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Sample records for chenopodium

  1. Chenopodium Bonus-henricus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voo, van der E.E.

    1960-01-01

    Op de noordoever van de Lek in de gemeente Tuil en ’t Waal, ter hoogte van de aanlegplaats van de Culemborgse gierpont, waar de oplopende Veerweg hij de uitspanning „Landlust” haar hoogste punt bereikt, werden op 15.7.1960 een twintigtal exemplaren van Chenopodium bonus-henricus aangetroffen. Leze v

  2. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed distribution of these compounds among the different Chenopodium species with the related references is given in tables. In addition, this review discusses the traditional medicinal uses of different Chenopodium species as well as recent developments done in this aspect.

  3. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and; Paraskev T Nedialkov; Stefan D. Nikolov

    2009-01-01

    The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed dis...

  4. Diferenças entre Chenopodium quinoa e a planta daninha Chenopodium album Differences between Chenopodium quinoa and the weed Chenopodium album

    OpenAIRE

    C.R. Spehar; R.L.B. Santos; L.C.B. Nasser

    2003-01-01

    A experimentação pioneira com Chenopodium quinoa Willd tem demonstrado sua adaptabilidade à produção de grãos no cerrado. Seus frutos, do tipo aquênio, são cilíndricos, achatados e germinam rapidamente na presença de umidade, após a maturação fisiológica. Na fase inicial do seu desenvolvimento, a quinoa pode ser confundida com a planta daninha Chenopodium album, conhecida no Brasil como ançarinha-branca. As diferenças básicas entre as duas espécies se tornam mais visíveis após o florescimento...

  5. Ultrastructure of Quinoa Fruit (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    Varriano-Marston, E.; DeFrancisco, Alicia

    1984-01-01

    The structure of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) fruit before and after germination was studied using electron microscopy. Protective coverings include a perianth consisting of loosely adhering cell s which are readily removed by washing, a pericarp and two seed coat layers. Starch granules fill the perispenn cells and are arranged in 18 to 20 oblong aggregates. Limited hydrolysis of the starch occurs after 24 hrs of germination, with amylolytic erosion of large granules occurring at the hilum an...

  6. Treatment of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa Willd) with Colchicina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sample no. 559, coming from the Bank of Germoplasma of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) of the Experimental Station at Patacamaya, located in the province Aroma of the La Paz department Bolivia, was treated with an aqueous solution of 0.4% of Colchicina. The treatment did not give the expected result, due, probably, to the very special behaviour of the Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) during the process of mitosis

  7. Diferenças entre Chenopodium quinoa e a planta daninha Chenopodium album Differences between Chenopodium quinoa and the weed Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação pioneira com Chenopodium quinoa Willd tem demonstrado sua adaptabilidade à produção de grãos no cerrado. Seus frutos, do tipo aquênio, são cilíndricos, achatados e germinam rapidamente na presença de umidade, após a maturação fisiológica. Na fase inicial do seu desenvolvimento, a quinoa pode ser confundida com a planta daninha Chenopodium album, conhecida no Brasil como ançarinha-branca. As diferenças básicas entre as duas espécies se tornam mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificação profusa, com rácemos axilares e terminais em C. album, em contraste com C. quinoa, na qual as panículas são terminais, à semelhança do sorgo; o pericarpo é claro e contrasta com o preto em C. album. A quinoa BRS Piabiru, primeiro cultivar para o Brasil, apresenta plantas com 190 cm, nas quais a panícula ocupa 45 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 145 dias; resistência ao acamamento; peso de grãos de 2,42 g 1.000-1; rendimento de 2,8 t ha-1; e biomassa total de 6,6 t ha-1. As sementes de C. album são muito pequenas (0,52 g 1.000-1, germinam gradativamente e permanecem no solo por muitos anos, infestando os cultivos. As diferenças no número de cromossomos, impedindo a polinização cruzada entre as duas espécies e as morfológicas, detectadas na experimentação, mostram que estas são distinguíveis e asseguram que a quinoa apresenta características de adaptação ao cultivo comercial, contrapondo-se às características de invasora em C. album.Pioneer experimentation with Chenopodium quinoa Willd has shown its adaptability to grain production in the Brazilian savannah. Its fruits (achene type are cylindrical, flat and germinate quickly in the presence of moisture, after reaching physiological maturity. At its early phase of development, quinoa can be confounded with the weed Chenopodium album, known in Brazil as 'ançarinha- branca'. Their basic differences become more visible after flowering: profuse branching

  8. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Chenopodium ambrosioides

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    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was achieved using extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides as a reducer and coating agent at room temperature (25°C. Two molar solutions of AgNO3 (1 mM and 10 mM and five extract volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mL were used to assess quantity, shape, and size of the particles. The UV-Vis spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at 434–436 nm of the NPs synthesized with AgNO3 10 mM and all extract volumes tested, showing a direct relationship between extract volumes and quantity of particles formed. In contrast, the concentration of silver ions was related negatively to particle size. The smallest (4.9 ± 3.4 nm particles were obtained with 1 mL of extract in AgNO3 10 mM and the larger amount of particles were obtained with 2 mL and 5 mL of extract. TEM study indicated that the particles were polycrystalline and randomly oriented with a silver structure face centered cubic (fcc and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated that disappearance of the –OH group band after bioreduction evidences its role in reducing silver ions.

  9. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods of d...... environments. Basic physiological studies of quinoa are needed and can benefit the progress of a more efficient and targeted adaptation approach and development of new cultivars, thus supporting the worldwide expansion of quinoa cultivation........ The inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...... day length responses in contrasting cultivars. Throughout this study, separate controlled environment experiments, involving contrasting cultivars, were employed to evaluate yield performance and compare leaf level physiological responses to changes in day length and the influence of different light...

  10. Biological and chemical study of paico (Chenopodium chilense, Chenopodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R; Lemus, I; Rivera, P; Erazo, S

    1997-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial portion of Chenopodium chilense Schrad., used in Chilean traditional medicine as a remedy for stomach-ache, has been found to exert the major spasmolytic activity in acetylcholine contracted rat ileum. This extract, with a complex flavonoid patterns on thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, is practically non-toxic both for rats and brine shrimp Artemia salina in acute toxicity test. PMID:9254110

  11. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland) are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was rec...

  12. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

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    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  13. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio da Silva; Dávia Guimarães Pompeu; Olavo Flores da Costa; Daniel Bonoto Gonçalves; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Sérgio Marangoni; Paulo Afonso Granjeiro

    2015-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confi...

  14. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena (S)ER(A); Vitězslav STRA(NA)K; Michal (S)ER(Y); Milan TICH(Y); Petr (S)PATENKA

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  15. A New Acylated Flavonol Glycoside from Chenopodium foliosum

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    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated flavonol glycoside, namely gomphrenol-3-O-( 5 '''-O-E-feruloyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the aerial parts of Chenopodium foliosum Asch. The structure of 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and HRESIMS. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of 1 were established using DPPH and ABTS radicals, FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LP in linoleic acid system by the ferric thiocyanate method. Compound 1 showed low activity (DPPH and ABTS or lack of activity (FRAP and LP. In combination with CCl 4, 1 reduced the damage caused by the hepatotoxic agent and preserved cell viability and GSH level, decreased LDH leakage and reduced lipid damage. Effects were concentration dependent, most visible at the highest concentration (100 µg/m L , and similar to those of silymarin .

  16. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. PMID:26433286

  17. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  18. Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three Chenopodium species (family Chenopodiaceae) namely Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was investigated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) G. Goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. All the extracts of the three Chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fungal growth. However, there was marked variation among the various extract treatments. Methanol inflorescence extract of C. album exhibited highest antifungal activity resulting in up to 96% reduction in fungal biomass production. By contrast, methanol leaf extract of the same species exhibited least antifungal activity where 21-44% reduction in fungal biomass was recorded due to various employed extract concentrations. The various methanol extracts of C. murale and C. ambrosioides decreased fungal biomass by 62-90 and 50-84%, respectively. Similarly, various n-hexane extracts of C. album, C. murale and C. ambrosioides reduced fungal biomass by 60-94, 43-90 and 49-86%, respectively.

  19. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

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    Bożena Kolano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  20. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of chenopodium album extract

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    Ashish Baldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chenopodium album (Bathua, a native Indian herb, has been used for treatment of abdominal pain, eye disease, throat troubles and cardiovascular disorders. The present study was carried out to explore antioxidant and hepatoprotective efficacy of C. album extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. album seeds was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using three established models (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method, 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation decolorization assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging method and hepatoprotective activity was also assessed against CCl 4 induced hepatic damage in rats at the doses of 300 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg. Results: C. album extract was found to exhibit excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, when compared with ascorbic acid during in vitro studies. C. album extract at a dose of 450 mg/kg showed inhibition of elevation of the biochemical parameters comparable with silymarin (100 mg/kg and hence shown remarkable protection in hepatic injury induced by free radicals generated due to administration of CCl 4 as toxicant. The observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Conclusion: This study establish scientific evidences to folklore use of C. album in treatment of hepatic disorders and also suggests that free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phytoconstituents may be the possible mechanisms of its hepatoprotective potential.

  1. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

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    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  2. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

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    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  3. Regulation of photosynthesis and energy dissipation in triazine-resistant and susceptible chenopodium album.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwiel, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of the intensive use of herbicides during crop growth, many herbicideresistant biotypes have evolved. One of the first examples is the resistance of Chenopodium album against triazine-type herbicides. About ten years after this discovery, it was observed that triazine-resistant plan

  4. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  5. İnsan ve Hayvan Beslenmesinde Yeni Bir Bitki: Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)/A New Crop for Human and Animal Nutrition: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa TAN; Yöndem, Zübeyde

    2014-01-01

    The Andean grain, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is gaining increasing attention as a future food and forage crop in the world. There is a long history of safe use of the grain in South America. Archaeological studies have shown that quinoa was already known in 3000 B.C. The plant is cold and drought tolerant and it can be cultivated in high altitudes in the mountain areas. Apart from this, its grain is a rich source of a wide range of minerals, vitamins, oil and natural antioxidants. The...

  6. Effect of ozone on the interference of Urtica urens L. and Chenopodium album L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, R.; Markan, K.

    1984-01-01

    Interference between two annual species (Urtica urens L. and Chenopodium album L.) was tested in a replacement experiment. Interactions between the plants were additionally described by their life-cycle and reproductory success. Influence of ozone on the development of pure stands and mixtures was tested by fumigations under field conditions. Chenopodium proved to be non-sensitive to ozone. Due to its ruderal population strategy which is well adapted to disturbance, Urtica could cope very well with ozone induced necroses of its leaves. Fumigation modified the interference between the two species. Leaves of the annual species Impatiens parviflora DC. showed high sensitivity to ozone which could be demonstrated by fumigations with different concentrations.

  7. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    OpenAIRE

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia; Lesli Astuhuaman Serna

    2011-01-01

    Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all ...

  8. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Roberto Lorena de Barros; Spehar Carlos Roberto; Vivaldi Lucio

    2003-01-01

    The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox). Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and ...

  9. Genetic structure of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from the Bolivian altiplano as revealed by RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo, C.; Winkel, T.; Mahy, Grégory; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal originated from the Andes important for small farmers’ food security as well as for commercial production. Recently, it has been claimed that in Bolivia genetic erosion could result from the marginalization of the crop in the north and from its commercial standardization in the south. The aim of this study was to quantify the hierarchical structure of the genetic variation present in eight quinoa field populations, consisting of cultivat...

  10. A New Crop for Salt Affected and Dry Agricultural Areas of Turkey: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Attila; KAYA, Çiğdem İNCE

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are two widespread environmental problems induced by climate change and improper applications in agriculture and have important adverse effects on agricultural production. To sustain crop production in such areas for food security, cultivating new crops that can growth under these unfavorable conditions is one of the measures. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an annual grain plant originated from the Andean region of South America. This plant has potential to be an a...

  11. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equ...

  12. Characterization of Chenopodium germplasm, selection of putative mutants and their cytogenetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty two lines of Chenopodium quinoa Willd., including mutants obtained through radio-induced mutagenesis, mutagenesis, and two accessions of the landrace 'chia roja' of Chenopodium berlandieri ssp nuttaliae were characterized in terms of morphology, productivity and saponin content. These studies were aimed at selecting superior genotypes to be offered as alternative crops to peasants inhabiting regions with marginal agricultural conditions in Mexico State. Multivariate analysis allowed distinguishing groups of Chenopodium germplasm according to traits related to plant architecture, stem diameter and yield. Three putative mutant lines exhibited high yield and low saponin content in the M7 generation and the landrace 'chia roja' was characterized as a natural low saponin chenopod. Preliminary results on molecular markers (RAPDs) permitted to distinguish low- from high-saponin content germplasm. Cytological studies showed that C. quinoa variety Barandales chromosome complement is 2n=4X=36, X=9, with a chromosome length of 1.26-2.05 μm, the total chromatin length being of 57.24 ± 0.21 μm, and with an asymmetry index of TF%=44.86. Flow cytometry techniques determined a 2C DNA content of 2.96 μ 0.01668 pg, and a genome size (1C) of 1413 Mbp. (author)

  13. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

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    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  14. Control de Sitophilus zeamais con polvos vegetales de tres especies del género Chenopodium Control of Sitophilus zeamais with vegetable powders of three species of Chenopodium genus

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    Gonzalo Ivan Silva-Aguayo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron polvos vegetales de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium album L. y Chenopodium quinoa Willd. para el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los parámetros evaluados fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos, pérdida de peso y germinación de los granos, efecto ovicida y larvicida, fumigación, repelencia y residualidad de los polvos. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial y tres repeticiones. La mayor mortalidad de insectos se obtuvo con los polvos de la inflorescencia y la mezcla de hojas y tallos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., al 2% (p/p con valores de 69,4% y 67,9% respectivamente. La menor emergencia de adultos se obtuvo con los mismos tratamientos. La pérdida de peso de granos, en todos los tratamientos de C. ambrosioides, no superó el 3%. Para el tratamiento inflorescencia de C. ambrosioides al 2% (p/p, la residualidad de los polvos se mantuvo hasta los 15 días, con una mortalidad de 98,3%. Esta misma especie presentó una mortalidad de huevos y larvas de 100%, además de presentar un efecto fumigante con una mortalidad de adultos de 100%, en todos los tratamientos evaluados. El polvo de C. ambrosioides es repelente para S. zeamais.Powders of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium album L. and Chenopodium quinoa Willd. were evaluated under laboratory conditions for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky control. Evaluated parameters were insect mortality and adult emergence, grain weight loss, grain germination and the following effects of powders: ovicide and larvicide, fumigant, repellent and residual. A completely randomized experimental design with factorial arrangement and three replicates was used. The highest levels of insect mortality were obtained with the powders of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. inflorescence and the mixture of leaves and stems at 2% (w/w, with values of 69.4% and 67.9% respectively. Best emergence reductions were

  15. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  16. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Aleksandra; Bogdanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity (TAA) represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l) on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change i...

