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Sample records for cherimola mill annonaceae

  1. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Hormaza Jose I; Risueño Maria C; Testillano Pilar S; Lora Jorge; Herrero Maria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this char...

  2. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  3. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils; from Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Yolanda Ríos; Federico Castrejón; Norma Robledo; Ismael León; Gabriela Rojas; Víctor Navarro

    2003-01-01

    La composición química de los aceites esenciales obtenidos; por arrastre de vapor de las hojas, flores y frutos frescos de Annona; cherimola fue analizada por Cromatografía de Gases-Espectrometría; de Masas (GC/MS). Sesenta componentes fueron identificados; en los aceites esenciales. Mientras que el biciclogermacreno, el; trans-cariofileno y el δ-amorfeno se identificaron como los constituyentes; mayoritarios en el aceite esencial de las hojas; el biciclogermacreno,; ...

  4. Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: Potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia Gonçalves; Santos, Filipa; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Beatriz Oliveira, M; Bento, Ana Cristina; Costa, Helena S

    2016-02-15

    Annona cherimola Mill., commonly known as cherimoya, is a tropical fruit well known due to its tasty flavour. In the present study the antioxidant activity of pulp, peel and seeds of four cultivars from A. cherimola Mill. from Madeira Island (Madeira, Funchal, Perry Vidal and Mateus II) was analysed. Moreover, nutritional composition (proximates and vitamins) and bioactive compounds content were determined. The peel of Madeira cultivar showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with an EC50 of 0.97mg/mL, and total flavonoids (44.7 epicatechin equivalents/100g). The most abundant carotenoid was lutein, with values ranging from 129 to 232μg/100g. The highest l-ascorbic acid content (4.41mg/100g) was found in the peel of Perry Vidal cultivar. These results highlight A. cherimola Mill. antioxidant properties, especially in its by-products and encourage their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food processing industries, as added value natural extracts. PMID:26433307

  5. Método para el enraizamiento de estaquillas semileñosas de chirimoyo (anona cherimola mill.) cv. Fino de jete, micropropagadas por cultivo de tejidos in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    López Encina, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    Método para el enraizamiento de estaquillas semileñosas de chirimoyo (Anoda cherimola Mill.) cv. Fino de Jete, micropropagandas por cultivo de tejidos in vitro (ver figura en archivo de texto adjunto). El material utilizado es: Estaquillas de chirimoyo, cv. Fino de Jete, micropropagadas clonalmente in vitro. El método tiene tres fases: Preparación del material y pretratamiento: Medio M-S con carbón activo. Incubación: luz; Inducción de raíces: Medio con auxinas, antioxidantes, bajo en a...

  6. Curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L.) cv. Gefner Water absorption curve in seeds of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L.) cv. Gefner

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Ferreira; Vandeir Francisco Guimarães; Sheila Zambello de Pinho; Marcos Campos de Oliveira; Alfredo Richart; João Filgueiras Braga; Gláucia Bravo Dias

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L.) cv. Gefner, submetidas a três métodos de embebição: sementes submersas em água destilada (MSSA), sementes entre papel de filtro embebido em água destilada acondicionada em caixa tipo gerbox (MPEA) e teste-padrão (MTP), com sementes mantidas em rolo de papel de filtro umedecido em água destilada. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casua...

  7. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3 e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon

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    Marcos Campos de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3, do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. , cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. As concentrações de GA3 empregadas foram: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1.000 mg L-1 i.a.e de ethephon: 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 mg L-1 i.a.. Os tratamentos com os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados na semente por imersão das mesmas nas soluções de GA3 e ethephon por período de 36 horas. As sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel germitest e levadas à câmara de germinação onde permaneceram no escuro, com temperatura alternada entre 20ºC por 8 horas e 30ºC por 16 horas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem, tempo e índice de velocidade de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e percentagem de sementes dormentes. Existe interação da ação dos reguladores vegetais estudados no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia, o que permite concluir que a percentagem de germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' é aumentada com o emprego de 778 mg L-1 de GA3, enquanto a associação entre elevadas concentrações de GA3 e 75 a 100 mg L-1 de ethephon incrementam o índice de velocidade de germinação e a percentagem de plântulas normais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon, besides the interaction of both plant growth regulators, on the germinative process of atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill. X A. squamosa L., cultivar 'Gefner'. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5

  8. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) in Puerto Rico using commercial lures and food attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae) and has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit-set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We used Universal moth t...

  9. Polinização natural e artificial da cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill. no Estado de São Paulo

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    Melo Marcelo Rosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o método de polinização da cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill. que produza frutos em maior quantidade e melhor qualidade, instalou-se experimento em Pedra Bela - SP, a 1150 metros de altitude. As plantas eram de pé-franco, de 20 anos de idade. O experimento foi realizado em dois períodos, tendo o primeiro se iniciado em novembro de 1999 e finalizado em junho de 2000; o segundo iniciou-se em novembro de 2000 e encerrado em junho de 2001. A montagem do experimento foi efetuada no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 3 tratamentos e 12 repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 1 polinização natural; 2 polinização manual cruzada; 3 autopolinização (flores ensacadas. As plantas dos blocos foram polinizadas em diferentes dias. Avaliaram-se o vingamento dos frutos 10 dias após a polinização e a quantidade dos frutos com conformação perfeita ou defeituosa aos 40 dias. Após a colheita, os frutos foram pesados individualmente. Foram também amostrados dois frutos de cada bloco (em 1999 e três (em 2000, para as seguintes determinações: massa das sementes e da polpa, número de sementes por 100 gramas de polpa. A polinização artificial proporcionou maior vingamento de frutos (61,2% e 50,4% em relação à polinização natural (19,6% e 3,3%, nos anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foi mais efetiva quando realizada sob condições de temperatura variando de 17 masculineC até 22 masculineC e umidade relativa do ar entre 70 e 80 %. Verificou-se também aumento da porcentagem de frutos perfeitos (em 2000, da massa do fruto e do índice de sementes/100 g de polpa dos frutos polinizados artificialmente em relação aos polinizados naturalmente.

  10. Curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner Water absorption curve in seeds of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner, submetidas a três métodos de embebição: sementes submersas em água destilada (MSSA, sementes entre papel de filtro embebido em água destilada acondicionada em caixa tipo gerbox (MPEA e teste-padrão (MTP, com sementes mantidas em rolo de papel de filtro umedecido em água destilada. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, constituídos por três métodos de embebição, empregando-se sementes vivas e mortas. O tempo de embebição entre 27; 34 e 47 horas, nos métodos MTP, MPEA e MSSA, representam indicativo para tratamento de sementes, podendo funcionar como tempo mínimo necessário para embebição em solução com reguladores vegetais. Conclui-se que os métodos que caracterizaram as três fases de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia foram o MTP e MPEA com mudança entre as fases I e II após 27 e 34 horas, respectivamente, atingindo a fase III com 234 horas, o que permite determinar o tempo de imersão para tratamentos pré-germinativos.The present study aimed to characterize the water absorption curve in atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner, submitted to three imbibitions methods: seeds submerged in distilled water (MSSA, seed placed betwen paper filter imbibed with distilled water inside a gerbox box (MPEA and standard test, with seeds kept in roll of filter paper moistened with water (MTP. The experimental delineation was entirely randomized, with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds per parcel. The treatments were submitted to three imbibitions methods, with live and deth seeds. The imbibition time among 27, 34 and 47 hours, in the MTP, MPEA and MSSA methods represented an indicative for seeds treatment, which could possibly function as a

  11. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner submetidas a tratamento lento e rápido com auxinas Rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner cuttings subjected to slow and fast treatment with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de concentrações de diferentes auxinas no enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner, empregando-se tratamento lento e rápido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x7 (auxinas x concentrações, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas por parcela, para cada método de aplicação de auxina (lento e rápido. As estacas foram tratadas com os reguladores vegetais, por meio da imersão da base em soluções, contendo IBA, NAA e 2,4-D, durante 24 horas (tratamento lento nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg L-1 de cada regulador e 5 segundos (tratamento rápido nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 mg L-1 de cada regulador. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas, sobreviventes com calos, comprimento de raiz por estaca, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotação e com folhas remanescentes e brotação. Para o enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira cv. 'Gefner' conclui-se que, o tratamento lento, com 200 mg L-1 de NAA, proporcionou incremento ao processo, da mesma forma que o tratamento rápido com IBA, independente da concentração.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different auxin concentrations in the rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner stacks, employing slow and fast treatments. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in 3x7 factorial arrangement (auxins x concentrations, with 5 replicates of 12 stacks per plot, for each auxin application method (slow and fast. Stacks were treated with plant growth regulators by bottom immersion in a solution containing IBA, NAA and 2,4-D for 24 hours (slow treatment at the following concentrations: 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg L-1 of each growth regulator

  12. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: A synergetic approach using multiple nitidulid lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya, a cross between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae), has the potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to production throughout the world is low fruit-set due to inadequate visits by pollinators, typically beetles in the family Nitidulid...

  13. The Unusual Acid-Accumulating Behavior during Ripening of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is Linked to Changes in Transcription and Enzyme Activity Related to Citric and Malic Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Agüero, Mauricio; Tejerina Pardo, Luis; Zamudio, María Sofía; Contreras, Carolina; Undurraga, Pedro; Defilippi, Bruno G

    2016-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is a subtropical fruit characterized by a significant increase in organic acid levels during ripening, making it an interesting model for studying the relationship between acidity and fruit flavor. In this work, we focused on understanding the balance between the concentration of organic acids and the gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these metabolites during the development and ripening of cherimoya cv. "Concha Lisa". Our results showed an early accumulation of citric acid and other changes associated with the accumulation of transcripts encoding citrate catabolism enzymes. During ripening, a 2-fold increase in malic acid and a 6-fold increase in citric acid were detected. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression and enzymatic activity levels, we determined that cytoplasmic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (cyNAD-MDH) and mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) play important regulatory roles in the malic and citric acid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27120592

  14. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity. PMID:26405269

  15. Alkaloids isolated from the leaves of atemoya (Annona cherimola × Annona squamosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana V. Rabêlo; Costa, Emmanoel V.; Andersson Barison; Lívia M. Dutra; Xirley P. Nunes; José C. Tomaz; Gibson G. Oliveira; Norberto P. Lopes; Maria de Fátima C. Santos; Jackson R.G. da Silva Almeida

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAtemoya is an interspecific annonaceous hybrid between Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona squamosa L. Its phytochemical investigation led to seven alkaloids, including two aporphine (anonaine and asimilobine), three oxoaporphine (lanuginosine, liriodenine and lysicamine) and two proaporphine (pronuciferine and stepharine). These alkaloids were identified by a series of spectrometric methods, mainly MS and NMR (1D and 2D), as well as by comparison with literature data. Our findings show...

  16. Project Systematics of Annonaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, P.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a multidisciplinary investigation program on the systematics of Annonaceae was started at Utrecht with special emphasis on the Neotropics. This project will be carried out largely within the framework of the UNESCO-project Flora Neotronica. The first goal is to provide a modern classification of the family as a whole, the second is the publication of a series of monographs for Flora Neotropica. The project has been planned and started in close consultation with leading botanists on t...

  17. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Germano H. Rosado-Neto; Iracilda M. de Moura Lima

    2002-01-01

    Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936) feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber) between the two epidermal lay...

  18. ESPECIES DE Colletotrichum EN CHIRIMOYA (Annona cherimola Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Villanueva-Arce; María de J. Yáñez-Morales; Ana M. Hernández-Anguiano

    2008-01-01

    Dado que hay pocos estudios fitosanitarios en el cultivo de chirimoya, el objetivo de este estudio fue generar información sobre las especies de Colletotrichum asociadas con diferentes síntomas de enfermedad en frutos y hojas de chirimoya. En medios de cultivo papa-dextrosa-agar y papa-zanahoria-agar se seleccionaron seis aislamientos de Colletotrichum de frutos y hojas recolectados en el Estado de México y Michoacán. Se identificaron y analizaron molecularmente tres especies de Colletotrichu...

  19. Synoptic revision of Stenanona (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, G.E.; Maas, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of a treatment of the Annonaceae for the Flora Mesoamericana necessitates the description of five new species of Stenanona (S. carrillensis, S. hondurensis, S. monticola, S. tuberculata and S. tubiflora); three additional new species are described from Colombia (S. columbiensis and S. narinensis) and Mexico (S. wendtii). A key to the 14 recognized species in the genus is presented, as well as notes on potential relationships, distribution, and conservation status.

  20. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

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    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  1. Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss

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    Aline Fernandes Pontes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte integrante do Projeto Flora Paraibana e teve como objetivo realizar o tratamento taxonômico da família Annonaceae para o Estado. Para sua elaboração foram realizadas coletas em diversos municípios do Estado, além do levantamento das exsicatas depositadas nos herbários JPB, EAN e IPA. A identificação do material foi feita com o auxílio de chaves analíticas, bibliografia especializada e fototipos. As descrições e as ilustrações foram elaboradas com base nas observações de material herborizado e/ou plantas vivas. Foram registrados para a Paraíba seis gêneros, compreendendo 15 espécies: Anaxagorea (1, Annona (6, Duguetia (2, Guatteria (2, Rollinia (2 e Xylopia (2, sendo 11 delas novas referências para o Estado.The objective of this study is to carry out a taxonomic treatment of the family Annonaceae for the Flora of Paraíba Project. Collections were made throughout Paraiba. In addition, specimens were studied from the following herbaria: JPB, EAN and IPA. The material available was identified using analytical keys, botanical literature, and photographs of type specimens. The descriptions and illustrations are based on living material or herbarium specimens. Six genera of Annonaceae, comprising a total of 15 species were found in Paraíba: Anaxagorea (1, Annona (6, Duguetia (2, Guatteria (2, Rollinia (2 and Xylopia (2, with 11 new records for the state.

  2. Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Fernandes Pontes; Maria Regina V. Barbosa; Paul J.M. Maas

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante do Projeto Flora Paraibana e teve como objetivo realizar o tratamento taxonômico da família Annonaceae para o Estado. Para sua elaboração foram realizadas coletas em diversos municípios do Estado, além do levantamento das exsicatas depositadas nos herbários JPB, EAN e IPA. A identificação do material foi feita com o auxílio de chaves analíticas, bibliografia especializada e fototipos. As descrições e as ilustrações foram elaboradas com base nas observações de ...

  3. Attraction of Pollinators to Atemoya (Annona squamosa × Annona cherimola) in Puerto Rico Using Commercial Lures and Food Attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Millan-Hernandez, Christian; Cline, Andrew R; McElrath, Thomas C; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa L. and Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) and has potential to be an important fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically, by beetles in the family Nitidulidae. We used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures in combination with various food attractants, including raw bread dough, apple juice, and malta beverage, a soft drink by-product of the brewing process. The most commonly trapped beetles were, in order of decreasing frequency, Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.), Brachypeplus mutilatus Erichson, Urophorus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and Europs fervidus Blatchley (Coleoptera: Monotomidae). All traps, except the unbaited control traps, caught beetles. In a previous study, we found that combining two commercial lures had a synergistic effect on the attraction of these beetle species. In this study, the addition of food attractants increased the number of beetles trapped compared with traps baited with only the commercial lures. Also, food attractants appear to be key in attracting U. humeralis; only one U. humeralis individual of the 206 caught during the experiment was trapped without a food attractant. The variation between the number of beetles caught in traps containing the same treatments was high and may explain the erratic results reported in other studies of pollination in Annona spp. The results are discussed with respect to the use of nitidulid lures and food attractants to increase fruit set in atemoya and other Annonaceae. PMID:26470336

  4. Conservación y uso de los recursos genéticos de Annonaceae en México

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    Jorge Andrés Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis sobre la conservación y el uso de los recursos genéticos de especies frutales de la familia Annonaceae en México. El diagnóstico realizado en 2010 por la Red de Anonáceas (REMA del Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI sirvió para tal fin y fue complementado por estudios recientes. Partimos de una revisión de registros de herbarios de la Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (REMIB además de recoger información con productores de comunidades rurales y recorridos de campo en estados del país donde las anonáceas se distribuyen. En México se encuentran 14 géneros y 63 especies de Annonaceae distribuidas principalmente en regiones tropicales del Sureste de México. La conservación in situ es esporádica, se está dando en huertos de traspatio para la guanábana (Annona muricata, chirimoya (A. cherimola, chincuya (A. purpurea y saramuyo (A. squamosa principalmente. La anona (A. reticulata, ilama (A. diversifolia y chincuya (A. purpurea son fomentadas pero no multiplicadas. La conservación ex situ se mantiene en bancos de germoplasma in vivo o colecciones de trabajo para guanábana (30 colectas, chirimoya (70 colectas e ilama (100 colectas solamente. Las semillas de estas especies no son ortodoxas y su conservación a mediano y largo plazo no está resuelta en México. El potencial de cultivo para este grupo de frutales es alto pero problemas de falta de variedades, fitosanidad, falta de tecnología y mercados reducidos limitan el cultivo comercial.

  5. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  6. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  7. pittieri (annonaceae del alto Sinú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Torres

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico de hojas, corteza y madera de la especie Rollinia pittieri (Annonaceae, se aislaron e identificaron cinco alcaloides con núcleo aporfinoide: Anonaina 1, nornuciferina 2, O-metilmoschatolina 3, Isomoschatolina 4 y Liriodenina 5; dos flavonoides: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahidroxi-3-Orhamnosil- 2-fenilcromona 6 y 5,7,4´-tetrahidroxi-3-O-rhamnosil-2- fenilcromona 7. Todos los compues tos fueron identificados mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (UV, IR, EM, RMN-1H y 13C, incluyendo técnicas bidimensionales, y por comparación con datos espectroscópicos reportados en la literatura. El compuesto 6 presentó una significativa actividad captadora de radicales libres según los ensayos DPPH, ABTS y Generación Enzimática del Anión Superóxido.

  8. Low temperature storage and in vitro germination of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Jorge; Pérez de Oteyza, María de los Angeles; Fuentetaja, Pilar; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    Due to the protogynous dichogamy of cherimoya and to the absence of proper pollinating vectors, hand-pollination with fresh pollen is a common practice for cherimoya commercial production. In order to optimize the process of hand-pollination, in this work we have studied the conservation of cherimoya pollen at –20, -80 and –196ºC for up to three months. In vitro pollen germination of fresh pollen was 57.1% and it was progressively reduced with conservation time at the three temperatures studi...

  9. Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Camacho, João F; Cordeiro, Nereida; Gouveia, Manuela; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-11-15

    The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars ('Perry Vidal', 'Mateus I', 'Mateus III' and 'Funchal') from Madeira Island, were studied for the first time. The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes (42.2-59.6%), fatty acids (18.0-35.6%) and sterols (9.6-23.7%). Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between 554 and 1350mgkg(-1) of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavan-3-ols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin and procyanidin tetramer. 'Mateus I' and 'Mateus III' cultivars present the highest content of phenolic compounds (6299 and 9603mgkg(-1) of dry weight, respectively). These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. PMID:27283704

  10. CHIRIMOYA (Annona cherimola Miller), FRUTAL TROPICAL Y SUB-TROPICAL DE VALORES PROMISORIOS

    OpenAIRE

    María Esther González Vega

    2013-01-01

    Los frutos de anonáceas, entre ellos la chirimoya, presentan altas cualidades organolépticas, digestivas y nutritivas, además, como especie, la Annona cherimola Miller también es apreciada por sus propiedades medicinales e industriales tanto en el mercado nacional como internacional. Sin embargo, aún existe desconocimiento sobre sus características y potencialidades como planta cultivada. En el presente trabajo se exponen informaciones sobre esta especie y se discute la importancia de la expa...

  11. An azafluorenone alkaloid and a megastigmane from Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Nidia C., E-mail: nidiayoshida@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Divinpolis, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Ricardo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Correia, Rodolfo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Garcez, Walmir S., E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The azafluorenone alkaloid 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-azafluoren-9-one and the megastigman (-)-(5R*, 6S*)-megastigman-3-one-10,7-olide were isolated from aerial parts of Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae), along with the known compounds (3S*,5S*,8R*)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (grasshopper ketone), N-trans-feruloyltyramine, (-)-anonaine, (-)-asimilobine, liriodenine and (-)-syringaresinol. This is the first description of the presence of megastigmanes in Annonaceae. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. (author)

  12. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Couvreur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name U. pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with U. zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and U. modestum Diels are transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov.. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  13. Plants of the annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frausin, G.; Lima, R.B.S.; Hidalgo, A.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Pohlit, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Species of the Annonaceae family are used all over the tropics in traditional medicine in tropical regions for the treatment of malaria and other illnesses. Phytochemical studies of this family have revealed chemical components which could offer new alternatives for the treatment and control of mala

  14. Alcalóides de Duguetia trunciflora Maas (Annonaceae

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    I.M. Fechine

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ethanolic extract of the leaves and thin branches of Duguetia trunciflora Maas (Annonaceae six alkaloids were isolated, being one benzylisoquinoline: reticuline¹, four tetrahydroprotoberberine:,tetrahydro-palmatine², tetrahydrojathrorrizine³, discretamine4, thaicanine5, and one berberine: jathrorrizine6. These alkaloids were identified through ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopic technics. The alkaloids 1, 3, 5 and 6 are being cited for the first time on Duguetia genus.

  15. Two cold-induced family 19 glycosyl hydrolases from cherimoya (Annona cherimola) fruit: an antifungal chitinase and a cold-adapted chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Oscar; Sanchez-Ballesta, María T; Merodio, Carmen; Escribano, María I

    2013-11-01

    Two cold-induced chitinases were isolated and purified from the mesocarp cherimoyas (Annona cherimola Mill.) and they were characterised as acidic endochitinases with a Mr of 24.79 and 47.77kDa (AChi24 and AChi48, respectively), both family 19 glycosyl hydrolases. These purified chitinases differed significantly in their biochemical and biophysical properties. While both enzymes had similar optimal acidic pH values, AChi24 was enzymatically active and stable at alkaline pH values, as well as displaying an optimal temperature of 45°C and moderate thermostability. Kinetic studies revealed a great catalytic efficiency of AChi24 for oligomeric and polymeric substrates. Conversely, AChi48 hydrolysis showed positive co-operativity that was associated to a mixture of different functional oligomeric states through weak transient protein interactions. The rise in the AChi48 kcat at increasing enzyme concentrations provided evidence of its oligomerisation. AChi48 chitinase was active and stable in a broad acidic pH range, and while it was relatively labile as temperatures increased, with an optimal temperature of 35°C, it retained about 50% of its maximal activity from 5 to 50°C. Thermodynamic characterisation reflected the high kcat of AChi48 and the remarkably lower ΔH(‡), ΔS(‡) and ΔG(‡) values at 5°C compared to AChi24, indicating that the hydrolytic activity of AChi48 was less thermodependent. In vitro functional studies revealed that AChi24 had a strong antifungal defence potential against Botrytis cinerea, whereas they displayed no cryoprotective or antifreeze activity. Hence, based on biochemical, thermodynamic and functional data, this study demonstrates that two acidic endochitinases are induced at low temperatures in a subtropical fruit, and that one of them acts in an oligomeric cold-adapted manner. PMID:23890591

  16. Annonaceae endémicas del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca León León; Christhian Monsalve

    2013-01-01

    La familia Annonaceae está conformada fundamentalmente por árboles de mediano o gran tamaño y es reconocida en el Perú con 27 géneros y 236 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). En este trabajo reconocemos 44 endemismos en 15 géneros. Un tercio de estos taxones endémicos fueron descritos como nuevos para la ciencia después de 1993 y aproximadamente el 30% se conoce solamente de una colección botánica. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones de Bosque...

  17. Evolutionary steps in the reproductive biology of Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of Annonaceae are characterized by fleshy petals, many stamens with hard connective shields and numerous carpels with sessile stigmas often covered by sticky secretions. The petals of many representatives during anthesis form a closed pollination chamber. Protogynous dichogamy with strong scent emissions especially during the pistillate stage is a character of nearly all species. Scent emissions can be enhanced by thermogenesis. The prevailing reproductive system in the family seems to be self-compatibility. The basal genus Anaxagorea besides exhibiting several ancestral morphological characters has also many characters which reappear in other genera. Strong fruit-like scents consisting of fruit-esters and alcohols mainly attract small fruit-beetles (genus Colopterus, Nitidulidae as pollinators, as well as several other beetles (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and fruit-flies (Drosophilidae, which themselves gnaw on the thick petals or their larvae are petal or ovule predators. The flowers and the thick petals are thus a floral brood substrate for the visitors and the thick petals of Anaxagorea have to be interpreted as an antipredator structure. Another function of the closed thick petals is the production of heat by accumulated starch, which enhances scent emission and provides a warm shelter for the attracted beetles. Insight into floral characters and floral ecology of Anaxagorea, the sister group of the rest of the Annonaceae, is particularly important for understanding functional evolution and diversification of the family as a whole. As beetle pollination (cantharophily is plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea and in Annonaceae, characters associated with beetle pollination appear imprinted in members of the whole family. Pollination by beetles (cantharophily is the predominant mode of the majority of species worldwide. Examples are given of diurnal representatives (e.g., Guatteria, Duguetia, Annona which function on the basis of fruit

  18. Clonagem de quatro espécies de Annonaceae potenciais como porta-enxertos Vegetative propagation of four Annonaceae rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Erivaldo José Scaloppi Junior; Antonio Baldo Geraldo Martins

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou o estudo da capacidade de enraizamento de quatro espécies de Annonaceae potenciais como porta-enxertos (Annona glabra L., Annona montana Macfad, Rollinia emarginata e Rollinia mucosa Baill.) em três épocas do ano (verão, outono e inverno). Experimento conduzido em câmara de nebulização intermitente pertencente à UNESP/FCAV (21º15'22"S e 48º18'58"W), utilizando-se de estacas apicais enfolhadas em tratamento rápido (5 segundos) com ácido indolbutírico (IBA) (0; 1000; 3000; ...

