc. It provides theoretical basis to a certain extent for globally dynamic simulation, analysis ofstability of motion, prediction of abnormal operating mode, globally optimum design and control, etc.

  16. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  17. Field-dependent BRST transformations in Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    We find an explicit form for the Jacobian of arbitrary field-dependent BRST transformations in Yang-Mills theory. For the functional-integral representation of the (gauge-fixed) Yang-Mills vacuum functional, such transformations merely amount to a precise change in the gauge-fixing functional. This proves the independence of the vacuum functional under any field-dependent BRST transformation. We also give a formula for the transformation parameter functional which generates a prescribed change of gauge and evaluate it for connecting two arbitrary R_xi gauges.

  18. Field-dependent BRST transformations in Yang–Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    We find an explicit form for the Jacobian of arbitrary field-dependent BRST transformations in Yang–Mills theory. For the functional-integral representation of the (gauge-fixed) Yang–Mills vacuum functional, such transformations merely amount to a precise change in the gauge-fixing functional. This proves the independence of the vacuum functional under any field-dependent BRST transformation. We also give a formula for the transformation parameter functional which generates a prescribed change of gauge and evaluate it for connecting two arbitrary R{sub ξ} gauges.

  19. Field-dependent BRST transformations in Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    We find an explicit form for the Jacobian of arbitrary field-dependent BRST transformations in Yang-Mills theory. For the functional-integral representation of the (gauge-fixed) Yang-Mills vacuum functional, such transformations merely amount to a precise change in the gauge-fixing functional. This proves the independence of the vacuum functional under any field-dependent BRST transformation. We also give a formula for the transformation parameter functional which generates a prescribed change of gauge and evaluate it for connecting two arbitrary Rξ gauges.

  20. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  1. Effect of milling time on the formation of carbon nanotube by mechano-thermal method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ertan Evin; Ömer Güler; Mustafa Aksoy; Seval Hale Güler

    2015-08-01

    Mechano-thermal method was used for synthesizing the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in this study. In this method, graphite powders in the elemental form were firstly exposed to milling process in high-energy ball milling and then the milled powders were annealed at high temperatures. As a result of milling of the graphite, ultra-active disordered carbon structures were obtained. This structure serves as a carbon source for the formation of nanotubes during the annealing process. This study investigated the effect of the milling process. For this purpose, graphite powders were milled at different periods such as 5 and 150 h and then annealed at 1600°C. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy examinations demonstrated that CNTs formed in samples milled both for 5 and 150 h. However, the difference in the milling time influenced the amount of CNTs, their size and the formation of other structures except from nanotubes.

  2. Effects and mechanism of ball milling on torrefaction of pine sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunxiao; Huang, Jing; Feng, Chen; Wang, Guanghui; Tabil, Lope; Wang, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    The effects and mechanism of ball milling on the torrefaction process were studied. Ball- and hammer-milled (screen size 1mm) pine sawdust samples were torrefied at three temperatures (230, 260, and 290°C) and two durations (30 and 60min) to investigate into their torrefaction behavior and physicochemical properties. The results showed that, under identical torrefaction conditions, torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust had a higher carbon content and fixed carbon, and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust produced lower mass and energy yields, but higher heating values than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Ball milling destroyed the crystalline structure of cellulose and thus reduced the thermal stability of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, causing them to degrade at relatively lower temperatures. In conclusion, biomass pretreated with a combination of ball milling and torrefaction has the potential to produce an alternative fuel to coal.

  3. Õppimine on tudengi töö, mille eest tuleks palka maksta / Jaan Urb

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urb, Jaan

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu linnavolikogu liige Rahvaliidu ettepanekust, mille kohaselt peaksid tudengipalka saama kõik õppurid, kes õpivad õppekava järgi, millel on riiklik koolitustellimus ning mille on akrediteerinud rahvusvaheline komisjon

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  5. 76 FR 14105 - International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group; Pineville, LA; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group... workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Pineville Mill, Industrial Packaging Group... International Paper Company (subject firm) nor any of its customers imported articles like or...