  17. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid;

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...... dSm-1) from flowering stage for 18 days (FI0, FI10, FI20, FI30 and FI40) and then irrigation continued with tap water. Measured yield, soil water content (SWC) and soil water electrical conductivity (ECw) under the various saline conditions were compared with simulated yield, SWC and ECw...

  18. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Andrea B.; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C.; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V.; de Jong, Erna V.

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cys...

  19. Improvement of Barley and Chenopodium species in the Andean region by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the genetic improvement of barley (H. vulgare), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), and canahua (C. pallidicaule) were conducted in the field and greenhouse at the Centro de Investigaciones Nucleares at Viacha, using different concentrations and treatment durations of sodium azide (NaN3) to induce beneficial mutations. Greenhouse tests were conducted to establish the concentration and treatment duration for sodium azide. The treatments were applied and field evaluations were carried out in different generations to improve the germplasm available in the country, particularly in respect to environmental stresses such as frost, hail, and drought, which severely restrict yields. (author). 3 tabs

  20. Studies on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) for novel food and beverage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Outi

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop native to the Andes, that can be used in a variety of food product in a similar manner to cereals. Unlike most plants, quinoa contains protein with a balanced amino acid profile. This makes it an interesting raw material for e.g. dairy product substitutes, a growing market in Europe and U.S. Quinoa can however have unpleasant off-flavours when processed into formulated products. One means of improving the palatability is seed germination. Also, the i...

  1. Cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant paico (chenopodium multifidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; Nigro López, M; López, P; Gratti, A; van Baren, C; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2000-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium multifidum L. (Paico) were determined by addition of the extracts and fractions to human lymphocyte cultures. Toxicity was evaluated by analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic (MI) and replication (RI) indexes. The results showed an increase in CA frequency in cultures exposed to infusion decoction, no modification in the CPK values either in the decoction or in the infusion, and a decrease in the MI of lymphocyte cultures exposed to the decoction. These results suggested genotoxic effects of "Paico" aqueous extracts. PMID:21214432

  2. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  3. Low resistance against novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazine herbicides in atrazine-resistant Chenopodium album plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohno, H.; Ohki, A.; Koizumi, K.; Noort, van den M.E.; Rodrigues, G.C.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of nine novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazines on photosynthetic reactions were measured in thylakoids isolated from wild-type and atrazine-resistant plants of Chenopodium album. The resistant plants have a mutation of serine for glycine at position 264 of the D1 protein. The measurement of

  4. Estudos de caracterização do perfil nutricional da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): macronutrientes, minerais e elementos vestigiais

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Carla; Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar o teor de macronutrientes e de componentes inorgânicos da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), utilizando metodologias validadas que assentam em pressupostos de controlo da qualidade rigorosos, permitindo a sua inclusão na tabela de composição de alimentos portugueses e nas restantes bases de dados que aderiram à plataforma EuroFIR.

  5. Effect of Quinoa Seeds ( Chenopodium quinoa ) in Diet on some Biochemical Parameters and Essential Elements in Blood of High Fructose-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high—fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, p 

  6. RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 Artículo original Biologist (Lima. Vol. 6, Nº1, ene-jun 2008, 13-21 RESPUESTAS DE LA QUINUA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. A DOS CONDICIONES DE RIEGO EN COSTA RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST Rafael La Rosa1, Yesenia Macabilca2, Augusto Mendoza3 & Ana Gutiérrez 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Vegetal; 2 Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular3; Centro de Investigaciones Agroecológicas Oquendo. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática. Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Calle San Marcos 351, Pueblo Libre, Lima – Perú. Teléfono 2193600 anexo 8373. Correo electrónico: rafolarosa@yahoo.es ABSTRACT Responses of Chenopodium quinoa Willd “quinoa” under two coast conditions of irrigation and its effects in production and quality of proteins were evaluated. In the current research we used seeds of variety “huancayo”, from Experimental Station “Santa Ana” of INIA (Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias– Huancayo. Irrigation was for drip, obtaining two treatments, i irrigation with 3 m3 of water, weekly, and ii without irrigation, while evaluations were done. Soil humidity, transpiration, relative water content (RWC, anatomy of mesophyll of leaves, quantification of proteins and starch, acid phosphatase activity and amilolytic activity were evaluated. Soil humidity is significant different after a month of irrigation. Transpiration was related with wind strength; hence this is not a good way to measure drought stress. RWC was similar in both treatments, it means that decrease in soil water not affect water level in leaves. Mesophylls were very similar in both conditions. Dry matter in vegetative period show no significant differences, but there were a tendency to accumulate more assimilates in irrigated plants. Therefore there were no difference in photosynthetic activity, so seeds received same quantity of assimilates; this fact means seeds

  7. Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa, Provides a New Host for Native Herbivores in Northern Europe: Case Studies of the Moth, Scrobipalpa atriplicella, and the Tortoise Beetle, Cassida nebulosa

    OpenAIRE

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Jacobsen, Sven Erik; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2008-01-01

    The Andean grain, quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae), is gaining increasing attention as a future food and fodder crop in Denmark and other parts of Europe. Prior to 2005, pest problems in the crop were negligible in Denmark, however native insects may become adapted to this new host. Herbivores feeding on the closely related and very common weed in arable crops Chenopodium album L. present a special risk. In 2006 there was a heavy attack of Scrobipalpa atriplic...

  8. Which factors support the occurrence of Chenopodium album in maize fields in Northern Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Redwitz, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The area cultivated with maize in Germany is continuously increasing throughout the last years. Nevertheless weeds in maize get small notice, probably since they are still easy to control. If maize cropping frequency and intensity continue to increase, problems with adapted weeds are likely to occur. To face these effects, it is worthwhile to know more about the appearance of typical maize weeds. In 2011 and 2012 a weed survey took place in four regions of Northern Germany. Weed species were identified and counted on 169 fields cropped with maize. Data about management of these fields was collected. One of the most wide spread weeds was Chenopodium album, which can also cause high yield losses. With a generalized linear mixed model five parameters were identified which influence the emergence of C. album: precipitation, cropping maize in the previous year, fertilizing with manure, soil organic matter and plant available phosphorous.

  9. Potential for rhizofiltration of uranium using hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor were developed by genetic transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The stable, transformed root systems demonstrated a high growth rate of 1.5-3. g/g dry weight/day in Murashige and Skoog medium. In the present study, hairy root system was used for removal of uranium from the solution of concentration up to 5000 μM. The results indicated that the hairy roots could remove uranium from the aqueous solution within a short period of incubation. B. juncea could take up 20-23% of uranium from the solution containing up to 5000 μM, when calculated on g/g dry weight basis. C. amaranticolor showed a slow and steady trend in taking up uranium, with 13 uptake from the solution of 5000 μM concentration. Root growth was not affected up to 500 μM of uranium nitrate over a period of 10 days

  10. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. PMID:25053071

  11. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roberto Lorena de Barros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.

  12. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; López, P; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2002-06-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) is an anthelmintic herb used in Latin-America's folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plant which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 microg/ml), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic indexes (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed (a) a statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both preparations of Paico, (b) a decrease in MI of both preparations assayed, although no modification in the CPK values either in the infusion or in the decoction was observed. These results suggest a possible genotoxic effect of both preparations, probably due to different active principles. PMID:12020922

  13. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu;

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted...... or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment...

  14. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3906906

  15. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Lucio Vivaldi

    2003-01-01

    The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox). Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and ...

  16. Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids in Chenopodium album L.%藜中黄酮类的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松艳; 张沐新; 吴月红; 杨晓虹

    2011-01-01

    采用正、反相硅胶和葡聚糖凝胶柱色谱技术对藜(Chenopodium album L.)的黄酮类化学成分进行分离和纯化,得到4个黄酮类化合物,分别为槲皮素3-O-芸香糖苷(1)、芹菜素6,8-二-C-β-D-葡萄糖苷(2)、槲皮素3-O-[α-L-鼠李糖(1→4)-α-L-鼠李糖(1→6)-β-D-葡萄糖](3)、异鼠李素3-O-[α-L-鼠李糖(1→4)-α-L-鼠李糖(1→6)-β-D-葡萄糖](4).其中化合物2、3、4为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Active constituents in Chenopodium album L.were studied by means of various chromatographic techniques, and four known flavonoids were isolated from Chenopodium album L.Their structures were elucidated as quercetin 3-O-rutinoside ( 1 ), apigenin 6,8-di-C-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), quercetin 3-O- [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1→4 ) -α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1 →6 ) -β-D-glucopyranoside]( 3 ) , and isorhamne tin 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl( 1 →4 ) -α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1 →6 ) -β-D-glucopyranoside]( 4 ).Compound 2,3 and 4 were isolated from Chenopodium for the first time.

  17. Srovnání nutriční hodnoty quinoy (Chenopodium quinoa) s vybranými plodinami

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an ancient crop native to South America. It has traditionally been cultivated in the Andean Plateau more than 5000 ago. Due to growing demand of quinoa products has the production of quinoa as well as the export progressively increased since the end of 20th century. The country with highest quiona export is Bolivia, where the expansion of area under quinoa brings various problems. It appears that the most serious one is the progressive soil degradation. Quinoa ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Key message High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. Abstract The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium q...

  19. Could deficit irrigation be a sustainable practice for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano?

    OpenAIRE

    GEERTS, S; Raes, D; Garcia, M.; Condori, O.; Mamani, J.; Miranda, R.; Cusicanqui, J.; C. Taboada; Yucra, E.; Vacher, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The application of deficit irrigation (DI) to stabilize yield and to increase water productivity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) raises questions in the and Southern Altiplano of Bolivia where water resources are limited and often saline. Rainfed quinoa and quinoa with irrigation restricted to the flowering and early grain filling were studied during the growing seasons of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 in a location with (Irpani) and without (Mejillones) water contribution from a shallow wate...

  20. Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Patrício, Fernando J; Costa, Graciomar C; Sousa, Sanara M; Frazão, Josias B; Aragão-Filho, Walmir C; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Amaral, Flávia M M; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2007-04-20

    The leaves and the oil from the seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), a plant known in Brazil as 'mastruz', have been used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. Experimentally it was shown that Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibits the Ehrlich tumor growth, what could be due to an immunomodulatory effect of this product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on macrophage activity and on lymphoid organs cellularity. C3H/HePas mice received the HCE (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal via and were sacrificed 2 days later. HCE treatment did not alter the cell number in bone marrow, but it increased the cell number in peritoneal cavity, spleen and lymph node. The spreading and phagocytosis activity, the PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release and the nitric oxide (NO) production were also increased when compared to control group. Similar results were obtained with concanavalin A (Con A), used as a positive control, with exception of the NO production that was only detected in HCE-derived macrophages. The in vitro treatment with HCE induced a dose-dependent NO production by resident macrophages, but did not enhance the NO production by HCE-derived macrophage, which however, was enhanced by Con A, suggesting that HCE and Con A induce NO production by different routes. In conclusion, HCE-treatment was able to increase the macrophages activity and also the cellular recruitment to secondary lymphoid organs, what could explain the previously related anti-tumor activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides.

  1. Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for an allotetraploid origin of Chenopodium quinoa and C. berlandieri (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; McCann, Jamie; Orzechowska, Maja; Siwinska, Dorota; Temsch, Eva; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage. The hypotheses on the origin of the two allopolyploid species were further tested using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Several diploid Chenopodium species belonging to the two lineages, genome A and B, suggested by phylogenetic analyses, were tested as putative parental taxa. GISH differentiated two sets of parental chromosomes in both tetraploids and further corroborated their allotetraploid origin. Putative diploid parental taxa have been suggested by GISH for C. quinoa and C. berlandieri. Genome sizes of the analyzed allotetraploids fit nearly perfectly the expected additive values of the putative parental taxa. Directional and uniparental loss of rDNA loci of the maternal A-subgenome was revealed for both C. berlandieri and C. quinoa. PMID:27063253

  2. Differentially expressed genes of Chenopodium amaranticolor in response to cymbidium mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Min; Baek, Eseul; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun Hee

    2016-09-01

    Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)-induced expressed sequence tag (EST) clones from Chenopodium amaranticolor were identified. CymMV was mechanically inoculated onto C. amaranticolor, and local lesion symptoms were observed. Inoculated leaves were collected on serial days post inoculation (dpi) to identify activated or suppressed genes. mRNA isolation and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) were then performed to identify differentially expressed genes related to the local lesion response. Fifty-three ESTs, including genes related to defense and stress responses (e.g., lipoxygenase, jasmonate-induced protein, and heat shock protein), were generated. In addition, a large proportion of the ESTs were found to be involved in photosynthesis, as determined by their functional categories. Expression levels of several EST genes were observed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the evaluated genes showed varying levels of expression during the experimental period. In this study, differentially expressed sequences via SSH were identified from CymMV-infected C. amaranticolor, and profiling and annotation were carried out to determine the expression pattern of CymMV and its interaction with C. amaranticolor. PMID:27364083

  3. Piecing together the biogeographic history of Chenopodium vulvaria L. using botanical literature and collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the value of legacy literature and historic collections as a source of data on environmental history. Chenopodium vulvaria L. has declined in northern Europe and is of conservation concern in several countries, whereas in other countries outside Europe it has naturalised and is considered an alien weed. In its European range it is considered native in the south, but the northern boundary of its native range is unknown. It is hypothesised that much of its former distribution in northern Europe was the result of repeated introductions from southern Europe and that its decline in northern Europe is the result of habitat change and a reduction in the number of propagules imported to the north. A historical analysis of its ecology and distribution was conducted by mining legacy literature and historical botanical collections. Text analysis of habitat descriptions written on specimens and published in botanical literature covering a period of more than 200 years indicate that the habitat and introduction pathways of C. vulvaria have changed with time. Using the non-European naturalised range in a climate niche model, it is possible to project the range in Europe. By comparing this predicted model with a similar model created from all observations, it is clear that there is a large discrepancy between the realized and predicted distributions. This is discussed together with the social, technological and economic changes that have occurred in northern Europe, with respect to their influence on C. vulvaria.