  19. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  20. Alkaloids of the Annonaceae: occurrence and a compilation of their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Da-Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa Filho, Jos Maria

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the chemistry and pharmacology of the alkaloids found in species of the Annonaceae family. The occurrence of alkaloids from Annonaceae species, as well as their chemical structures and pharmacological activities are summarized in informative and easy-to-understand tables. Within the Annonaceae family, the genera Annona, Duguetia, and Guatteria have led to many important publications. Valuable and comprehensive information about the structure of these alkaloids is provided. The alkaloids of the aporphine type represent the predominant group in this family. Many of the isolated alkaloids exhibit unique structures. In addition to the chemical structures, the pharmacological activities of some alkaloids are also presented in this chapter. Thus, the leishmanicidal, antimicrobial, antitumor, cytotoxic, and antimalarial activities observed for these alkaloids are highlighted. The chapter is presented as a contribution for the scientific community, mainly to enable the search for alkaloids in species belonging to the Annonaceae family. PMID:25845063

  1. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sze Li

    Full Text Available Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str. is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies, including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes

  2. Studies in Annonaceae. XXVIII. Macromorphological variation of recent invaders in northern Central America: the case of Malmea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrou, L

    1997-06-01

    Cluster analysis is used to reveal patterns of macromorphological variation in a species complex of Malmea (Annonaceae) distributed in eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Of 53 characters, 24 are important for the clustering of 238 herbarium specimens into 12 clusters. No cluster is exclusively specified by any character or combination of characters. Neither can any geographical pattern be detected, except for the clustering of specimens from Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biological Station, Veracruz. A new subspecies from this area, M. depressa subsp. abscondita, is described. Malmea gaumeri and M. leiophylla are brought into synonymy with M. depressa. Distribution patterns of Mexican and Central American taxa of Malmea are largely concordant with those of South American taxa, which spread into Cental America after the Pliocene closure of the Isthmus of Panama. A phytogeographical novelty is presented, however, as the distribution of M. depressa subsp. abscondita within the Sierra de los Tuxtlas shows an hitherto unknown pattern: the new subspecies is distributed only on the northeastern slopes of this mountain range, and is geographically separated from M. depressa subsp. depressa, which occurs only on the southwestern slopes. PMID:21708638

  3. A new species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae), endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, Th.L.P.; Luke, W.R.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania enclose high levels of plant and animal diversity with many yet to be described species. Here we describe a new species of the pan-tropical plant family Annonaceae named Uvariopsis lovettiana. It closely resembles another Eastern Arc endemic species, U. bisexual

  4. Phytochemistry study from bark of stem of Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using toxicity assays for Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10 β, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained. (author)

  5. Cremastosperma (and other evolutionary digressions) : Molecular phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic studies in Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael David

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented of research on a family of flowering plants, the Annonaceae, species of which are found in tropical rainforest across the world. The project focussed on one group of species, the genus Cremastosperma, which is found in the South and Central American tropics. A taxonomic revis

  6. Insetos associados a gravioleira (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae) na regiao de Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, N.; Gomes, A.L.S.; Couturier, Guy; Ronchi-Teles, B.

    1998-01-01

    Insects collected on soursop (#Annonaceae$ : #Annona muricat$ L.) nearby Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, are reported. Thirty-seven species were found, but only six were considered injurious to the plant : #Bephratelloides pomorum$ F. (#Eurytomidae$), #Cerconota anonella$ Sepp (#Stenomatidae$), #Membracis suctifructus$ Boulard & Couturier (#Membracidade$) and Pinnaspis aspidistrae$ Signoret (#Diaspididae$) attacking fruits ; #Aphis spiraecola$ Patch and #Aphis gossypii$ Glover (#Aphididae$) feeding...

  7. Pollination ecology and breeding system of Xylopia championii (Annonaceae): curculionid beetle pollination, promoted by floral scents and elevated floral temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, RMK; Ratnayake, RMCS; Gunatilleke, IAUN; Wijesundara, DSA

    2007-01-01

    Data on the reproductive biology of the Annonaceae are rather fragmentary, particularly for paleotropical species. The pollination ecology and breeding system of the Sri Lankan endemic Xylopia championii (Annonaceae) are described in detail. The pollination ecology was investigated using a diverse range of approaches, including (1) observations of flower-level and population-level phenology, (2) assessments of floral visitors and effective pollinators, (3) monitoring of floral temperature in ...

  8. A new species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) associated with commercial species of Annonaceae in Brazil, and comments on other species of the genus causing damage to avocado trees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela De Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, state of São Paulo, Angatuba) is described from 73 specimens. The holotype and three paratypes from the same locality were reared from larvae collected in the basis region, near the ground, of an atemoya tree (a hybrid of the sugar-apple, "pinha" or fruta-do-conde"-Annona squamosa L., and the cherymoya, A. cherimoya (Mill.), Annonaceae). Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. can cause severe injury to commercial Annonaceae, and has been misidentified in the collections and the literature as Heilipus catagraphus Germar, 1834. The new species and H. catagraphus have a very similar color pattern, but can be easily distinguished by the rostrum shape in lateral view, being humped in H. gibbus sp. nov. but evenly arcuate in H. catagraphus. Illustrations of habitus and of male and female genitalia are provided to the new species and for avocado stem boring species of Heilipus which occur in Brazil (H. catagraphus and H. rufipes). Comments are made for H. elegans Guérin, 1844, which record to Brazil is probably based on a misidentification.  PMID:25661230

  9. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management. PMID:26284104

  10. A new species in the tree genus Polyceratocarpus (Annonaceae) from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Andrew R.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Summers, Abigail L.; Deere, Nicolas J.; Luke, W.R. Quentin; Ndangalasi, Henry J.; Sparrow, Sue; Johnson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae, an endemic tree species of Annonaceae from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, is described and illustrated. The new species is identified as a member of the genus Polyceratocarpus by the combination of staminate and bisexual flowers, axillary inflorescences, subequal outer and inner petals, and multi-seeded monocarps with pitted seeds. From P. scheffleri, with which it has previously been confused, it differs in the longer pedicels, smaller and thinner p...

  11. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chiu Pang; Tanya Scharaschkin; Su, Yvonne C. F.; Richard M K Saunders

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The ph...

  12. A new combination in Orophea (Annonaceae for Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G.Don. (Annonaceae has not been considered for 180 years. The plant is only known from material grown in the Calcutta Botanic Garden in India following introduction from, reportedly, the Moluccas. Examination of a specimen from the Brussels Herbarium, designated here as lectotype, indicates that the species is a member of Orophea subgenus Sphaerocarpon, similar to Orophea gabra Merr. A new combination in Orophea is made. 

  13. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae) in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Ayu Lestari; Siti Sofiah

    2015-01-01

    Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity) then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was...

  14. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Mehran Fadaeinasab; Sonia Nikzad; Gokula Mohan; Hapipah Mohd Ali; Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communiti...

  15. A new Bephratelloides (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) from seeds of Cymbopetalum (Annonaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissell, E.E.; Foster, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bephratelloides ablusus Grissell and Foster, new species, is described and illustrated based upon specimens that emerged from seeds of Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae) in southern Mexico. This is the first species of Bephratelloides that is associated with a host other than Annona. Bephratelloides ablusus is compared with its congeners from which it differs in minor character states. No external morphological characteristics suggest a specialized association with Cymbopetalum.

  16. New species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae) and Laccosperma (Arecaceae/Palmae) from Monts de Cristal, Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Niangadouma,Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Monts de Cristal National Park in northwest Gabon is one of the most species rich places in Central Africa. Here, we describe two new species, one in Annonaceae and one in palms. Uvariopsis citrata Couvreur & Niangadouma, sp. nov. is unique in the genus by emitting a strong lemon scent from the crushed leaves and young branches. Laccosperma cristalensis Couvreur & Niangadouma, sp. nov. is a rattan that lacks acanthophylls on the cirrus and has few pinnae. Complete descriptions, photog...

  17. Identification of the environmental neurotoxins annonaceous acetogenins in an Annona cherimolia Mill. Alcoholic Beverage Using HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ven, Jessica; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Lewin, Guy; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2014-08-27

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have suggested Annonaceaeous acetogenins to be environmental neurotoxins responsible for sporadic atypical parkinsonism/dementia in tropical areas. These compounds are present in the tropical genus Annona (Annonaceae), known for its fruit-yielding cultivated species such as Annona cherimolia. This species is widely cultivated in South America, Spain, and Portugal and yields acetogenins in its seeds, stems, and roots. The presence of these compounds in the pulp of its fruit and in derived food products is unclear. An innovative and sensitive methodology by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap with postcolumn infusion of lithium iodide was used to identify the presence of low levels of acetogenins in an A. cherimolia Mill. fruit-based commercial alcoholic beverage. More than 80 representatives were detected, and the 31 most intense acetogenins were identified. All together these findings indicate that this species should be considered as a risk factor within the framework of a worldwide problem of food toxicity. PMID:25088119

  18. Avaliação da atividade citotóxica das sementes de Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of seeds of Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    L.A.R.S. Lima; M. T. P. Lopes; Cunha, M.M.; L.P.S. Pimenta; M.A.D. Boaventura

    2012-01-01

    Na família Annonaceae, especialmente o gênero Annona é muito apreciado por fornecer frutos comestíveis. Espécies desse gênero são utilizadas na medicina popular contra diabetes, malária e infecções. Muitas dessas atividades biológicas têm sido relacionadas às acetogeninas de anonáceas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade citotóxica dos grupos e de uma acetogenina pura (cornifolina) obtidos a partir do extrato etanólico das sementes de Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae). Es...

  19. Actividad captadora de radicales libres y citotoxicidad de plantas colombianas de la familia Annonaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Nora; Londoño, Julián; Arango, Gabriel J.

    2005-01-01

    La actividad captadora de radicales libres de 53 extractos de diferente polaridad pertenecientes a especies de la familia Annonaceae fue evaluada por el método del DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picryl hidrazil). Se calculó el porcentaje de decoloración del radical DPPH midiendo el cambio en la absorbancia a 517 nm; determinándose para cada extracto la EC50 (concentración de extracto necesaria para decolorar el radical DPPH en un 50%). En general fueron más activos los extractos metanólicos, indicando q...

  20. Phytochemistry study from bark of stem of Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using toxicity assays for Artemia salina; Estudo fitoquimico das cascas do caule de Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Joao Maximo de; Ziminiani, Maria Graziela [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia Bioquimica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2001-04-01

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10 {beta}, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained. (author)

  1. Chemical constituents of the underground stem bark of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation the underground parts of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae) were used to conduct a phytochemical study that included the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. The substances (-)-duguetine β-N-oxide, (-)-duguetine, dicentrinone, (-)-Nmethyltetrahydropalmatine, and (+)-N-methylglaucine were isolated from the alkaloid extract of the bark of the underground stem, and the ureide allantoin was also isolated by precipitation from the ethanol extract of the wood of the underground stem. A fresh volatile oil and a nonpolar extract were also obtained from the underground stem bark. The substances 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, α-gurjunene, aromadendrene, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-methylisoeugenol, and α-asarone were isolated from the fresh volatile oil and polycarpol, β-caryophyllene oxide, 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, α-asarone, and asaraldehyde were obtained from the petroleum ether extract. The present study describes for the first time the alkaloid (-)-duguetine β-N-oxide and the occurrence of (-)-N-methyltetrahydropalmatine and (+)-N-methylglaucine in the family Annonaceae. All extracts were active in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (author)

  2. Influence of seasonal variation on the phenology and liriodenine content of Annona lutescens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Moreno, Marisol; Tinoco-Ojangurén, Clara Leonor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2013-07-01

    Annona lutescens Saff. (Annonaceae) grows as a native tree in Chiapas, Mexico in Tropical Dry Forest habitat. Like most Annonaceae, it biosynthesizes benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, mostly liriodenine. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in the accumulation of liriodenine, the monthly variation of liriodenine content in roots, stems and leaves of mature and young trees was observed. These parts of young and mature A. lutescens trees were collected monthly over a 1 year period and the alkaloids were extracted; the liriodenine was quantified by high-resolution liquid chromatography. The phenological stages of the species were also assessed (leaf development, flowering and fruiting) using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The analysis of both young and mature trees showed a significant increase in the liriodenine concentration occurs within roots during the dry season, which coincides with leaf fall. A significant decrease also occurred at the beginning of the rainy season (the period of leaf growth); the liriodenine content for the next rainy season did not reach the levels of the previous dry season. The climatic variation induced phenological and physiological changes in this species. PMID:23389399

  3. Chemical constituents of the underground stem bark of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise B. da; Tulli, Elaine C.O.; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Garcez, Walmir S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Evandro A. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    In the present investigation the underground parts of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae) were used to conduct a phytochemical study that included the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. The substances (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide, (-)-duguetine, dicentrinone, (-)-Nmethyltetrahydropalmatine, and (+)-N-methylglaucine were isolated from the alkaloid extract of the bark of the underground stem, and the ureide allantoin was also isolated by precipitation from the ethanol extract of the wood of the underground stem. A fresh volatile oil and a nonpolar extract were also obtained from the underground stem bark. The substances 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-gurjunene, aromadendrene, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-methylisoeugenol, and {alpha}-asarone were isolated from the fresh volatile oil and polycarpol, {beta}-caryophyllene oxide, 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-asarone, and asaraldehyde were obtained from the petroleum ether extract. The present study describes for the first time the alkaloid (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide and the occurrence of (-)-N-methyltetrahydropalmatine and (+)-N-methylglaucine in the family Annonaceae. All extracts were active in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (author)

  4. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  5. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  6. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs

  7. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C. [Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S. [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Matos, A.I. [Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, C.A.L. [Curso de Química, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E. [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  8. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagio, A S N; Vieira, M C; Volobuff, C R F; Silva, M S; Matos, A I; Cardoso, C A L; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs. PMID:25714885

  9. Water uptake by Annona diversifolia Saff. and A. purpurea Moc. & sessé ex dunal seeds (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Ferreira; Alma Rosa González Esquinca; Ivan De-La-Cruz-Chacón

    2014-01-01

    Annonaceae seeds are known by presenting dormancy mechanisms, whose reports ranging from coating impermeable to the physiological dormancy. By this way, the present study aimed to evaluate water uptake in Annona diversifolia Saff and Annona purpurea Moc & Sessé ex Dunal seeds. For this study, seeds were placed under immersion in distilled water, and used four replicates of 25 seeds of each species, which were weighed during the 480 hours that were immersed. To determine the place of purchase ...

  10. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Divisao de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2013-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values lower than 20.0 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -}1 (10.5and 16.2 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu molL{sup -1}, respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  11. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  12. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  13. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities. PMID:26184167

  14. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL). PMID:24969014

  15. Insecticidal Effect of Fruit Extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae) against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Efecto Insecticida de Extractos de Fruta de Xylopia aethiopica y Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae) contra Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Donald A. Ukeh; Ene E. Oku; Idorenyin A Udo; Abo I Nta; Jude A Ukeh

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal and repellent activities of fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. and Dennettia tripetala (Baker f.) G.E. Schatz belonging to the family Annonaceae was studied against Sitophilus oryzae (L.), an economic, primary post-harvest pest of rice, and other cereal products. Infested rice grains (100 g) treated with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (w/w) powders of both plants were evaluated for toxicity against S. oryzae every 24 h for 3 d, and during Fi progeny emergence. The esse...

  16. A new species of Goniothalamus (Annonaceae from Palawan, and a new nomenclatural combination in the genus from Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Goniothalamus palawanensis C.C.Tang & R.M.K.Saunders, sp. nov. (Annonaceae, is described from Palawan, Philippines. Goniothalamus palawanensis is most closely related to G. amuyon (Blanco Merr., but differs in its shorter inner petals, hairy ovaries, and funnel-shaped stigmas. A new nomenclatural combination, G.angustifolius (A.C.Sm. B.Xue & R.M.K.Saunders, comb. nov., is furthermore validated to reflect the phylogenetic affinities of a Fijian species previously assigned to Polyalthia.

  17. La situación de las annonaceae en México: principales plagas, enfermedades y su control

    OpenAIRE

    Librado Vidal Hernández; Héctor López Moctezuma; Nayelli Ayatzol Vidal Martínez; Romeo Ruiz Bello; Doris Guadalupe Castillo Rocha; Roberto Gregorio Chiquito Contreras

    2014-01-01

    La importancia económica de las especies de la familia Annonaceae en México es diversa y no se restringe a las especies comestibles, pues además incluye especies con propiedades aromáticas para la extracción de aceites esenciales, medicinales, insecticidas y tóxicos a peces. En general esta familia no se ha formalizado agronómica ni económicamente, sin embargo, presenta grandes perspectivas dentro de programas de mejoramiento genético, en el uso como portainjertos o bien como cultivos alterna...

  18. Anatomia e aspectos filogeneticos do xilema secundario de 10 especies de Annonaceae do Estado de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Botosso, Paulo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho engloba o estudo anatômico e os aspectos de importância filogenética do xilema secundário de 10 espécies de Annonaceae, com ocorrência natural no Estado de Santa Catarina. Foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Annona cacans (Warm.) var. glabriuscula R. E. Fries, Annona glabra L., Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil., Guatteria australis St. Hil., Porcelia macrocarpa (Warm.) R. E. Fries, Rollinia emarginata Schlecht., Rollinia exalbida (Vell.) Mart., Rollinia sericea R. E. Fries, ...

  19. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and 13C NMR data of diterpenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from 13C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  20. Conservación y uso de los recursos genéticos de Annonaceae en México

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Andrés Agustín; Sergio D. Segura Ledesma

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis sobre la conservación y el uso de los recursos genéticos de especies frutales de la familia Annonaceae en México. El diagnóstico realizado en 2010 por la Red de Anonáceas (REMA) del Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI) sirvió para tal fin y fue complementado por estudios recientes. Partimos de una revisión de registros de herbarios de la Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (REMIB) además de recoger información con productores de comunidades ...

  1. Rootstocks and grafting methods for Atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimoya Mill. plantsPortaenxertos e métodos de enxertia na produção de mudas de Atemoieira (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazianny Andrade Leite

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the production of atemoya nursery plants grafted on two rootstocks (Annona squamosa L. and Annona glabra L.. The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial being two rootstocks and five methods of grafting, with five randomized blocks and ten plants per plot, totaling 500 plants. The variables evaluated at 60 days after grafting were budding efficiency (%, shooting grafts (% dormant grafts (% and living grafts (%. It was also evaluated the shoot length (cm, stem diameter (mm, root system length (cm, number of leaves (unit /plant, dry root mass (g /plant, shoot dry mass (g /plant, total dry mass (g /plant, length seedling (cm and shoot: root system dry mass ratio. Data regarding diameter of the rootstock and means of graft characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance. For the characteristics of percentage of grafting effectiveness, living grafts, shooting and dormant grafts, data were transformed in for analysis of variance, all means compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. Atemoya ‘Gefner’ can be grafted on rootstocks Annona glabra L. and Annona squamosa L. by cleft grafting method. The grafting whip and double whip can be used to atemoya ‘Gefner’ if grafting onto rootstock Annona squamosa L. Budding grafting method is not efficient for the production of atemoya ‘Gefner’ plants. Este experimento teve por finalidade avaliar a propagação por enxertia de atemoieira sobre dois portaenxertos (Annona squamosa L. e Annona glabra L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois portaenxertos e cinco métodos de enxertia em 5 blocos e 10 plantas por parcela, totalizando 500 plantas. Foram avaliadas aos 60 dias após a enxertia as variáveis pegamento dos enxertos (%, enxertos brotados (%, enxertos dormentes (% e enxertos vivos (%. Também foram avaliados comprimento da parte aérea (cm, diâmetro do colo (mm, comprimento do sistema radicular (cm, número de folhas (unidade/planta, massa seca do sistema radicular (g/planta, massa seca da parte aérea (g/ planta, massa seca total (g/ planta e relação massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca do sistema radicular. Os dados referentes ao diâmetro dos portaenxertos e as médias das características do enxerto foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. No tocante às características de percentagem de pegamento, enxertos vivos, brotados e dormentes, os dados foram transformados em para análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott- Knott, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A atemoieira ‘Gefner’ pode ser enxertada nos portaenxertos Annona glabra L. e Annona squamosa L. pelo método de garfagem fenda cheia. Os métodos de enxertia inglês simples e inglês complicado podem ser utilizados se a atemoieira ‘Gefner’ for enxertada no portaenxerto Annona squamosa L. O método de enxertia por borbulhia não é eficiente para a produção de mudas de atemoieira ‘Gefner’.

  2. Leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of compounds from two Annonacea species cultivated in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Soares Vila-Nova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, with a total of 12 million people infected and 350 million at risk. In the search for new leishmanicidal agents, alkaloids and acetogenins isolated from leaves of Annona squamosa and seeds of Annona muricata were tested against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. METHODS: Methanol-water (80:20 extracts of A. squamosa leaves and A. muricata seeds were extracted with 10% phosphoric acid and organic solvents to obtain the alkaloid and acetogenin-rich extracts. These extracts were chromatographed on a silica gel column and eluted with a mixture of several solvents in crescent order of polarity. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested against Leishmania chagasi, which is responsible for American visceral leishmaniasis, using the MTT test assay. The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated for all isolated compounds, and for this assay, RAW 264.7 cells were used. RESULTS: O-methylarmepavine, a benzylisoquinolinic alkaloid, and a C37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin were isolated from A. squamosa, while two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone, were isolated from A. muricata. Against promastigotes, the alkaloid showed an IC50 of 23.3 µg/mL, and the acetogenins showed an IC50 ranging from 25.9 to 37.6 µg/mL; in the amastigote assay, the IC50 values ranged from 13.5 to 28.7 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity assay showed results ranging from 43.5 to 79.9 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These results characterize A. squamosa and A. muricata as potential sources of leishmanicidal agents. Plants from Annonaceae are rich sources of natural compounds and an important tool in the search for new leishmanicidal therapies.

  3. Water Mills in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The most fundamental questions regarding the history of water mills are when and where was the water mill invented and the relationship historically between the horizontal water mill, that with a horizontal water wheel and the vertical water mill that with a vertical water wheel as described by Vitruvius (De Architectura X, 5, 2). In both cases they are operated by a spindle that goes through a hole in the lower mill stone and turns the upper stone. In the horizontal mill this spindle is conn...

  4. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  5. Xymarginatin: a new acetogenin inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport from Xylopia emarginata Mart., Annonaceae Xymarginatin: uma nova acetogenina inibidora do transporte mitocondrial eletrônico de Xylopia emarginata Mart., Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Colman-Saizarbitoria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Annonaceous acetogenin, xymarginatin (1, was isolated from the twigs of Xyliopia emarginata Mart. (Annonaceae by bioactivity-directed fractionation using lethality to brine shrimp. The compound 1 represents a linear C-35 Annonaceous acetogenin, lacking either tetrahydrofuran (THF or epoxide rings, bearing a keto group at C-10, and possessing two cis-double bonds separated by two methylenes units. The structure of 1 was elucidated by ¹H and 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC, HMQC and HRMS. The ability to inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Xymarginatin (1 was tested in a rat liver mitochondrial oxygen uptake assay, with IC50 value of 1720 nM; Rotenone as a positive control gave IC50 34.8 nM. The toxicity of compound 1 against Artemia salina Leach gave LC50 of 127 μg/mL.Uma nova acetogenina de Anonaceae, xymarginatin (1, foi isolada dos caules de Xyliopia emarginata Mart. (Annonaceae por fracionamento biodirecionado usando o teste de letalidade em Artemia salina. A substância 1 representa uma acetogenina linear C-35, sema neis tetrahidrofureano ou epóxidos, mas com um grupo cetônico em C-10 e com uma dupla ligação cis separada por duas unidades metilênicas. A estrutura de 1 foi elucidada por ¹H e 13C-RNM, COSY, HMBC, HMQC e HRMS. A habilidade de inibir a cadeia respiratória mitocondrial de 1 foi testada em ensaios de produção de oxigênio mitocondrial em fígado de ratos, com IC50 de 1720 nM; rotenona, controle positivo, apresentou IC50 de 34,8 nM. A toxicidade da substância 1 contra Artemia salina Leach foi de LC50 127 μg/mL.

  6. Estudo fitoquímico das cascas do caule de Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina leach Activity-guided isolation of the constituents from bark of stem of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL)

    OpenAIRE

    João Máximo de Siqueira; Maria Graziela Ziminiani; Ubirazilda Maria Resende; Maria Amélia Diamantino Boaventura

    2001-01-01

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10beta, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained.

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aporphinoids and other alkaloids from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; da Cruz, Pedro Ernesto Oliveira; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; de Souza Moraes, Valéria Regina; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Salvador, Marcos José

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL method and antimicrobial activity using the broth microdilution method of aporphinoids (liriodenine 1, anonaine 2 and asimilobine 3) and other alkaloids (reticuline 4 and cleistopholine 5) isolated from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae) were evaluated. For antioxidant activity, the most active alkaloid was asimilobine with ORAC value of 2.09 relative trolox equivalents. For antimicrobial activity, some alkaloids showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 25-100 µg mL(-1). The most active compounds were the aporphinoids liriodenine, anonaine and asimilobine, some of them more active than the positive control. PMID:22582985

  8. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  9. Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Lopez Encina; Elisabeth Carmona Martin; Antonio Arana Lopez; Isabel Maria Gonzalez Padilla

    2014-01-01

    Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, ...

  10. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  11. Extreme mill make over

    OpenAIRE

    Ruberg, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the operation and performance of a lumber mill. Generating positive cash flow and remaining profitable at coincident low points of the economic and seasonal cycle are major challenges. Mill metrics were benchmarked using industry data which revealed performance gaps in costs, production rate, quality and lumber recovery. Economies of scale were investigated for lumber manufacturing. Capacity utilization for the site empirically determined that the unit was operating at clo...

  12. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  13. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Falcao, Emanuela Viana; Silva, Luana de Morais e; Soares, Gabriela Cristina da Silva; Scotti, Marcus Tullius, E-mail: mtscotti@ccae.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente

    2012-07-01

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  14. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  15. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855) (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae) on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple), causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios,...