  6. Temperature Control of Hot Strip Finishing Mill with Inter Stand Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kunio; Anbe, Yoshiharu; Imanari, Hiroyuki

    It is important for hot strip mill to keep finishing mill delivery temperature to it’s target value because of yield strength and tensile strength of rolled strip. We propose a new method for finishing mill delivery temperature control (FDTC) of a hot strip mill using inter stand strip coolant (ISC). FDTC consists of initial setting (before threading) values calculation of ISC flow rate and finishing mill speed, feed forward FDTC (FF-FDTC) and feedback FDTC (FB-FDTC). The mathematical strip temperature model of finishing mill was identified using normal operating data and some tests. Actual mill application with 7 stands finishing mill showed good FDTC results and also it made possible to increase rolling speed which increase production rate.

  7. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth;

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility...... FIB milling strategies for obtaining sharper tips are discussed. Finally, assembly of the HAR tips on a custom-designed probe as well as the first AFM scanning is shown....

  8. Study on High-Performance Computing for Simulation of End Milling Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Milling Process Simulation is one of the important re search areas in manufacturing science. For the purpose of improving the prec ision of simulation and extending its usability, numerical algorithm is more and more used in the milling modeling areas. But simulative efficiency is decreasin g with increase of its complexity. As a result, application of the method is lim ited. Aimed at above question, high-efficient algorithm for milling process sim ulation is studied. It is important for milling process...

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF COMPOSITE POWDERS PREPARED BY HIGH ENERGY MILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Q. Li; W.P. Chen; W. Xia; Q.L. Zhu; Y.Y. Li; E.D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the characteristic of high energy milling and the micromechanics of composite material, a plastic constitutive equation is implemented for milled composite powders. To check the equation, the extrusion of Ti/Al composite powders prepared by high energy milling was simulated. It was from the numerical analysis that the predicted extrusion pressure mounted up with milling time and extrusion ratio increasing,which was perfect agreement with experimental results.

  10. Study on End Milling Generation Surface Model and Simulation in View of Main Axle s Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the relative movement between end-milling cutter and workpiece surface, a theoretical generation model for milled surface was established with the movement error of principal axle considered. Then the milled surfaces under various cutting condition were simulated, the results of which showed that end milled surfaces were of "vaulted profile", heights of surface irregularty at various points to be different with maximum value in the middle and smaller at both sides, the difference were ...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  12. Modeling the milling tool wear by using an evolutionary SVM-based model from milling runs experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; Robleda, Abraham Segade

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research work is to build a new practical hybrid regression model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut as well as entry cut and exit cut of a milling tool. The model was based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). This optimization mechanism involved kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Bearing this in mind, a PSO-SVM-based model, which is based on the statistical learning theory, was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset represents experiments from runs on a milling machine under various operating conditions. In this way, data sampled by three different types of sensors (acoustic emission sensor, vibration sensor and current sensor) were acquired at several positions. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Firstly, this hybrid PSO-SVM-based regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the flank wear (output variable) and input variables (time, depth of cut, feed, etc.). Indeed, regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.95 was obtained. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. Secondly, the main advantages of this PSO-SVM-based model are its capacity to produce a simple, easy-to-interpret model, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed.

  13. Synthesis of FeTi hydrogen storage material via ball milling: effect of milling energy and atmosphere.

    OpenAIRE

    Livramento, Vanessa; Rangel, C. M.; Correia, J. Brito; Shohoji, Nobumitsu; R.A. Silva

    2008-01-01

    Attempts were made earlier to synthesize and activate the FeTi intermetallic during ball milling (BM), for H2 storage using sodium boron tetra-hydride (NaBH4) additive as a process controlling agent. Simple reactive milling starting from Fe and Ti powders resulted in heavy agglomeration of powders, due to the self sustaining nature of the reaction following an incubation period. When NaBH4 was used as the process control agent to avoid agglomeration, this resulted in the production of titaniu...