  4. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd. as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

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    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.

  5. Study of the Performance of the Organic Extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides for Ag Nanoparticle Synthesis

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    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to obtain metal nanoparticles: biological, physical, and chemical ways and combinations of these approaches. Synthesis assisted with plant extracts has been widely documented. However, one issue that is under discussion refers to the metabolites responsible for reduction and stabilization that confine nanoparticle growth and prevent coalescence between nanoparticles in order to avoid agglomeration/precipitation. In this study, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using organic extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides with different polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. Each extract was phytochemically characterized to identify the nature of the metabolites responsible for nanoparticle formation. With methanol extract, the compounds responsible for reducing and stabilizing silver nanoparticle were associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins, while, with dichloromethane and hexane extracts, the responsible compounds were mainly terpenoids. Large part of the reducing activity of secondary metabolites in C. ambrosioides is closely related to compounds with antioxidant capacity, such as phenolic compounds (flavone glycoside and isorhamnetin, which are the main constituents of the methanol extracts. Otherwise, terpenoids (trans-diol, α-terpineol, monoterpene hydroperoxides, and apiole are the central metabolites present in dichloromethane and hexane extracts.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

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    Nolasco, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of saponins. A current question is to discriminate among the varieties using molecular sensitive technologies like the RAPDs, microsatellites, RFLP; our aim was to evaluate the polymorphism of six varieties of quinua using AFLP's technology (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Varieties of quinua: Quillahuaman INIA (Q, Mantaro (M, Hualhuas (H, Real Boliviana (B, Salcedo INIA(S and Illpa INIA(I, were evaluated in combinations of five pairs of primers using adapters for EcoRI and MseI to determine their polymorphisms. Our results found three combinations of major polymorphism E33/M60, E32/M48 and E32/M61, that we were able to discriminate against the variety Mantaro (M as a variety removed from the others of the southern Peruvian altiplano – Bolivian, according to UPGMAanalysis. This combination of primers also discriminate the varieties Illpa INIA and Salcedo INIA as being varieties obtained by crossings for genetic improvement.

  7. Metamitron-resistant Chenopodium album from sugar beet: cross-resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechant, E; Bulcke, R

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in several of the Belgian sugar beet growing regions, farmers have been confronted with unsatisfactory control of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.). Greenhouse bioassays conducted on reference C. album populations and on "suspected" populations from sugar beet fields where poor fat hen control had been observed, revealed that all "suspected" populations were resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in the modern low rate weed control programs in sugar beet. These metamitron-resistant biotypes were all cross-resistant to atrazine. Since cross-resistance, particularly negative cross-resistance or reversed resistance, is known to play a major role in resistance management, other herbicides used in sugar beet and/or in rotational crops were tested to determine the cross-resistance profile of metamitron-resistant biotypes. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using herbicides from different chemical families representing different modes of action. Cross-resistance was found for metribuzin, lenacil and chloridazon, all HRAC Group C1 herbicides that inhibit photosynthesis at PS II. The metamitron-resistant C. album populations examined showed negative cross-resistance to S-metolachlor (HRAC Group K3: inhibition of cell division), prosuifocarb (Group N: lipid synthesis, not AC-Case, inhibition), aclonifen and clomazone (both Group F3: inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis).

  8. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

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    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  9. Preliminary study of the digestive effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae leaves extracts in goats

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    Daga Dadjo Florian,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the crude aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves on food intake and digestibility were evaluated with twelve Sahelian goats weighing about 25 kg. Three experimental groups, each consisting of three animals, were treated respectively with the dose of 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/kg of body weight. Treatment was daily and lasted three days. One control group, receiving the same diet as the experimental groups, was involved. The experiment revealed that the herbal extract induced a highly significant variation (p <0.01 in voluntary feed intake expressed in grams of dry matter (DM from 366.67 g ± 86 (control group to 631.67 g ± 106.37 (4ml/kg/BW treated group. Concerning digestibility, the results indicated an increase in the absorption of ash and fibre (39.65 % ± 2.65 to 51.38 % ± 4.91. But the digestibility of protein was only slightly influenced by the herbal extract. Animals treated with 4ml/kg/BW dosage had soft and pasty faeces. The aqueous extract of C. ambrosioides leaves would own interesting digestive effects in small ruminants in the fattening stage or those suffering from indigestion due to rumen stuffing. Further specialized studies may clarify those effects.

  10. Effects of manganese on the microstructures of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., A manganese tolerant plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Chuan; Lei, Jie; Hartley, William; Pan, Weisong

    2016-07-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. can tolerate high concentrations of manganese and has potential for its use in the revegetation of manganese mine tailings. Following a hydroponic investigation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) was used to study microstructure changes and the possible accumulation of Mn in leaf cells of C. ambrosioides in different Mn treatments (200, 1000, 10000 μmol·L(-1)). At 200 μmol·L(-1), the ultrastructure of C. ambrosioides was clearly visible without any obvious damage. At 1000 μmol·L(-1), the root, stem and leaf cells remained intact, and the organelles were clearly visible without any obvious damage. However, when the Mn concentration exceeded 1000 μmol·L(-1) the number of mitochondria in root cells decreased and the chloroplasts in stem cells showed a decrease in grana lamellae and osmiophilic granules. Compared to controls, treatment with 1000 μmol·L(-1) or 10000 μmol·L(-1) Mn over 30 days, gave rise to black agglomerations in the cells. At 10000 μmol·L(-1), Mn was observed to form acicular structures in leaf cells and intercellular spaces, which may be a form of tolerance and accumulation of Mn in C. ambrosioides. This study has furthered the understanding of Mn tolerance mechanisms in plants, and is potential for the revegetation of Mn-polluted soils. PMID:26696389

  11. Characterization and evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides

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    Ruth T. Degenhardt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Amaranthaceae, was obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger apparatus and characterization was performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic assays (GC-FID, GC/MS, 1H NMR. Two major compounds were identified: p-cymene (42.32% and ascaridole (49.77%. The ethanolic extract and hydrolate were fractionated by liquid–liquid partitioning and the compounds were characterized by GC/MS. The essential oil, ethanol extract and fractions by partitioning with dicloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol were tested in tumor cell lines (K562, NALM6, B15, and RAJI. Significant cytotoxic activity was found for essential oil (IC50 = 1.0 µg/ml for RAJI cells and fraction dicloromethane (IC50 = 34.0 µg/ml and ethanol extract (IC50 = 47.0 µg/ml for K562 cells. The activity of the essential oil of C. ambrosioides is probably related to the large amount of ascaridol, since the other major compound, p-cymene, is recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory and has low cytotoxic activity.

  12. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

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    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  13. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. PMID:27457995

  14. Characterization and Quantitation of Triterpenoid Saponins in Raw and Sprouted Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (Huauzontle) Grains Subjected to Germination with or without Selenium Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Mata-Ramírez, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocereal Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (huauzontle) was evaluated to determine saponin composition. Saponins were evaluated in raw and germinated grains subjected to chemical stress induced by sodium selenite. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with ELSD detector revealed the presence of 12 saponins, identified according to compounds previously assayed in Chenopodium quinoa. Saponins found at the highest concentrations in raw grains were derived from oleanolic and phytolaccagenic acids. Total saponin concentration significantly decreased in germinated compared to raw grains due to the significant loss of 90.1% and 95.7% of the phytolaccagenic acid without and with chemical selenium stress, respectively. The most abundant saponin in germinated sprouts decreased during normal germination. Interestingly, the concentration of this particular saponin significantly increased during the Se-induced stress germination. Chemical stress with selenium salts proved to change the saponin composition in geminated Chenopodium berlandieri spp. grains, therefore affecting their potential use as ingredient in the food industry. PMID:26646715

  15. The introns in FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes are useful markers for tracking paternity in tetraploid Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    OpenAIRE

    Štorchová, H. (Helena); Drabešová, J. (Jana); Cháb, D. (David); Kolář, J.; Jellen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important crop of the Andean region of South America. It is an allotetraploid closely related to Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. with largely unknown genomic structure. We used the third introns of two FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE genes, CrFTL1 and CrFTL2 as markers in an attempt to identify ancestral origins of the two diploid subgenomes of quinoa. The introns underwent rapid evolution with frequent indel losses and gains, including a recent insertion of mitochondria...

  16. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25240200

  17. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides), en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Rodríguez; Elias Carvajal; Catalina Álavarez

    2011-01-01

    El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) ha sido empleado en i...

  18. Germination behaviour of seeds from herbicide treated plants of Chenopodium album L.

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    Asif Tanveer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The carry-over effect of sub-lethal herbicides was investigated on the germination of seeds collected from surviving Chenopodium album plants, which had received 1/8, 1/8 twice, 1/8 three times, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 doses of either pre-emergence ioxynil or post-emergence bentazone in a previous onion (Allium cepa crop. Seeds were also collected from surviving C. album plants, which had received 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 of either pre-emergence pendimethalin, propachlor and linuron, or 1/8, 1/8 twice, 1/8 three times, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 of post-emergence ioxynil or linuron in a previous leek (Allium porrum crop. Seeds of surviving plants were collected and tested for germination at temperature of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°C. The effect of different temperatures on the total number of germinated seeds was significant. Germination was minimum at low temperatures (5°C or 10°C. Herbicides did not show any effect on germination of C. album and resulted in the same final germination percentage as seeds collected from the unsprayed control plots.Avaliou-se o efeito residual de doses sub-letais de herbicidas sobre a germinação de sementes de plantas de Chenopodium album sobreviventes em uma cultura prévia de cebola (Allium cepa, que recebeu 2x, 3x, 1/4, 1/2 ou a dose recomendada de ioxynil em pré-emergência ou bentazone em pós-emergência. As sementes foram também coletadas de plantas de C. album sobreviventes de um campo de alho-porró (Allium porrum que havia sido tratado com 1/4, 1/2 ou a dose recomendada de pendimethalin, propachlor e linuron em pré-emergência, ou ainda 2x, 3x, 1/4, 1/2 ou a dose recomendada de ioxynil ou linuron em pós-emergência. As sementes destas plantas sobreviventes foram coletadas e testadas quanto à germinação a temperaturas de 5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C e 25°C. Verificou-se que o efeito das temperaturas na germinação destas sementes foi significativa. A germinação foi mínima a baixas temperaturas (5°C e 10°C. Os herbicidas n

  19. Emission of Trimethylamine from Chenopodium vulvaria - first results from quantifiying plant emissions of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Neftel, Albrecht; Jörg, Sintermann; Derstroff, Bettina; Sauvage, Carina; Bohley, Katharina; Kadereit, Gudrun; Williams, Jonathan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Amines comprise a wide range of nitrogenous organic compounds such as aliphatic methylamines MA. TMA is the most common amine species emitted by various sources and the most abundant amine in the atmosphere (Ge et al., 2011a). Additionally, TMA has been found to be the dominant amine species in the gas-phase compared to MMA and DMA at agriculture sites (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). On the global scale, the knowledge about the fluxes of most amines is limited (Ge et al., 2011a). Furthermore, terrestrial vegetation is also assumed to be a potential source for amines (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). There are a few studies from the end of the 19th century until 1975, which described high amount of MA-emission from certain plant species, which was associated with their plant tissues or with blossoms during flowering (Smith, 1971). Despite the low atmospheric concentration of amines (DMA = 0.5 ppb (Okita, 1970), TMA = 0.6 -1.6 ppb (Fujii and Kitai, 1987)), previous studies have already shown that amines play an important role in the New aerosol Particle Formation (NPF) (Almeida et al., 2013, and summarized in Sintermann and Neftel, 2015). In the atmosphere, NPF occurs frequently from gas-phase precursors. High uncertainty exists in the estimation of the global secondary aerosols budget, which was cause to the uncertain contribution of the gas-phase precursors to the NPF (Spracklen et al., 2011). It becomes more clearly that instead of binary systems of sulfuric acid and water, ternary system of sulfuric acid, water and a neutralizing compound as NH3 or amines is a key system in NPF (Almeida et al., 2013, Kurten et al., 2014). Despite their low atmospheric concentrations amines may play, at least locally, a crucial role in aerosol formation. In this study, we focus on the plant species chenopodium vulvaria, which is well known as a strong TMA-emitter (Dessaignes, 1856). But TMA emission rates from that plant species was not determined systematically up to now. In this study, we

  20. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

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    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  1. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions.

  2. Nutritional value of quinua (chenopodium quinoa) seeds improved by radioinduced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), a pseudo cereal considered as an alternative crop for areas with marginal agricultural conditions has been subjected since 1990 to a radioinduced mutagenesis programme aiming to obtain lines with low saponin content, good yields and high nutritional value. Seeds obtained from lines grown in M7 generation which exhibited yields averaging 1.5 ton/ha, were analyzed regarding grain quality and nutritive value. Evaluated parameters were diameter and thickness of the seed, weight of 100 seeds and density. Regarding to bromatological analysis, determinations were made of moisture, ash, raw fiber, proteins, oil content and carbohydrates, following the procedures indicated in Official Mexican Norms (NOM). Evaluated genotypes were the varieties Sajama, Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani and the mutant lines 20R110, 94, 20R333, 20R227, 20R342, 20R37 and the advanced line obtained by selection 640304. Mutant genotypes 20R333 and 20R342 exhibited outstanding characteristics regarding to grain quality (diameter 2.0 mm, thickness 1.2mm, weight of 100 seeds 0.42 and 0.22 g respectively and density 710 and 686 grams per liter). In the bromatological analysis the protein content ranged from 11.82 % (genotype 20 R227) to 16.8% in mutant 20R333 while mutant 20R342 exhibited 15.6%. The lipid content was minimum on Barandales and 20R333 both with 3.8%, having the genotype 20R110 the highest value among evaluated genotypes with 4.35%, line 20R342 exhibited 4.2%.. The high percentages of proteins and lipids, found among some analyzed mutants exhibit the feasibility to obtain, through radioinduced mutagenesis, lines with low saponins and high nutritive value

  3. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26139905

  4. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Flávia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.