  16. Insecticidal Effect of Fruit Extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Efecto Insecticida de Extractos de Fruta de Xylopia aethiopica y Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae contra Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A . Ukeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and repellent activities of fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. and Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz belonging to the family Annonaceae was studied against Sitophilus oryzae (L., an economic, primary post-harvest pest of rice, and other cereal products. Infested rice grains (100 g treated with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (w/w powders of both plants were evaluated for toxicity against S. oryzae every 24 h for 3 d, and during Fi progeny emergence. The essential oils of both plants were also applied at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg cm-2 filter paper in Petri dishes for toxicity bioassays at 24 h exposure. Repellence bioassay with 10 μL solution of essential oils on filter paper was performed in a Y-Tube airflow olfactometer. Results indicate that powders of both plants significantly (P La actividad insecticida y repelente de los extractos frutales de Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. y Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz pertenecientes a la familia Annonaceae fueron evaluados contra Sitophilus oryzae (L., plaga primaria de importancia económica en poscosecha de arroz y otros cereales. Granos de arroz (100 g infestados tratados con polvos de ambas plantas al 1, 2, 3, 4, y 5% (p/p fueron evaluados para la toxicidad contra S. oryzae cada 24 h por 3 d y durante la emergencia de la progenie F1. Los aceites esenciales de ambas plantas también fueron aplicados en papel filtro a 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 mg cm-2 en cajas de Petri para bioensayos de toxicidad con exposición de 24 h. Bioensayos de repelencia con 10 μL de solución de los aceites esenciales impregnados en papel filtro fueron realizados en un olfatómetro de flujo de aire Y-Tube. Los resultados indican que los polvos de ambas plantas causan una mortalidad significativa de estos insectos (P < 0,001 y una reducción en la emergencia de la progenie F1 con relación al control. Los aceites esenciales también mostraron un efecto adulticida significativo (P < 0,001 despu

  17. La situación de las annonaceae en México: principales plagas, enfermedades y su control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Librado Vidal Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia económica de las especies de la familia Annonaceae en México es diversa y no se restringe a las especies comestibles, pues además incluye especies con propiedades aromáticas para la extracción de aceites esenciales, medicinales, insecticidas y tóxicos a peces. En general esta familia no se ha formalizado agronómica ni económicamente, sin embargo, presenta grandes perspectivas dentro de programas de mejoramiento genético, en el uso como portainjertos o bien como cultivos alternativos. Las principales plagas asociadas al género Annona son: Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead, Cerconota anonella Sepp., Corythuca gossypii Fab., Planococcus citri, Chrysobotris sp., Talponia batesi Heinrich., Acantocephala femorata Fab.. Las principales enfermedades de las anonáceas reportadas son: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, Rhizopusstolonifer Ehr., Phyllosticta sp., Pestalotia sp., Macrophoma sp., Fusarium sp y Phytopthora sp.. Siendo la primera la principal enfermedad de mayor importancia en el cultivo del guanábano dado que disminuye el rendimiento y calidad de los frutos. En chirimoyo y guanábano es muy poca la información bibliográfica existente sobre plagas y enfermedades, y en las demás especies de Annona es nula. No se han realizado evaluaciones de las pérdidas que ocasionan las plagas y enfermedades en las Anonáceas, ocasionando un desconocimiento pleno sobre los daños ocasionados por este factor biótico.

  18. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

  19. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  20. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  1. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  2. Yang-Mills and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Marateck, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem and subsequent work to contribute to the Standard Model of particle physics.

  3. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  4. INVESTIGATION ON HARDENED STEEL MILLING WITH MICRO-END MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYing-ning; WANGCheng-yong; WUXue-qi; QINZhe; ZENGBao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Tool wear and breakage of the micro-milling tool is an important problem for high speed machining of hardened steel die and mould. Dry milling of S136 hardened steel is carried out using TiA1N coated carbide micro-end mill (Ф2 mm). The effect of cutting speed, feed per tooth and radial depth of cut on cutting force is analyzed. Cutting parameters adapting to dry machining and strategy optimized for higher rate of material removal with lower cutting force are attained. Results of SEM observation show that the main failure patterns of micro-end mill are breakage of tool tip, wear and drop-off of surface coating, micro-chipping, and breakage of flank.

  5. Galilean Yang-Mills Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the $SU(2)$ theory and then generalise to $SU(N)$ for all $N$, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theorie...

  6. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  7. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  8. Rootstocks and grafting methods for Atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimoya Mill.) plants
    Portaenxertos e métodos de enxertia na produção de mudas de Atemoieira (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Grazianny Andrade Leite; Vander Mendonça; Luciana Freitas de Medeiros Mendonça; Lydio Luciano de Gois Ribeiro Dantas; Poliana Samara de Castro Freitas Cunha

    2013-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the production of atemoya nursery plants grafted on two rootstocks (Annona squamosa L. and Annona glabra L.). The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial being two rootstocks and five methods of grafting, with five randomized blocks and ten plants per plot, totaling 500 plants. The variables evaluated at 60 days after grafting were budding efficiency (%), shooting grafts (%) dormant grafts (%) and living grafts (%). It was also evaluated the shoot length (c...

  9. YANG-MILLS FIELD CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the capacitor in the Yang-Mills theory. Model capacitor represents the equipotential surfaces separated by a space. To describe the mechanism of condensation chromodynamics field used numerical models developed based on an average of the Yang-Mills theory. In the present study, we used eight-scalar component model that in the linear case is divided into two groups containing three or five fields respectively. In contrast to classical electrodynamics, a static model of the Yang-Mills is not divided into independent equations because of the nonlinearity of the model itself. However, in the case of a linear theory separation is possible. It is shown that in this particular case, the Yang-Mills theory is reduced to Poisson theory, which describes the electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena. In the present work it is shown that in a certain region of the parameters of the capacitor of the Yang-Mills theory on the functional properties of the charge accumulation and retention of the field is similar to the capacitor of the electrostatic field or a magnet in magnetostatics. This means that in nature there are two types of charges, which are sources of macroscopic Yang-Mills field, which are similar to the properties of electric and magnetic charges in the Poisson theory. It is shown that in Yang-Mills only one type of charge may be associated with the distribution density of the substance, while another type of charge depends on the charge distribution of the first type. This allows us to provide an explanation for the lack of symmetry between electric and magnetic charges

  10. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-01-01

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  11. Evaluación morfológica y molecular de accesiones de anonáceas (anón, chirimoya y atemoya) en condiciones in situ, de las regiones Andina y Caribe Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Garzón, Sandra Liliana

    2014-01-01

    A través de la prospección de los recursos fitogenéticos de especies de la familia Annonaceae en Colombia (2009 y 2011), se conformó una población in situ compuesta por 167 accesiones, de cinco especies y un híbrido interespecífico (Annona cherimola, A. glabra, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, Rollinia sp. y A. squamosa x A. cherimola), distribuidas en 13 departamentos y 48 municipios de las regiones Andina y Caribe. Estableciendo y enriqueciendo tres colecciones de trabajo, conform...

  12. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  13. Combined fundamental and experimental approach to milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Derek

    Air jet mills are important tools in the size reduction processing of pharmaceutical powders. The benefits of the air jet mill to the pharmaceutical industry are its sanitary design (no moving parts or media) and ability to produce narrow particle size distributions. Due to the high-value nature of active pharmaceutical ingredients, a trial-and-error approach to obtain optimal milling conditions for size reduction would lead to a needless expenditure of time and valuable resources. This work uses population balances for modeling the continuous milling of a spiral jet mill with inexpensive, readily available excipient powders, and predicts milling model parameters for high value powders with only small quantities being consumed. We have developed a multilevel model that describes the effect of material characteristics and mill operating variables on particle breakage in a specific air jet mill. This model allows us to predict product size distributions of brittle crystalline materials. The method used to develop this model can be utilized for many self-classifying mills. For a new mill, extensive initial milling with inexpensive excipient powders is required to determine mill-dependent model parameters. Subsequently, quick material characterization experiments can be made with limited powder consumption of expensive powders to determine powder-dependent milling parameters.

  14. Galilean Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Arjun; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the $SU(2)$ theory and then generalise to $SU(N)$ for all $N$, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in $D=4$. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in $D>2$.

  15. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.

  16. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  17. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  18. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  19. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy t...

  20. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  1. On deformations of Yang-Mills algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Movshev, M.

    2005-01-01

    This is a next paper from a sequel devoted to algebraic aspects of Yang-Mills theory. We undertake a study of deformation theory of Yang-Mills algebra YM - a ``universal solution'' of Yang-Mills equation. We compute (cyclic) (co)homology of YM.

  2. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  3. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  4. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  5. Formation of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成国; 齐宝森; 王瑞华

    2002-01-01

    The formation regularity of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders was investigated, revealing that the plastic deformation of the balls surface plays an important role in the formation of coating and that the stronger affinity between the powders and the balls is a necessary pre-condition for the coating. The size of Cr powders, the coating thickness and the microhardness vary consistently with milling time during milling. At initial milling stage, the powder size decreases, while the coating thickness and the microhardness increase, however, after milling for 24h, they all change slightly with prolonged milling, indicating a dynamic equilibrium between the powders cold welding and crashing, i.e. an almost equal rate for the powders attaching to and breaking off the milling balls.

  6. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization of...... a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  7. High-speed milling of light metals

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cus; U. Zuperl; V. Gecevska

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operati...

  8. J. S. Mill's Methodology of Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Hudík

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with Mill's views on methodology. The place taken by political economy in the general classification of knowledge is shown. This includes: natural distinction between physical and moral sciences (including non-reducibility of mental phenomena to physical phenomena) and definition of political economy as a separate science. Further, the concept of economic man as introduced by Mill is presented. Two methods, which Mill saw as appropriate for studying social phenomena - i. e. ...

  9. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; Othman, N.

    2012-01-01

    In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether ...

  10. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Ntougias; Kostas Bourtzis; George Tsiamis

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill wast...

  11. Milling in hardened steel - a study of tool wear in conventional- and dynamic milling

    OpenAIRE

    Ersvik, Erik; Khalid, Roj

    2015-01-01

    Milling is a commonly used machining process where a rotating cutter removes material from the workpiece. In recent years, attention has been turned towards so called dynamic milling methods which differ from the conventional way of milling. Dynamic milling normally uses, as opposed to the conventional way, more of the axial cutting edge, smaller radial depth of cut, significantly higher cutting speed and feed per tooth. The method has demonstrated potential to save both time and money under ...

  12. John Stuart Mill and romanticism

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an examination of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and its relation to the romantic movement. The Introduction outlines reasons to believe that such an inquiry is sensible: Mill’s readings of the British and German romantics are outlined. I proceed to offer an argument for the application of an historical term such as ‘romanticism’ in philosophy and suggest that the space opened up by the revisionist view of romanticism as an extension, rather than a denial, of the Enlighte...

  13. Yang-Mills Instanton Sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Tsai, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The SL(2,C) Yang-Mills instanton solutions constructed recently by the biquaternion method were shown to satisfy the complex version of the ADHM equations and the Monad construction. Moreover, we discover that, in addition to the holomorphic vector bundles on CP^3 similar to the case of SU(2) ADHM construction, the SL(2,C) instanton solutions can be used to explicitly construct instanton sheaves on CP^3. Presumably, the existence of these instanton sheaves is related to the jumping lines of the SL(2,C) instantons on S^4 which do not exist for SU(2) instantons.

  14. Control for Cold Rolling Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Morad, Antoni; Travancic, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the details in a final research thesis work done rolling mill technology. The work is carried out at Heat Transfer located at Finspång. The main objective of this work is to evaluate thickness and flatness data from the profile to give an optimal start value for the pressure and force applied on the machine and the speed as well, so that the profiles produced, have the right thickness and best possible flatness. Thickness, start value for power, the degree of bending the ...

  15. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  16. The history and effects of mills on western civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2004-01-01

    In conversation with the miller, David, Alan Macfarlane watches some of the processes of milling and reflects on the revolutionary importance of water mills in England as in this water mill at Lode, near Cambridge

  17. Contribution à l'étude du lien entre Annonaceae et parkinsonisme : identification et quantification d'acétogénines par déréplication; métabolisation de phase I et approche de la distribution de l'annonacine

    OpenAIRE

    Le Ven, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In the French West Indies, an unusually high proportion of atypical sporadic parkinsonisms - tauopathies - is observed. A link between these atypical parkinsonisms and the consumption of plants of the Annonacea family, Annona muricata L. (soursop) was demonstrated. The Annonaceous acetogenins are potent inhibitors of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain and are considered to be in vitro toxins candidate. The major acetogenin in Annona muricata, annonacin, is neurotoxic in in vitro and...

  18. Technological improvements in wire rod mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestani, M.

    1996-07-01

    The paper deals with the latest rolling technologies and hi-tech equipment developed by Danieli-mogardshammar to ensure top performance of modern wire rod mills. In particular, a high reduction sizing mill, a twin module fast finishing block and a high speed cropping shear are presented. (authors)

  19. Jiangsu Mills Attempt to Adjust Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The profit squeeze on China’s textile mills continues. In Jiangsu Province, a very important market, mills are reacting in a variety of ways to this situation. Spinners and weavers of man-made fiber appear to be the most adversely affected,

  20. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  1. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  2. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author)

  3. Using the eight-roller mill in the purifier-less mill flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistes, Aleksandar; Rakić, Dušan

    2015-07-01

    Double grinding of mill streams without intermediate sieving, i.e. the eight-roller milling system provides opportunities for significant reduction of capital cost compared to conventional wheat flour milling system. In this study the effects of using the eight-roller mill in the purifier-less mill flow were investigated. Middlings from the break system of commercial flour mill, which would be sent to the purification system, were intercepted and employed in the experiments. Milling results obtained with double grinding of middlings were compared with the results obtained by conventional system with intermediate sifting before regrinding of stock. At the same roll gap setting and under the same sieving conditions, the eight-roller system produced less flour compared to the conventional system. Results showed that the most efficient way to increase flour yield in the eight-roller milling system is to increase the upper size limit of flour by increasing the sieve aperture. This is not followed by the deterioration of flour quality as determined by ash content. Increase of the upper size limit of flour particles is followed by the decrease of the flour ash content suggesting that it is possible to implement the eight-roller mills in the purifier-less mill flow. PMID:26139941

  4. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the...... plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  5. Remediation of inactive mining and milling sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation introduces relevant environment remediation standards and describes some measures of engineering remedied for inactive mines and mills. Since 1990, the remediation of decommissioned nuclear facilities has obtained fixed financial aid from state government, part of which is offered to inactive mines and mills. Considering the environmental characteristics of Chinese uranium mines and mills, the major task of decommissioning is to prevent radon release, and keep surface water and underground water from contamination. In order to control the rate of radon release effectively, the authors' research institutes conducted a series of experiments on the covers of tailings with two kinds of different material, clay and concrete

  6. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of silicon carbide by reaction milling in a dual-drive planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of silicon carbide from elemental silicon and graphite powder by reaction milling in a specially designed dual-drive planetary mill is reported. The phase evolutions, particle size distribution, and morphology of particles during milling are studied during a 40-h grinding period. X-ray diffraction study indicates complete conversion of silicon and graphite to silicon carbide. The crystallite size varies from 150 nm from the start to 10 nm after 40 h of milling. The lattice strain increases with milling up to about 20 h when SiC forms and subsequently with the formation of SiC it is reduced. Al-SiC composites are prepared by mixing Al with 40 h milled final SiC powder and sintered in an inert atmosphere. The composites show excellent compatibility between Al and SiC particles, no voids or cracks are present

  8. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time is...... in NEMS development can accomplish....

  9. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  10. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  11. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    /lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... for the manufacturing of miniature parts by micro milling puts further challenges on to the manufacturing process. The whole geometry of the tools cannot be directly downscaled with the tool diameter. Besides the physical limit in the reduction of the cutting edge radius constituted by the grain size of sintered...... carbides the error motion during the grinding wheels do not allow using identical paths for tools having differences in diameter of more than one order of magnitude. Thus grinding paths for micro and mills are simplified in comparison to those for larger tools of similar shape. [1] The aim of the present...

  12. On the classification of Yang Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme of Classification for Yang Mills fields analogous to the Petrov Classification in general relativity is discussed. It is also shown how such a classification is used to obtain explicit solutions of the equations of motion. (author)

  13. Decommissioning plan for Andujar uranium mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The milling of radioactive ores results in contaminated buildings and facilities which must be decommissioned, and large quantities of tailings which must be managed safely so that residual environmental and health risks do not exceed acceptable levels. In the south of Spain on the outskirts of the town of Andujar an inactive uranium mill facility is under decommissioning. Mill equipment, buildings and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailing mass is being reshaped by flattening the sideslopes and a cover system will be placed over the pile. This paper describes the safety aspects and technical approaches which are being used for the remediation and closure of the Andujar mill site. (author). 7 figs

  14. INTERFIBER COMPETITION IN TEXTILE MILLS OVER TIME

    OpenAIRE

    zhang, ping; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Ethridge, Don E.

    1994-01-01

    Cotton and synthetic fiber competition in textile mills between 1961-1990 was examined using a time-varying parameter regression model. Results indicate that the structure of demand for cotton is not stable and cotton's share responses to changes in the prices of cotton and synthetic fiber vary over time. Cotton and synthetic fiber competition in textile mill use is essentially between cotton and noncellulosic fiber. Cellulosic fiver is not a cotton competitor.

  15. Micronization of proteins by jet milling

    OpenAIRE

    Ehmer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to provide more information about the jet milling of proteins, to identify important parameters and their effect on resulting particle size, chemical stability and bioactivity of the investigated proteins. To perform the planned micronization experiments the MC One® of Jetpharma had to be modified. A cryogenic cooling system had been established facilitating milling gas temperatures of about -60°C in reproducible quality. To exclude possible effects of air humidi...

  16. Olive Mill wastewater bioremediation towards detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Susana M.; Ribeiro, Belina; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Duarte, José Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil production is a traditional agricultural industry in Mediterranean countries and Portugal is one of the ten major producers. This industry generates an effluent, olive mill wastewater (OMW), which does not undergo any treatment and, usually, is stored in evaporation lagoons or spread on the land. Disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters is a serious environmental problem due to its high organic loading, presence of polyphenols and tannins, high content in suspended solids and acidity,...

  17. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  18. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded ...

  19. "SPINNING MILLS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF DRKCOSPIN"

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Soudagar Raut

    2016-01-01

    The first successful co-operative spinning mill was established at Ichalkarangi in Kolhapur District of Maharashtra in 1960.Development of Spinning Mills in Kolhapur District is influenced by many natural as well as economic factors. The entire factors provide a good base upon which the Spinning Mills flourish. Economic or demographic factors play a powerful part in the development of Spinning Mills in Kolhapur District. The Spinning Mills are of paramount importance in Kolhapur District. The...

  20. Dynamic estimation of electrical demand in hot rolling mills

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Orcajo, Gonzalo Arturo; Rodríguez, Josué; Ardura García, Pablo; Cano Rodríguez, José Manuel; González Norniella, Joaquín; Llera Traviesa, Rocío; Cifrián, Diego

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method capable of reproducing the particular operating conditions of a hot strip mill and predicting the evolution of the main electrical variables from both the characteristics of the steel to be milled and the specific features of the rolling mill. The method analyzes the load torque and the motor speed evolution in the stands of the roughing and finishing mill drives, according to the steel to be milled. In this study three types of carbon alloy steel are considered, ...

  1. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    OpenAIRE

    McAloon Andrew J; Johnston David B; Ramírez Edna C; Singh Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling pr...

  2. Predictive Function Control for Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive constant control for the cutting process is an effective way to improve the productivity of the Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This control is achieved through adjusting the feed rate online, and many scholars has been concentrated in the field. However, in of the existing adaptive constant control algorithms, the controller parameters are tuned only depends on the dynamic behavior of the controlled system, without giving effect to control the input and system output prospects. Therefore, milling force mutated because of the mutation of the depth or width of cut usually resulting in the overshooting of control system or overflow of control input. In this paper, we present a new solution to the problem, in which a mathematical model of milling process is established based on the characteristics of the CNC milling process. Then the predictive functional control law is introduced on the milling process and the controller parameters can be tuned online. The Simulation results show that the proposed method has the advantages of strong robustness to different interferences, good practicability for the milling process, and good real-time control responsibility.  

  3. High-speed milling of light metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented inthis paper.Design/methodology/approach:HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling hasbecome faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages ofthe HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow timeof production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longerservice life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/minrequire modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in theautomobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also theachievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficientmachining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling canbe compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and morefrequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some caseswhen machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum andmagnesium alloying materials are machined.

  4. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

  5. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  6. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  7. Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adefegha SA; Oboh G

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and seeds of Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)]. Methods: Both spices were each extracted with methanol and 1M HCl (1:1, w/v) mixture to give the phenolic-rich extracts, which were used for the in vitro analyses [total phenol, total flavonoid and antioxidant properties (reducing properties, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS*) radical scavenging abilities]. Thereafter, thirty male albino rats were divided into five groups of six. Group I represented control group; Group II & III were fed diet containing 2%Ethiopian pepper & 4% XA while Group IV & V ate diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ashanti pepper. Results: The results suggest that diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper could enhance some in vivo antioxidant status, maintain membrane integrity and protect the liver against oxidative stress. Conclusions: This could be attributed to the phenolic contents and the in vitro antioxidant properties of the Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper. However, dietary supplementation with 4% Ethiopian pepper showed the most promising protective potentials.

  8. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  9. Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herscovich, Estanislao

    2013-06-01

    We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether paper mill wastewater can be tolerated by methanogenic sludge and to assess the stability of reactor for measured parameters (e.g. COD removal, and methane composition. Results showed up to 98% COD removal efficiency in the anaerobic reactor when the reactor was operated at an OLR of 1.560 kg COD/m3.d. Anaerobic digestion can provide high treatment efficiency for recalcitrant substrates, which generates robust microorganism (acidogenesis and methanogenesis, for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds such as in the paper mill wastewater.

  11. Perspectives on the amorphisation/milling relationship in pharmaceutical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, M; Willart, J F

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the role of the amorphous state in the physical and chemical transformations of pharmaceutical materials induced by mechanical milling. The following points are addressed: (1) Is milling really able to amorphise crystals?, (2) Conditions for obtaining an amorphisation, (3) Milling of hydrates, (4) Producing amorphous state without changing the chemical nature, (5) Milling induced crystal to crystal transformations: mediation by an amorphous state, (6) Nature of the amorphous state obtained by milling, (7) Milling of amorphous compounds: accelerated aging or rejuvenation, (8) Specific recrystallisation behaviour, and (9) Toward a rationalisation and conceptual framework. PMID:26826439

  12. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  13. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lo Valvo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simulate all the motions of the movable parts of a real 3 axis end milling machine. This simulator lets the users not only verify the toolpath but also detect any possible collision by using the very computer which controls the milling machine. This system is very efficient and easy to use as powerful tool in Engineering education.

  14. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  15. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)], email: katriina.mielonen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy was seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill-project approached prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol, as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel were studied. The main goal of the project was to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp.

  16. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  17. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  18. High-speed milling of light metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longer service life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/min require modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in the automobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also the achievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficient machining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling can be compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and more frequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some cases when machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum and magnesium alloying materials are machined.

  19. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Olive Mill Wastewater Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) is the solid residue that remains in the evaporation ponds after evaporation of the majority of water in the olive mill wastewater (OMW). OMWS is a major environmental pollutant in the olive oil producing regions. Approximately 41.16 wt. % of the OMWS was soluble in hexanes (HSF). The fatty acids in this fraction consist mainly of oleic and palmitic acid. Catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 has been demonstrated to be an effective techno...

  20. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  1. Wollstonecraft, Mill, and Women's Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Eileen Hunt

    2016-01-01

    This book argues that Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill are the two primary architects of the modern theory of women’s rights as human rights. It only through addressing women’s rights, Botting argues, that the idea of human rights was given universal scope and application. Botting describes the development of the idea of women’s human rights beginning with the work of Wollstonecraft and Mill, and gives an account of their reception in both western and nonwestern contexts. Her goal is ...

  2. Regulatory oversight of uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the principal nuclear regulator in Canada. The CNSC is empowered through the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) and associated regulations, to regulate the entire nuclear cycle which includes uranium mining and milling. The paper discusses the regulatory oversight of uranium mines and mills which include: - Who is CNSC, what is the CNSC's mission and CNSC background - Oversight Management System; - Regulatory Framework; - Expectations for Assessing Compliance; - QA Principles and Program Elements; - A Look to the Future; - Planning regulatory oversight activities; - Management System Documentation Review; - Regulatory Oversight Activities; - Following-up On Inspections; - Enforcing Compliance with Requirements; - Improving the Regulatory Oversight Process. (author)

  3. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  4. Note about Yang Mills, QCD and their supersymmetric counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2011-01-01

    We analyze in an effective Lagrangian framework the connection between Super QCD (Super Yang Mills) and QCD (Yang Mills) by highlighting the crucial role that the zero modes play in the process of decoupling gluinos and squarks.

  5. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling...

  6. Fiber Bundles, Yang-Mills Theory, and General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherall, JO

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht I articulate and discuss a geometrical interpretation of Yang–Mills theory. Analogies and disanalogies between Yang–Mills theory and general relativity are also considered.

  7. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. PMID:27403874

  8. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  9. Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, H. K.; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R. J.; Pusch, D J

    1985-01-01

    Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distrib...

  10. Milling Process of Petroleum Coke for Sintered Steel Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, F.; S. Guzmán; Rabanal, M. E.; Jiménez-Mateos, J. M.; Echeberria, J.; Ayerbe, E.; Calero, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of milling on different properties of a petroleum coke has been evaluated. The material was subjected to planetary milling at two different rates (400 and 600 rev min-1) for different times up to 48 h. The milled material was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, sieve analysis, thermal analysis, chemical analysis, specific surface area and compressibility has been undertaken. The results show that the milling produces a very quick loss of the crystal st...