  14. Effect of milling on the magnetic properties of Al-Mn obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Mirna, E-mail: betamirna@gmail.com [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia Cumana (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materiales, Centro Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnologia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Silva, Pedro [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materia Condensada, Centro de Fisica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, Gema, E-mail: gemagonz@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materiales, Centro Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnologia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-42 at.% Mn transforms to {alpha}-Mn(Al) by mechanical milling after 5 h of milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation to nano {beta}-Mn is reached after 50 h of milling with 6 nm grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Milling strongly affects magnetic behavior. - Abstract: Al-Mn powders were prepared to obtain the compound Mn{sub 42}Al{sub 58} by mechanical alloying. The powders were milled during different periods (1 h, 5 h, 11.5 h, 15 h, 20 h and 50 h) using a SPEX 8000 mixer mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic properties at room temperature, using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD shows partial transformation to {alpha}-Mn after only 1 h of milling and a mixture of {alpha}-Mn and {beta}-Mn after 11.5 h of milling and further milling resulted in transformation to {beta}-Mn phase with a grain size of 6 nm after 50 h. The change in magnetic properties with milling time is quite dramatic, from a ferromagnetic behavior for {alpha}-Mn(Al) to paramagnetic after 11.5 h of milling and showing again ferromagnetic behavior, with a strong increase of magnetization values of 5.5 emu/g, after 50 h of milling with formation of {beta}-Mn(Al).

  15. 77 FR 35431 - Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: This document announces that on... uranium mill tailings (11e.(2) byproduct material). Six Agreement States have this authority as part...

  16. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: By letter dated October 10... Agreement States to specifically amend their Agreements to regulate uranium mill tailings (11e.(2)...

  17. Wheat Fields, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    By 1860 much of the beauty of St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis (Minnesota) had been destroyed, as mills on both sides of the river used the power of the falls to turn millions of bushels of wheat into flour. Steel rails linked bonanza farms hundreds of miles to the west to the mills. The mills, the farms, and the railroads depended on each other…

  18. Towards the effective tool wear control in micro-EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Valentincic, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    The electrode wear in micro-electrical discharge milling (micro-EDM milling) is one of the main problems to be solved in order to improve machining accuracy. This paper presents an investigation on wear and material removal in micro-EDM milling for selected process parameter combinations typical ...

  19. Influence of operating parameters on product size obtained from an EVT No. 35 test mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthwick, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The broad objective is to undertake fundamental studies into the milling and drying of brown coal to obtain sufficient understanding of the processes involved to enable existing and proposed mill designs to be assessed and improved. The objective of the work reported here is to determine the effect of operating parameters and product moisture content on product size in a small scale EVT mill.

  20. Scale-up from batch to flow-through wet milling process for injectable depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehocký, Róbert; Pěček, Daniel; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Injectable depot formulations are aimed at providing long-term sustained release of a drug into systemic circulation, thus reducing plasma level fluctuations and improving patient compliance. The particle size distribution of the formulation in the form of suspension is a key parameter that controls the release rate. In this work, the process of wet stirred media milling (ball milling) of a poorly water-soluble substance has been investigated with two main aims: (i) to determine the parametric sensitivity of milling kinetics; and (ii) to develop scale-up methodology for process transfer from batch to flow-through arrangement. Ball milling experiments were performed in two types of ball mills, a batch mill with a 30ml maximum working volume, and a flow-through mill with a 250ml maximum working volume. Milling parameters were investigated in detail by methodologies of QbD to map the parametric space. Specifically, the effects of ball size, ball fill level, and rpm on the particle breakage kinetics were systematically investigated at both mills, with an additional parameter (flow-rate) in the case of the flow-through mill. The breakage rate was found to follow power-law kinetics with respect to dimensionless time, with an asymptotic d50 particle size in the range of 200-300nm. In the case of the flow-through mill, the number of theoretical passes through the mill was found to be an important scale-up parameter.

  1. 75 FR 31418 - Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, Council Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek-Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Forest Service Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, Council Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek... Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Mill Creek--Council Mountain... Council, Idaho. The Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape Restoration Project proposes to...

  2. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated...

  3. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order covering certain tin mill products from... antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  4. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after...

  5. 21 CFR 558.4 - Requirement of a medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement of a medicated feed mill license. 558... Provisions § 558.4 Requirement of a medicated feed mill license. (a) A feed manufacturing facility must possess a medicated feed mill license in order to manufacture a Type B or Type C medicated feed from...

  6. 33 CFR 117.213 - New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mill Rivers. 117.213 Section 117.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers. The draws of the Tomlinson bridge, mile 0.0, the Ferry Street... bridge, mile 0.4 across Mill River, shall operate as follows: (a) The draws shall open on signal;...

  7. 75 FR 8346 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA... settlement for costs associated with a removal action at the Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site in Leadpoint.... Comments should reference the Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site in Leadpoint, Washington, EPA Docket...