  5. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Reduces Synovial Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P Calado

    Full Text Available The chronicity of osteoarthritis (OA, characterized by pain and inflammation in the joints, is linked to a glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA. The use of plant species such as Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae as NMDA antagonists offers a promising perspective. This work aims to analyze the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory responses of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (HCE of C. ambrosioides leaves in an experimental OA model. Wistar rats were separated into six groups (n = 24: clean (C, negative control (CTL-, positive control (CTL+, HCE0.5, HCE5 and HCE50. The first group received no intervention. The other groups received an intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA (8 mg/kg on day 0. After six hours, they were orally treated with saline, Maxicam plus (meloxicam + chondroitin sulfate and HCE at doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. After three, seven and ten days, clinical evaluations were performed (knee diameter, mechanical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and motor activity. On the tenth day, after euthanasia, synovial fluid and draining lymph node were collected for cellular quantification, and cartilage was collected for histopathological analysis. Finally, molecular docking was performed to evaluate the compatibility of ascaridole, a monoterpene found in HCE, with the NMDA receptor. After the third day, HCE reduced knee edema. HCE5 showed less cellular infiltrate in the cartilage and synovium and lower intensities of allodynia from the third day and of hyperalgesia from the seventh day up to the last treatment day. The HCE5 and HCE50 groups improved in forced walking. In relation to molecular docking, ascaridole showed NMDA receptor binding affinity. C. ambrosioides HCE was effective in the treatment of OA because it reduced synovial inflammation and behavioral changes due to pain. This effect may be related to the antagonistic effect of ascaridole on the NMDA receptor.

  6. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Reduces Synovial Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Gustavo P; Lopes, Alberto Jorge O; Costa Junior, Livio M; Lima, Francisco das Chagas A; Silva, Lucilene A; Pereira, Wanderson S; Amaral, Flávia M M do; Garcia, João Batista S; Cartágenes, Maria do Socorro de S; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2015-01-01

    The chronicity of osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by pain and inflammation in the joints, is linked to a glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The use of plant species such as Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae) as NMDA antagonists offers a promising perspective. This work aims to analyze the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory responses of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (HCE) of C. ambrosioides leaves in an experimental OA model. Wistar rats were separated into six groups (n = 24): clean (C), negative control (CTL-), positive control (CTL+), HCE0.5, HCE5 and HCE50. The first group received no intervention. The other groups received an intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA) (8 mg/kg) on day 0. After six hours, they were orally treated with saline, Maxicam plus (meloxicam + chondroitin sulfate) and HCE at doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. After three, seven and ten days, clinical evaluations were performed (knee diameter, mechanical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and motor activity). On the tenth day, after euthanasia, synovial fluid and draining lymph node were collected for cellular quantification, and cartilage was collected for histopathological analysis. Finally, molecular docking was performed to evaluate the compatibility of ascaridole, a monoterpene found in HCE, with the NMDA receptor. After the third day, HCE reduced knee edema. HCE5 showed less cellular infiltrate in the cartilage and synovium and lower intensities of allodynia from the third day and of hyperalgesia from the seventh day up to the last treatment day. The HCE5 and HCE50 groups improved in forced walking. In relation to molecular docking, ascaridole showed NMDA receptor binding affinity. C. ambrosioides HCE was effective in the treatment of OA because it reduced synovial inflammation and behavioral changes due to pain. This effect may be related to the antagonistic effect of ascaridole on the NMDA receptor.

  7. Multivariate analyses of salt stress and metabolite sensing in auto- and heterotroph Chenopodium cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchai, C; Chaidee, A; Pfeiffer, W

    2012-01-01

    Global warming increases plant salt stress via evaporation after irrigation, but how plant cells sense salt stress remains unknown. Here, we searched for correlation-based targets of salt stress sensing in Chenopodium rubrum cell suspension cultures. We proposed a linkage between the sensing of salt stress and the sensing of distinct metabolites. Consequently, we analysed various extracellular pH signals in autotroph and heterotroph cell suspensions. Our search included signals after 52 treatments: salt and osmotic stress, ion channel inhibitors (amiloride, quinidine), salt-sensing modulators (proline), amino acids, carboxylic acids and regulators (salicylic acid, 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid). Multivariate analyses revealed hirarchical clusters of signals and five principal components of extracellular proton flux. The principal component correlated with salt stress was an antagonism of γ-aminobutyric and salicylic acid, confirming involvement of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in salt stress sensing. Proline, short non-substituted mono-carboxylic acids (C2-C6), lactic acid and amiloride characterised the four uncorrelated principal components of proton flux. The proline-associated principal component included an antagonism of 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid and a set of amino acids (hydrophobic, polar, acidic, basic). The five principal components captured 100% of variance of extracellular proton flux. Thus, a bias-free, functional high-throughput screening was established to extract new clusters of response elements and potential signalling pathways, and to serve as a core for quantitative meta-analysis in plant biology. The eigenvectors reorient research, associating proline with development instead of salt stress, and the proof of existence of multiple components of proton flux can help to resolve controversy about the acid growth theory. PMID:21974771

  8. Beheersing resistente melganzevoet : beheersing van melganzevoet (Chenopodium album) die minder gevoelig is voor de herbiciden met de werkzame stoffen metamitron en metribuzin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, H.; Wijnholds, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    In opdracht van het Productschap Akkerbouw heeft het PPO-AGV in 2010 en 2011 onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden tot bestrijding van resistente melganzevoet (Chenopodium album) in aardappelen en suikerbieten. In aardappelen leidt de toevoeging van een linuron bevattend middel aan Sencor niet tot een

  9. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey;

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia and Ti...

  10. Photosynthetic electron transport inhibition by 2-substituted 4-alkyl-6-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazines with thylakoids from wild- type and atrazine-resistant Chenopodium album

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okano, R.; Ohki, A.; Ohki, S.; Kohno, H.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Böger, P.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazines on photosynthetic electron transport (PET) was measured with thylakoids isolated from atrazine-resistant, wild-type Chenopodium album, and spinach to find novel 1,3,5-triazine herbicides bearing a strong PET inhibition. The PET inhibition assay with Chenop

  11. Effect of Different Row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Yield Characteristics of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Bornova Ecological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan; KAVUT, Yaşar Tuncer; ALTINBAŞ, Metin

    2015-01-01

    his study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings (17.5 cm, 35 cm, 52.5 cm, 70 cm) on the grain yield and some other yield characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under T

  12. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E

  13. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Chenopodium album

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, Takayuki [Department of Bimolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Ohshima, Shigeru [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Uchida, Akira, E-mail: auchida@biomol.sci.toho-u.ac.jp [Department of Bimolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein with photoconvertibility from C. album was extracted, purified and crystallized in a darkroom. The crystal diffracted to around 2.0 Å resolution. A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) with photoconvertibility from Chenopodium album was extracted, purified and crystallized in a darkroom. Green crystals suitable for data collection appeared in about 10 d. A native data set was collected to 2.0 Å resolution at 100 K. The space group of the crystal was determined to be orthorhombic I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.13, b = 60.59, c = 107.21 Å. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicated that there is one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  15. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. PMID:25466086

  16. Optimization of ISSR-PCR system for chenopodium album L%藜ISSR-PCR反应体系的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒庆; 朱立南; 杜洋; 贾俊玲; 谭琨

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the factors which affect the ISSR-PCR reaction were detected by TaKaRa PCR reaction system of Chenopodium album L. The purified template DNA was extracted from fresh young leaves, the effect of content of Mg2+,templates DNA and Taq DNA polymerase were tested. According to the results of amplifications in gradient it was determined that the optimization ISSR-PCR reaction system in rolumes of 25 mL contained 2.5 μL to XPCR buffer, 0.2 mrnol/L mixture of dNTPs,0.2 mmol/L primer, 1. % mmol/L Mg2+ ,40 ng of DNA and 1.5 unit Taq DNA Polymerase.%采用TaKaRa的PCR反应系统,以从藜(Chenopodium album L)幼叶中提取纯化后的总DNA为模板,进行UBC 859号引物的ISSR-PCR扩增实验,分别测试了镁离子、模板DNA和Taq DNA聚合酶含量对反应结果的影响,通过各因子的浓度梯度组合实验,确定了在25 mL体积的PCR反应中:酶配套缓冲液2.5μL,dNTPs0.2μmmol/L,引物0.2mmol/L,Mg2+1.5mmol/L,模板含量为40 ng,Taq DNA聚合酶为1.5U是藜最佳的ISSR-PCR反应体系.

  17. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS OF QUINOA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) UNDER MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is a pseudo-cereal crop that has been cultivated in the Andean region in South America. The quinoa as a field crop has a great potential in the improvement of food for humans and animals even under the conditions of marginal lands. For getting high crop yields, nutrients in balanced amount are a basic requirement. Experiments were carried out at the Bornova experimental fields of Field Crops Dept. of Agriculture Fac., Ege Univ., Turkey during 2013 ...

  18. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre; Igor Pottosin; Lana Shabala; Zhong-Hua Chen; Fanrong Zeng; Sven-Erik Jacobsen; Sergey Shabala

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). Th...

  19. THE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND W.H.O. METHODS FOR PROTEIN DETERMINATION OF CHENOPODIUM ALBUM ALLERGENIC EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliere Mousavi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study different protein measurement methods are evaluated on the allergenic extract of Chenopodium album pollen, which was previously prepared in our laboratory and applied in skin prick testing in comparison with a commer¬cial extract. The protein content of similar amounts of these two extracts which had caused similar skin reactions were measured with different protein assays such as protein nitrogen unit, Lowry procedure, ultra-violet absorption, and base catalyzed hydrolysis and ninhydrin (B.H.N.. The latter is recommended by World Health Organization (W.H.O. in order to determine total protein of standard al¬lergenic extracts. Our study indicated some differences between protein amounts measured by the various procedures. According to W.H.O. reports regarding the advantages of B.H.N, assay, due to good correlation with biological activity of allergenic extracts, we also found that this method can indicate the potency of extracts much more precisely.

  20. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.

  1. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.

  2. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. PMID:25863614

  3. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. PMID:26775956

  4. Development and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.%藜麦及其资源开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正春; 张广伦

    2014-01-01

    藜麦Chenopodium quinoa Willd.英文名:quinoa,原产于南美洲安第斯山区,是印加土著居民的主要传统食物,至今已有5000~7000多年的利用和种植历史.古代印加人将它称之为“粮食之母”.藜麦在20世纪80年代,被美国宇航局用于宇航员的太空食品.联合国粮农组织认为藜麦是唯一的单一植物即可满足人体基本营养需求的食物,正式推荐藜麦为最适宜人类的完美的全营养食品.本文对藜麦的植物形态、生态特性、营养价值以及在我国种植展望作了综合报道.

  5. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    OpenAIRE

    Juan  F Costa; Walter Cosio; Maritza Cardenas; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae), in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the capacity of E. me...

  6. 藜麦基因组DNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of Genomic DNA Extraction Methods for Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏佳; 莫秀芳; 王勤; 陆国权; 蒋玉蓉

    2015-01-01

    To rapidly obtain high-quality genomic DNA from Chenopodium quinoa Wil d, the genomic DAN in different tissues (leaves, stems and roots) of Chenopodi-um quinoa Wil d was extracted by modified CTAB method, SDS method and high-salt low-pH method, respectively. The quality and yield of extracted DNA was deter-mined using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry. At the same time, the PCR-SSR and SSCP molecular detection was also performed. The results showed that the gel test strips, without obvious decomposition, of al the extraction methods were relatively obvious; the genomic DNA yield extracted by modified CTAB method was highest, fol owed by that by SDS method, and the genomic DNA extracted by high-salt low-pH method was lowest; the genomic DNA yields extracted by different methods from Chenopodium quinoa Wil d leaves were al high-er than those from roots and stems; the quality of Chenopodium quinoa Wil d ge-nomic DNA extracted by modified CTAB method and high-salt low-pH method was better, and polyphenols, polysaccharides and other impurities were removed more completely. The PCR-SSR and SSCP detection results showed that the genomic DNA extracted by different methods from different tissues of Chenopodium quinoa Wil d al could be better amplified, and high-quality strips could be obtained. So the Chenopodium quinoa Wil d genomic DNA extracted by the three methods al can be used for subsequent molecular biology research.%为了快速获取高质量的藜麦基因组DNA,采用改良的 CTAB法、SDS法和高盐低pH值法等3种方法分别提取藜麦不同组织(叶、茎、根部)的基因组 DNA。通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳和紫外分光光度法测定比较所提 DNA的质量和产量,同时进行了 PCR-SSR、SSCP等分子检测。用不同方法提取藜麦不同组织部位DNA的结果表明:不同提取方法的凝胶检测条带均比较清晰,且无明显降解;改良的CTAB法所提取的 DNA产率最高, SDS

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  8. Efecto de la temperatura y salinidad sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de dos variedades de Chenopodium quinoa Temperature and salinity effects on germination and seedling growth on two varieties of Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chilo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la temperatura y salinidad sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de dos variedades de Chenopodium quinoa. Se diseñó un experimento factorial con tres factores: 1 variedad, con dos niveles (Cica y Real; 2 temperatura, con tres niveles (5 ºC, 10 ºC y 20 ºC; y 3 salinidad, con cinco niveles (0,0; 0,1; 0,2; 0,3 y 0,4M de cloruro de sodio. Los ensayos se realizaron según normas ISTA, las variables de respuesta fueron: poder germinativo como porcentaje de plántulas normales, velocidad de germinación y crecimiento de plántulas. Se determinaron porcentajes de plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas; además, peso seco y contenido de sodio y potasio. En las variedades Cica y Real el descenso de temperatura y aumento de salinidad produjeron una disminución del poder germinativo, de la velocidad de germinación y del crecimiento de las plántulas; además, afectaron el peso seco y los porcentajes de plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Las variedades acumularon solutos en las vacuolas de las células epidérmicas del tallo y hojas. La variedad Cica presentó mejor respuesta a la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas en comparación con la variedad Real.The effect of temperature and salinity on germination and seedling growth was studied in two varieties of Chenopodium quinoa. A factorial experiment with three factors was designed: 1 variety (two levels: Cica and Real; 2 temperature, (three levels: 5 ºC, 10 ºC and 20 ºC and 3 salinity (five levels: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4M of sodium chloride. The tests were carried out according to ISTA rules. The response variables were: germination rate as a percentage of normal seedlings; germination speed and seedling growth. Percentage of normal seedlings, abnormal and dead seeds, together with dry weight and sodium and potassium content were determined. In Cica and Real varieties, decreasing temperature and increasing salinity caused a

  9. Characteristics and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa%“粮食之母”、“超级食物”——藜麦“落户”青海

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 熊国富; 闫殿海; 毛玉金

    2014-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)为藜科(Chenopodiaceae)藜属(Chenopodium)的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,以其极高的营养价值和多种开发利用价值近年来引起人们的普遍关注.2014年,在青海西宁、乌兰、德令哈和格尔木市进行了适应性种植,长势良好,丰收在望.