  11. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  12. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method

  13. Comparative analysis of milling results on the tail-end reduction passages of the wheat flour milling process: Conventional vs. eight-roller milling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišteš Aleksandar Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the eight-roller mill into the wheat flour milling process significantly reduces the investment costs and overall energy requirements compared to the conventional milling system. However, the conditions for controlled milling are less favorable and could result in deterioration of flour yield and quality. Paper compares milling results obtained using a conventional process and process with an eight-roller mill employed on the tail-end passages of the reduction system. At the same roll gap and under the same sieving conditions, the flour release was lower in the process with the eight-roller mill compared to the conventional milling system. By decreasing the roll gap and increasing the upper size limit (granulation of flour in the process with the eight-roller mill it is possible to increase flour yield and decrease milling energy consumption per unit mass of flour produced. This can be achieved without deterioration of flour quality as determined by ash content. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 031014

  14. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  15. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  16. QUANTUM GRAVITY AND YANG-MILLS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider Einstein's theory of gravitation in connection with Yang-Mills theory. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. The mechanism of generation of baryonic matter of dark energy is discussed

  17. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  18. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.)

  19. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  20. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  1. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  2. Safety aspects in thorium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On account of limited uranium and vast thorium resources, India has adopted a three stage nuclear energy programme wherein initially the existing uranium reserves shall be explored and at later stages the thorium reserves shall be utilized for nuclear power production. Thorium occurs in nature as mineral monazite, which along with other heavy minerals, is found abundantly in the beach sands along the coastal stretches of peninsular India. Recovery of thorium therefore involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain thorium values. The process for recovery of thorium involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlight's the issues related to Radiological Hazards, Conventional Hazards, Waste Management and Regulatory Control. The radiological safety provisions in the thorium mining and milling as well as the industrial and fire safety aspects in thorium milling are enforced by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), which is the national regulatory body of India for nuclear and radiation safety. AERB's regulatory oversight span through all consenting stages namely, siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. AERB is supported in its work by elaborate committee structure and follows a multi-tier review system of safety committees to carry out review and assessment. The individual doses in thorium mining and milling facilities as well to those of public residing in vicinity of these facilities is well within the specified limits. Industrial and fire safety statistics in thorium mills are also better when compared to similar conventional industries

  3. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

  4. Design, build and programming a small milling machine

    OpenAIRE

    Goya Cordovilla, Álvaro; Díez Marín, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and build a prototype of a small milling machine. What makes special this milling machine is it is going to be intended for milling in a vehicle registration plate. The size of our vehicle registration plate is 50x10x1,5 cm. That’s why the dimensions of our milling machine must be the less as possible in order to save usable space and the most important think in engineering, save the more materials/money we can. On the other hand, this milling machine is ...

  5. Vibrations in High Speed Milling of Thin-walled Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tongyue; HE Ning; LI Liang

    2006-01-01

    Thin-walled structures have been widely used in the aerospace industry. The dynamic interaction between the milling cutter and thin-walled workpiece can easily lead to vibration. This paper investigates the vibration caused during milling the thin-walled workpiece on the NC machining center, presents a theoretical milling vibration model of thin-walled beam. The model was verified by using milling experiments and numerical simulations. Some valuable conclusions are derived, this will be references to scientific research and guides to the vibration-free milling of thin-walled structures at different cutting speeds.

  6. Nanocrystalline titanium characteristics obtained through cryogenic and high energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and changes in chemical composition of Ti powders produced by cryogenic milling (modified Atritor) and by high energy milling (Spex mill) were investigated. The effect of high energy milling and cryomilling parameters, such as milling time and ball to powder ratio (BPR), on the particle size, grain size, chemistry, and structure of Ti powders were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that Ti powders with a grain size of approximately 20 nm (nanocrystalline) can be produced using the cryomilling technique. The average particle size increased initially with milling time from the original 55 μm to a maximum value of 125 after milling for 2 hours, and then decreased to 44μm after milling for 8 hours. Both the average particle size and the grain size decreased as the BPR increased. The results using Spex mill show that the particle size and grain size both decreased as the milling time increased. The oxygen, nitrogen and iron content of the powders increased with the milling time (au)

  7. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  8. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. PMID:27027102

  9. Investment requirements for new mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that there will be an increase from production of 18,000 tpy of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ to 25,000 tpy by 1985, 35,000 tpy by 1990 and around 50,000 tpy by the year 2000, this would require an increase in the daily ore milling rate from 40,000 tpd to about 140,000 tpd. This new milling capacity would require 1.5 to 2.0 billion dollars. New mines with a daily tonnage rate of about 150,000 tons would have to be developed requiring an investment from 10 to 12.5 billion dollars in the same time span. Adding expenditures for replacement of depleted facilities and exploration gives 17.5 to 25 billion dollars

  10. Yang-Mills for historians and philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The phrase “Yang-Mills” can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the “Pauli snag,” or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.

  11. Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  12. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  13. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  14. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  15. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  16. Predictive Function Control for Milling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihuan Zhang; Chao Hu

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive constant control for the cutting process is an effective way to improve the productivity of the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling machine. This control is achieved through adjusting the feed rate online, and many scholars has been concentrated in the field. However, in of the existing adaptive constant control algorithms, the controller parameters are tuned only depends on the dynamic behavior of the controlled system, without giving effect to control the input and system ...

  17. Sohio's L-Bar uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohio Petroleum Company's new L-Bar uranium mill near Grants, New Mexico, refines 2722 kilograms of yellowcake daily from 1360 metric tons of ore produced at Sohio's J.J. No. 1 mine and other nearby mines. This paper follows the ore from the mine through the various processing steps - semi-autogenous grinding, acid leaching, countercurrent decantation, solvent extraction, ammonium diuranate precipitation, washing and drying, and tailings disposal. (author)

  18. Mineralization of olive mill wastewater over DSA

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, M. R.; Correia, J P; Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy recovery from olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been effectively accomplished by anaerobic digestion [1]. Nevertheless, a post treatment is required to attain the discharge limit values. After the anaerobic treatment of OMW, the main issues are related to the remaining organic matter (COD), recalcitrant phenolic compounds (40-50%) and effluent dark-brown colour. The electrochemical treatment is proposed in this work as a final step to mineralise the OMW non-biodegradable fraction. The...

  19. Biotechnological valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Química e Engenharia Biológica Mediterranean countries are known to have favorable conditions for olive oil production. The three-phase extraction technology demands the addition of hot water to the process, and olive oil, olive cake and olive mill wastewater (OMW) are produced. An approach for using this waste as a renewable resource is of greater interest. Accordingly, the present investigation aims the OMW valorization, by producing high-value compounds (lipas...

  20. Polymeric biophenols in olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Falcão, Soraia; Peres, António M.; Olívia R. Pereira; Domingues, M. R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW), the effluents generated in the olive oil extraction industry operating in three-phases mode, are phytotoxic mainly due to its high phenolic content [1]. On the other hand, attending to the potential healthbenefits of some of their phenolic compounds, OMW are now regarded as a potent source of biophenols for food and pharmaceutical industries. An important portion of the OMW biophenols include the secoiridoids found in olive pulp and their derivat...

  1. New biophenols in olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Falcão, Soraia; Peres, António M.; Domingues, M. R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have been attracting the attention of food and pharmaceutical industries, as it is a potential source of biophenols with a wide range of biological activities. This effluent produced in the olive oil industry contains approximately half of the total phenolic compounds of the olive fruit and it is currently exploited for industrial extraction of hydroxytyrosol [1]. Still, the phenolic composition of OMW is extremely complex, and many compounds are yet unidentified....

  2. LIBERALIZATION OF THE TAIWAN WHEAT MILLING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Peng, Hsing Ming

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan, in just the past two years, lifted quoto restrictions on wheat imports and lowered tariff barriers. These changes along with the antitrust movement and severe overcapacity will be the catalysts for tremendous structural changes in the way wheat millers compete for domestic market share and contracts for flour. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liberalization on the Taiwan milling industry.

  3. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  4. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is now involved from the early planning stages in the development of uranium mine/mill facilities. As a result, new facilities (including tailings management areas) are designed and developed to meet a high standard. The impact of the mines and tailings areas in the Elliot Lake area on ground and surface waters and air quality is discussed in detail

  5. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  6. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, K.; Saukkonen, E.; Nokkanen, T. (and others) (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Fiber and Paper Technology). Email: kaj.henricson@lut.fi

    2010-10-15

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy is seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill (Biojalostamo Sellutehdas), BiSe project approach, prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel are studied. The main goal of the project is to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp. In the project, laboratory experiments on wood chip prehydrolysis prior to cooking, hydrolysis liquor treatment, cooking of prehydrolyzed chips, low power pulp bleaching and lignin separation are carried out. Based on these laboratory data, a simulation model of the biorefinery is created. The model is then used to assess the profitability of the BiSe biorefinery approach. (orig.)

  7. Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on $X^{10}={\\mathbb R}^4\\times Y^6$, where $Y^6$ is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on $\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on ${\\mathbb R}^2\\subset\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$ with a moduli space $X^{10}$. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of $\\Sigma_2$, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on $\\Sigma_2\\times T^2_p$, where $T^2_p$ is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture $p$. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on $T^2_p$, d...

  8. Biogenic treatment of uranium mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to treat mine/mill effluents before discharging to the environment as per the regulatory requirements. Effluents from a uranium mill normally contain 226Ra as a pollutant, which needs treatment. Normally wastewater treatment consists of lime addition to increase the pH to 10 which precipitates most contaminants except 226Ra. The current chemical treatment of 226Ra is by co-precipitation as barium-radium-sulphate by addition of barium chloride. There is a considerable concern about the long-term stability of barium-radium sludge due to re-dissolution of radium when contacted with fresh water. Adsorption can be another metal specific physio-chemical process. The most recent development in environment biotechnology is the use of microbe based bio-sorbents for the recovery of toxic metals from industrial effluent. A fungal species of Pencillium chrysogenum has been found to be a 226Ra specific biosorbent. It has been observed that up to 96% of 226Ra values can be adsorbed by chemically treated biomass of Pencillium chrysogenum from effluent containing 226Ra in the range of 400-2000 Bq m-3. Biomass in the form of granules can be used in columns, like resins, to remove 226Ra values. It is proposed that this process can replace or substitute the present barium chloride treatment of mill effluents. (author)

  9. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sales Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p17Este artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  10. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  11. EQUIVALENT NORMAL CURVATURE APPROACH MILLING MODEL OF MACHINING FREEFORM SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xianzhong; MA Weiguo; QI Haiying; YAN Zesheng; GAO Deli

    2008-01-01

    A new milling methodology with the equivalent normal curvature milling model machining freeform surfaces is proposed based on the normal curvature theorems on differential geometry. Moreover, a specialized whirlwind milling tool and a 5-axis CNC horizontal milling machine are introduced. This new milling model can efficiently enlarge the material removal volume at the tip of the whirlwind milling tool and improve the producing capacity. The machining strategy of this model is to regulate the orientation of the whirlwind milling tool relatively to the principal directions of the workpiece surface at the point of contact, so as to create a full match with collision avoidance between the workpiece surface and the symmetric rotational surface of the milling tool. The practical results show that this new milling model is an effective method in machining complex three- dimensional surfaces. This model has a good improvement on finishing machining time and scallop height in machining the freeform surfaces over other milling processes. Some actual examples for manufacturing the freeform surfaces with this new model are given.

  12. Cutting force prediction for circular end milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baohai; Yan Xue; Luo Ming; Gao Ge

    2013-01-01

    A deduced cutting force prediction model for circular end milling process is presented in this paper.Traditional researches on cutting force model usually focus on linear milling process which does not meet other cutting conditions,especially for circular milling process.This paper presents an improved cutting force model for circular end milling process based on the typical linear milling force model.The curvature effects of tool path on chip thickness as well as entry and exit angles are analyzed,and the cutting force model of linear milling process is then corrected to fit circular end milling processes.Instantaneous cutting forces during circular end milling process are predicted according to the proposed model.The deduced cutting force model can be used for both linear and circular end milling processes.Finally,circular end milling experiments with constant and variable radial depth were carried out to verify the availability of the proposed method.Experiment results show that measured results and simulated results corresponds well with each other.

  13. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  14. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Mauro Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo.

  15. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chatter is influenced by vibrations in three directions when milling cutters with ball end, bull nose, or inclined cutting edges are used. A three dimensional chatter stability is modeled analytically in this article. The dynamic milling system is formulated as a function of cutter geometry, the frequency response of the machine tool structure at the cutting zone in three Cartesian directions, cutter engagement conditions and material property. The dynamic milling system with nonlinearities and periodic delayed differential equations is reduced to a three dimensional linear stability problem by approximations based on the physics of milling. The chatter stability lobes are predicted in the frequency domain using the proposed analytical solution, and verified experimentally in milling a Titanium alloy with a face milling cutter having circular inserts.

  16. Fractal and Chaos Characteristics in Rock Milled Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxu LUO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the mechanism and to reveal the natural characteristics in rock milled process, the milling load was deemed to be a component of the deterministic nonlinear dissipation system. The characteristic factor model of milling load was built on the basis of time delay method, and the phase-space of milling load was rebuilt. the dimensional phase-type of broken attractor was described. The results indicated that the broken attractor was a fractal set ,which acquired through the scale conversion of phase-space developed by each dimension. The relevant dimension of broken attractor can be as the identification to reflect the change of rock broken mechanism. And the Lyapunov exponential spectrum and the maximum Lyapunov exponent were acquired by confirming the system reconstruction dimension. The chaos phenomenon was existed in the rock milled process, which provides the basis for building the deterministic model of rock milled process.

  17. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...... in order to detect faults in the coal mill when they emerge. This paper deals with the second objective. Based on a simple dynamic model of the energy balance a residual is formed for the coal mill. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate this residual. The estimated residual is following...... tested on measured data of a fault in a coal mill, it can hereby be concluded that this residual is very useful for detecting faults in the coal mill....

  18. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Gemert, J. C.; Gevers, T; Huurnink, B; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M; Rooij, O; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only, textual-only, early fusion, late fusion, and combined analysis experiment. We provide a baseline implementation for each experiment together with baseline results, which we made available to the TREC...

  19. Advances in Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dahake, Prajakta H.; Sahakar, Nikita R.; Gadge, P.A

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M- codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new technology of milling operation is conceptualized to re...

  20. GeneMill: A 21st century platform for innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Thain, Simon C.; Craig, Thomas; McCue, Hannah V.; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hall, Neil; Hall, Anthony J.W.

    2016-01-01

    GeneMill officially launched on 4th February 2016 and is an open access academic facility located at The University of Liverpool that has been established for the high-throughput construction and testing of synthetic DNA constructs. GeneMill provides end-to-end design, construction and phenotypic characterization of small to large gene constructs or genetic circuits/pathways for academic and industrial applications. Thus, GeneMill is equipping the scientific community with easy access to the ...

  1. Wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan. Currently, the serious radiological and ecological problems in Tajikistan are uranium mining and milling activities consequences overcoming which intensively developed during the soviet period. After the collapse of USSR, the uranic ores extraction in Tajikistan stopped due to deposit's output completion on the territory of the republic. Remediation of mining and milling activities' sites became the most urgent once all mines were closed.

  2. Wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to wastes from former mining and milling activities in Tajikistan. Currently, the serious radiological and ecological problems in Tajikistan are uranium mining and milling activities consequences overcoming which intensively developed during the soviet period. After the collapse of USSR, the uranic ores extraction in Tajikistan stopped due to deposit's output completion on the territory of the republic. Remediation of mining and milling activities' sites became the most urgent once all mines were closed.

  3. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  4. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  5. Flow phenomena modelling in the sifter of the fan mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolski, B.; Nowosielski, G. [Politech Opolska, Opole (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents numerical tests of the air-pulverized coal mixture flow in the sifter of the fan mill. Numerical calculations were performed for a typical mill used in the boiler OP-650b. A three-dimensional model of the mill was worked out. Influence of the angle of separator blade position on gas and solid particle circulation inside the sifter was analyzed.

  6. Love, poetry, & the good life:Mill's autobiography & perfectionist ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    I argue for a perfectionist reading of Mill's account of the good life, by using the failures of development recorded in his Autobiography as a way to understand his official account of happiness in Utilitarianism. This work offers both a new perspective on Mill's thought, and a distinctive account of the role of aesthetic and emotional capacities in the most choiceworthy human life. I consider the philosophical purposes of autobiography, Mill's disagreements with Bentham, and the nature of c...

  7. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang; Taiyong Wang; Zhiqiang Yu; Yue Zhang; Yulong Wang; Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the pred...

  8. Bentham, Mill and Green on the Nature of the Good

    OpenAIRE

    DIMOVA-COOKSON, M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare three thinkers with respect to one moral issue. The three thinkers are Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Thomas Hill Green. These are thinkers of three successive generations. The influence Bentham had on Mill, as well as the influence Bentham and Mill had on Green, is undisputed. Unlike Mill, however, Green did not see himself as a disciple of the utilitarian school, so one could question whether Green is a natural follower of the first two phil...

  9. Occupational Health and safety management in Olive Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at examining the occupational accident rate, and OHS Management, in the 
olive oil mill industry in Spain.
Our study analyses all occupational accidents which occurred during 2004-2009, with or without sick leave, at 90 Andalusian olive oil mills. Besides, after visits, inspections and interviews carried out in three olive oil mills, we design a pilot questionnaire, and interview 34 olive oil mills, then we drew up a questionnaire to 150 more with the collaboration
 of the Lab...

  10. The Thermal-Reaction Between Paper Mill Sludge And Adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-reaction among paper mill sludge and urea-formaldehyde(UF), phenol-formaldehyde(PF) by the thermogravimetry-differencial were tested.The results showed that there were no obvious heat absorption and leak effects when the paper mill sludge was heated.In the course of heating,the UF presented significant absorpting and leaking effects,but the thermal reaction was not significant when the paper mill sludge blended with UF,while it was significant when mill sludge blended with PF

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  12. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  13. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuchter, C.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  14. Yang-Mills instantons over Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exact solutions to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations over Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus are constructed. They are characterized by the conformal class of the Riemann surface. They correspond to U(1) instantonic solutions for an Abelian-Higgs system. A functional action of a genus g Riemann surface is constructed, with minimal points being the two-dimensional self-dual connections. The exact solutions may be interpreted as connecting initial and final nontrivial vacuum states of a conformal theory, in the sense of Segal, with a Feynman functor constructed from the functional integral of the action. (orig.)

  15. YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-05-18

    The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.

  16. Observables in Topological Yang-Mills Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Boldo, J L; Gieres, François; Lefrançois, M; Piguet, O; Boldo, Jose Luis; Constantinidis, Clisthenis P.; Gieres, Francois; Lefrancois, Matthieu; Piguet, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Using topological Yang-Mills theory as example, we discuss the definition and determination of observables in topological field theories (of Witten-type) within the superspace formulation proposed by Horne. This approach to the equivariant cohomology leads to a set of bi-descent equations involving the BRST and supersymmetry operators as well as the exterior derivative. This allows us to determine superspace expressions for all observables, and thereby to recover the Donaldson-Witten polynomials when choosing a Wess-Zumino-type gauge.

  17. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration to provide the Secretary of Energy with basic data and analyses for ninth annual determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. A viability determination is required annually, for the years 1983 through 1992, by Section 170B of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1983, Public Law 97-415, which amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Topics include: evolution of the U.S. uranium industry; nuclear power requirements and uranium industry projections; and attributes of industry viability

  18. La science politique de John Stuart Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Rosen

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861) with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843). This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Be...

  19. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt, and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s, Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrication process and characteristics & specifications of wind turbine has been mentioned

  20. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith; Ch.Vikranth

    2014-01-01

    The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt), and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s), Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrica...

  1. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Mechanically milled aluminium matrix composites reinforced with halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work describes fabrication of aluminium AlMg1SiCu matrix composite materials reinforced with halloysite nanotubes by powder metallurgy techniques and hot extrusion.Design/methodology/approach: Mechanical milling, compacting and hot extrusion successively are considering as a method for manufacturing metal composite powders with a controlled fine microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties. It is possible by the repeated welding and fracturing of powders particles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: The milling process has a huge influence on the properties of powder materials, changing the spherical morphology of as-received powder during milling process to flattened one due to particle deformation followed by welding and fracturing particles of deformed and hardened enough which allows to receive equiaxial particles morphology again. The investigation shows that so called brittle mineral particles yields to plastic deformation as good as ductile aluminium alloy particles. That indicates that the halloysite powder can play a role of the accelerator during mechanical milling. High energy ball milling as a method of mechanical milling improves the distribution of the halloysite reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing the size of particles. The apparent density changes versus milling time can be used to control the composite powders production by mechanical milling and the presence of halloysite reinforcements particles accelerates the mechanical milling process.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to knowledge about technology, structure and properties of aluminium alloy matrix composite material reinforced with mineral nanoparticles.Practical implications: Conducted research shows that applied technology allows obtaining very good microstructural characteristics.Originality/value: It has been confirmed that halloysite nanotubes can be applied as an effective

  3. Contamination introduced during rock sample powdering. Effects from different mill materials on trace element contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined blanks during powdering processes for thirty-three trace elements using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Quartz sand was used as target of powdering with grinding mills of several kinds: an agate hand mill, agate ball mill, Fe hand mill, alumina ceramic hand mill and artificial crystalline quartz hand mill. The results show that the artificial crystalline quartz hand mill is the purest grinder among the analyzed ones. This grinder is suitable for soft rock samples such as limestone. The alumina ceramic hand mill can reduce contamination, except for Cs, W and Pb. The agate hand mill and the agate ball mill introduce contamination whose level is depending on the individual device due to heterogeneity of the natural agate. The Fe hand mill introduces contamination of some si-derophile elements such as Mo and W. The results of this study emphasize careful choice of a grinding mill for sample pulverizing. (author)

  4. Local saw mills save Velky Krtis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Bana Dolina coal mine has received its last state subsidy, the only major employer in the region will be the PRP saw mill. The unemployment rate is very high in the Velky Krtis region over 25%. Several agricultural and food processing companies have gone bankrupt and the Bana Dolina mine today only employs around 200 people. Few new jobs have been created. So far only furniture manufacturers from the Swedish company, Furni Finish, have promised the town they will open a new plant, where they may employ around 150. Another potential investment to be made by a Spanish producer of light components is still under negotiation, stated the mayor of Velky Krtis, Jozef Sauver. Should the Spanish company decide to come to the region, about 100 people could find a job at the former Liaz production halls. Currently, PRP is the largest employer in the region. Over the last 7 years, its owners have invested over 60 mil. Sk (1.58 mil. EUR) in the saw mill. Now they are preparing an 80 mil. Sk (2.10 mil. EUR) investment. The new business would process timber waste that is currently sold to the chipboard producer, Bucina DDD. In the future, the material could be used to produce energy. The town council are considering the construction of a new wood-fired heat plant that would use timber waste bought from PRP. (author)

  5. Quantum Yang--Mills Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua co...

  6. La science politique de John Stuart Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Rosen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861 with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843. This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859 and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

  7. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10-3 cm/s to values approaching 10-7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10-8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  8. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production. PMID:16156571

  9. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  10. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  11. Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...

  12. Dynamic Model of Gap Loop for HCW Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-ming; YANG Qiu-xia; CHE Hai-jun; CHANG Ling-fang

    2004-01-01

    The hydraulic automatic gauge control system using gap loop for cold mill was designed. The stiffness of HCW cold mill was defined for gap loop, and the dynamic model of gauge control system for gap loop was built with mechanism analysis. The stiffness for gap loop and the cylinder displacement loop were measured.

  13. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  14. Yang-Mills connections valued on the octonionic algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, A.; Veiro, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a formulation of Yang-Mills theory where the gauge field is valued on an octonionic algebra and the gauge transformation is the group of automorphisms of it. We show, under mild assumptions, that the only possible gauge formulations are the usual su(2) or u(1) Yang-Mills theories.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials

  16. Virginia Tech, Mill Mountain team up for Thursday's "Jazzing Women"

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech is teaming up with Mill Mountain Theatre and Circuit Productions to present "Jazzing Women," an evening of jazz music, dance, and song at Mill Mountain's Waldron Theater at 8 p.m. Thursday, March 17. The featured event is part of Virginia Tech's Mid-Atlantic Conference on the Scholarship of Diversity.

  17. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  18. Crystallization degree change of expanded graphite by milling and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qunwei [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Wu Jihuai [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)], E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.cn; Sun Hui; Fang Shijun [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Expanded graphite was ball milled with a planetary mill in air atmosphere, and subsequently thermal annealed. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in the milling initial stage (less than 12 h), the crystallization degree of the expanded graphite declined gradually, but after milling more than 16 h, a recrystallization of the expanded graphite toke place, and ordered nanoscale expanded graphite was formed gradually. In the annealing initial stage, the non-crystallization of the graphite occurred, but, beyond an annealing time, recrystallizations of the graphite arise. Higher annealing temperature supported the recrystallization. The milled and annealed expanded graphite still preserved the crystalline structure as raw material and hold high thermal stability.

  19. Design of the Soymilk Mill based on TRIZ Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The soymilk mill is an important food machine, but its volume is too large to be suitable for house using. This study first analyzes some problems in the soymilk mill miniaturization. For these problems, the thinking tools, evolutionary tools and contradiction solving tool of TRIZ theory are used to resolve the conflict in the integration of grinding and boiling and in the keep grinding effect, to tackle the optimization problem in the grinding stria structure and mill plate speed, then the Dwarfs method and substance-field analysis model is used in solving the interference and the conditions water supply problems which are encountered in the design of the global structure and a micro soymilk mill is designed. Finally, the mechanical analysis model about soy granules, soymilk particles in the grinding zone and the computational model of motor starting torque are obtained; they provide the reference data for application of soymilk mill.