  8. 77 FR 75917 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; Reopening... Chapel Street Bridge, mile 0.4, across the Mill River, at New Haven, Connecticut. This notice of proposed... Street Bridge, mile 0.4, across the Mill River, to reduce the burden of crewing these bridges during...

  9. 77 FR 4559 - Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... AGENCY Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement AGENCY... Ecusta Mill Superfund Site located in Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, North Carolina. DATES: The... by Site name Ecusta Mill Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  10. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  11. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment... Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and Old Dry Creek. The... responsible official will decide whether and how to reissue grazing permits in the Cox, Craig, Mill Creek...

  12. 21 CFR 515.24 - Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.24 Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license. When a...

  13. 77 FR 34938 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order... Trade Commission (USITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from... Department published the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan.\\1\\ On June 1,...

  14. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  15. 76 FR 30397 - Faribault Woolen Mill Company, Faribault, MN; Faribo Woolens, Inc., a Related Company of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...] Faribault Woolen Mill Company, Faribault, MN; Faribo Woolens, Inc., a Related Company of Faribault Woolen Mill Company, Faribault, MN; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... December 9, 2009, applicable to workers of Faribault Woolen Mill Company, Faribault, Minnesota. The...

  16. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.23 Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license. A license issued...

  17. Case Study: Fort Mill High School--A Culture of Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of case studies highlighting best practices High Schools That Work (HSTW) network schools and districts are implementing to prepare students better for further studies and careers. Fort Mill High School is in Fort Mill, South Carolina, an outlying suburb of Charlotte, North Carolina. Fort Mill links high quality…

  18. Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Pablo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae family, characterized by 206 species in Colombia and 17 in its Amazon region, is worldwide known by its fruits, some species have anticancerous and insecticide properties, others are characterized by their strong fibers and others like Rollinia mucosa or Amazon anon by its exquisite fruit. By the etnobotanic approximation laying emphasis on the Amazon regin the Uitoto community knew how to use the natural resourses, using the anonaceas; moreover, we
    report the species and genus to Colombia and Amazonia each with a monografic profile. As conclusion we found that out of 137 amazon species 72 (52.5% are of potential use on its
    outstanding categories we mention: Fiber 21.2%, medicinal 18.2%, construction 16.8% and nutritional 11.7%. The more recognized species for their use and potential are Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsis veneficiorum, Annona dolichophylla y Annona muricata.La familia Annonaceaerepresentada con 206 especies en Colombia y 137 en su regiónAmazónica es mundialmente conocida por los frutos de guanábana, chirimoya y anón y poseeciertas especies con propiedades anticancerígenas e insecticidas novedosas; otras se ca-racterizan por sus fibras resistentes y algunas como Rollinia mucosao anón amazónico por susexquisitos frutos. Por medio de la aproximación etnobotánica en las comunidades Uitoto conénfasis en la región amazónica (Araracuara y Leticia se conoció la forma de aprovechamien-to de los recursos, entre ellos las anonáceas. Además se reportan los géneros y las especiespara Colombia y Amazonas cada una con un perfil monográfico, concluyendo que de 137especies para Amazonas, 72 (52.5% tienen algún potencial de uso, siendo las categorías másimportantes: Fibras 21.2 %, medicinal 18.2%, construcción 16.8% y alimenticia 11.7%. Lasespecies más reconocidas por su potencial fueron Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsisveneficiorum, Annona dolichophyllay Annona muricata.

  19. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  20. Helical Feed Milling with MQL for Boring of Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Makoto; Tsutsumi, Masaomi