  10. Semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow): composición química y procesamiento. Aspectos relacionados con otras áreas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira; Rafael Antonio Oropeza González; Adriana Isabel Montes Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) es un cultivo con alto potencial para contribuir con la seguridad alimentaria en todas las regiones del mundo. El cultivo posee notable capacidad de adaptación a diferentes regiones agroecológicas y gradiente altitudinal. Aunque los principales países productores son Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, la producción de quinoa se está expandiendo a otros continentes y actualmente se cultiva en varios países. En Venezuela no se cultiva. La semilla de quinua es reconocida...

  11. Hipótesis sobre la ontogenia del sistema vascular en las raíces de los géneros Chenopodium L. y Atriplex L.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Beato, María Teresa; Cuadrado Rodríguez, María Isabel

    1985-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo hemos realizado un estudio de las caracerísticas histológicas de las raices primarias y secundarias de especies de los géneros Chenopodium L. y A triplex L. Se describe el desarrollo ontogenético del sistema vascular y la forma de acción de los meristemos laterales que configuran definitivamente la raíz de cada una de las especies estudiadas, proponiendo los respectivos modelos de crecimiento. [EN] The present work describes the histological characteristics of t...

  12. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD): DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    OpenAIRE

    L. I. A. CASTRO; C. M. V. REAL; I. S. C. PIRES; C. V. PIRES; N. A.V.D. PINTO; Miranda, L. S.; B. C. ROSA; P. A. DIAS

    2008-01-01

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou ...

  13. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole. PMID:6497393

  14. A study on controlling Setaria viridis and Corchorus olitorius associated with Phaseolus vulgaris growth using natural extracts of Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rokiek Kowthar Gad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water extracts of Chenopodium album leaves and roots on the growth of grass weed (Setaria viridis and broad leaf weed (Corchorus olitorius grown with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris in greenhouse pots were studied in the National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt. In this experiment fresh leaf and root extracts and their corresponding dry leaf and root extracts at different concentrations were used. There were significant inhibitions in the dry weights of S. viridis and C. olitorius by all extracts at the flowering stage of beans and at harvest. The inhibition effect of all C. album extracts on both weeds (dry weight/pot depended on the extracted plant organ (leaf or root, its fresh or dry form as well as its concentrations. The inhibition caused by the leaf extract was much higher on weed growth than that of root extract. A higher concentration of fresh leaf extract (25% had the highest significant inhibition effect. The results also indicated that C. olitorius was more sensitive to the extracts than S. viridis. On the other hand, the inhibition effect of the extracts on the growth of both weeds was accompanied by increased bean growth and yield/plant. The analysis of both leaf and root extracts of C. album revealed that the total content of polyphenols and flavonoids in the leaf extract was more than triple that of the root extract. The results suggested that the fresh leaf extract of C. album may be a possible tool for the development of weed control using natural herbicides.

  15. Development Prospect and Research Progress of Chenopodium quinoa%藜麦研究进展及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娴; 黄杰; 魏玉明; 金茜; 杨发荣

    2015-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa),苋科藜属植物,原产于南美洲安第斯山脉高原地区,具有大约5000~7000年的种植历史,是当地印加人备受推崇的主要粮食作物之一,近些年因为其全面的营养价值和均衡的氨基酸比例以及药用保健价值收到追捧,引起了许多科研工作者的兴趣.为了给科研工作者提供一些研究方向的参考,通过对国内外对藜麦的研究文献进行汇总,归纳了在藜麦的引种栽培、营养成分分析、产品开发利用、遗传谱系研究、抗逆性研究、抗病虫害研究等方面的最新研究进展,提出了一些在研究中尚未解决的问题,如藜麦在低海拔地区产量和品质降低、藜麦的多种药用保健作用、藜麦副产物的利用等,将成为未来研究的重点方向,并分析了藜麦作为一种杂粮作物在中国西北地区的引种栽培以及发展潜力.

  16. Research on Alloletroploid Segregation Phenomena of Single-gene Morphological Characters in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%高原藜米(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)单基因性状的异源四倍体分离现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡布扎西; 吉万泉; 昌西; 白玛曲宗

    2014-01-01

    高原藜米(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)是一个异源四倍体作物,但有些研究报道该作物在单个基因位点上的分离行为有二倍体分离特征.本研究在多年观察试验的基础上,2011-2012年两年在西藏不同海拔(南木林县:海拔4 000m;林芝:海拔2 800 m)条件下对雄性不育植株进行杂交所得的F1和F2代中分离产生了3种不同的单基因控制的性状特征进行了较大群体的观测试验.等位基因分离分析结果显示,在F1和F2的分离范围内出现了二体双基因和四体的遗传性状,在F2代减数分裂中出现的一定比例的畸变现象也显示了其不定的多价体形态,这些结果都表明了藜米的异源四倍体特征.这一特征产生的根本原因是某些基因位点重复和至少在有些同源染色体之间发生了联会现象.本研究发现,藜米某些基因位点发生的四倍体分离现象可能导致了藜米育种和遗传研究中的复杂性,对于指导该作物育种或生产都有一定的实际意义.四倍体分离,特别是其飘忽不定的现象,可能会使将来藜米基因图谱研究分析变的更加复杂,这一点在今后的研究中应给予足够的重视.

  17. 藜麦的主要营养成分、矿物元素及植物化学物质含量测定%Determination of main nutritional component,mineral element and phytochemical in Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林; 孙永敢

    2015-01-01

    Three South America Chenopodium quinoa Willd (black,red and ivory Chenopodium quinoa Willd)and a domestic Chenopodium quinoa Willd were used as experimental materials,and the main nutri-tional components,eight kinds of mineral elements(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)and phytochemicals (polyphenols,flavonoids,saponins)content of them were measured.The results showed that the nutritional composition of these four kinds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd was slightly different.Compared with common grains(wheat,rice,corn and millet),Chenopodium quinoa Willd contains lower starch,richer protein and fat,and was a good source of dietary fiber,polyphenols and flavonoids.%以黑色、红色、乳白色3种进口南美藜麦和国产乳黄色藜麦为实验材料,对其所含主要营养素、8种矿物元素(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)和植物化学物质(多酚、黄酮、皂苷)的含量进行测定。结果显示,4种藜麦的营养组成稍有差异;与常见谷物(小麦、稻米、玉米、小米)相比,藜麦中淀粉含量较低,蛋白质、脂肪含量丰富,可以作为膳食纤维、多酚、黄酮物质的良好来源。

  18. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  19. 藜的化学成分研究%Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Seeds of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 戴岳; 叶文才; 赵守训

    2002-01-01

    目的:对藜Chenopodium album L.的抗过敏活性成分进行研究.方法:利用色谱的方法分离成分,利用光谱和化学方法鉴定其化学结构.结果:从藜的种子中分离得到3个化合物,经光谱和化学分析,鉴定为28-氧-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-齐墩果酸-3-氧-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸甙(1)、20-羟基蜕皮酮(2)和芦丁(3).结论:化合物1,2和3均为首次从该植物分离得到.

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for controlling Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alebrahim, M. T.; Majd, R.; Rashed Mohassel, M. H.;

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post......-emergence (POST) at seven rates. The experiments showed that trifluralin applied PRE, rimsulfuron applied PRE or POST and oxadiargyl applied POST provided the best control of A. retroflexus. Rimsulfuron and oxadiargyl applied POST and pendimethalin applied PRE were the best control options for C. album. Except...... for trifluralin and pendimethalin the susceptibility of the two weed species to the herbicides was similar. Trifluralin was more effective against A. retroflexus than C. album while the opposite was true for pendimethalin. Applied POST oxadiargyl was more effective than applied PRE. In contrast no differences...

  1. Effect of aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants on germination of windgrass [Apera spica-venti (L. P. Beauv.] and lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Synowiec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium, and Urtica dioica containing allelopathic compounds on seed germination in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album and herbicide-resistant windgrass (Apera spica-venti. A Petri-dish experiment was carried out, in which the effects of five concentrations of aqueous extracts on the germination of weeds were assessed for 10 consecutive days. It was found that the dynamics of seed germination are closely related to the type and concentration of aqueous extract of medicinal plants. The 8% U. dioica aqueous extract posed the strongest inhibitory effect, limiting the germination of both lambsquarters and windgrass. Additionally, weed germination was delayed by 12–72 h in the presence of extracts, compared with the control. Summing up, the aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, especially their higher concentrations, pose a desirable inhibiting effect against the germination of lambsquarters and herbicide-resistant windgrass seeds.

  2. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  3. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. PMID:26744800

  4. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.;

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...... to investigate the effect of salinity and soil–drying on radiation use efficiency, yield and water productivity of quinoa. Quinoa was exposed to five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1) of irrigation water from flower initiation onwards. During the seed-filling phase the five salinity levels were...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m)1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m)1....

  5. Význam a uplatnění merlíku čilského (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) ve výživě člověka

    OpenAIRE

    BIGASOVÁ, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a nutritionally high-quality crop with versatile utilisation. The aim of this thesis was to summarize the knowledge about the composition of the seeds of quinoa, their processing, utilization for human nutrition, utilization in diets; the influence of consumption of quinoa on human?s health, products on the market and the situation of growing and availability in the world and in the Czech Republic. Quinoa does not contain gluten, so it is a suitable foodstuff fo...

  6. Purificação e propriedades do vírus do mosaico do quenopódio Purification and properties of chenopodium mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy M. Silva

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available O vírus do mosaico do quenopódio foi purificado por meio de centrifugações alternadas de baixa e alta velocidade, complementadas pelo tratamento com clorofórmio e álcool amílico. Foram obtidas preparações altamente ativas, que apresentaram as reações características das proteínas e um espectro de absorção da luz ultravioleta igual ao das nucleoproteínas, e que não apresentavam o fenômeno de anisotropia de fluxo. O sedimento dessas preparações purificadas, obtido na ultracentrífuga, retomado em um pequeno volume de solução de sulfato de amônio 0,2 saturada e guardado a 4°C, produz um grande número de microcristais. As partículas que compõem as preparações examinadas ao microscópio são de aspecto e dimensões bastante uniformes; são "esféricas" e de cerca de 30 milimicros de diâmetro. O material purificado se assemelha ao vírus do mosaico "southern bean", quanto ao aspecto dos cristais, mas os testes de hospedeiros e sorológicos indicaram tratar-se de dois vírus perfeitamente distintos.The Chenopodium mosaic virus was purified by means of alternated low and high speed centrifugations combined with chloroform N-amyl alcohol treatment. Such preparations have a high activity, give positive tests for protein and its ultra-violet absorption spectrum is that of a nucleoprotein solution. They do not show the phenomenon of anisotropy of flow. When examined in the electron microscope they showed to be constituted of "spherical" particles of uniform size having an approximate diameter of 30 mμ.. If a pellet of the purified virus is resuspended in a small volume of 0,2 saturated (NH42 SO4 solution and kept at 4°C for several hours, masses of roughly rhombic crystals are formed. As far as the size of particles and the form of crystals are concerned, the Chenopodium mosaic virus resembles the southern bean mosaic virus. They differ, however, in their host range and are not related serologically.

  7. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc K. Kouam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap and a control (soap without essential oil with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite.

  8. 藜水分与光合特性研究%Research on Water Character and Photosynthesis Character of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠文森

    2011-01-01

    以野生藜(Chenopodium album L.)为研究对象,在2010年6月至7月早8:00~晚20:00(晴天)测定其含水量、水势、净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、大气温度(Ta)等指标.结果表明:藜同化枝含水量日变化出现两个低峰,且自由水含量相对较低,自由水/束缚水比值呈现出早晚高、午间低的现象;藜茎的水势日变化出现两个低峰,叶水势比茎小,呈单峰型,同化枝的水势为单峰型;藜蒸腾速率的日变化曲线呈M型,蒸腾速率在日变化中有"午休"现象;藜净光合速率的日变化曲线呈M型,净光合速率的日变化中有明显的"午休"现象.