  20. Mill, Bentham, and the Art and Science of Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Engelmann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of Bentham and J.S. Mill tend to privilege Mill. If we compare these two not as normative philosophers but as theorists of the art and science of government, however, a different perspective emerges. This essay compares the definitions of art and science provided in Mill's and Bentham's treatments of logic, and considers the consequences for the art of government of Mill's embrace of the project of a social science. One important consequence is the emergence of a technopolitical understanding of government that sees this art as a practice that either tries to shape or conform to a natural characterological substrate, and that ideally mediates between these polar alternatives. Through this new framework Mill and many post-Millians misread Bentham as a clumsily deductive artificer. The essay concludes its exploration of this misreading with a preliminary examination of the problems--ontological, epistemological, ethical, and political--that a focus on character produces.

  1. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  2. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in the milling industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size and mill type on flour yield and end-use quality. A hard red spring wheat composite sample was segregated, based on kernel size, into large, medium, ...

  3. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  4. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  5. 淬硬钢的铣削加工%Milling with Queochhardening Steel Milling Cutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左建华; 张志英; 李殿超; 张祥永; 安玉平

    2001-01-01

    Tool material and coating technology which are adapted for quenchhardening stell milling are introduced. Aimed at willing of quenchhardening stell, by cutting experiment,the cutting performance of carbide vertical milling carbide cutter which is coated with different coating material is compared.The high speed process method which is adapted adapts to high hardness metal is explored.%介绍适合于淬硬钢铣削加工的刀具材料与刀具涂层技术。针对淬硬钢的铣削加工,通过切削实验,比较硬质合金立铣刀不同涂层材料的切削性能,探索适合高硬度金属材料的高速加工方法。

  6. High energy mechanical milling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene with a very long chain, which provides excellent features, but makes the processing difficult due to high melt viscosity. Many studies intend to found out means to make its processing easier. Recently, the high energy mechanical milling has been used for polymeric materials and it was detected that physical and chemical changes occur during milling. In such case, powder of UHMWPE was milled in three types of mills: SPEX, attritor e planetary, in different times of milling. The milling temperatures were measured during processing. The polymer was characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD, and the deconvolution of x-ray diffractograms was made. Thus, it was observed that the material processed in attritor mill showed larger phase transformation from orthorhombic to monoclinic. This is most likely due to the smaller milling temperature of attritor mill when compared with the other two mills and the high shear force generated during milling. (author)

  7. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  8. Convergent Yang-Mills matrix theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the partition function and correlation functions in the bosonic and supersymmetric Yang-Mills matrix models with compact semi-simple gauge group. In the supersymmetric case, we show that the partition function converges when D=4, 6 and 10, and that correlation functions of degree kc=2(D-3) are convergent independently of the group. In the bosonic case we show that the partition function is convergent when D≥Dc, and that correlation functions of degree kc are convergent, and calculate Dc and kc for each group, thus extending our previous results for SU(N). As a special case these results establish that the partition function and a set of correlation functions in the IKKT IIB string matrix model are convergent. (author)

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. PMID:27107340

  10. Dry face milling of titanium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Hassan; Zhenqiang Yao

    2004-01-01

    In machining titanium alloys, cutting tools generally wear out very rapidly because of the high cutting temperature resulted from the low thermal conductivity and density of the work material. In order to increase the tool life, it is necessary to suppress the cutting heat as much as possible by applying an abundant amount of coolant, but this will entail serious techno-environmental and biological problems. To study the performance and avoid these limitations, a PVD-coated insert was used to the dry face mill of (α +β) titanium alloys. As a result it was found that the inserts exhibit an excellent cutting performance at low cutting speeds and feed rates, and there is no significant difference in the dominant insert failure mode between the wet and dry cutting in discontinuous cutting.

  11. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Phutdhawong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.

  12. Steel mill products analysis using qualities methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the subject matter of steel mill product analysis using quality tools. The subject of quality control were bolts and a ball bushing. The Pareto chart and fault mode and effect analysis (FMEA were used to assess faultiness of the products. The faultiness analysis in case of the bolt enabled us to detect the following defects: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper roughness, lack of pre-machining, non-compatibility of the electroplating and faults on the surface. Analysis of the ball bushing has also revealed defects such as: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper surface roughness, lack of surface premachining as well as sharp edges and splitting of the material.

  13. Tree growth studies on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniferous trees planted in 1974 and deciduous species that have volunteered since 1970 on uranium mill tailings that had been stabilized to varying degrees using limestone and vegetation were evaluated. Their survival and growth rates were compared with those from other investigations. Competition for light appears to be a major contributor to mortality. Differences in soil moisture conditions under a tree stand as compared to those under a grass sward are potentially significant enough to affect the tailings hydrology and effluent contamination. Recommendations include planting seeds of deciduous species or deciduous and coniferous seedlings on strips of freshly disturbed tailings. The disturbed strips would provide reduced competition for the initial year and assist in tree survival. The planting of block stands of coniferous or deciduous trees would be useful for evaluating the hydrological impact of the trees as compared to the present grass sward

  14. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  15. Structural debris experiments at operation MILL RACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural debris patterns as determined by the mechanisms of building collapse under airblast loading have been studied experimentally at MILL RACE, White Sands, NM. Three near full-size buildings were instrumented to observe deflections, accelerations and air pressures and exposed to two different regimes of incident blast pressure produced by HE simulating 1 kt, viz., 10 and 3 psi; after the shot enough wall debris was located and identified to provide estimates of debris movement. Two of the test buildings were unreinforced, load-bearing masonry, one located at each of the two incident overpressures. The third building was made of reinforced concrete panels and was exposed to approximately 25 psi. Preliminary estimates of the effect of arching on debris energy and distribution are presented

  16. Effect of ball milling materials and methods on powder processing of Bi2223 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, M.; Maeda, H.; Vance, L.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.

    1998-10-01

    Various milling systems consisting of agate and polypropylene grinding containers, agate and YSZ balls, and dry and wet milling were used in planetary ball-milling and YSZ balls and YSZ container were used in wet and dry attrition milling. The differently milled powders were then evaluated by measurements of particle size, surface area, porosity, size distribution and chemical analysis of the Si, Zr and C contents. The results show that dry milling is much more efficient for particle size reduction in planetary milling than wet milling, whereas wet milling and dry milling gave quite similar results in attrition milling. Meanwhile 0953-2048/11/10/056/img6 contamination was found in powder milled with an agate container with agate balls. Some C contamination from the polypropylene container was detected after milling, but negligible Zr from YSZ balls and C from the grinding carrier (hexane). It was found that after 1 h milling in the planetary mill fracture mechanisms transform from the elastic to the plastic region. Therefore, further milling is not very effective. It was also shown that the Bi2212 phase decomposes into several non-superconducting oxides such as 0953-2048/11/10/056/img7, CuO and a main amorphous phase after extensive dry milling.

  17. Development of uranium milling and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and improvement of uranium milling and refining producing uranium tetrafluoride from ores by the wet process, without producing yellowcake as an intermediate product, have been carried out for over ten years with a small pilot plant (50 t-ore/day). In the past several years, a process for converting uranium tetrafluoride into hexafluoride has been developed successfully. To develop the process further, the construction of an integrated milling and conversion pilot plant (200 t-U/year) started in 1979 and was completed in 1981. This new plant has two systems of solvent extraction using tri-noctylamine: one of the systems treats the pregnant solution (uranyl sulphate) by heap-leaching followed by ion exchange, and the other treats the uranyl sulphate solution by dissolving imported yellowcake. The uranium loading solvents from the two systems are stripped with hydrochloric acid solution to obtain the concentrated uranium solution containing 100 g-U/1. Uranyl sulphate solution from the stripping circuit is reduced to a uranous sulphate solution by the electrolytic method. In a reduction cell, uranyl sulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid are used respectively as catholyte and anolyte, and a cation exchange membrane is used to prevent re-oxidation of the uranous sulphate. In the following hydrofluorination step, uranium tetrafluoride, UF4.1-1.2H2O (particle size: 50-100μ), is produced continuously as the precipitate in an improved reaction vessel, and this makes it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The uranium tetrafluoride is dehydrated by heating to 3500C in an inert gas flow. The complete conversion from UF4 into UF6 is achieved by a fluidized-bed reactor and a high value of utilization efficiency of fluorine, over 99.9 percent, is attained at about 4000C. (author)

  18. High coercivity induced by mechanical milling in cobalt ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe2O4 treated by mechanical milling with different grinding balls. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using a simple hydrothermal method and annealed at 500 °C. The non-milled sample presented coercivity of about 1.9 kOe, saturation magnetization of 69.5 emu/g, and a remanence ratio of 0.42. After milling, two samples attained coercivity of 4.2 and 4.1 kOe, and saturation magnetization of 67.0 and 71.4 emu/g respectively. The remanence ratio MR/MS for these samples increase to 0.49 and 0.51, respectively. To investigate the influence of the microstructure on the magnetic behavior of these samples, we used X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The XPD analysis by the Williamson–Hall plot was used to estimate the average crystallite size and strain induced by mechanical milling in the samples. - Highlights: • Magnetic behavior of milled CoFe2O4 is studied. • The coercivity is increase of about 150%. • The remanence ratio are increase to all milled samples. • The strain and pinning effects are observed in milled samples

  19. Contribution to the physics of high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have characterized the parameters which control the stability of amorphous phases under ball milling on the model alloys (NixZry). We have improved a vibrating frame grinder to perform experiments at several controlled temperatures under static vacuum. Based on analyzing the movement of the milling ball, we have evaluated the frequency of impact (f) and the relative velocity of the ball at the time impact (Vmax) for different vibration amplitudes of the frame. The kinetic of amorphization by ball milling, studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, shows that: - a fully amorphous phase is obtained provided that the 'specific milling intensity' is larger than a threshold value. The specific milling intensity is defined as the impact momentum times the impact frequency divided by the mass of powder (MbVmaxf/Mp): Mp, Mb are the mass of the ball and the powder). The threshold is composition and temperature dependent; - below the amorphization threshold, a two-phase microstructure (crystalline phase imbedded in an amorphous cement) is stabilized. The alloy achieves a steady state fraction of amorphous phase, which increases with the milling intensity and decreases with increasing the milling temperature. A study of the mechanical alloying of NbTiAl2 starting from elemental powders is also presented. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  20. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the preparation of magnetite nanoparticles, with size ranging from 12 nm to 20 nm, by high energy ball milling. The synthesis is made using stoichiometric amounts of distilled water and metallic iron powder. The milled powder samples were analyzed by Mossbauer spectroscopy (MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Our results indicate that the milling time is a key parameter of the synthesis. By increasing the milling time one achieves high purity magnetite samples. Also, the particle size decreases with the milling time. The sample milled during 10 h contained a fraction of 56 nm metallic Fe particles and 20 nm magnetite particles. By increasing the milling time to 96 h we have obtained a sample that is mainly composed of 12 nm magnetite particles. MS performed at room temperature showed a spectrum consisting of two sextets with hyperfine parameters related to iron ions occupying octahedral (A) and tetrahedral (B) sites. We have used a self-consistent method to investigate the impact of the dipolar interaction to drive the system to a magnetically blocked regime.

  1. Barium ferrite powders prepared by milling and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The milling process was carried out in a vibratory mill, which generated vibrations of the balls and milled material inside the container during which their collisions occur. After milling process the powders were annealed in electric chamber furnace. The X-ray diffraction methods were used for qualitative phase analysis of studied powder samples. The distribution of powder particles was determined by a laser particle analyzer. The magnetic hysteresis loops of examined powder material were measured by resonance vibrating sample magnetometer (R-VSM.Findings: The milling process of iron oxide and barium carbonate mixture causes decrease of the crystallite size of involved phases. The X-ray investigations of tested mixture milled for 30 hours and annealed at 950 °C enabled the identification of hard magnetic BaFe12O19 phase and also the presence of Fe2O3 phase in examined material. The Fe2O3 phase is a rest of BaCO3 dissociation in the presence of Fe2O3, which forms a compound of BaFe12O19. The best coercive force (HC for mixture of powders annealed at 950 °C for 10, 20 and 30 hours is 349 kA/m, 366 kA/m and 364 kA/m, respectively. The arithmetic mean of diameter of Fe2O3 and BaCO3 mixture powders after 30 hours of milling is about 6.0 μm.Practical implications: The barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and annealing can be suitable components to produce sintered and elastic magnets with polymer matrix.Originality/value: The results of tested barium ferrite investigations by different methods confirm their utility in the microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of powder materials.

  2. High coercivity induced by mechanical milling in cobalt ferrite powders

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, A. S.; E. F. Chagas; Prado, R. J.; Fernandes, C. H. M.; Terezo, A. J.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe2O4 treated by mechanical milling with different grinding balls. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using a simple hydrothermal method and annealed at 500oC. The non-milled sample presented coercivity of about 1.9 kOe, saturation magnetization of 69.5 emu/g, and a remanence ratio of 0.42. After milling, two samples attained coercivity of 4.2 and 4.1 kOe, and saturation magnetization of 67.0 and 71.4...

  3. Formation of ball-milled Fe-Mo nanostructured powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moumeni, H. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba-Algerie (Algeria) and Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et de l' Ingenierie, Universite de Guelma, B.P. 401, 24000 Guelma-Algerie (Algeria)]. E-mail: hmoumeni@yahoo.fr; Alleg, S. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba-Algerie (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Faculte des Sciences, F-72085, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-08-10

    Nanostructured Fe-6 wt.%Mo powders were prepared by mechanical alloying in a high-energy planetary ball-mill. The structural changes and the kinetics of Mo dissolution were studied by using X-ray diffraction. The crystallite size reduction down to about 11 nm is accompanied by the introduction of internal strains up to 1.1% (root-mean square strain, rms). After 24 h of milling, a bcc Fe(Mo) solid solution is formed. The kinetics of Mo dissolution into the Fe matrix during the milling process can be described by two regimes characterized by small values of Avrami parameter which do not exceed unit.

  4. Prototype Development of Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Saharkar, Nikita R.; Dhote, Girish M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M-codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new technology of milling operation is concep...

  5. Confining properties of the classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, V D

    1996-01-01

    The spherically and cylindrically symmetric solutions of the $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory are obtained. The corresponding gauge potential has the confining properties. It is supposed that: a) the spherically symmetric solution is a field distribution of the classical ``quark'' and in this sense it is similar to the Coulomb potential; b) the cylindrically symmetric solution describes a classical field ``string'' (flux tube) between two ``quarks''. It is noticed that these solutions are typically for the classical $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory in contradiction to monopole that is an exceptional solution. This allows to conclude that the confining properties of the classical $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory are general properties of this theory.

  6. RANCANG BANGUN CNC MILLING MACHINEHOME MADE UNTUK MEMBUAT PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dityo Pradana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

  7. GeneMill: A 21st century platform for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Thain, Simon C; Craig, Thomas; McCue, Hannah V; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hall, Neil; Hall, Anthony J W

    2016-06-15

    GeneMill officially launched on 4th February 2016 and is an open access academic facility located at The University of Liverpool that has been established for the high-throughput construction and testing of synthetic DNA constructs. GeneMill provides end-to-end design, construction and phenotypic characterization of small to large gene constructs or genetic circuits/pathways for academic and industrial applications. Thus, GeneMill is equipping the scientific community with easy access to the validated tools required to explore the possibilities of Synthetic Biology. PMID:27284025

  8. Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative space: does it exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Hanada, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    I revisit a basic question about the noncommutative Yang-Mills theory: if it exists or not, or more precisely, whether a nonperturbative formulation exists. As the most promising approach, I consider a formulation based on matrix models. It is explained that the existence of the noncommutative Yang-Mills theory is closely related to the Eguchi-Kawai equivalence. I argue that supersymmetric noncommutative Yang-Mills theory can be defined straightforwardly. Non-supersymmetric theories, such as QCD and pure bosonic theories, can presumably be defined, by modifying the ultraviolet and infrared behaviors appropriately.

  9. Ball milling of chalcopyrite: Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to study the behavior of chalcopyrite under ball milling for extended periods in order to determine how it's decompose or transform. Tests were done with chalcopyrite mixed with iron and zinc with and without surfactant. The use of surfactants has various effects such as avoiding oxidation and clustering of the fine particles. In all case magnetic chalcopyrite is transformed into a paramagnetic component showing a disordered structure, thus revealing that Cu atoms have replaced Fe atoms. In the case of ball milling in air, chalcopyrite is decomposed with the lost of iron, while in milling under surfactants, iron enters into the chalcopyrite structure. (author)

  10. The Parisi-Sourlas Mechanism in Yang-Mills Theory?

    CERN Document Server

    Magpantay, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Parisi-Sourlas mechanism is exhibited in pure Yang-Mills theory. Using the new scalar degrees of freedom derived from the non-linear gauge condition, we show that the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory is equivalent to a 4D O(1,3) sigma model in a random field. We then show that the leading term of this equivalent theory is invariant under supersymmetry transformations where (x^{2}+\\thetabar\\theta) is unchanged. This leads to dimensional reduction proving the equivalence of the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory to a 2D O(1,3) sigma model.

  11. Frequency Modulation of High-Speed Mill Chatter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mill chatter is a common phenomenon in the metal strip rolling process. Product defects caused by mill vibration were reported worldwide during last two decades, which is usually classified as torque vibration of the driving system with low frequencies and vertical vibration of the mill stand with comparative higher frequencies. The frequency range of the vertical vibration is wide (in general from more than 100 Hz to more than 1 000 Hz), and the vibration phenomena are very complex, even it is very diffic...

  12. Jet milling from a particle perspective : predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a giv

  13. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  14. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application... an estimated average annual generation of 10,000 megawatt-hours. Main Mill Street Investments:...

  15. Simulation of type selection for 6-high cold tandem mill based on shape control ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; LIU Hong-min; WANG Dong-cheng

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical method for selecting strip rolling mill type that considered shape control ability was established using the figure alteration range that was worked by the alteration track of vector expressing strip's cross section (crown) to express the shape control ability of rolling mill. With the mathematical models and simulation software that were developed by the authors' own models, four types of mills were aimed, including HCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC (high crown) -mill), HCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill), UCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender) and UCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender), and the shape and crown control ability of every mill type was analyzed and compared. An appropriate arrangement mode of tandem mill was brought forward. The results show that UCMW mill is a perfect choice for controlling shape and crown, and the area of control characteristics curve of UCMW (or UCM) is twice than that of HCM, but UCM mill is also a good choice for its simple frame. In other word, the shape and crown controlling ability of UCMW mill is better than that of UCM mill, but the frame of UCM mill is simpler than that of UCMW mill. As for the final type of mill, should be synthetically decided by thinking over fund and equipment technology.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the...

  17. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  18. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing.

  19. Characterization of surface soils at a former uranium mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Meyer, H R; Vidyasagar, M

    2006-02-01

    Dawn Mining Company operated a uranium mill in Stevens County, Washington, from 1957 to 1982, to process ore from the Midnite Mine, and from 1992 through 2000, to extract uranium from mine water treatment sludge. The mill was permanently shut down in 2001 when the Dawn Mining Company radioactive materials license was amended to allow direct disposal of water treatment sludge to a tailings disposal area at the mill. The mill building was demolished in 2003. Site soil characterization took place in 2004. Soil cleanup is ongoing. Contaminated soils on the site were characterized using a GPS-based gamma scanning system. A correlation between shielded gamma exposure rate and concentration of Ra in surface soils was developed. Subsurface soils were sampled using backhoe trenches. This system proved efficient and accurate in guiding development of the remedial action planning for the site and subsequent soil cleanup. PMID:16404186

  20. Research on product size and grinding dynamics of vibration mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhong-jun; HAN Tian; CHEN Bing; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve vibration mills grinding effect and increase productive efficiency, prime factors of vibration mills were gained much attention. The purpose of this study is to reveal product size distribution and grinding dynamics of vibration mills by orthogonal experi-ments. The metallurgical refractory materials were used as research object. In order to explore the relationships between grinding effect and primary factors, lots of milling experiments were carried out. Based on the results, the conclusions can be summarized: as time runs, the size distri-bution shows exponential trend, and range becomes more and more narrow. Also the quantitative analysis result between grinding effect and primary factors was obtained by non-linear regres-sion: high frequency, high amplitude and low fill ratio can increase grinding speed.

  1. Review of environmental aspects of uranium mill operations: industry's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems faced by uranium mill operators in complying with new environmental regulations and guidelines are discussed. It is pointed out that valid data must be available in order to evaluate impacts on the environment, to determine background radiation levels, to measure the effectiveness of control techniques, and to determine compliance with standards and regulations. Specific problem areas facing mill operators today and some of the unresolved questions include: sampling methods and equipment for radon in ambient air, measurements of radon and radon daughter exposures of people, radon emanation rate meaurements applicable to monitoring mill tailings, the calibration of γ counters, measurements of population doses, regulations concerning mill tailings reclamation nd stabilization, and the comparative value of in-vivo counting and uranium urinary excretion measurements for monitoring personnel

  2. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  3. Raske retk, mille auhinnaks on veelgi raskem retk / Mihkel Loide

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loide, Mihkel

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade Valgamaal 14.-15. mail 2004 toimunud Kaitseliidu-sisesest Eel-Erna patrullvõistlusest, mille tulemusena selgusid Erna retkest osavõtjad. Tabel: Kaitseliidu patrullvõistluse Eel-Erna 2004 lõpuprotokoll

  4. Cosmological coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I universes. We investigate numerically the evolution of the universe and the Yang-Mills fields during the radiation and dust eras of a universe that is almost isotropic. The Yang-Mills field undergoes small amplitude chaotic oscillations, as do the three expansion scale factors which are also displayed by the expansion scale factors of the universe. The results of the numerical simulations are interpreted analytically and compared with past studies of the cosmological evolution of magnetic fields in radiation and dust universes. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis but the bound is comparatively weak with ΩYMrad

  5. Stabilizing the tailing dam at Hengyang Uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering measures combined with vegetation for stabilizing tailing dam at Hengyang unanium mill is described briefly. Improvements on dam safety, environment management and dam life time that have been achieved over the last 5 years are presented

  6. Job Descriptions and Operating Procedures Manual: Wood Products Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Gary F.; And Others

    Twenty-one jobs within a wood products mill have been identified by the Weyerhaeuser Company. The description and importance, safety precautions required, and operating procedures for each of these jobs are detailed. (DS)

  7. Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L

    2016-01-01

    In these lectures we review how the symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of "Yang-Mills squared". We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, $p$-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality.

  8. Waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill in mine No. 754

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author briefly introduces some measures to waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill of Uranium Mine No. 754. It is shown in practice that making rational use of waste water is advantageous to production, reducing qcost and lightening environment pollution

  9. Uranium mill tailings cleanup: Federal leadership at last

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has proposed legislation that would allow it to enter into cooperative agreements with various States to clean up residual radioactive materials--commonly called uranium mill tailings--at 22 inactive uranium mills. About 25 million tons of mill tailings have accumulated at these sites since the 1940s. GAO analyzed the need for, and adequacy of, the proposed legislation and recommends that the cleanup program be endorsed. While the Federal Government has no apparent legal responsibility for such a cleanup, it does have a moral responsibility since the mills primarily produced uranium for Federal programs. Further, it is the only organization able to undertake such a cleanup program on a comprehensive basis. GAO also suggests several areas where the proposed legislation could be strengthened

  10. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing

  11. John Stuart Mill, labour issue and the problem of socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurković Miša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the analysis of Mill's attitude to socialism The author starts from the contemporary libertarian dogma about Mill as the spoiler of liberalism who supposedly turned this ideology towards socialist trends. The detailed and taxonomic analysis based on Mill's Principles of Political Economy and Chapters on Socialism shows that this theory in not correct; that the opposite is true - Mill actually, as the first serious critic of socialism, set all the relevant arguments which the liberal theory would later use to challenge this rival ideology. The emphasis is placed on the problems of redistribution and extension of the right to vote, but the author also tackles the issues of corporations, protectionism and tax policy.

  12. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi `Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  13. Genetic Evolutionary Approach for Cutting Forces Prediction in Hard Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih; Kayacan, Cengiz

    2011-11-01

    Hard milling is a very common used machining procedure in the last years. Therefore the prediction of cutting forces is important. The paper deals with this prediction using genetic evolutionary programming (GEP) approach to set mathematical expression for out cutting forces. In this study, face milling was performed using DIN1.2842 (90MnCrV8) cold work tool steel, with a hardness of 61 HRC. Experimental parameters were selected using stability measurements and simulations. In the hard milling experiments, cutting force data in a total of three axes were collected. Feed direction (Fx) and tangential direction (Fy) cutting forces generated using genetic evolutionary programming were modelled. Cutting speed and feed rate values were treated as inputs in the models, and average cutting force values as output. Mathematical expressions were created to predict average Fxand Fy forces that can be generated in hard material milling.

  14. Probabilistic calculation of dose commitment from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses in a general way considerations of uncertainty in relation to probabilistic modelling. An example of a probabilistic calculation applied to the behaviour of uranium mill tailings is given

  15. Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In these lectures we review how symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of ‘Yang-Mills squared’. We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality. Lecture delivered by M. J. Duff.

  16. SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR COLOR OSCILLATIONS IN YANG-MILLS THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the simulation of non-linear spatial-temporal color oscillations in Yang-Mills theory in the case of SU (2) and SU (3) symmetry. We examined three systems of equations derived from the Yang-Mills theory, which describes the transition to chaotic behaviour. These transitions are caused by nonlinear vibrations of colour, depending on the model parameters - the coupling constants and the initial wave amplitude. Such transitions to chaotic behaviour by increasing the paramete...

  17. Environmental Development Plan: uranium mining, milling, and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) aspects of the uranium mining, milling, and conversion technologies. The plan represents the collective perceptions of EH and S concerns and requirements and knowledge of ongoing research programs of most of the Federal agencies involved in significant EH and S R and D program management, standards setting, or regulatory activities associated with uranium mining, milling, and conversion

  18. Massive Yang-Mills Fields in Interaction with Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Grigore, D. R.; Scharf, G.