    MQL is applied to the helical feed milling hole-making process of aluminum alloy. It is difficult to drill on aluminum alloy without cutting fluid because the adhesion to the tool leads to a chip jam, the tool breakage or low accuracy. By employing the helical feed milling, cutting temperature will decrease, each chip length will become short and a chip jam in a hole will be avoided, because the intermittent cutting is realized. As a result of employing the helical feed milling with MQL, it was shown that the shape error is decreased, a burr formation is decreased, machining temperature becomes low and the cutting force becomes small comparing with drilling process. Shape error by helical feed milling with MQL is comparable with that with flood coolant. In this case, small mist particle counts under 5μm, which affects working environment, are almost constant if the spindle speed varies. Scattered mist particle counts are less when MQL is employed over 20000 min-1 spindle speed comparing with the flood coolant.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MILLING AND FRACTIONATION OF FLAXSEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Feskova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The optimal parameters of milling and fractionation of flaxseeds were substantiated. It was found that the hull fraction with the highest content of lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside SDG was obtained when flaxseeds were grinded using a rotatory impact continuous operation mill at the rotation 1380-1640 rpm. Studies have shown that with the increasing of the rotor speed the number of unbriken seeds decreased. However, due to the fact that the shells are crushed more, they become more difficult to separate from the cotyledons. For identification and quantification of SDG the HPLC-MS method was used. It is found that the optimum separation membranes and cotyledon fraction occurs at sifting milled seeds sequentially through the sieves having meshes of 1 and 0.5 mm. The technology of industrial production of lignans-containing fraction and flour on the basis of flaxseeds processing were proposed. This technology includes milling flaxseeds at the rotation 1380-1640 rpm, with subsequent 2% silicon dioxide addition and stepwise sieving using sieves with the mesh size 2 mm. To use a fraction membranes high in lignans as raw material for biologically active additives to food it needed additional enforcement-ground to a size not more than 0.4 mm (technological features of capsulation. The developed technology allowed getting with maximum yields of lignans-containing fraction (10% yield and flaxseed flour (80% yield.

  2. Lagrangian multiplier and massive Yang-Mills fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.P.

    1982-09-01

    If we give appropriate constraint to the gauge invariant Lagrangian, the variation principle of the action convert to the variational problems with subsidiary condition. The effective Lagrangian which contains Lagrangian multiplier may have the mass term of the mesons. In that case we obtain naturally the massive Yang-Mills fields which was discussed by Nakanishi.

  3. High Speed Milling : By using STL-Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the wide application of Layered Manufacturing Technologies like Fused Deposition Modelling, Layered Object Manufacturing etc. in the product development processes, milling is stili necessary. This is a result of the fact that Layered Manufacturing processes have some limitations in for insta

  4. Eigenvalue spectrum of lattice N=4 super Yang-Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D.; Catterall, S.; Mehta, D. B.

    We present preliminary results for the eigenvalue spectrum of four-dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. In particular, by studying the the spectral density a measurement of the anomalous dimension is made and found to be consistent with zero.

  5. The MediaMill TRECVID 2008 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; de Rooij, O.; Huurnink, B.; van Gemert, J.C.; Uijlings, J.R.R.; He, J.; Li, X.; Everts, I.; Nedovic, V.; van Liempt, M.; van Balen, R.; Yan, F.; Tahir, M.A.; Mikolajczyk, K.; Kittler, J.; de Rijke, M.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Gevers, T.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Koelma, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2008 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: concept detection, automatic search, and interactive search. Rather than continuing to increase the number of concept detectors available for retrieval, our TRECVID 2008 experiment

  6. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of 1

  7. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  8. Variation in oxidative gelation among wheat mill streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batter viscosity is an important quality trait of wheat flour. Water-extractable arabinoxylans form oxidative gels which contribute to variation in viscosity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative gelation potential of wheat flour mill streams to better understand sources of va...

  9. Reduced graphene oxide synthesis by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, O. [Department of Physics, M.U.C Women' s College, Burdwan 713104 (India); Mitra, S. [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Datta, A. [University School of Basic and Applied Science (USBAS), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110075 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chakravorty, D., E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-01

    Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. The process of ball milling introduces defects and removes oxygen functional groups, thereby creating the possibility of fine tuning the band gap of all intermediate stages of the structural evolution. A limit of the backbone sp{sup 2} network structure has been found which should be able to accommodate defects, before amorphization sets in. The amorphization of graphene oxide is achieved rather quickly in comparison to that of graphite. From thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic studies, it is found that the number of oxygen-containing groups decreases at a faster rate than that of aromatic double bonds with increasing ball milling time with a maximum limit of 3 h. Several characterization techniques (FTIR, Raman, UV–Visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have confirmed that the material synthesized is, indeed, reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. • Fine tuning the band gap by introducing defects and removing oxygen functional groups. • Introduction of excess defects leads to amorphization. • Photoluminescence has been observed in the UV-blue region.