  9. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouam, Marc K.; Payne, Vincent K.; Miégoué, Emile; Tendonkeng, Fernand; Lemoufouet, Jules; Kana, Jean R.; Boukila, Benoit; Pamo, E. Tedonkeng; MNM, Bertine

    2015-01-01

    A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap) and a control (soap without essential oil) with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g) and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g) killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite. PMID:26770829

  10. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits. PMID:26345002

  11. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. PMID:27173553

  12. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M2, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M2 lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author)

  13. Variation in Heat-shock Proteins and Photosynthetic Thermotolerance among Natural Populations of Chenopodium album L. from Contrasting Thermal Environments: Implications for Plant Responses to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Barua; Scott A. Heckathorn; James S. Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Production of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is a key adaptation to acute heat stress and will be Important in determining plant responses to climate change. Further, intraspecifc variation in Hsps, which will influence species-level response to global warming, has rarely been examined in naturally occurring plants. To understand intraspeciflc variation in plant Hsps and its relevance to global warming, we examined Hsp content and thermotolerance in five naturally occurring populations of Chenopodium album L. from contrasting thermal environments grown at low and high temperatures. As expected,Hsp accumulation varied between populations, but this was related more to habitat variability than to mean temperature.Unexpectedly, Hsp accumulation decreased with increasing variability of habitat temperatures. Hsp accumulation also decreased with increased experimental growth temperatures. Physiological thermotolerance was partitioned into basal and induced components. As with Hsps, induced thermotolerance decreased with increasing temperature variability. Thus,populations native to the more stressful habitats, or grown at higher temperatures, had lower Hsp levels and induced thermotolerance, suggesting a greater reliance on basal mechanisms for thermotolerance. These results suggest that future global climate change will differentially impact ecotypes within species, possibly by selecting for increased basal versus inducible thermotolerance.

  14. [Effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in infective larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Maria Angela O; Domingues, Luciana F; Almeida, Gisele N; Simas, Mônica Mattos Dos S; Botura, Mariana B; Da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira G; Da Silva, Ana Valéria Araújo F; Menezes, Taise P; Batatinha, Maria José M

    2007-01-01

    Phitotherapy has been frequently utilized in parasitism control for numerous animal species. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of M. piperita extracts (196; 150.7; 115.9; 89.1; 68.5 e 52.7 mg/mL) and C. ambrosioides extracts (110,6; 85; 65,3; 50,2; 38,6 e 29,6 mg/mL) were used for the treatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Distilled water and doramectin were used in larvae cultures as negative and positive controls, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 95% of the infective larvae when M. piperita extracts were used in the concentrations of 115.9 and 196 mg/mL, and C. ambrosioides extract in the concentration of 110.6 mg/mL, supporting the effect of these extracts in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

  15. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  16. Semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow: composición química y procesamiento. Aspectos relacionados con otras áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es un cultivo con alto potencial para contribuir con la seguridad alimentaria en todas las regiones del mundo. El cultivo posee notable capacidad de adaptación a diferentes regiones agroecológicas y gradiente altitudinal. Aunque los principales países productores son Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, la producción de quinoa se está expandiendo a otros continentes y actualmente se cultiva en varios países. En Venezuela no se cultiva. La semilla de quinua es reconocida como nutritiva gracias a la cantidad y calidad de su contenido de proteína, especialmente por su alto contenido en lisina, como también en hierro, potasio, vitaminas B2, B5 y E, entre otros constituyentes. Quinoa tiene una variedad de usos en la industria procesadora de alimentos. En este trabajo se compiló información de la literatura que fue revisada, con el propósito de aportar una visión general sobre la composición química y el procesamiento de semillas de quinua. Nuevas investigaciones han reafirmado la cantidad, calidad de sus componentes químicos y nuevos fitoquímicos se han descubierto. Existe considerable desarrollo e innovación tecnológica que ha dado valor agregado a la quinua.

  17. 藜中黄酮类化学成分及抑菌效果的研究%Studies on chemical constituents and antibacterial effect of flavonoids in Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松艳; 张沐新; 吴月红; 杨晓虹

    2011-01-01

    Active constituents in Chenopodium album L. were studied by various chromatographic techniques,two known flavonoids were isolated from Chenopodium album L. for the first time. Their structures were elucidated as isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside ( 1 ), quercetin 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl ( 1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1→ 6) ]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). In Addition to, the antibacterial effect was also studied by the disk diffusion method. The results indicated that 95% ethanol extract of Chenopodium album L. had obvious antibacterial effect on colon bacillus. MIC was 32 mg/L.%应用正、反相硅胶和葡聚糖凝胶柱色谱等技术对藜(Cheno podium album L.)的黄酮类化学成分进行了分离和纯化.从藜中分离得到2种黄酮类化合物,分别为异鼠李素3-O芸香糖苷(1)、槲皮素3-O-β-D-呋喃芹糖(1→2)-O-[α-L-鼠李糖(1→6)]-β-D)-葡萄糖苷(2).采用纸片扩散法进行了抑菌试验.结果表明,黎的95%(体积分数)乙醇提取液对大肠埃希菌有明显的抑菌效果,最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为32 mg/L.

  18. Influence of pH on the /sup 14/C-labelling pattern after photosynthesis of suspended leaf slices and isolated mesophyll cells from chenopodium album in NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, G.; Guenther, G. (Paedagogische Hochschule Karl Liebknecht, Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie/Biologie)

    1983-01-01

    Photosynthetic fixation of /sup 14/C from solutions of NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ (at constant concentrations of free CO/sub 2/) by suspended leaf slices or isolated mesophyll cells from Chenopodium album is increased with increasing pH. Above all, the incorporation of radioactivity into amino acids and malate is stimulated. A direct uptake of HCO/sub 3/ ions and its fixation by PEP carboxylase is suggested. Isolated mesophyll cells showed at pH 7.3 a higher rate of photosynthesis than at pH 5.0.

  19. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  20. 青海藜麦的发展现状与发展中存在的问题%The Current Situation and Problems in Development of Chenopodium quinoa in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 闫殿海; 张玉清; 党斌; 姚有华; 毛玉金; 张宏亮; 迟德钊

    2015-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)是青海新兴的作物,虽引进种植时间不长但种植面积迅速上升,加之其营养丰富,有望成为新的主粮作物.分析了藜麦在青海的发展优势,并对藜麦的大面积生产中存在一些问题进行了分析探讨,展望了藜麦在青海的发展.

  1. Optimization of the Callus Induction System of Chenopodium quinoa Willd%藜麦愈伤组织诱导体系优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞涵译; 蒋玉蓉; 毛泽阳; 陆国权; 陈国林; 毛前

    2015-01-01

    Cal us induction effects of nine varieties of Chenopodium quinoa Wil d. were compared by taking stem segments and cotyledons of C. quinoa as the ex-plants. At the same time, cal us induction of stem segments was optimized, as wel as the cal us proliferation system. Research results showed that the optimal explant for cal us induction was stem segment. The average cal us induction rate of nine varieties reached 90% in culture medium MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D. In the cal us opti-mization test, treatment Ⅵ (MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg/L KT + 0.5 mg/L NAA) and treatment Ⅱ (MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D) had close induction rate, but the cal us morphology was greatly different. The latter had loose, glossy and yel owish white cal uses. Therefore, culture medium MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D was the optimal for cal us induction. And using 2, 4-D together with KT and NAA could significantly increase the proliferation rate of cal uses.%以9个藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)品种为材料,对藜麦茎段、子叶不同外植体的愈伤组织诱导效果进行比较,同时对茎段的愈伤组织诱导以及愈伤组织增殖体系进行优化试验。结果表明:诱导愈伤组织最佳外植体为茎段,9个品种在培养基 MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D中用茎段诱导愈伤组织的平均诱导率达90%;在愈伤组织诱导优化试验中,处理Ⅵ(MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D+0.5 mg/L KT+0.5 mg/L NAA)和处理Ⅱ(MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D)对藜麦愈伤组织的诱导率相近,但是愈伤形态差别较大,后者诱导形成疏松、有光泽、黄白色愈伤组织,因此 MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D培养基为最佳愈伤组织诱导培养基;2,4-D与 KT、NAA搭配使用时,愈伤组织增殖速率明显上升。

  2. Effect of Treatment with Intranasal Corticosteroid and Oral Antihistamine on Cytokine Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Sensitive to Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine. PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively. After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10. Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10. This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.

  3. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  4. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  5. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  6. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  7. A review of characteristics and utilization of Chenopodium quinoa%藜麦特性及开发利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨静; 赵习武; 陆国权; 毛前

    2014-01-01

    藜麦Chenopodium quinoa为藜科Chenopodiaceae藜属Chenopodium的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,已有5 000多年的栽植历史.藜麦品种多样,资源丰富,以其极高的营养价值和多种开发利用价值近年来引起人们的普遍关注.根据国内外相关研究,概述了藜麦喜湿热强光、稍耐冻、短日照,穗状花序、自花授粉、种子繁殖及生长期等生物学特性,耐盐碱、干旱、霜冻、病虫害等生理学特性和总多酚、皂甙、黄酮类、多糖、蛋白质与氨基酸、矿质营养素及其他化学成分等方面的研究进展,并阐述了藜麦在食用、工业、农用、药用、观赏价值等的开发利用现状及其存在的问题.建议加强藜麦品种资源、抗逆性、化学成分等方面的研究,发掘藜麦潜在的利用价值.

  8. Salt Tolerance Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Golden Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%金藜麦耐盐性分析及营养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜奇彦; 牛风娟; 胡正; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    对我国沿海地区新收集种质资源金藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)进行了耐盐性及营养品质评价.结果表明:金藜麦在对盐胁迫相对敏感的芽期和苗期表现出相对较高的耐盐性;子粒蛋白质含量为14.2%,蛋白营养价值优于牛奶以及小麦、水稻、玉米、大豆等作物;子粒中富含维生素B、E等以及钙、锰、铁、铜、锌等矿质元素,特别是钙含量高这190.16 mg/100g,是小米钙含量的35倍;且金藜麦子粒含有丰富的必需脂肪酸,如亚油酸(3.58 g/100g)和亚麻酸(0.44 g/100g),天然抗氧化剂维生素E含量为7.66 mg/100g.这些研究结果表明,新收集的金藜麦种质资源具有较高的营养价值和耐盐性,将为我国藜麦研究和种植提供重要的种质资源.

  9. Contrasting effects of manure and compost on soil pH, heavy metal availability and growth of Chenopodium album L. in a soil contaminated by pyritic mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David J; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2004-10-01

    Chenopodium album L. was found to be one of the initial plant species colonising a heavy metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar mine spill (South-western Spain). This indicates its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil. In a pot experiment, C. album was sown in soil collected from the contaminated site, either non-amended or amended with cow manure or compost produced from olive leaves and olive mill wastewater, in order to study the effect on heavy metal bioavailability and soil pH. In non-amended and compost-amended soils, soil acidification, probably resulting from oxidation and hydrolysis of sulphide, led to increases in the concentrations of soluble sulphate and plant-available Cu, Zn and Mn in the soil (extractable with 0.1 M CaCl(2)). Under these conditions, shoot growth of C. album was negligible and shoot concentrations of Zn (2,420-5,585 microg g(-1)) and Mn (5,513-8,994 microg g(-1)) were phytotoxic. Manure application greatly increased shoot growth and reduced the shoot concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn, and their plant-available concentrations in the soil. These effects appeared to be related to an increase of soil pH, due to an inhibition of sulphide oxidation/hydrolysis, relative to the non-amended soil. For metal sulphides-contaminated soil, liable to acidification, manure application appears to be able to enhance the initial stages of re-vegetation, by species such as C. album. PMID:15312738

  10. Analysis of Genetic Diversity between Island and Mainland Natural Populations of Chenopodium album L.in Dalian Area by ISSR%大连地区岛屿与大陆藜(Chenopodium album L.)种群遗传多样性的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒庆; 田菲菲; 贾俊玲; 谭琨; 杜洋; 房孝迪; 吴锦美

    2011-01-01

    采用ISSR分子标记对分布于大连市周边的4个藜的天然种群100个个体进行了遗传多样性及遗传结构的研究.13个引物共检测了157个位点,多态位点比率为67.52%,Shannon信息指数在物种水平上为0.332 9.根据GST值,藜遗传变异有40.03%发生在种群间.遗传距离分析表明,DT种群与MLN种群遗传一致度最高,遗传距离与地理距离之间没有相关性.%Using ISSR method, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 100 individuals in four natural populations of Chenopodium album L. Distributed in Dalian surrounding were studied in this paper. Through the amplification of ISSR with 13 primers, 157 loci were detected and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 67. 52. Shannon' s information index was 0. 3329 at the species level, genetic variance was 40.03% among populations according to GST value. The genetic distances analysis showed that DT population and MLN population have the highest population genetic identity, genetic distances and geographic distances have no correlation.

  11. Determination and Comparison Analysis of Leaf Crude Protein Content of Galium verum, Kochia prostrate, Chenopodium album%蓬子菜、木地肤、藜3种植物叶片粗蛋白含量的测定与比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 王艳

    2015-01-01

    利用凯氏定氮法对茜草科拉拉藤属植物蓬子菜(Galium verum)、藜科藜属植物藜(Chenopodium album)和藜科地肤属植物木地肤(Kochia prostrata)的叶片粗蛋白含量进行了测定与比较分析。结果表明,蓬子菜、藜、木地肤3种植物叶片粗蛋白含量依次为0.58%、1.06%和0.40%,其中,藜的叶片粗蛋白含量较其他2种植物叶片粗蛋白含量高,木地肤与藜的种间表现为差异显著(P0.05),蓬子菜与藜的种间表现为差异不显著(P>0.05)。%In this study, Kjeldahl method was used to determine the leaf crude protein content of Galium verum, Kochia prostrate and Chenopodium album. The results showed that the leaf crude protein content of Galium verum, Chenopodium album and Kochia prostrate were 0.58%, 1.06% and 0.40%, respectively. The crude protein content of Chenopodium album leaves was higher than that of Galium verum and Kochia prostrate leaves. While significant differences were found between the leaf crude protein content of Chenopodium album and Kochia prostrate (P0.05).