    2008-01-01

    We determine the most general form of the interaction between the gravitational field and an arbitrary Yang-Mills system of fields (massless and massive). We work in the perturbative quantum framework of the causal approach (of Epstein and Glaser) and use a cohomological definition of gauge invariance for both gauge fields. We also consider the case of massive gravity. We discuss the question whether gravity couples to the unphysical degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills fields.

  19. Evaluation of Flatness Gauge for Hot Rolling Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In the steel industry, laser triangulation based measurement systems can be utilizedfor evaluating the flatness of the steel products. Shapeline is a company in Linköpingthat manufactures such measurement systems. This thesis work will present a series ofexperiments on a Shapeline measurement system in a relatively untested environment, thehot rolling mill at SSAB in Borlänge.The purpose of this work is to evaluate how the conditions at a hot rolling mill affectsthe measurement performance. I...

  20. Model Predictive Control System Analysis for Sugarcane Crushing Mill Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar Sunori; Pradeep Kumar Juneja; Anamika Bhatia Jain

    2015-01-01

    MPC is a computer based technique that requires the process model to anticipate the future outputs of that process. An optimal control action is taken by MPC based on this prediction. The MPC is so popular since its control performance has been reported to be best among other conventional techniques to control the multivariable dynamical plants with various inputs and outputs constraints. In this paper the performance of an MPC controller on a single stage of milling train of sugar mill is an...

  1. James Mill as an Economist: Theory Dominated by Deductive Method

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Torrance

    2005-01-01

    Our conclusion about James Mill is that his Achilles heel as an economic thinker, as evidenced by the content of his Elements, is that his theoretical analysis isn’t truly appropriate given the subject matter he is attempting to understand, namely real-world social phenomena and their underlying generative processes. As an economic analyst, Mill is deeply in thrall to a geometric-type deductive method that destructively inhibits his theories from posing the appropriate questions of the empiri...

  2. IMPACT OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS ON SOIL AND VEGETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Singh Mandloi; Shatrughan Prasad Singh; Deepak Davar

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution poses a great health hazard to human beings, animals and plants. Pollution has also adverse effects on the land, water and its living and nonliving components. Industrial effluents, containing organic and inorganic compounds have strong influence on the development of growth of crop plants. The treated effluent was collected from OPM paper mill from its outlet. Thephysicochemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found...

  3. Selected problems of face micro-milling of hard steel

    OpenAIRE

    Rybicki, M.; M. Kawalec

    2010-01-01

    In clause results of researches of the extended and cross-section deviations are presented. Researches have translated during exact face milling by plates from ceramics of tool steel 55NiCrMoV in the tempered condition at hardness 52 HRC. Deviations of straightforwardness measured before and after indemnification by a method of correction of a way of a plate of a mill in relation to a processable product.

  4. Compliance error compensation in robotic-based milling

    OpenAIRE

    Klimchik, Alexandr; Bondarenko, Dmitry; Pashkevich, Anatol; Briot, Sébastien; Furet, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of compliance errors compensation in robotic-based milling. Contrary to previous works that assume that the forces/torques generated by the manufacturing process are constant, the interaction between the milling tool and the workpiece is modeled in details. It takes into account the tool geometry, the number of teeth, the feed rate, the spindle rotation speed and the properties of the material to be processed. Due to high level of the disturbing forces/torques...

  5. Distribution of Fusarium mycotoxins in UK wheat mill fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Simon G; Scudamore, Keith; MacDonald, Susan; Patel, Sue; Hazel, Clare; Buttler, Dereck; Dickin, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The EU has set maximum limits for the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON). The maximum permitted level decreases from unprocessed wheat, through intermediary products e.g. flour, to finished products such as bakery goods and breakfast cereals. It is therefore important to understand the effects of processing on the mycotoxin distribution in mill fractions. Between 2004 and 2007, samples were taken at commercial flour mills at various points in ...

  6. The MediaMill TRECVID 2012 semantic video search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Sande, van de, B.; Habibian, A.; Kordumova, S.; Z. Li; Mazloom, M.; Pintea, S.L.; Tao, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2012 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in four tasks: semantic indexing, multimedia event detection, multimedia event recounting and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2008-2011, which uses multiple color SIFT descriptors, averaged and difference coded into codebooks with spatial pyramids, and kernel-based machine learning. This year our c...

  7. The role of tool geometry in process damped milling

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, A.; Turner, M. S.; Taylor, C. M.; N.D. Sims

    2010-01-01

    The complex interaction between machining structural systems and the cutting process results in machining instability, so called chatter. In some milling scenarios, process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to mitigate chatter and hence improve productivity. In the present study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damped milling considering different tool geometries (edge radius, rake and relief angles and variable helix/pitch). The results cle...

  8. Investigation of the Dynamic Properties of a Milling Tool Holder

    OpenAIRE

    Åkesson, Henrik; Smirnova, Tatiana; Håkansson, Lars; Lagö, Thomas L; Claesson, Ingvar

    2009-01-01

    Vibration problems during metal cutting occur frequently in the manufacturing industry. The vibration level depends on many different parameters such as the material type, the dimensions of the workpiece, the rigidity of tooling structure, the cutting data, and the operation mode. In milling, the cutting process subjects the tool to vibrations, and having a milling tool holder with a long overhang will most likely result in high vibration levels. As a consequence of these vibrations, the tool...

  9. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond the mill's needs fueled by bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season ,and by fuelwood from eucalyptus plantations during the sugar cane off season. The surplus power in both seasons will be sold ...

  10. Jet milling from a particle perspective: predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a given application is based on accumulated experiences of the manufactures. It is not for lack of either interest or investigation that a quantitative theory of milling does not exist. In contrast, the...

  11. Investigation of tool geometry effect and penetration strategies on cutting forces during thread milling

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vishal; Fromentin, Guillaume; Poulachon, Gérard; BRENDLEN, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The application of thread milling is increasing in industry because of its inherent advantages over other thread cutting techniques. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of milling cutter tool geometry on cutting forces during thread milling. The proposed method can compare the performance of milling cutters in spite of the different number of tooth. The best thread milling cutter among the studied tools was determined from the cutting forces point of view. Furthermore, th...

  12. A 3-dimensional accuracy analysis of chairside CAD/CAM milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Gabriel; Ender, Andreas; Mehl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Milling is a central and important aspect of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. High milling accuracy reduces the time needed to adapt the workpiece and provides restorations with better longevity and esthetic appeal. The influence of different milling processes on the accuracy of milled restorations has not yet been reviewed. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different milling processes on t...

  13. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  14. Interface Yang-Mills, supersymmetry, and Janus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider theories consisting of a planar interface with N=4 super-Yang-Mills on either side and varying gauge coupling across the interface. The interface does not carry any independent degrees of freedom, but is allowed to support local gauge invariant operators, included with independent interface couplings. In general, both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry will be broken, but for special arrangements of the interface couplings, these symmetries may be restored. We provide a systematic classification of all allowed interface supersymmetries. We find new theories preserving eight and four Poincare supersymmetries, which get extended to sixteen and eight supersymmetries in the conformal limit, respectively with SU(2)xSU(2), SO(2)xSU(2) internal symmetry. The Lagrangians for these theories are explicitly constructed. We also recover the theory with two Poincare supersymmetries and SU(3) internal symmetry proposed earlier as a candidate CFT dual to super-Janus. Since our new interface theories have only operators from the supergravity multiplet turned on, dual supergravity solutions are expected to exist. We speculate on the possible relation between the interface theory with maximal supersymmetry and the near-horizon limit of the D3-D5 system

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  16. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; Wang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  17. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 170B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended by Public Law 97-415, requires that the Secretary of Energy submit to Congress an annual assessment of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility to develop the criteria for use in estimating the viability of the industry. These criteria include four major attributes of industry viability - resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. Having established these criteria, the Secretary of Energy is required to monitor the industry and make an annual assessment of its viability for 1983 through 1992. The first six assessments were issued in the years 1984 through 1989 based on information available for 1983 through 1988, respectively. The current report provides the data and analyses, based on the information available through the end of the calendar year 1989, supporting the seventh annual assessment of the uranium industry's viability. It presents information on the four major attributes. Data on past and present industry behavior, as well as projections of the future status of the industry (assuming current market conditions), were used to examine the industry's ability to respond, over a 10-year period, to two hypothetical supply disruption scenarios. 20 figs., 23 tabs

  18. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  19. Seller Concentration in the Grain Milling Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Charumbira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main purpose of the study was to explore the levels of concentration in Zimbabwe’s grain-milling industry during period 1985-2005. The study could not be extended to periods after 2005 because the situation in the country had become economically chaotic. Approach: The methodology adopted involved the calculation of the concentration indices such as the Herfindall-Hirschman index, Hannah and Kay index, the Entropy index and the Four-Firm Concentration ratio. Results: The study revealed that liberalisation of the industry reduced seller concentration levels. The response to deregulation in this particular sector confirms the theoretical expectation that liberalisation promotes competition and reduces market power of existing firms, which is also consistent with the world-wide trends. Conclusion: The policies adopted at the inception of Economic Structural Adjustment Programmed (ESAP should be pursued more vigorously to create a manufacturing base which is open to competition and which is insulated from adverse effects of possible manipulation by a few large firms. Policy should be aimed at maintaining affordability of the basic commodities to the consumers as well as ensuring viability to the manufacturers. With high levels of industrial concentration, producers are able to operate at a higher-cost system without losing market share, but this is to the detriment of the consumers.

  20. [Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources. PMID:25118393

  1. Intelligent cutting tool condition monitoring in milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Balic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present a tool condition monitoring (TCM system that can detect tool breakage in real time by using a combination of neural decision system, ANFIS tool wear estimator and machining error compensation module.Design/methodology/approach: The principal presumption was that the force signals contain the most useful information for determining the tool condition. Therefore, ANFIS method is used to extract the features of tool states from cutting force signals. The trained ANFIS model of tool wear is then merged with a neural network for identifying tool wear condition (fresh, worn.Findings: The overall machining error is predicted with very high accuracy by using the deflection module and a large percentage of it is eliminated through the proposed error compensation process.Research limitations/implications: This study also briefly presents a compensation method in milling in order to take into account tool deflection during cutting condition optimization or tool-path generation. The results indicate that surface errors due to tool deflections can be reduced by 65-78%.Practical implications: The fundamental limitation of research was to develop a single-sensor monitoring system, reliable as commercially available system, but much cheaper than multi-sensor approach.Originality/value: A neural network is used in TCM as a decision making system to discriminate different malfunction states from measured signals.

  2. Transport in rotary drums and ball mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains investigations into the influence exerted by operating conditions, material properties and geometry of the apparatus and of the discharge plate on the transport behaviour of narrow quartz sand fractions in a model apparatus. The transport coefficients are determined in residence time experiments with Na-24-labelling. The dependence obtained between the transport coefficients and the experimental parameters permits a coherent interpretation if the assumption is made that the two types of transport occur in different phases of radial motion: Convection takes place during ascend while axial dispersion is generated in the falling and ranging process. Furthermore, a model has been developed for evaluating the throughput of rotary drums and ball mills, respectively; it is based on the assumption that the throughput is governed by the material flux through the discharge plate. The efflux takes place only in the ascending zone as a result of gravity and centrifugal forces acting parallel to the discharge plate. A deduced relationship describing the material flow through the discharge apertures in connection with the calculable zone of ascend leads to an expression allowing to determine the mass flow rate as a function of material properties, operating conditions and geometry of the discharge plate. A comparison between experimental and calculated data shows good agreement. (orig.)

  3. Lubrication control of motors in paper mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Yasuo

    1987-12-01

    This review is focused lubrication control of motors in paper mills. Smaller motors use deep groove ball bearings and lubricating grease. They need no make-up grease. Medium-size motors incorporate both sealed and open bearings or only open bearings and the grade, make-up intervals and make-up volume of the lubricating grease to be used are specified. Methods for automatic grease supply include the use of an automatic grease cup with improved injection mechanism, use of an injection pump for automatic supply to each motor, and group-control for parallel supply to several motors through distribution valves. For large-size motors, oil-bath lubricating is usually adopted in combination with a circulating oil supply device, etc. Improved techniques are currently available for automatization of the main systems and for automatization and reduction in cost of electric instrumentation. However, grease up of bearings, especially for medium-size motors, is performed by hand. Effective lubrication control and increased productivity are expected to be achieved by the combined use of automatic oil supply and monitoring devices. (14 figs, 4 tabs)

  4. Generalisation of the Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Savvidy, George

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an extension of the gauge principle which includes tensor gauge fields. In this extension of the Yang-Mills theory the vector gauge boson becomes a member of a bigger family of gauge bosons of arbitrary large integer spins. The proposed extension is essentially based on the extension of the Poincar\\'e algebra and the existence of an appropriate transversal representations. The invariant Lagrangian is expressed in terms of new higher-rank field strength tensors. It does not contain higher derivatives of tensor gauge fields and all interactions take place through three- and four-particle exchanges with a dimensionless coupling constant. We calculated the scattering amplitudes of non-Abelian tensor gauge bosons at tree level, as well as their one-loop contribution into the Callan-Symanzik beta function. This contribution is negative and corresponds to the asymptotically free theory. Considering the contribution of tensorgluons of all spins into the beta function we found that it is leading to the theo...

  5. Curving Yang-Mills-Higgs Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Established fundamental physics can be described by fields, which are maps. The source of such a map is space-time, which can be curved due to gravity. The map itself needs to be curved in its gauge field part so as to describe interaction forces like those mediated by photons and gluons. In the present article, we permit non-zero curvature also on the internal space, the target of the field map. The action functional and the symmetries are constructed in such a way that they reduce to those of standard Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) gauge theories precisely when the curvature on the target of the fields is turned off. For curved targets one obtains a new theory, a curved YMH gauge theory. It realizes in a mathematically consistent manner an old wish in the community: replacing structures constants by functions depending on the scalars of the theory. In addition, we provide a simple 4d toy model, where the gauge symmetry is abelian, but turning off the gauge fields, no rigid symmetry remains---another possible manife...

  6. Santo Amaro mineral sand mill decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site of 16 503 m2 held a monazite processing plant and in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, which is the largest city in Brazil. The plant operated for more than 60 years. As it has not been classified as a nuclear installation, the facility was not controlled by the national regulatory authority. As a consequence of the operations carried out at the site, it became contaminated with residues from mineral sands processing. Decommissioning activities started in 1994 and finished at the end of 1998. Decommissioning was carried out in five stages: (1) initially suitable packaging of contaminated material and waste removal took place; (2) decontamination and dismantling of equipment; (3) decontamination of floors and walls and demolition of the buildings (built area was about 13 000 m2); (4) land radiological characterization; 5) site clean-up. As long as Brazil does not have a national repository for low and intermediate level wastes, some of the generated wastes (about 60 m3) had to be stored in an adapted building at the Interlagos Mill site. Presently the most serious issue to be solved regards the final destination of the generated wastes

  7. High-energy milling as a method for obtaining tetragonal form of PbO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staszewski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to verify the usefulness of high-energy milling, using electromagnetic mill, as a method for obtaining tetragonal (red form of PbO, alternative to standard methods.Design/methodology/approach: Experiments were held to compare samples of the yellow form of PbO after milling in electromagnetic mill with the ones milled in high-energy planetary ball mill as a function of grinding medium (sticks or balls to powder mass ratio, milling duration and instrumental conditions.Findings: Quantitative X-ray diffraction and analysis of granulation of mill products were applied. The characteristics of structural transitions of studied powder depending on milling conditions were defined.Practical implications: Utilization of electromagnetic mills was found to be suitable for milling of PbO. The speed and unit price of this process assure competitiveness of the method to standard methods. Tested method of high-energy milling assures possibility to supply, in certain conditions, good product. Obtained product may be used for manufacturing of minium.Originality/value: Optimum conditions of milling process and milling limitations were determined. Suggestions regarding optimization of mill construction were presented.

  8. Influence of grinding method and grinding intensity of corn on mill energy consumption and pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukmirović Đuro M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there is an emerging trend of coarse grinding of cereals in production of poultry feed due to positive influence of coarse particles on poultry digestive system. Influence of grinding method (hammer mill vs. roller mill and grinding intensity of corn (coarseness of grinding on mill specific energy consumption and pellet quality was investigated. By decreasing grinding intensity of corn (coarser grinding, specific energy consumption of both hammer mill and roller mill was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. When comparing similar grinding intensities on hammer mill and roller mill (similar geometric mean diameter or similar particle size distribution, specific energy consumption was higher for the hammer mill. Pellet quality decreased with coarser grinding on hammer mill but, however, this effect was not observed for the roller mill. Generally, pellet quality was better when roller mill was used. It can be concluded that significant energy savings could be achieved by coarser grinding of corn before pelleting and by using roller mill instead of hammer mill. From the aspect of pellet quality, if coarser grinding is applied it is better to use roller mill, concerning that more uniform particle size distribution of corn ground on roller mill probably results in more uniform particle size distribution in pellets and this provides better pellet quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  9. Tetracycline-ferrite nanocomposites formed via high-energy ball milling and the influence of milling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Michael Lee; Moyo, Thomas; Abdallah, Hafiz M I; Masina, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    High-energy ball milling was used to mediate the formation of nanocomposites containing tetracycline and magnetic nanoparticles. Tetracycline-HCl was ball milled for 1, 3, 5, 15, and 30 h under argon or air atmosphere with preformed Mg 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe2O4 nanoferrites prepared by glycolthermal method. The structural, thermal, and magnetic properties of these novel materials and the effect of milling atmosphere on composition, crystallinity and cation distribution were then characterized by ICP-OES, DSC/TGA, XRPD, ATR-IR, UV-Vis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Tetracycline underwent rapid and consecutive metal coordination events in the milling process to yield complexes characterized by bathochromic shifts in its electronic spectra and suppression of electronic absorbance at 365 nm. Changes in stretching vibrations due to the A-ring carbonyl (1616 cm(-1)), amide II nitrogen (1602 cm(-1)), and CO bond (1039 cm(-1)) indicate Mg-type interactions imposed on the metals. Exothermic oxidation of the drug at 235°C disappeared after 5h milling with the nanoferrites, and the composites formed remained thermostable up to 500°C. Tetracycline-nanoferrites (Tet-NF) are magnetic-ordered materials with a well-defined spinel-type structure. Analysis of the Mössbauer data suggests that the milling time and atmosphere have significant influence on cation distributions in Tet-NF composites. PMID:23085583

  10. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills. PMID:16987647

  11. Completion of the uranium mill tailings remedial project and cleanup of the former mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project has successfully completed the cleanup of 22 former uranium mill sites, more than 5400 vicinity properties, and has constructed 18 entombment cells. The Project has recently received the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's approval and certification for the last two disposal sites, with these sites being placed under the general license for long term custodial care of residual radioactive material. The UMTRA site located at Grand Junction, Colorado is a good example of the technical, political, economic, and public relations challenges that were overcome in achieving success. The UMTRA Team discussed, negotiated, planned, and eventually acted on this uranium mill tailings problem and brought the project to a successful conclusion for the community. From the early 1940s through the 1970s, uranium ore was mined in significant quantities under United States federal contracts for the government's national defence programmes, i.e. the Manhattan Engineering District and Atomic Energy Commission programmes. The problem started as the need for uranium decreased in the late 1960s, resulting in mills shutting down, leaving behind large quantities of process waste tailings and contaminated mill buildings. The former Climax Uranium Company mill site in Grand Junction was one of the largest of these sites. (author)

  12. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  13. Inoculation of paperboard mill sludge versus mixed culture bacteria for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Danial, Amal

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of paperboard mill sludge (PMS) versus mixed culture bacteria (MCB) as inoculum for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater (PMW) was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different initial cultivation pHs, inoculums to substrate ratios (ISRs gVS/gCOD), and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The peak hydrogen yield (HY) of 5.29 ± 0.16 and 1.22 ± 0.11 mmol/gCODinitial was occurred at pH = 5 for MCB and PMS, respectively. At pH of 5, the HY and COD removal achieved the highest values of 2.26 ± 0.14 mmol/gCODinitial and 86 ± 1.6% at ISR = 6 for MCB, and 2.38 ± 0.25 mmol/gCODinitial and 60.4 ± 2.5% at ISRs = 3 for PMS. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 93.75 ± 8.9 mmol/day at HRT = 9.6 h from continuous upflow anaerobic reactor inoculated with MCB. Meanwhile, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments indicated a dominance of a novel hydrogen-producing bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for PMS microbial community. On the other hand, Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter hormaechei were the predominant species for MCB. PMID:26498965

  14. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  15. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action 1993 Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1993 Roadmap for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project office is a tool to assess and resolve issues. The US Department of Energy (DOE) UMTRA Project Office uses the nine-step roadmapping process as a basis for Surface and Groundwater Project planning. This is the second year the Roadmap document has been used to identify key issues and assumptions, develop logic diagrams, and outline milestones. This document is a key element of the DOE planning process. A multi-interest group used the nine-step process to focus on issues, root cause analysis and resolutions. This core group updated and incorporated comments on the basic assumptions, then used these assumptions to identify issues. The list of assumptions was categorized into the following areas: institutional, regulatory compliance, project management, human resource requirements, and other site-specific assumptions. The group identified 10 issues in the analysis phase. All of the issues are ranked according to importance. The number one issue from the 1992 Roadmap, ''Lack of sufficient human resources,'' remained the number one issue in 1993. The issues and their ranking are as follows: Lack of sufficient human resources; increasing regulatory requirements; unresolved groundwater issues; extension of UMTRCA through September 30, 1998; lack of post-UMTRA and post-cell closure policies; unpredictable amounts and timing of Federal funding; lack of regulatory compliance agreements; problem with states providing their share of remedial action costs; different interests and priorities among participants; and technology development/transfer. The issues are outlined and analyzed in detail in Section 8.0, with a schedule for resolution of these issues in Section 9.0

  17. Uranium-mill-tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physico-chemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sntering tailings at high temperatures (1100 to 12000C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 12000C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226Ra and 230Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulfuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H2SO4 can extract up to 80% of the 226Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230Th from tailings in a single stag extraction. An economic analysis of a sulfuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the leaching step and would contribute about 60% of the costs of moving and burying the tailings at a new site

  18. EFFECT OF PAN-MILLING ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pan-milling on the rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied. An innovative milling apparatus, viz. an inlaid pan-mill, was used. Melt indexer, capillary rheometer, Haake Rheocord 90 singlescrew extruder and Brabender rheometer were used to evaluate the rheological properties ofHDPE. HDPE with higher initial molecular weight and larger particle size was easier to degrade under pan-milling stress, as indicated by the melt index.Pressure oscillation in capillary flow occurred at significantly higher shear stress and shear rate for milled HDPE than for unmilled HDPE. The apparent shear viscosity of HDPE decreased with increasing times of milling. After milling, the flow activation energy decreased and thus the sensitivity of viscosity to temperature was reduced. Die pressure and torque during single screw extrusion were reduced significantly after milling. Plasticizing time as measured in a Brabander mixer decreased markedly with increasing milling times.

  19. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  20. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  1. Preparation of tungsten-iron carbide by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sets of elemental powder mixtures of Fe-W-C (W46Fe46C8, W60Fe20C20 and W34Fe33C33) were ball milled using Uni-Ball mill for periods of up to 550 h in vacuum with a ball - to - powder ratio of about 35:1. Depending on the milling time, the main component of the as-milled materials was found to be solid solutions of Fe-W-C or Fe-C. Ternary phase W3Fe3C was obtained on annealing the as-milled materials at about 700 deg C. This product was then found to transfer to (FeW)6C on heat treatment at about 800 deg C. The resultant products of the annealing processes were found to depend not only on the annealing temperature, but also the starting composition, especially the initial carbon concentration. Detailed information on the structural and phase evolution during thermal treatment as measured using x-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal analysis is presented. Special interest is focused on the competition for formation in this system between the Fe-C, W-Fe and W-C phases

  2. Current practices and options for confinement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which took place in Stockholm from 4 to 6 June 1972, national governments were asked to explore, with the International Atomic Energy Agency and other appropriate international organizations, international co-operation on radioactive waste matters including those of mining and tailings disposal. Since that time the IAEA has been active in the field of uranium and thorium mill tailings management. As part of this activity, the present report describes current practices and options for confinement of uranium mill tailings. It is addressed to technical and administrative personnel who are involved in planning and implementing national and industrial programmes on the management of such tailings. In 1974 and 1975 the IAEA convened meetings of experts to review matters of interest and importance in the management of uranium and thorium mine and mill tailings. These activities led to the publication in 1976 of Management of Wastes from the Mining and Milling of Uranium and Thorium Ores, a Code of Practice and Guide to the Code, IAEA Safety Series No. 44. As a continuation of this activity, the IAEA is here dealing more specifically with the design and siting considerations for the management of uranium mill tailings

  3. Influence of polymer content on stabilizing milled amorphous salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balani, P N; Wong, S Y; Ng, W K; Widjaja, E; Tan, R B H; Chan, S Y

    2010-05-31

    The study investigates the influence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) concentration on stabilizing the amorphous form of salbutamol sulphate (SS) before and after storage under ambient and elevated humidity conditions. Different mass ratios of SS and PVP (0-90wt%) were co-milled using a planetary ball mill. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (HSDSC), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman microscopy (RM) were used to analyze the stability of the co-milled mixtures against heat and humidity treatments as well as storage at different humidity conditions. Prior storage, DSC and DVS analyses revealed that re-crystallization of amorphous SS was suppressed above PVP content of 33 wt%. Probable hydrogen bond interaction between SS and PVP was found in FT-IR analysis. XRPD diffractograms and SEM analysis showed stability against re-crystallization was achieved in the co-milled mixtures with a minimum PVP content of 80 wt% after storage. Homogeneous distribution of SS and PVP from RM analysis showed fine clustering of SS and PVP, suggesting the formation of an amorphous dispersion at molecular level. The results provide insights on the application of thermal and humidity treatments, accelerated stability testing and investigations on drug-excipient interactions to predict the minimum ratio of an excipient for stabilizing the amorphous state of a milled API. PMID:20211717

  4. Chest radiological findings in pakistani cement mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiological findings in Pakistani cement mill workers Even in the 21st century, in developing countries millions of people work daily in dusty environments. They are exposed to different types of health hazards namely, fumes, gases and dust, which are risk factors for developing occupational diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform chest radiology to determine the occupational hazards of cement dust on the lungs of cement mill workers. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan, during the period June to August 2000. In this study 50, apparently healthy volunteer male cement mill workers were randomly selected with an average of 13 years exposure with age ranging from 20-60 years. They were matched with 50, healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. Both groups met with exclusion criteria as per standard. Radiology was performed by Trophy radiology. Results: The present study demonstrated 12% of cases with interstitial lung disease and 2% of cases with pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis in cement mill workers. Conclusion: Exposure to cement dust causes interstitial lung disease, pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis in cement mill workers. (author)

  5. A Mössbauer effect study of ball-milled strontium ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, E.; Campbell, S. J.; Kaczmarek, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of milling SrFe 12O 19 in air and vacuum for 800 h have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer effect spectroscopy measurements. Different levels of structural disorder along with partial decomposition of SrFe 12O 19 to nanocrystalline grains of haematite, α-Fe 2O 3, and magnetite, Fe 3O 4, are obtained for the air and vacuum milling. Superparamagnetic relaxation effects due to the fine particles produced on milling are observed for a significant fraction ( ˜ 10% air milled, ˜ 30% vacuum milled) of the milled samples.