  10. Structural causes of defects in a cast iron mill roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analysis of a defective microstructure of a mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll was collected. That roll was made of mottled cast iron. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed nearby the fracture in the roll. Observations were conducted on polished sections, first not etched, and then etched, which allowed us to trace carefully the propagation of the fracture. There was found a strict correlation between the microstructure of the roll and the progress occurring in the crack. It was ascertained that the basic reason for the damage to the roll was banded precipitations of ledeburitic cementite. In addition, cementite formed a continuous network. Another microstructure defects of that roll are also precipitations of secondary carbides on the boundaries of former grain of austenite as well as the occurrence of upper bainite in its matrix. The results obtained hereunder allow broadening the data base relative to the genesis of damages to mill rolls, which in future will permit one to design a proper microstructure of cast iron mill rolls. Proper microstructure of cast iron mill roll should be shaped at the stage of designing the chemical composition, conditions of crystallization or heat treatment if any.

  11. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  12. Online Diploma Mills: Implications for Legitimate Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A diploma mill is commonly recognized as an entity that will award a degree for substandard academic work. However, there is no universal agreement among different higher education institutions as to what constitutes minimum standard academic work or minimum knowledge and skills required of graduates. The author states that many of the negative…

  13. The Real and the Fake Degree and Diploma Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alan; Gollin, George

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of a list of over 9,000 people who bought degrees from St. Regis "University" has helped bring into focus a problem that legitimate institutions like to ignore: An enormous number of people who could be getting real college credentials are buying degree- and diploma-mill ones instead. This causes damage that goes beyond the…

  14. Coset space dimensional reduction of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzistavrakidis, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, 15310 Athens (Greece); Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Manousselis, P. [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, 26110 Patras (Greece); Prezas, N. [Theory Unit, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Zoupanos, G.

    2008-04-15

    In the present contribution we extend our previous work by considering the coset space dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theories including scalar fluctuations as well as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the compactification metric and we describe the gravity-modified rules for the reduction of non-abelian gauge theories. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Study on surface defects in milling Inconel 718 super alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liu; Chengzu, Ren; Guofeng, Wang; Yinwei, Yang; Lu, Zhang [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-04-15

    Nickel-based alloys have been extensively used as critical components in aerospace industry, especially in the key section of aero engine. In general, these sections are manufactured by milling process because most of them have complex forms. However, surface defects appear frequently in milling due to periodic impact force, which leads to the deterioration of the fatigue life. We conducted milling experiments under different cutting conditions and found that four kinds of defects, i.e., tear, cavity, build up edge (BUE) and groove, commonly appear on the machined surface. Based on the observed results, the morphology and generation regime of these defects are analyzed and the carbide particle cracking is discussed to explain the appearance of the nickel alloy defects. To study the effect of the cutting parameters on the severity of these surface defects, two qualitative indicators, which are named as average number of the defects per field and average area ratio of the defects per field, are presented and the influence laws are summarized based on the results correspondingly. This study is helpful for understanding the generation mechanism of the surface defects during milling process of nickel based super alloy.

  16. Research on Positioning Error Compensation for Micro Milling Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Chen; Wen-Lan Tian; Yong Xiao; Yan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Micro milling has many advantages in fabricating three⁃dimensional ( 3D) structure in micrometer scale. The micro milling machine tool with high positioning accuracy is of great importance for getting micro structure with high profile precision and good surface quality. Meanwhile, the method of position error compensation is a good way to improve the accuracy of the micro milling machine tools. In this paper, a software method is adopted to compensate the positioning error and improve the positioning accuracy. According to error cancellation theory, the compensation values are generated and compensation tables are built to adjust the positioning error in the NC system based on Industrial Motion and Automation Control ( IMAC) . The positioning accuracy of linear motor is ±0�3μm without backlash after compensation. In order to verify the effectiveness of compensation on the machining performance, concave spherical surfaces are processed on the micro milling machine tool. The experimental results show that the profile radius error of the spherical surface machined with compensation decreases more than 60%.

  17. Experimental validation of micro endmill design for hard milling application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Hoogstrate, A.M.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Langen, H.H.; Munnig Schmidt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In experimental investigations of micro milling of hardened tool steel SAE H11, with a hardness of 56 HRC, with commercially available micro square endmills of Ø 0.5mm, it was observed that the endmills suffered from severe tool wear/failure. Because of these problems, the quality of the m

  18. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  19. Internal Structure of Einstein-Yang-Mills Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Donets, E. E.; Gal'tsov, D. V.; Zotov, M. Yu.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that a generic black hole solution of the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills equations develops a new type of an infinitely oscillating behavior near the singularity. Only for certain discrete values of the event horizon radius exceptional solutions exist, possessing an inner structure of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom type.