  12. CpG Immunotherapy in Chenopodium album sensitized mice: The comparison of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IgE responses in intranasal and subcutaneous administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Maziar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal-based immunotherapy has been already used as an alternative form of allergen delivery. In asthma, the poor success rate of immune modulation could be a consequence of inadequate immune modulation in the airways. Previously, we have found that subcutaneous (S.C co-administration of a homemade allergenic extract from Chenopodium album (Ch.a pollen and Guanine-Cytosine containing deoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs is effective to prevent the inflammatory responses in mouse. In this study we used CpG/Ch.a for immunotherapy of Ch.a-induced asthma and compared the intranasal (I.N and S.C routes of administration concerning IFN-γ, IL-10 and total IgE responses. Methods Ch.a sensitized mice were treated intranasaly or subcutaneously using CpG and Ch.a. extract. IFN-γ, IL-10 and total IgE were measured in supernatant culture of splenocytes and bronchoalveolor lavage (BAL fluids by ELISA. Student's t test was used in the analysis of the results obtained from the test and control mice. Results We found that I.N administration of CpG/Ch.a in sensitized mice significantly increased the production of systemic and mucosal IFN-γ and IL-10 compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS, Ch.a alone and control ODNs treated sensitized mice (P ≤ 0.001. On the other hand, S.C. route induced the systemic and mucosal IFN-γ in the lower levels than in I.N one, and failed to increase systemic IL-10 induction (P = 0.06. Total serum IgE in CpG/Ch.a treated mice in both routes showed significant decreases compared to three control groups (P ≤ 0.01. The amounts of IgE in BAL fluids were not measurable in all groups. Conclusion According to the results of this experiment we concluded that immunotherapy via the I.N co-administration of CpG/Ch.a in comparison with S.C route is more effective to stimulate the mucosal and regulatory responses in Ch.a induced asthma.

  13. 贮藏时间和温度对藜种子萌发的影响%Effect of Storage Time and Temperature on Seed Germination of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠文森

    2012-01-01

    研究了贮藏时间和温度对藜种子萌发的影响,结果表明:在-10℃条件下存放90 d后,藜种子发芽率下降了3.50%,发芽势上升了6.75%,与刚采集时的种子萌发无显著差异(P〉0.05).室温和4℃条件下存放90 d后发芽率和发芽势显著降低(P〈0.01).随贮存时间的延长,藜种子发芽率和发芽势呈下降趋势,发芽率和发芽势变化趋势是:-10℃〉常温和4℃;贮藏温度对藜胚根和胚芽生长无显著影响,贮存2年后则根长和芽长明显降低.%The effects of storage time and temperature on seed germination of Chenopodium album L. was studied in the present thesis. The result showed that seed germination rate of Chenopodium album L. dropped 3.50%, the germination potential rose 6.75 % when storage 90 days at - 10 ℃, but had no significant difference(P 〉0.05) compared to freshly harvested seeds. The germination rate and germination potential decreased (P 〈0.01) of storage temperature at room temperature and 4℃ after 90 days. With the extention of the storage time, the germination rate and germination of quinoa seed decreased, and the trends of germination rate and germination axe - 10℃ room temperature and 4℃. The storage temperature had no significant effect on the radicle and plumule growth of Chenopodium album L. However, the root length and bud length reduced significantly after storage for 2 years.

  14. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  15. GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil from Chenopodium Ambrosioides Fruit and Study of its Biological Activities%土荆芥果实挥发油GC-MS分析及其生物活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李植飞; 唐祖年; 戴支凯

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究土荆芥果实挥发油的化学成分、抗菌活性和对HepG2细胞增殖的抑制作用.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法(SD)提取挥发油,通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析土荆芥果实挥发油的化学成分,同时采用连续二倍梯度液体稀释法和转染法测定其抗菌活性,MTT法观察土荆芥果实挥发油对肝癌HepG2细胞增殖的抑制作用.结果:从土荆芥果实挥发油中共鉴定出21种成分,主要为3-异丙基-6-甲基-7-氧杂双环[4.1.0]庚-2-酮(66.93%),1-甲基-4-(1-甲基已烯基)环已烯(15.67%)及邻甲基异丙苯(12.96%);土荆芥果实挥发油对白色链株菌、表皮葡萄球菌、甲型链球菌、乙型链球菌和变形杆菌有良好的抗菌活性;对人肝癌HepG2细胞增殖有很强的抑制作用(P<0.01),孵育48,72 h后的IC50分别为0.0341,0.069mg·L-1.结论:荆芥果实挥发油主要成分为单萜类,具有良好的抗菌作用及抑制HepG2细胞增殖作用.%Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit and study their antibacterial activities and inhibitory effects on HepG2 cell proliferation. Method:Essential oil of C. ambrosioides fruit was extracted with steam distillation ( SD ) and chemical constituents of the oil extrated were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); Continuous twifold liquid gradient dilution method and transfection method were employed to determine the antibacterial activity (MIC and MBC ) and MTT assay was performed to observe the inhibitory effect of the essential oil on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Result:There were 21 ingredients identified in the the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit, mainly including 7-0xabicyclo [4.1.0] heptan-2-one, 6-methyl-3- ( 1 -methyle-thyl) -(66.93%), followed by 1-methyl- ( 1-methyl-alkenyl) Cyclohexene (15.67%) and o-methyl-isopropyl benzene (12. 96% ) . A good antibacterial effect of chenopodium

  16. EDTA对Cd及Cd-Mn复合污染处理下藜生长的影响%Effects of EDTA on Cd and Cd-Mn Compound Pollution Soil of Growth with Chenopodium Album

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学锋; 丁雪莲

    2012-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to make the study of the effect of EDTA on Cd and Cd-Mn compound pollution soil of growth with Chenopodium album. The results indicate that: with 2. 5 mmol · kg-1 EDTA on the Cd contaminated soil and 5. 0 mmol · kg-' EDTA on the Cd-Mn compound pollution soil is the best repairing efficient. This case makes that under the Cd processing and Cd-Mn processing of Chenopodium album aerial parts Cd content to enhance 1. 8 times, 3. 7 times compares to the comparison. At the same time, the enrichment factors of Cd also have been improved drstinctively.%采用盆栽实验方法,研究了在Cd及Cd-Mn复合污染土壤中添加EDTA对藜生长的影响以及对Cd的转运和富集作用.结果表明:单一Cd污染处理下最佳的EDTA添加水平为2.5 mmol· kg-1,Cd-Mn复合污染处理下EDTA的添加水平为5.0 mmol,kg-1,这时EDTA可以促进藜地下部分的重金属元素向地上部分迁移,藜地上部分含Cd量分别是对照值的1.8倍、3.7倍,同时对Cd的富集系数也有明显提高.

  17. Morphology and Physiological Responses of Chenopodium album L.under Salt Stress%盐胁迫下藜的形态结构与生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀云; 油天钰; 赵娟; 陈莎莎; 兰海燕

    2012-01-01

    本文采用石蜡切片、扫描电镜和体视显微镜对藜进行了形态结构观察和多种生理指标检测,研究在盐胁迫下藜的结构和生理变化.结果表明:在花期,藜的株高和茎粗显著降低,叶未产生明显肉质化.高盐(300mmol·L-1)胁迫下,叶维管束的导管数量及形成层层数增加,茎的维管束密度增加,根木质化程度增强,大导管密度显著降低.叶下表面的盐囊泡较上表面多,叶和茎细胞中均含有簇状结晶.随着盐浓度的升高,叶片中含水量降低,相对电导率升高,丙二醛(MDA)含量无显著变化,叶绿素含量在苗后期先升高后降低,在花期,其含量随盐浓度升高而降低.300mmol·L-1盐胁迫下,苗后期的可溶性糖、脯氨酸及甜菜碱含量显著增加;至花期,脯氨酸及甜菜碱含量显著高于对照.以上结果初步显示,高浓度盐胁迫对花期的藜形态结构及部分生理指标均比苗期产生显著影响,但300mmol·L1盐胁迫下藜仍能完成其生活史.%The present study investigated the morphology and physiological changes in Chenopodium album under salt stress by observation of paraffin sections, scanning electron microscope and stereo microscope. The results showed that the plant height and stem diameter decreased significantly at flowering stage, while the leaf succulence was not evident. Under high salt (300 mmol-L"') stress, the number of vascular vessle and layer of cambium in leaf increased, and the vascular bundle density in stem also increased, the Hgnified degree of root enhanced, the density of large vessle in root reduced significantly. The salt bladders on the abaxial surface were more than those on adaxial surface, and some clusters of crystallization were observed in cells of leaf and stem. With the increase of salt concentration, water content decreased; the relative electric conductance increased, while MDA content showed no difference. The content of chlorophyll increased first and then

  18. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo;

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  19. Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Chenopodium album L.Populations in Four Natural Islands of South of Changdao, Shandong Province by ISSR%山东省长岛县南部四岛藜(Chenopodium album L.)天然种群遗传多样性的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒庆; 房孝迪; 吴锦美; 杜洋; 谭琨; 范强军; 祝恩伟

    2012-01-01

    Using ISSR method, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 81 individuals in four natural populations of Chenopodium album L. distributed in four islands in Changdao, Shandong Province, i. e. Beichangs-han island, Nanchangshang island, Daheishan island and Xiaoheishan island were studied in this paper. Through the amplification of ISSR with 13 primers, 157 loci were detected. The results showed that the percentage of polymorphic loci was 66.24% with a high genetic diversity (Shannon' s information index was 0. 332 0 at the species level) ; genetic differentiation existed among populations (Nei' s gene diversity was 0. 220 1 at the species level) ; at the species level, genetic variance was 9. 27% among populations according to GST value. The genetic distance analysis showed that XHS population and NCS population have the highest population genetic i-dentity, genetic distances and geographic distances have no correlation.%采用ISSR分子标记对分布于山东省长岛县南部的北长山、南长山、大黑山和小黑山4个岛屿上的藜天然种群共81个个体进行了遗传多样性及遗传结构的研究.13个引物共检测到157个可重复的位点.遗传多样性研究结果表明:种内的多态位点比率为66.24%,具有较高的遗传多样性(Shannon(Ⅰ)指数在物种水平上为0.3320);种群间有一定的遗传分化,根据Gst值,种群间的遗传多样性占总群体的9.27%.遗传距离分析表明,XHS种群和NCS种群的遗传一致度最高,与地理距离无相关性.

  20. Comparison of Salt Tolerance between Chenopodium album and C. glaucum%藜科植物藜与灰绿藜耐盐性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 蔡明; 兰海燕

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study on salt tolerance between Chenopodium album and C. glaucum of Chenopodiace-ae was performed by investigation of seed germination characteristics and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants under salt stress. Results showed that:(1) The germination and seedling growth of C. album and C. glaucum were promoted at 50 and 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl, while inhibited at more than 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, and the performance of C. glaucum was better than that of C. album. (2) After long-term salinity treatment, the growth characters did not show significant change with rising salt concentration in both C. album and C. glaucum, indicating that these two species are able to grow normally under salt stress. The contents of O·2¯ , H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in C. album were signiifcantly increased compared to that in C. glaucum, suggest-ing that C. album was severely injured by oxidative stress. The activities of four antioxidative enzymes in C. al-bum were increased with rising salinity, except for catalase (CAT), whereas only ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased signiifcantly in C. glaucum (still much lower than that in C. album), which means that these enzymes may play important roles in response to salt stress in C. album. The contents of three antioxi-dants showed no signiifcant change in C. album, except for ascorbic acid (AsA), and the total level of the three antioxidants in C. album was all obviously lower than that in C. glaucum, which implies that these agents may make contributions in relieving of the salt stress in C. glaucum. The concentration of four osmoprotectants was increased signiifcantly in C. album, except for total protein, while for C. glaucum only the proline increased signiifcantly under high salt treatment, which suggests that these osmoprotectants may play important roles in osmotic balance in C. album under salt stress. Taken together, we speculate that both C. album and C. glaucum are all able to tolerate

  1. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la eficacia deChenopodium ambrosioidesL. var.anthelminticum(Ka´aré en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades de Marangatú (MA, Ñamandú (ÑA, El Pocito (PO, Tabay (TB y Takuapí (TA del Departamento Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. La muestra incluyó 148 personas que fueron agrupadas por sexo e intervalos etáreos. El tratamiento fitoterapéutico consistió en la administración de tintura de Ka´aré (maceración en alcohol etílico al 70%. El análisis coproparasitológico se realizó mediante examen directo y la técnica de enriquecimiento por flotación (Füllerbon previo y posterior al tratamiento con el Ka´aré. Los resultados indicaron altos porcentajes de individuos parasitados previo al tratamiento (PRET que fluctuaron entre 73.5% y 91.7%. Entre los protozoosEntamoeba colifue la especie más prevalente con porcentajes entre 18.4% y 37.5%.Hymenolepis nanaentre los cestodes presentó prevalencias entre 4.2% y 20.8%. Entre los nemátodosAncylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus(Ancylostomideos fue la más frecuente y su prevalencia fluctuó entre 55.1% y 83.3%.Trichuris trichiurasólo fue observado en ÑA y con una prevalencia muy baja (3.8%. El porcentaje de monoparasitismo fue mayor en ÑA (56.5%, el de biparasitismo en MA y TA (44.4%, mientras que el de poliparasitismo en TB (36.8%. En la evaluación postratamiento (POST la prevalencia total de parasitosis descendió respecto del pretratamiento (79.7% vs 68.9% (X2 Yates = 4.57; p E. coli(30.8%-0.0% y Ancylostomídeos (52.0%-11.5%. Así, en ÑA los Ancylostomídeos mostraron diferencias

  2. A comparison of the ecophysiological responses of Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus to the exclusion of ultraviolet-A and UV-B radiation in the field and the glasshouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cann, J.C.; Miller, S.D.; Vogelmann, T.C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well two naturalized C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} weedy species, Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus, would respond to ultraviolet exclusion under field and glasshouse conditions. These plants were grown in: (1) a high elevation (2188m) field plot in Laramie, WY USA, during the summer of 1994 and (2) a glasshouse during the spring of 1995. Three types of plastic were used to exclude either UV-A, UV-B, or both UV-A and UV-B. During the summer of 1994, photosynthetically active radiation and UV-B fluence rates were measured daily. A total of seven biochemical and physiological parameters, such as chlorophyll, flavonoids, biomass, growth rate, stomatal density, and stomatal conductance were measured at bimonthly intervals. The results of the field experiment show almost no effects of excluding UV-A, UV-B, or both upon plant growth, pigment content, or photosynthetic response. Our results suggest that these plants, unlike some crop plants, may be physiologically pre-adapted to tolerate high ambient levels of ultraviolet radiation.