  6. The present situation and prospects of Ganzhou mining and milling of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the characteristics of natural uranium resources, occurrence of the condition of Ganzhou uranium mining process are used in the production levels of dry-fill method, in- situ blasting method, shallow hole Shrinkage Method. milling process using surface heap leaching, bacteria leaching, heap built underground in situ leaching of uranium ore mining and milling methods of enhanced leaching technology features. The hard rock uranium mining and milling process has been Ganzhou uranium research, elaborate of mining and milling technology used in uranium Ganzhou analysis of the status of various mining and milling technology to evaluate the prospects and development, analysis mining and milling technology in production applications. (author)

  7. Quantum Yang-Mills theory: an overview of a programme

    CERN Document Server

    Milsted, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of a programme to understand the low-energy physics of quantum Yang-Mills theory from a quantum-information perspective. Our setting is that of the hamiltonian formulation of pure Yang-Mills theory in the temporal gauge on the lattice. Firstly, inspired by recent constructions for $\\mathbb{Z}/2\\mathbb{Z}$ lattice gauge theory, in particular, Kitaev's toric code, we describe the gauge-invariant sector of hilbert space by introducing a primitive quantum gate: the quantum parallel transporter. We then develop a nonabelian generalisation of laplace interpolation to present an ansatz for the ground state of pure Yang-Mills theory which interpolates between the weak- and strong-coupling RG fixed points. The resulting state acquires the structure of a tensor network, namely, a multiscale entanglement renormalisation ansatz, and allows for the efficient computation of local observables and Wilson loops. Various refinements of the tensor network are discussed leading to several generalisations. ...

  8. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  9. Yang-Mills theory and fermionic path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In this brief review I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this review are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.

  10. Wet gringing of zeolite in stirred media mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucsi, G.; Bohács, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study the results of systematic experimental series are presented with the specific goal of optimizing the zeolite nanoparticles' production using a wet stirred media mill. The diameter of the grinding media as well as the rotor velocity were varied in the experiments. Particle size distribution and "outer" specific surface area of the ground samples were measured by a laser particle size analyser. Additionally, BET, XRD and FT-IR analyses were performed for the characterization of the "total" specific surface area as well as the crystalline and material structure, respectively. Based on the results of the laboratory experiments it was found that wet stirred media milling provided significant reductions in the particle size of zeolite. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the samples also decreased, so not only the physical but the mineralogical characteristics of zeolite can be controlled by stirred media milling.

  11. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler Lott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Matthews, Austin Colter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  13. New perspectives on Yang-Mills theories with sixteen supersymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe various approaches that give matrix descriptions of compactified NS five-branes. As a result, we obtain matrix models for Yang-Mills theories with sixteen supersymmetries in dimensions 2,3,4 and 5. The equivalence of the various approaches relates the Coulomb branch of certain gauge theories to the moduli space of instantons on T4. We also obtain an equivalence between certain six-dimensional string theories. Further, we discuss how various perturbative and non-perturbative features of these Yang-Mills theories appear in their matrix formulations. The matrix model for four-dimensional Yang-Mills is manifestly S-dual. In this case, we describe how electric fluxes, magnetic fluxes and the interaction between vector particles are realized in the matrix model. (author)

  14. New Perspectives on Yang-Mills Theories With Sixteen Supersymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Ganor, O J; Ganor, Ori J.; Sethi, Savdeep

    1998-01-01

    We describe various approaches that give matrix descriptions of compactified NS five-branes. As a result, we obtain matrix models for Yang-Mills theories with sixteen supersymmetries in dimensions $2,3,4$ and $5$. The equivalence of the various approaches relates the Coulomb branch of certain gauge theories to the moduli space of instantons on $T^4$. We also obtain an equivalence between certain six-dimensional string theories. Further, we discuss how various perturbative and non-perturbative features of these Yang-Mills theories appear in their matrix formulations. The matrix model for four-dimensional Yang-Mills is manifestly S-dual. In this case, we describe how electric fluxes, magnetic fluxes and the interaction between vector particles are realized in the matrix model.

  15. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  16. Thermal behaviour of amorphous zircon prepared by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the recrystallisation behaviour of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) which has been amorphised by ball milling. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques were used to investigate the structural evolution after mechanical treatment. Phase transformations detected by the differential thermal analysis technique included transient formation of tetragonal or pseudo cubic ZrO2, followed by recrystallisation of zircon at reduced temperatures of around 1000 C. The behaviour of the milled samples was compared to literature data concerning amorphous zircon prepared by other techniques, including natural and ion beam radiation damage and sol-gel processing. The ball milled zircon was found to have similar thermal behaviour, but had a structural recovery temperature 180-600 C lower than that found for other amorphous samples. (orig.)

  17. Supertwistor space for 6D maximal super Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Dennen, Tristan; Siegel, Warren

    2009-01-01

    6D maximal super Yang-Mills on-shell amplitudes are formulated in superspace using 6 dimensional twistors. The 3,4,5-point tree amplitudes are obtained by supersymmetrizing their bosonic counterparts and confirmed through the BCFW construction. In contrast to 4D this superspace is non-chiral, reflecting the fact that one cannot differentiate MHV from $\\bar{{\\rm MHV}}$ in 6D. Combined with unitarity methods, this superspace should be useful for the study of multi-loop D dimensional maximal super Yang-Mills and gravity amplitudes. Furthermore, the non-chiral nature gives a natural framework for an off-shell construction. We show this by matching our result with off-shell D=4 N=4 super Yang-Mills amplitudes, expressed in projective superspace.

  18. Effect of Milling Time on Al-Fe-Cr-20 Wt. % Al2O3composite Prepared Through Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameedur Rehman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges towards achieving a homogeneous distribution of the ceramic phase in the metal matrix composites is agglomeration of the reinforcement particles. Mechanical alloying is among the most important processing techniques used for manufacturing of metal matrix composites (MMCs.An attempt was made to synthesize Al-Fe-Cr-Al2O3composites synthesized through mechanical alloying. Al2O3 is used as reinforcement. Ethanol (5 wt. % has been used as a process control agent (PCA. Mechanical alloying is carried out in a conventional ball mill using stainless steel grinding media at 115 rpm in the argon environment for 5h, 10h and 15h. The ball to powder weight ratio was maintained at 20:1. The characterization of the ball milled powder was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Showed the formation of a homogeneous phase for all compositions after milling for 15 h. XRD patterns were recorded for the milled powders, and analyzed using Williamson–Hall method and Scherrer’s equation to determine the lattice strain and grain size.EDX is performed to check the contamination of composites during the mechanical alloying.XRD is used to study structural evolution of synthesized aluminium composite. Effect of milling time is investigated on synthesized Al-Fe-Cr-20 wt. % Al2O3 composites.

  19. SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR COLOR OSCILLATIONS IN YANG-MILLS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the simulation of non-linear spatial-temporal color oscillations in Yang-Mills theory in the case of SU (2 and SU (3 symmetry. We examined three systems of equations derived from the Yang-Mills theory, which describes the transition to chaotic behaviour. These transitions are caused by nonlinear vibrations of colour, depending on the model parameters - the coupling constants and the initial wave amplitude. Such transitions to chaotic behaviour by increasing the parameters are characteristic of hydrodynamic turbulence. A model of spatial-temporal oscillations of the Yang-Mills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three of five colors or vice versa - the first three five other colors. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. Note that the general property of physical systems described by nonlinear equations in the Yang-Mills theory and hydrodynamics is particularly strong in the formation of quark-gluon plasma and hadrons jets, when the Yang-Mills is involved in the formation of hydrodynamic flow. Note that there is a relationship between the Einstein and Yang-Mills theory, on the one hand, Einstein's equations and hydrodynamics - on the other. All of this points to the existence in the nature of a general mechanism of formation of a special type of turbulence - geometric turbulence

  20. Effect of Milling Time and Dispersant on Microstructures of Alpha Alumina Nano powder Synthesized from Aluminium Dross Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet milling was performed in a high velocity planetary mill at speed of 1100 rpm and for 2 to 5 hours. Samples milled with dispersant gave a smaller crystallite size and the smallest crystallite value was 39.4 nm, obtained by milling for 5 hours. Similarly, the mean particle size obtained for samples milled with dispersant gave smaller value and the smaller mean particle size obtained was 0.771 μm after 5 hours of milling. (author)

  1. Yang-Mills Theory In, Beyond, and Behind Observed Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The character of jets is dominated by the influence of intrinsically nonabelian gauge dynamics. These proven insights into fundamental physics ramify in many directions, and are far from being exhausted. I will discuss three rewarding explorations from my own experience, whose point of departure is the hard Yang-Mills interaction, and whose end is not yet in sight. Given an insight so profound and fruitful as Yang and Mills brought us, it is in order to try to consider its broadest implications, which I attempt at the end.

  2. Gauging quantum groups: Yang-Baxter joining Yang-Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-02-01

    This review is an expansion of my talk at the conference on Sixty Years of Yang-Mills Theory. I review and explain the line of thoughts that lead to a recent joint work with Hu and Geer [Hu et al., arXiv:1502.03433] on the construction, exact solutions and ubiquitous properties of a class of quantum group gauge models on a honey-comb lattice. Conceptually the construction achieves a synthesis of the ideas of Yang-Baxter equations with those of Yang-Mills theory. Physically the models describe topological anyonic states in 2D systems.

  3. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  4. Advances in Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dahake, Prajakta H.; Sahakar, Nikita R.; Gadge, P.A

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M-codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new t...

  5. Reduction Kinetics of Mill Scale Briquettes Via Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its high iron content (about 69.33% Fe) being suitable for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper, the characteristic of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analysis. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, where the reduction kinetics were determined. The model of chemical reaction at interface was applied and the energy of activation was calculated

  6. Super Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity are analyzed by using the tangent bundle to a supergroup manifold as geometrical framework. The factorization condition imposed on these theories is considered from this point of view. The so-called H-gauge transformation for both, the super Yang-Mills and supergravity one-forms gauge fields are obtained as a consequence of a change of trivialization in the corresponding coset manifold. The authors point out the existence of factorized solutions not diffeomorphically equivalent for the set of pseudo-connections one-forms or gauge fields

  7. Milling of Sand Blocks to Make Casting Moulds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a full procedure to make moulds in sand for direct casting of metallic parts is presented. The technology aims at unique pieces or art pieces, where only one prototype or components is required, but lead times are much reduced. The key of the procedure is to achieve enough tool life when milling with carbide tools, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage.The use of inverse techniques is a common input due to the industrial sectors where the direct milling is interesting. Two examples of moulds are presented, evaluating times and costs. A special study of tool wear is also presented.

  8. Gauge covariance approach to massive Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By observation of the gauge structure introduced in the SU(2) Higgs-Kibble model on the basis of a massless Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance, another possible formalism of a massive Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance is presented. The formalism exhibits a close analogy to the case of massive abelian-gauge fields. In contrast with the case of the Higgs-Kibble model, no dipole-ghost field is introduced in the formalism. Supplementary conditions for physical states are given in a consistent way. (author)

  9. Underground Milling of High-Grade Uranium Ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many safety and technical issues involved in the mining and progressing of high grade uranium ores such as those exploited in Northern Canada at present. With more of this type of mine due to commence production in the near future, operators have been looking at ways to better manage the situation. The paper describes underground milling of high-grade uranium ore as a means of optimising production costs and managing safety issues. In addition the paper presents some examples of possible process flowsheets and plant layouts that could be applicable to such operations. Finally an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling from a variety of viewpoints is provided. (author)

  10. Hydrogen storage alloys prepared by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staszewski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate an efficiency of high-energy milling, as a method to obtain hydrogen storage alloys with good properties.Design/methodology/approach: Two classes of the alloys were studied: AB2 type with atomic composition of (Ti0.5Zr0.5(V0.68Mn0.68Cr0.34Ni0.7 and AB5 type with atomic composition of (Ce0.63La0.37(Ni3.55Al0.3Mn0.4 Co0.75.The materials were prepared by arc melting and initially pulverized and afterwards subjected to wet milling process in a planetary mill.Findings: Both initially obtained alloys had proper, single phase structure of hexagonal symmetry. However their elemental composition was greatly inhomogeneous. High-energy milling causes both homogenization of the composition and severe fragmentation of the powder particles, which after milling have mean diameter of about 3 µm (AB2 alloy and below 2 µm (AB5 alloy. The morphology of obtained powders reveals that they tend to form agglomerates consisting of large number of crystallites. Mean crystallite sizes after milling are of about 4.5 nm and of 20 nm, respectively. The specific surface of the powders, measured using BET method, equals 8.74 m2/g and 2.70 m2/g, respectively.Research limitations/implications: The results provide the information on the possibility of obtaining hydrogen storage alloys by high-energy milling and on the transformations taking place as a result of this process.Practical implications: The obtained powders can be used to produce the elements of hydrogen-nickel batteries and fuel cells, providing improved properties; especially extreme rise of the specific surface of the hydrogen storage material, in compare to the standard methods.Originality/value: New method for preparation of hydrogen storage alloys by means of high-energy milling technique has been successfully tested.

  11. Modifikasi Alat Penggiling Biji Kopi Tipe Flat Burr Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Arta Naomi Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Milling is done to reduce size or to powder food material into a certain level of refinement to be more easily processed into other products. The aims of the was to modificate, design, build and test coffee bean grinder flat burr type mill on robusta coffee. Observed parameters were the effective capacity of the equipment, the percentage of losses materials, and economic analysis. The results showed that the effective capacity of the equipment was 35,66 kg/hour for robusta coffee and 33,84...

  12. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques

  13. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible for...

  14. Model Predictive Control for an Industrial SAG Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohan, Valeriu; Steinke, Florian; Metzger, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    We discuss Model Predictive Control (MPC) based on ARX models and a simple lower order disturbance model. The advantage of this MPC formulation is that it has few tuning parameters and is based on an ARX prediction model that can readily be identied using standard technologies from system...... identication. When applied to MIMO systems we call this controller a MIMO-ARX based MPC. We use an industrial Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill to illustrate the performance of this controller. SAG mills are the primary units in a grinding chain and also the most power consuming units. Therefore, improved...

  15. Pressurized drying of paper mill sludge; Kartonkilietteen paineistettu kuivaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J.; Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The original objective of the project was to study and develop pressurised steam drying of paper mill sludge to be used in a power plant project in the USA. However, due to the difficulties in the project finalisation in USA, the contents of the study was changed. The results of the first phase dealing with pressurised sludge drying in pilot scale were reported in early 1997. This paper presents the topics and results of the second phase of the project. The second phase consists of two projects: (1) Fuel feeding into high pressure - preparation of the technology demonstration and (2) Application of the bed mixing dryer for pulp and paper mill sludges. (orig.)

  16. Effect of milling on reduction behavior of blue dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Blue dust is a secondary source of hematite mineral reduced to wustite phase when it is subjected planetary ball milling in the presence of metallic iron power as a reducing reagent. Reduction characteristics of hematite (blue dust) can take place in the following reaction schemes. 4Fe2O3+Fe→3Fe3O4 Fe3O4+Fe→4FeO Fe2O3+Fe→3FeO The direct formation of wustite is possible only due to higher rate of hematite reduction which is driven by high energy planetary ball milling. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer studies confirm the blue dust is reduced to wustite. Higher rate of reduction of blue dust (hematite) leading to the formation of wustite. Formation of magnetite from hematite could be a transient phase which reacts immediately with added metallic iron powder or iron comes out from the friction between the steel balls and jar to yield wustite. -- Highlights: • Natural mineral-blue dust (96% hematite) is reduced in the presence of metallic iron as reducing reagent. • Reaction milling provides the sufficient energy to facilitate the reduction of blue dust to undergo phase transformation from hematite to form wustite as major phase. • Reaction mechanism for formation of wustite phase is explained on the basis of the particle size of reactants. • XRD and Mossbauer studies confirm the phase change from hematite to wustite. -- Abstract: Blue dust is a high grade soft hematite material containing 96.14% Fe2O3. It is transformed into wustite when subjected to planetary ball milling in the presence of iron powder as a reducing reagent. The phase evolution, particle size distribution, and morphology of particles during milling are studied for various samples collected at various milling times by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometer and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). XRD and Mössbauer studies reveal that the blue dust is transformed into wustite after 50 h of milling. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM

  17. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  19. Effect of milling time on the formation of carbon nanotube by mechano-thermal method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ertan Evin; Ömer Güler; Mustafa Aksoy; Seval Hale Güler

    2015-08-01

    Mechano-thermal method was used for synthesizing the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in this study. In this method, graphite powders in the elemental form were firstly exposed to milling process in high-energy ball milling and then the milled powders were annealed at high temperatures. As a result of milling of the graphite, ultra-active disordered carbon structures were obtained. This structure serves as a carbon source for the formation of nanotubes during the annealing process. This study investigated the effect of the milling process. For this purpose, graphite powders were milled at different periods such as 5 and 150 h and then annealed at 1600°C. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy examinations demonstrated that CNTs formed in samples milled both for 5 and 150 h. However, the difference in the milling time influenced the amount of CNTs, their size and the formation of other structures except from nanotubes.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  1. Effects and mechanism of ball milling on torrefaction of pine sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunxiao; Huang, Jing; Feng, Chen; Wang, Guanghui; Tabil, Lope; Wang, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    The effects and mechanism of ball milling on the torrefaction process were studied. Ball- and hammer-milled (screen size 1mm) pine sawdust samples were torrefied at three temperatures (230, 260, and 290°C) and two durations (30 and 60min) to investigate into their torrefaction behavior and physicochemical properties. The results showed that, under identical torrefaction conditions, torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust had a higher carbon content and fixed carbon, and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust produced lower mass and energy yields, but higher heating values than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Ball milling destroyed the crystalline structure of cellulose and thus reduced the thermal stability of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, causing them to degrade at relatively lower temperatures. In conclusion, biomass pretreated with a combination of ball milling and torrefaction has the potential to produce an alternative fuel to coal. PMID:27136611

  2. 76 FR 14105 - International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group; Pineville, LA; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... October 29, 2010 (75 FR 66795). The subject workers produce containerboard/paperboard (uncoated freesheet... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group... workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Pineville Mill, Industrial Packaging...

  3. Modeling the milling tool wear by using an evolutionary SVM-based model from milling runs experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; Robleda, Abraham Segade

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research work is to build a new practical hybrid regression model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut as well as entry cut and exit cut of a milling tool. The model was based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). This optimization mechanism involved kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Bearing this in mind, a PSO-SVM-based model, which is based on the statistical learning theory, was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset represents experiments from runs on a milling machine under various operating conditions. In this way, data sampled by three different types of sensors (acoustic emission sensor, vibration sensor and current sensor) were acquired at several positions. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Firstly, this hybrid PSO-SVM-based regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the flank wear (output variable) and input variables (time, depth of cut, feed, etc.). Indeed, regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.95 was obtained. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. Secondly, the main advantages of this PSO-SVM-based model are its capacity to produce a simple, easy-to-interpret model, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed.

  4. Study on High-Performance Computing for Simulation of End Milling Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Milling Process Simulation is one of the important re search areas in manufacturing science. For the purpose of improving the prec ision of simulation and extending its usability, numerical algorithm is more and more used in the milling modeling areas. But simulative efficiency is decreasin g with increase of its complexity. As a result, application of the method is lim ited. Aimed at above question, high-efficient algorithm for milling process sim ulation is studied. It is important for milling process...

  5. Vertically and Horizontally Mounted Wind Mills : Wind Energy Production in Tampere University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to gather information about vertical and horizontal wind mills and to complete a research on wind power production by wind mills which were installed in Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The horizontally mounted wind mill Windspot 3.5 and vertically mounted wind mill Cypress were installed in summer 2011 but they started functioning and supplying energy only during 2012. In the theoretical part of this thesis wind speed and wind power production is dis...

  6. Variable-speed drive and control systems for rolling mills; Atsuenkiyo drive seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, T.; Tochigi, T. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-10

    The drive systems of large rolling mills is of a cycloconverter type, a GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) type or high-voltage IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) type. Drive systems for bar, rod and pipe mills use three and/or two level IGBT inverters. This paper describes recent technical trends of drives and control systems in rolling mills, including each drive application and the PLC (programmable controller) and HCI (human communication interface) controlling the total rolling mill line. (author)

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF COMPOSITE POWDERS PREPARED BY HIGH ENERGY MILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Q. Li; W.P. Chen; W. Xia; Q.L. Zhu; Y.Y. Li; E.D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the characteristic of high energy milling and the micromechanics of composite material, a plastic constitutive equation is implemented for milled composite powders. To check the equation, the extrusion of Ti/Al composite powders prepared by high energy milling was simulated. It was from the numerical analysis that the predicted extrusion pressure mounted up with milling time and extrusion ratio increasing,which was perfect agreement with experimental results.

  8. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling... wheat is parboiled, dried, and partially debranned in the production of bulgur....

  9. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  10. Wheat Fields, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    By 1860 much of the beauty of St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis (Minnesota) had been destroyed, as mills on both sides of the river used the power of the falls to turn millions of bushels of wheat into flour. Steel rails linked bonanza farms hundreds of miles to the west to the mills. The mills, the farms, and the railroads depended on each other…

  11. 77 FR 35431 - Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: This document announces that on... uranium mill tailings (11e.(2) byproduct material). Six Agreement States have this authority as part...

  12. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: By letter dated October 10... Agreement States to specifically amend their Agreements to regulate uranium mill tailings (11e.(2)...

  13. 78 FR 13479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 1738). We received... Operation Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 75917... Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT,'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 1738)...

  14. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.23 Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license. A license issued...

  15. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 515.24 - Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.24 Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license. When a...

  17. Effect of milling on the magnetic properties of Al-Mn obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Mirna, E-mail: betamirna@gmail.com [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia Cumana (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materiales, Centro Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnologia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Silva, Pedro [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materia Condensada, Centro de Fisica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, Gema, E-mail: gemagonz@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materiales, Centro Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnologia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-42 at.% Mn transforms to {alpha}-Mn(Al) by mechanical milling after 5 h of milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation to nano {beta}-Mn is reached after 50 h of milling with 6 nm grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Milling strongly affects magnetic behavior. - Abstract: Al-Mn powders were prepared to obtain the compound Mn{sub 42}Al{sub 58} by mechanical alloying. The powders were milled during different periods (1 h, 5 h, 11.5 h, 15 h, 20 h and 50 h) using a SPEX 8000 mixer mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic properties at room temperature, using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD shows partial transformation to {alpha}-Mn after only 1 h of milling and a mixture of {alpha}-Mn and {beta}-Mn after 11.5 h of milling and further milling resulted in transformation to {beta}-Mn phase with a grain size of 6 nm after 50 h. The change in magnetic properties with milling time is quite dramatic, from a ferromagnetic behavior for {alpha}-Mn(Al) to paramagnetic after 11.5 h of milling and showing again ferromagnetic behavior, with a strong increase of magnetization values of 5.5 emu/g, after 50 h of milling with formation of {beta}-Mn(Al).

  18. Ceramic and metal-ceramic nanostructures obtained by reactive ball milling

    OpenAIRE

    Secondi, J; R. Yavari

    1993-01-01

    We review ceramic and metal-ceramic nanostructures obtained by ball milling. We then report on the formation of titanium nitride by ball milling elemental titanium powder under nitrogen gas and on TiN-copper nanocomposites produced by ball milling a CuTi alloy under N2 gas.

  19. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  20. QUANTITATIVE GLUTENIN COMPOSITION FROM GEL ELECTROPHORESIS OF FLOUR MILL STREAMS AND RELATIONSHIP TO BREADMAKING QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three samples of Nekota (hard red winter wheat) were milled, and six mill streams were collected from each sample. The eighteen mill streams were analyzed separately as well as recombined to form three patent flours. The methods of multistacking (MS)-SDS-PAGE and SDS-PAGE were used to separate the u...

  1. Case Study: Fort Mill High School--A Culture of Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of case studies highlighting best practices High Schools That Work (HSTW) network schools and districts are implementing to prepare students better for further studies and careers. Fort Mill High School is in Fort Mill, South Carolina, an outlying suburb of Charlotte, North Carolina. Fort Mill links high quality…

  2. Towards the effective tool wear control in micro-EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Valentincic, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2010-01-01

    The electrode wear in micro-electrical discharge milling (micro-EDM milling) is one of the main problems to be solved in order to improve machining accuracy. This paper presents an investigation on wear and material removal in micro-EDM milling for selected process parameter combinations typical ...