  20. Internal Structure of Einstein-Yang-Mills Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Zotov, M Yu

    1996-01-01

    Interior solutions for the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes are investigated. It is found that generically the metric does not possess inner Cauchy horizons and infinitely oscillates near the singularity. However, for certain discrete radii of the event horizon exceptional solutions exist with an inner structure of the Schwarzschild (n=1) or Reissner--Nordstrom (n=2,3,...) type.

  1. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  2. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  3. John Stuart Mill's Concepts of Quality and Pedagogical Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    1986-01-01

    Considers the paradoxical relationship between two pervasive educational goals--quality and equality. Sees this paradox embedded in John Stuart Mill's writings on education, which attempted to reconcile the utilitarian pleasure principle (which emphasizes quantitative measures), with a traditional differentiation among levels and kinds of desires…

  4. 5D Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Anosh

    2016-01-01

    We provide details of the lattice construction of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The lattice theory is supersymmetric, gauge invariant and free from spectrum doublers. Such a supersymmetric lattice formulation is interesting as it can be used for non-perturbative explorations of the five-dimensional theory, which has a known gravitational dual.

  5. Georgia-Based Avondale May Close All Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don; Theeuwes

    2006-01-01

    Georgia-based Avondale Mills said it is considering closing all its plants because of increased foreign competition and a train wreck more than a year ago that released a cloud of corrosive chlorine gas just outside the gates of its Graniteville plant, killing nine people.

  6. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  7. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  8. A nonperturbative method for the Yang Mills Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Using the properties of the partition function for a Yang Mills theory we compute simple relations among the renormalization constants. In the particular case of the background gauge field method we obtain that the all orders beta function for the gauge coupling constant contains only the first two orders coefficients different than zero and thus corresponds to the 't Hooft scheme.

  9. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... certification that the facility will establish and maintain all records required by regulation or order issued... verification of such records. (7) A commitment that current approved or index listed Type B and/or Type...

  10. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  11. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  12. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containi

  13. Jälle need Milling ja Normann / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Kanal 2 uus kodumaine komöödiaseriaal "Õpetajate tuba" : käsikiri Peep Pedmanson : lavastus Ivo Eensalu : näitlejad Ita Ever, Eino Baskin, Madis Milling, Henrik Normann, Maria Klenskaja, Margus Tabor jt. : tootjafirma "Ruut"

  14. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... mills, contact Dr. Kelley Spence, Natural Resources Group, Sector Policies and Program Division, Office... pressure loss and scrubbing liquid supply pressure are required for any lime kiln or SDT using a wet... instead of opacity monitoring. The parameter monitors will measure the wet scrubber pressure drop...

  15. Phase structure of lattice N=4 super Yang-Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catterall, Simon; Damgaard, Poul H.; DeGrand, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    We make a first study of the phase diagram of four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory regulated on a space-time lattice. The lattice formulation we employ is both gauge invariant and retains at all lattice spacings one exactly preserved supersymmetry charge. Our numerical results are consi...

  16. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  17. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  18. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future.

  19. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  20. John Stuart Mill, innate differences, and the regulation of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Diane B; Day, Benjamin

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we show that the question of the relative importance of innate characteristics and institutional arrangements in explaining human difference was vehemently contested in Britain during the first half of the nineteenth century. Thus Sir Francis Galton's work of the 1860s should be seen as an intervention in a pre-existing controversy. The central figure in these earlier debates-as well as many later ones-was the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill. In Mill's view, human nature was fundamentally shaped by history and culture, factors that accounted for most mental and behavioral differences between men and women and among people of different classes, nationalities, and races. Indeed, Mill's whole program of social reform depended on the assumption that human differences were not fixed by nature. To identify the leading figures in these disputes about difference and the concrete context in which they occurred, we explore three debates in which Mill played a key role: over the capacities and rights of women, the viability of peasant proprietorship in India and Ireland, and the status of black labor in Jamaica. The last two draw our attention to the important colonial context of the nature-nurture debate. We also show that ideas that for us seem of a piece were not always linked for these earlier thinkers, nor did views on innateness necessarily have the political correlates that we now take for granted.