  3. POTENTIAL TO IMPROVE DRY MILL ECONOMICS BY INCREASING ETHANOL YIELD FROM CORN FIBER RESIDUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual production of fuel ethanol is expected to reach five billion gallons by the year 2012. Currently, two methods are used to produce fuel ethanol: wet milling or dry milling of corn. The dry milling process is becoming more common due to the lowered capital required to build and operate these...

  4. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  5. A nonperturbative method for the Yang Mills Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Using the properties of the partition function for a Yang Mills theory we compute simple relations among the renormalization constants. In the particular case of the background gauge field method we obtain that the all orders beta function for the gauge coupling constant contains only the first two orders coefficients different than zero and thus corresponds to the 't Hooft scheme.

  6. Research on Positioning Error Compensation for Micro Milling Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Chen; Wen-Lan Tian; Yong Xiao; Yan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Micro milling has many advantages in fabricating three⁃dimensional ( 3D) structure in micrometer scale. The micro milling machine tool with high positioning accuracy is of great importance for getting micro structure with high profile precision and good surface quality. Meanwhile, the method of position error compensation is a good way to improve the accuracy of the micro milling machine tools. In this paper, a software method is adopted to compensate the positioning error and improve the positioning accuracy. According to error cancellation theory, the compensation values are generated and compensation tables are built to adjust the positioning error in the NC system based on Industrial Motion and Automation Control ( IMAC) . The positioning accuracy of linear motor is ±0�3μm without backlash after compensation. In order to verify the effectiveness of compensation on the machining performance, concave spherical surfaces are processed on the micro milling machine tool. The experimental results show that the profile radius error of the spherical surface machined with compensation decreases more than 60%.

  7. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  8. Wilson loop in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory

    OpenAIRE

    Förste, S.; Ghoshal, D.; Theisen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Wilson loop in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory admits a dual description as a macroscopic string configuration in the adS/CFT correspondence. We discuss the correction to the quark anti-quark potential arising from the fluctuations of the superstring.

  9. Observer Based Fault Detection and Moisture Estimating in Coal Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2008-01-01

    the general performance of power plants. Detection  of faults and moisture content estimation are consequently of high interest in the handling of the problems caused by faults and moisture content. The coal flow out of the mill is the obvious variable to monitor, when detecting non-intended drops in......In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing requirements to...... the coal flow out of the coal mill. However, this variable is not measurable. Another estimated variable is the moisture content, which is only "measurable" during steady-state operations of the coal mill. Instead, this paper suggests a method where these unknown variables are estimated based on a...

  10. Path integral quantization of Yang-Mills theory

    OpenAIRE

    Muslih, Sami I.

    2000-01-01

    Path integral formulation based on the canonical method is discussed. Path integral for Yang-Mills theory is obtained by this procedure. It is shown that gauge fixing which is essential procedure to quantize singular systems by Faddeev's and Popov's method is not necessary if the canonical path integral formulation is used.

  11. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  12. Reduced graphene oxide synthesis by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, O. [Department of Physics, M.U.C Women' s College, Burdwan 713104 (India); Mitra, S. [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Datta, A. [University School of Basic and Applied Science (USBAS), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110075 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chakravorty, D., E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-01

    Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. The process of ball milling introduces defects and removes oxygen functional groups, thereby creating the possibility of fine tuning the band gap of all intermediate stages of the structural evolution. A limit of the backbone sp{sup 2} network structure has been found which should be able to accommodate defects, before amorphization sets in. The amorphization of graphene oxide is achieved rather quickly in comparison to that of graphite. From thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic studies, it is found that the number of oxygen-containing groups decreases at a faster rate than that of aromatic double bonds with increasing ball milling time with a maximum limit of 3 h. Several characterization techniques (FTIR, Raman, UV–Visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have confirmed that the material synthesized is, indeed, reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. • Fine tuning the band gap by introducing defects and removing oxygen functional groups. • Introduction of excess defects leads to amorphization. • Photoluminescence has been observed in the UV-blue region.

  13. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must..., manufacturing, processing, packaging, and holding such animal feeds conform to current good manufacturing... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  14. On the infrared behaviour of Yang-Mills Greens functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making certain assumptions (valid to any finite order of perturbation theory), it is shown that non-perturbatively pure Yang-Mills Greens functions are power behaved in the momenta in a limit related to the infrared limit. It is also shown that the fundamental vertices have a more singular behaviour than indicated by perturbation theory. (Auth.)

  15. Kinetics of crystallite size evolution by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdujić Miodrag V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of mechanochemical treatment is crystallite size reduction. The crystallite size of the powder subjected to milling decreases to some minimal value characteristic for the given material. Two processes occur concurrently during milling: reduction of the crystallite size and grain growth, whereby the steady-state crystallite size is attained when the rates of these processes are in equilibrium. This study deals with the kinetics of crystallite size evolution by milling. Published experimental data were analyzed using three kinetic models: dr / dt=-k1r2 + k2r-1; dr / dt=-k1r3 + k2r and dr / dt=-nktn-1(r - rs, where r and rs are the crystallite radius and steady-state crystallite radius respectively, t time, k1 and k2 the rate constants of crystallite reduction and grain growth, respectively, k the rate constant and n the Avrami exponent. The applied kinetic relations describe the crystallite size dependence on milling time in a satisfactory manner.

  16. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  17. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  18. Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing, and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater, and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized. (authors)

  19. Quantum theory of massive Yang-Mills fields, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By generalization of a basic formulation presented in a preceding part of the same series, a massive Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance is formulated within one-parameter invariant gauge families. It is consequently concluded that all cases of different gauges belonging to the same gauge family are equivalent to one another in a rigorous field-theoretical sense. (author)

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author)

  1. Reduced graphene oxide synthesis by high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. The process of ball milling introduces defects and removes oxygen functional groups, thereby creating the possibility of fine tuning the band gap of all intermediate stages of the structural evolution. A limit of the backbone sp2 network structure has been found which should be able to accommodate defects, before amorphization sets in. The amorphization of graphene oxide is achieved rather quickly in comparison to that of graphite. From thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic studies, it is found that the number of oxygen-containing groups decreases at a faster rate than that of aromatic double bonds with increasing ball milling time with a maximum limit of 3 h. Several characterization techniques (FTIR, Raman, UV–Visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have confirmed that the material synthesized is, indeed, reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. • Fine tuning the band gap by introducing defects and removing oxygen functional groups. • Introduction of excess defects leads to amorphization. • Photoluminescence has been observed in the UV-blue region

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1998-01-01

    cation redistribution between A and B sites. These nanometer-sized particles show superparamagnetic relaxation effects at room temperature. It is found that the magnetization is not saturated even with an applied field of 9 T, possibly as the result of spin canting in the partially inverted CuFe2O4. The......The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces...... canted spin configuration is also suggested by the observed reduction in magnetization of particles in the blocked state. Upon increasing the milling time, nanometer-sized CuFe2O4 particles decompose, forming alpha-Fe2O3 and other phases, causing a further decrease of magnetization. After a milling time...

  3. Jälle need Milling ja Normann / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Kanal 2 uus kodumaine komöödiaseriaal "Õpetajate tuba" : käsikiri Peep Pedmanson : lavastus Ivo Eensalu : näitlejad Ita Ever, Eino Baskin, Madis Milling, Henrik Normann, Maria Klenskaja, Margus Tabor jt. : tootjafirma "Ruut"

  4. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O3/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the open-quote t close-quote test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Radiation protection in uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle is exploration for uranium and the next is mining and milling of uranium ore. This phase is mostly characterised by low levels of radioactivity and radiation exposure of the workers involved. Yet it is a paradoxical truth that incidence of cancer among the work force, especially miners, due to occupational radiation exposure (from radon and decay products) has been proved only in uranium mines in the entire Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Of course such incidence occurred before the detrimental effect of radiation exposure was realised and understood. Therefore it is important to familiarise oneself with the radiation hazards prevalent in the uranium mining and milling facilities so as to take appropriate remedial measures for the protection of not only the workers but also the public at large. There are both open cast and underground uranium mines around the world. Radiation hazards are considerably less significant in open cast mines than in underground mines unless the ore grade is very high. By default therefore the discussion which ensues relates mainly to radiation hazards in underground uranium mines and associated milling operations. The discussion gives a brief outline of typical uranium mine and mining and milling operations. This is followed by a description of the radiation hazards therein and protection measures that are to be taken to minimise radiation exposure. (author)

  6. Spontaneously Broken Yang-Mills-Einstein Supergravities as Double Copies

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Color/kinematics duality and the double-copy construction have proved to be systematic tools for gaining new insight into gravitational theories. Extending our earlier work, in this paper we introduce new double-copy constructions for large classes of spontaneously-broken Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with adjoint Higgs fields. One gauge-theory copy entering the construction is a spontaneously-broken (super-)Yang-Mills theory, while the other copy is a bosonic Yang-Mills-scalar theory with trilinear scalar interactions that display an explicitly-broken global symmetry. We show that the kinematic numerators of these gauge theories can be made to obey color/kinematics duality by exhibiting particular additional Lie-algebraic relations. We discuss in detail explicit examples with N=2 supersymmetry, focusing on Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories belonging to the generic Jordan family in four and five dimensions, and identify the map between the supergravity and double-copy fields and parameters. We also bri...

  7. A review of international uranium mill tailings management practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium tailings management practices adopted in various countries or, more specifically, uranium mining areas, tend to reflect several factors: the age of the mining and milling operation, the mining method (e.g. underground vs open pit), the ore grade, the regional geology, hydrogeology and geochemistry, the topography and geomorphology of the area, climatic conditions, and governmental regulations. Of these, only the last, governmental regulations, are by definition nationalistic in scope. However, even these tend to reflect the other factors which are imposed by nature. As a result of these factors, international mill tailings management strategies vary greatly and include both effluent and non-effluent producing systems, above and below grade disposal schemes, lined and unlined 'ponds' above and below water (both surface water and groundwater) emplacement, 'wet' and 'dry' methods of disposal, and pre-treatment of the gangue in the mill. This paper reviews current (and, where applicable, past) uranium mill tailings management practice(s) in Africa, Australia, Europe and North America in the context of the above factors

  8. CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS INDUCED BY PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Balas; Gabriela Capraru; Mihaela Danila; Valentin Popa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the phenolic compounds extracted from spruce bark on cells from the radicular apex of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. We found that different concentrations of polyphenols and the time of treatment modified the frequency of cells division and the number of mitotic ana-telophases with aberrations.

  9. Identification of geobacter populations in the uranium mill tailings Shiprock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geobacter - specific primers were used for construction of a 16S rDNA library for a water sample collected from uranium mill tailings near Shiprock (Sh853) in the USA . Most of the retrieved sequences were affiliated with different Geobacter species, however sequences related to other δ -Proteobacteria were identified as well. (authors)

  10. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.;

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  11. Einstein-Yang-Mills theory : I. Asymptotic symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Barnich, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four dimensional asymptotically flat case.

  12. Combined feedforward and feedback control of end milling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper. An intelligent control system is presented that uses a combination of feedforward and feedback for cutting force control in end milling.Design/methodology/approach: The network is trained by the feedback output that is minimized during training and most control action for disturbance rejection is finally performed by the rapid feedforward action of the network.Findings: The feedback controller corrects for errors caused by external disturbances. The feedforward controller is an artificial neural network (ANN which approximates the inverse dynamics of the machining process.Research limitations/implications: The dynamic architecture of the neural controller is chosen, and the methods for delay time treatment and training network on line are investigated. The controller was designed and tested using a simulator model of the milling process that includes feed drive model and cutting dynamics simulator.Practical implications: An application to cutting force control in end-milling is used to prove the effectiveness of the control scheme and the experiments shows that the dynamic performance of the cutting force control is greatly improved by this neural combined control system.Originality/value: New combined feedforward and feedback control system of end milling system is developed and tested by many experiments. Also a comprehensive user-friendly software package has been developed to monitor the optimal cutting parameters during machining

  13. Georgia-Based Avondale May Close All Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don; Theeuwes

    2006-01-01

    Georgia-based Avondale Mills said it is considering closing all its plants because of increased foreign competition and a train wreck more than a year ago that released a cloud of corrosive chlorine gas just outside the gates of its Graniteville plant, killing nine people.

  14. Evaluation of Recycle Grinding Performance in Flour Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlina Mustapa Kamal, Siti; Webb, Colin

    A typical flour milling process is a very linear operation that is almost entirely void of recycled streams where separate fractions from each operation go ahead as new streams to the next operation. In some cases, there are opportunities for combining some streams, for recycling particles that have been insufficiently broken to go back to the same roller mill. This study introduces this recycle concept in flour milling process at second break system. The recycle grinding assessment was made using a Satake STR-100 test roller mill. The recycle process was started after the second break system and the number of recycle grinding was up to 7 regrinds. The particle size distribution and ash analysis were produced to describe the behaviour of the recycle grinding performance. The material release was sifted on a range of sieves and the ash content was analysed using a laboratory furnace. The performance for each recycle stage was investigated. It was determined that it is possible for some coarse particles that contain only bran to keep being recycled in the recycle circuit. A purging operation was recommended to be included in the recycle system, to separate the unwanted particles.

  15. Quantum Chromodynamics -- The Perfect Yang-Mills Gauge Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David

    David Gross: My talk today is about the most beautiful of all Yang-Mills Theories (non-Abelian gauge theories), the theory of the strong nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD. We are celebrating 60 years of the publication of a remarkable paper which introduced the concept of non-Abelian local gauge symmetries, now called the Yang-Mills theory, to physics. In the introduction to this paper it is noted that the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is not consistent with the concept of localized fields. This sentence has drawn attention over the years because the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is consistent, it is just not satisfactory. The authors, Yang and Mills, introduced a more satisfactory notion of local symmetry which did not require one to rotate (in isotopic spin space) the whole universe at once to achieve the symmetry transformation. Global symmetries are thus are similar to `action at a distance', whereas Yang-Mills theory is manifestly local...

  16. Mortality patterns among a retrospective cohort of uranium mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term health effects associated with the milling of uranium ore are of interest particularly because of exposures to uranium and thorium-230. Excess risks of pulmonary and lymphatic malignancies have been suggested by previous epdiemiologic studies of persons milling or smelting uranium ores, and nephrotoxic effects of uranium have been reported in both man and animals. To test these three previously reported associations and to assess all cause-specific mortality patterns among uranium mill workers, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 2002 uranium millers employed in any of seven mills at least one year before 1972. Ninety-eight percent (98%) followup of the cohort through 1977 resulted in 533 deaths observed versus 605 expected from US White male mortality rates. Mortality from most causes was lower than expected. Significant excess risks were found only for nonmalignant respiratory disease and miscellaneous accidents but not for any of the three diseases of a priori interest. However, nonsignificant excesses were found for lymphatic malignancies after 20 years latency and for death due to chronic nephritis among short-term workers

  17. Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Cicero; Olivero, Paolo; Canning, John; Groothoff, Nathaniel; Gibson, Brant; Huntington, Shane

    2007-06-01

    A focused ion beam is used to mill side holes in air-silica structured fibers. By way of example, side holes are introduced in two types of air-structured fiber, (1) a photonic crystal four-ring fiber and (2) a six-hole single-ring step-index structured fiber. PMID:17546193

  18. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  19. Structure and Microstructure Properties of Ball Milled Fe-Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensalem R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Fe10%Zn and Fe30%Zn alloys have been prepared from pure elemental powders by mechanical alloying processing in a high energy planetary ball-mill. Microstructural, structural, and magnetic characterizations of the powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnometer. The crystallite size reduction to the nanometer scale is accompanied by an increase in the atomic level strain. The reaction between Fe and Zn leads to the formation of a bcc Fe(Zn solid solution with a lattice parameter close to (0.2912 nm for Fe30%Zn and 0,2885 nm for Fe10%Zn after 5 h of milling. The complete dissolution of the elemental Zn powders in the α-Fe lattice gives rise to the formation of a highly disordered Fe(Zn solid solution, where α-Fe(Zn nanograins have a crystallite size of (229,29 Å for Fe10%Zn (24h 30,09 Å for Fe30%Zn (24h, on prolonged milling time. The coercivity and magnetization values are 18,90 (Fe10%ZnOe and 26,59(Fe30%Zn emu/g, respectively, after 24 h of milling.

  20. Mill in Yin ing mine: developments and new technology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduces the developments and new technology application of mill in Yining Mine, concretely evaluates the characters and effects employed three kinds of technological process, and considers that there are many advantages and features in the process No.3. It's technology is integrity, practical and worth recommending

  1. Radiation monitoring in the mining and milling of radioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Guide is a revision of IAEA Safety Series No. 43. It explains the recommendations on administrative requirements for the organization of radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores, and the monitoring requirements, including methods, techniques, instrumentation and strategy. 146 refs, 9 figs, 14 tabs

  2. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

  3. Roller milling fractionation of green gram (Vigna radiata): optimization of milling conditions and chemical characterization of millstreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Gaikwad, Shwetha B; D, Indrani; G, Vekateswara Rao

    2014-12-01

    In the view of recent growing interest in utilization of grain fractions as food ingredient, present investigation was carried out to evaluate the roller milling potential of green gram. The effect of conditioning moistures on green gram roller milling were studied. The results showed decrease in flour yield from 85.56 to 58.74 % with increase in conditioning moisture from 10 to 16 %. Higher yield of flour was observed from the first (C1), second (C2) and third (C3) reduction passages; whereas, the first (B1), second (B2) and third (B3) break passages produced less flour. The distribution of protein, dietary fiber, ash and fat in different flour streams and by-products from roller milled fractions of green gram showed wide variation. The protein content increased with increasing numbers of breaks and reductions in the flour streams. The highest protein content of 30.16 % was found in bran duster flour and lowest (11.32 %) in fine seed coat. The protein content of break streams was found lower than reduction streams. The dietary fiber content of coarse seed coat was highest (71.17 %) followed by the fine seed coat (57.22 %). The microstructure studies of milled fractions of green gram showed more deformed and damaged starch granules in reduction flour streams than break flour streams. PMID:25477653

  4. Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Taghreed H; Aboelnaga, Asmaa; Hagar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid and o-phenylenediamine efficiently reacted under the green solvent-free Ball Milling method. Several reaction parameters were investigated such as rotation frequency; milling balls weight and milling time. The optimum reaction condition was milling with 56.6 g weight of balls at 20 Hz frequency for one hour milling time. The study was extended for synthesis of a series of benzimidazol-2-one or benzimidazol-2-thione using different aldehydes; carboxylic acids; urea; thiourea or ammonium thiocyanate with o-phenylenediamine. Moreover; the alkylation of benzimidazolone or benzimidazolthione using ethyl chloroacetate was also studied. PMID:27563861

  5. Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed H. EL-Sayed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid and o-phenylenediamine efficiently reacted under the green solvent-free Ball Milling method. Several reaction parameters were investigated such as rotation frequency; milling balls weight and milling time. The optimum reaction condition was milling with 56.6 g weight of balls at 20 Hz frequency for one hour milling time. The study was extended for synthesis of a series of benzimidazol-2-one or benzimidazol-2-thione using different aldehydes; carboxylic acids; urea; thiourea or ammonium thiocyanate with o-phenylenediamine. Moreover; the alkylation of benzimidazolone or benzimidazolthione using ethyl chloroacetate was also studied.

  6. Alkaloids and other constituents from Xylopia langsdorffiana (Annonaceae); Alcaloides e outros constituintes de Xylopia langsdorffiana (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Sobral da; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Queiroga, Karine Formiga; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: marcelosobral@ltf.ufpb.br; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Colegiado de Medicina; Silva, Samia Andricia Souza da [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Escola de Enfermagem e Farmacia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Xylopia langsdorffiana led to the isolation of corytenchine, xylopinine, discretamine, xylopine, ent-atisan-16{alpha}-hydroxy-18-oic acid, 13{sup 2} (S) hydroxy-17{sup 3}-ethoxyphaephorbide and quercetin-3-{alpha}-rhamnoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activities of discretamine were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl- 2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. (author)

  7. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of Fe-20 wt.% Cr ball milled alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Brajesh; Ananda Rao, M.; Verma, H. C.; Bhargava, S.

    Interesting differences were noticed in the alloying process during ball milling of Fe-10 wt.% Cr and Fe-20 wt.% Cr alloys by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. In both cases, there is almost no diffusion of Fein Cr or vice versa up to 20 h of milling time. As the powders are milled for another 20 h substantive changes occur in the Mössbauer spectra showing atomic level mixing. But the two. compositions behave differently with respect to alloying. Fe-20 wt.% Cr sample does not differ much in the hyperfine field distribution as it is milled from 40 to 100 h. On the other hand, the hyperfine field distribution keeps on changing with milling time for Fe-10 wt.% Cr sample even up to 100 h of milling. The average crystallite size is found to be 7.5 nm for Fe-10 wt.% Cr and 6.5 nm in Fe-20 wt.% Cr after milling.

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of Fe-20 wt.% Cr ball milled alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interesting differences were noticed in the alloying process during ball milling of Fe-10 wt.% Cr and Fe-20 wt.% Cr alloys by 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic studies. In both cases, there is almost no diffusion of Fe in Cr or vice versa up to 20 h of milling time. As the powders are milled for another 20 h substantive changes occur in the Moessbauer spectra showing atomic level mixing. But the two compositions behave differently with respect to alloying. Fe-20 wt.% Cr sample does not differ much in the hyperfine field distribution as it is milled from 40 to 100 h. On the other hand, the hyperfine field distribution keeps on changing with milling time for Fe-10 wt.% Cr sample even up to 100 h of milling. The average crystallite size is found to be 7.5 nm for Fe-10 wt.% Cr and 6.5 nm in Fe-20 wt.% Cr after milling.

  9. Characterization of high energy milled UHMWPE and its blends with HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has many excellent properties as high impact resistance, low abrasion and low coefficient of friction. However, it has a high viscosity which makes its processing by conventional methods more difficult. The purpose of the present work was to study the high energy mechanical milling of UHMWPE powder in an Attritor type mill at different times of milling. Subsequently, blends of HDPE with UHMWPE were prepared. The milled UHMWPE powder was characterized by SEM, XRD, DSC, FRX and apparent density. Specimen of blends in different concentrations and its polymeric films were prepared, which were characterized by optical microscopy with polarized light. Thus it was possible to observe that the milling time influences the morphological, chemical and physical features of UHMWPE and that the blend of HDPE with milled UHMWPE showed better dispersion of the PEUAMM than the blend of HDPE with non-milled UHMWPE. (author)

  10. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  11. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom;

    2006-01-01

    coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...... against a fairly detailed, nonlinear differential equation model of the furnace and the steam circuit using data measured at a Danish power plant.......This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control of the...

  12. Intelligent Control System of Textile Mill's Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fu-zhuan; ZHAO Fang

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the present situation of textile mill's air-conditioning system. Since it is difficult to establish detailed math model to control a textile mill's air-conditioning system because of the influence of various factors such as the differences in seasons, regions, etc., most air-conditioning equipment can not he controlled automatically. This paper suggests utilizing multi-function data acquisition card to collect the data about the temperature and humidity of a workshop, processing the data on a PC, comparing them with the expert database, and then using the 485 serial port expanding module to output the parameters, which are used to control the inverter, so that the purpose of adjusting the temperature and humidity of the workshop is achieved.

  13. Effective gluon potential and Yang-Mills thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Chihiro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Redlich, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    We show that the Polyakov-loop potential can be derived, using a field theoretical methods, directly from the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. A class of the Polyakov-loop effective potentials used so far in literature appears as limiting cases of our potential. We deduce the correspondence of U(L) to the strong-coupling expansion, of which the relevant coefficients of the gluon energy distribution are specified solely by characters of the SU(3) group. At high temperatures the derived gluon potential exhibits the correct asymptotic behavior, whereas at low temperatures, it disfavors gluons as appropriate dynamical degrees of freedom. To quantify the Yang-Mills thermodynamics in a confined phase, we propose a hybrid approach which matches the effective gluon potential to the one of glueballs constrained by the QCD trace anomaly in the context of dilaton fields.

  14. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  15. (Super)Yang-Mills at Finite Heavy-Quark Density

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Mateos, David; Tarrio, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We study the gravitational duals of $d$-dimensional Yang-Mills theories with $d\\leq 6$ in the presence of an ${\\cal O} (N^2)$ density of heavy quarks, with $N$ the number of colors. For concreteness we focus on maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills, but our results apply to a larger class of theories with or without supersymmetry. The gravitational solutions describe renormalization group flows towards infrared scaling geometries characterized by fixed dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents. The special case $d=5$ yields an $AdS_3 \\times \\mathbb{R}^4 \\times S^4$ geometry upon uplifting to M-theory. We discuss the multitude of physical scales that separate different dynamical regimes along the flows, as well as the validity of the supergravity description. We also present exact black brane solutions that encode the low-temperature thermodynamics.

  16. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  17. Yang-Mills fields which are not self-dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a new family of non-self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of 'equivariant geometry': Attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry, for which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists among them; and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by studying the symmetry properties of the linearized-self-duality equations. The same technique yields a new family of non-self-dual solutions on the complex projective plane. (orig.)

  18. Non self-dual Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the thesis is to prove the existence of a new family of non self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of equivalent geometry: attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists for among them, and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by showing that the self-duality equations, linearized at a symmetric self-dual solution, cannot possess the required symmetry

  19. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  20. An occupational medical program for a 'model' uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic purpose of occupational health programs in uranium milling are to insure that no employee receives an exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, highly toxic, pneumoconiosis-producing, or dangerous physical agents that could result in chronic or acute injury and to assure that significant concentrations or levels of the above are not present in either the plant or general environment. This paper defines a model mill as consisting of crushing, sizing, acid leach, separation, solvent extraction, drying and packaging operations and describes the employee health hazards associated with each. It also describes a type program consisting of a balanced combination of exposure monitoring and survey, air samples, personnel dosimetry, bioassay, training, medical surveillance, and emergency planning based on the employee exposure situation. Experience with such a program is also discussed, and some techniques of practically meeting the regulatory requirements and protecting the worker are outlined. (Auth.)