  3. Cs对超富集植物藜萌发代谢生物学的影响%Biological effects of Cs on the germination metabolism of Chenopodium album Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating the biological effect of Cs on the germination metabohsm of Chenopodium album Linn.In proceeding with our research,we have chosen the proper hyperaccumulator plants and their growing ways for more effective reduction of the radioactive contamination and shortening of the repairing cycle via restoration and treatment.While taking Ch.album Linn as experimental agent,we have observed and analyzed the germination characteristic features and the effects of different concentrations of CsCl on the growth of the young seedlings.Though the result of our observation indicates that the concentration of CsCl may not have noticeable effects on the index of the germination rate vigor,it can still be found that the seedlings are quite endurable and tolerable to CsCl during its germination.We have also noticed that treating the seedlings with CsCl tends to promote the growth of the roots and buds of the seedlings at a lower concentration while the growth of the plant would be suppressed at the higher concentration of CsCl.To be accurate,the results of our experiments can be stated that when the concentration of CsCl is 50-100 mg/L,the roots and the buds tend to grow by 2.52%-5.84% and 2.76%-3.21% in size respectively,with the vitality index increase by 4.35%-7.01% as compared with CK.Nevertheless,when the concentration of CsCl is 200-800 mg/L,the roots and the buds tend to get shorter by 15.60%-62,90% and 12.59%-59.38%,with its vitality index being 17.00%-55.20% lower in contrast with CK.Thus,it can be predicted further that the increase of the concentration of CsCl tends to lead to the rise of the contents of proline and protein in the Chenopodium album Linn.seedling whereas the vitality of dehydrogenase (DH) and peroxida~ (POD) also tends to decrease obviously.In addition,the processing of CsCl notably displays a negative correlation with the gradual degradation of the vitality of DH and POD,both of which tend to

  4. Comparison of the Evolvement Structure of Chenopodium album L.under the Stress of Different Saline Environments%不同盐渍环境藜颉颃逆境演化结构比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏健; 盖玉红; 蔡立格; 陆静梅; 王光野

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to reveal the evolvement structures,especially the crystal characteristics of Chenopodium album L.under saline stress,so as to providing the first-hand data for utilizing biological techniques to control saline environment.[Method] Employing high definition display method of plant crystal structure and paraffin-section method,we performed a comparative study on the evolvement structures of C.album growing in high salinity areas in the coast of Egyptian Red Sea and common salinity areas in the grasslands in Changling County of Jilin Province.[Result] The regionally distributed crystal and the developed assimilating tissue of C.album are the key structural characteristics to antagonize the saline stress during the evolving process.Stem cortex of C.album growing in both the high salinity areas in coast of Egyptian Red Sea and common salinity areas in the grasslands in Changling County of Jilin Province has similar discontinuous crystal rings.Assimilating tissue in C.album growing in high salinity areas is highly developed than that in common salinity environment.Comparative analysis indicates that the developed stratum corneum and marrow is also the key structural characteristics to antagonize the saline stress.[Conclusion] Our results provide a valuable approach to study the salt-tolerance mechanism of plant using structural botanical techniques,i.e.,crystal may become the identification characteristics of salt tolerant plant.%[目的]揭示盐生植物颉颃盐渍逆境的演化结构尤其是晶体的分布特点,为应用生物学技术治理盐渍环境提供第一手资料。[方法]采用高清显示植物组织晶体方法和石蜡切片法,对埃及红海岸边高盐度地区和吉林长岭草原一般盐渍环境的藜(Chenopodium albumL.)进行颉颃盐渍逆境的演化结构比对试验。[结果]区域化分布的晶体和发达的同化组织是藜颉颃盐渍逆境的重要演化结构特征,二者茎皮层均

  5. Comparison of the Evolvement Structure of Chenopodium album L.under the Stress of Different Saline Environments%不同盐渍环境藜颉颃逆境演化结构比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏健; 盖玉红; 蔡立格; 陆静梅; 孙睿峰; 王光野; 周凡

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to reveal the evolvement structures, especially the crystal characteristics of Chenopodium album L. Under saline stress, so as to providing the first-hand data for utilizing biological techniques to control saline environment. [ Method ] Employing high definition display method of plant crystal structure and paraffin-section method, we performed a comparative study on the evolvement structures of C. Album growing in high salinity areas in the coast of Egyptian Red Sea and common salinity areas in the grasslands in Changling County of Jilin Province. [ Result ] The regionally distributed crystal and the developed assimilating tissue of C. Album are the key structural characteristics to antagonize the saline stress during the evolving process. Stem cortex of C. Album growing in both the high salinity areas in coast of Egyptian Red Sea and common salinity areas in the grasslands in Changling County of Jilin Province has similar discontinuous crystal rings. Assimilating tissue in C. Album growing in high salinity areas is highly developed than that in common salinity environment. Comparative analysis indicates that the developed stratum corneum and marrow is also the key structural characteristics to antagonize the saline stress. [ Conclusion ] Our results provide a valuable approach to study the salt-tolerance mechanism of plant using structural botanical techniques, I. E. , crystal may become the identification characteristics of salt tolerant plant.%[目的]揭示盐生植物颉颃盐渍逆境的演化结构尤其是晶体的分布特点,为应用生物学技术治理盐渍环境提供第一手资料.[方法]采用高清显示植物组织晶体方法和石蜡切片法,对埃及红海岸边高盐度地区和吉林长岭草原一般盐渍环境的藜(Chenopodium album L.)进行颉颃盐渍逆境的演化结构比对试验.[结果]区域化分布的晶体和发达的同化组织是藜颉颃盐渍逆境的重要演化结构特

  6. 化感物质对白藜种子萌发及抗氧化物酶活性的影响%Effects of Allelochemicals on Seed Germination and Seedling Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Chenopodium album

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巧峡; 李腾腾; 高加来; 赵庆芳; 杨宁

    2012-01-01

    Chenopodium album is a common weed of wheat and other arable crops. Ferulic acid, vanillic acid, theobromine, theophylline, luteolin and quercetin are used to test their allelopathic effects on seed germination, seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of C. album. The present study provides theoretical guidance for the biological control of C. album. Results show that six allelochemicals have significant allelopathic effects on seed germination, seedling growth and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The effects are obviously related with the concentration and species of allelochemicals. Seed germination of C. album is significantly inhibited under 1 mmol ·L-1 of tested allelochemicals except vanillic acid and theobromine, while seed germination is promoted at lower concentrations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities initially have an increasing tendency, followed by a decreasing trendency. Perox-idase (POD) activity shows an opposite trendency with allelochemical (ferulic acid, theophylline, quercetin and luteolin) concentrations increasing. Ferulic acid, theophylline, quercetin and luteolin at 1 mmol ·L-1 obviously reduce SOD and CAT activities, while significantly increase POD activity except luteolin.%白藜(Chenopodium album)是小麦(Triticum aestivum)和其他耕地作物以及果园里常见杂草.试验选用阿魏酸、香草酸、可可碱、茶碱、木樨草素、槲皮黄素6种化感物质,通过对白藜种子萌发、幼苗生长及抗氧化酶活性的影响进行化感作用研究,为其生物防治提供理论指导.结果表明:6种化感物质对白藜种子萌发、幼苗生长及抗氧化物酶活性有明显的影响,这种影响效应与化感物质的种类及浓度明显相关.当6种化感物质的浓度为l mmol·L-1时,除香草酸与可可碱外,其余均使白藜种子萌发受到抑制,其中茶碱、槲皮黄素和木樨草素表现出显著的抑制作用(P<0.05);而6种化感物质在较低

  7. 藜钙依赖磷酸激酶基因CaCPK的克隆及胁迫表达%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Phosphokinase Genes in Chenopodium album Under Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莎莎; 贺转转; 姜生秀; 邢佳佳; 吕秀云; 兰海燕

    2014-01-01

    以耐盐植物藜(Chenopodium album)为材料,利用同源克隆技术获得了7个CDPK基因核心序列,并将其命名为CaCPK1-7.随后通过RACE技术成功获得CaCPK1-3的开放阅读框(ORF)序列,其ORF分别包含长度为1 632、1 704和1 590 bp的核苷酸序列.CaCPK1-3分别编码由543、567和529个氨基酸残基组成的钙依赖型蛋白激酶.定量PCR实验显示,CaCPK1-4受盐胁迫诱导明显上调表达,随胁迫时间增加不同基因呈现各异的表达规律.对CaCPK1-3在其它非生物胁迫下的表达分析显示,CaCPK1、CaCPK2和CaCPK3的表达均受外源ABA和H2O2的调控,H2O2合成抑制剂DPI和ABA合成抑制剂Na2WO4显著抑制300 mmol·L-1NaCl处理下CaCPK1、Ca CPK2和Ca CPK3的表达.研究结果为揭示藜在盐胁迫信号转导过程中CDPK基因家族的功能提供了理论依据.

  8. 四川土荆芥精油对植物病原真菌的抗菌活性%Antifungal activity of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.growing in sichuan against plant-pathogenic fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元; 廖颖; 严伟; 马丹炜

    2010-01-01

    以植物病原真菌玉米纹枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani Kuha、玉米弯胞病菌Curvularia lunata(walk)Boed、水稻稻瘟病菌Pyricularia oryzae Cav.、小麦赤霉病菌Gibberelle zeae(Schw.)Petch和松赤枯病菌Pestalotia funerea为实验菌,检测了四川土荆芥Chenopodium ambrosioides L.精油的抑菌活性和抑菌机理.结果表明:培养基给药时,土荆芥精油对5种植物病原真菌均具有抑制作用,IC50分别为:0.734 μL·mL-1,0.342 μL·mL-1,0.435 μL·mL-1,0.370 μL·mL-1和0.332 μL·mL-1;熏蒸给药时,精油剂量为1 μL,土荆芥精油对松赤枯病菌、水稻稻瘟病菌、玉米纹枯病菌和玉米弯胞病菌具有促进作用,高剂量给药对菌丝生长具有抑制作用.半抑制体积分数的土荆芥精油作用于植物病原真菌,菌丝DNA不发生改变,菌丝体结构被破坏,原生质体聚集,蛋白质缺失或增加.

  9. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  10. Actividad de la fitasa y comparación en la composición química, contenido de ácido fítico en cuatro variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una planta que ha sido cultivada en las regiones andinas de Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. Su importancia se debe al alto contenido de proteínas y de aminoácidos esenciales en su grano. El objetivo principal en la investigación fue encontrar la relación entre el ácido fítico y la actividad de la fítasa en las variedades de quinua Nariño procedente de Colombia (QC, quinua Anapquis (QBA y quinua -IICA 020 Oruro (QB procedentes de Bolivia, y quinua Huancavelica de Perú (QP. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de proteína, grasa, fibra y ceniza entre las cuatro variedades. El análisis de los aminoácidos esenciales mostró que las variedades de quinua tienen altas concentraciones de arginina, leucina, fenilalanina y lisina, y tirosina como aminoácidos semi-esenciales. La fracción de grasa presentó concentraciones altas de ácido oleico, linoleico, a-linolénico y ácido palmítico. Las variedades presentaron altos contenidos de P y Ca. El ácido fítico en QC (19.64% fue significativamente más bajo que en las otras variedades. En la variedad QC (1052 FTU/kg se encontraron altas proporciones de actividad de la fítasa. Se encontró relación significativa y negativa (r = -0.89 entre la actividad de la fítasa y el ácido fítico en todas las variedades.

  11. Co-Administration of Chenopodium Album Allergens and CpG Oligodeoxy-nucleotides Effects on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Treated with Intranasal Corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic Rhinitis (AR is one of the most common chronic diseases in the developed countries. This study was performed to investigate the effect of CpG-ODN in alteration of T-helper (Th1/Th2 balance of patients with AR treated with intranasal corticosteroids (INCs and antihistamines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 20 patients with AR were isolated before and after 45 days therapy.Cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ and specific Ch.a IgE in response to CpG co- administration  of  natural  chenopodium  album  (CpG/Ch.a  or  recombinant  Ch.a  (CpG/rCh.a allergen were investigated in supernatants.of cultured PBMCs using ELISA Intracellular IL-10 was also assessed in CD4+ cells using flow cytometry. Significant increase in production of IFN-γ and IL-10 and decrease in production of IL-4 were found in supernatants of cultured PBMCs activated with CPG/ch.a and CPG/rch.a. of both CpG/Ch.a and CpG/rCh.a compared to allergens alone, before and after therapy.After therapy, IFN-γ production with CpG/Ch.a was significantly increased in comparison with before (237 vs. 44 pg/ml, p=0.001. IFN-γ and IL-10 production with CpG/rCh.a was significantly increased after therapy compared to before (407.6 vs. 109 pg/ml, p=0.01 for IFN-γ; 171.7 vs. 52.6 pg/ml, p=0.008  for  IL-10,  whilst  IL-4  was  significantly decreased (2.1  vs.  5.8  pg/ml,  p=0.02. Intracellular IL-10 expression was also significantly increased in response to either CpG/Ch.a or CpG/rCh.a that showed intracellular assay could be more sensitive than ELISA. Also, treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines could enhance this CpG effect, in vitro.

  12. 乙酸铀对超富集植物藜萌发代谢生物学的影响%Biological Effect of Uranium on the Germination Metabolism of Hyperaccumulator Chenopodium album

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2013-01-01

    为筛选放射性核素超富集植物及研究其种植方法,探索生物修复必要的栽培技术措施缩短修复周期,快速、有效地清除放射性污染,以超富集植物藜(Chenopodium album Linn.)为材料,研究藜萌发特性及幼苗生长对不同浓度乙酸铀(C4 H6O6 U)处理的效应.结果表明:乙酸铀处理浓度对藜发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数影响的差异不显著,藜种子在萌发期间对乙酸铀具有很强的耐受力.但对藜幼苗根、芽生长具有低促高抑的双重作用,乙酸铀浓度为25~50 mg/L时,与CK比较,芽长增加7.79%~10.21%,根长增加9.79%~16.06%,活力指数增加8.51%~12.48%;乙酸铀浓度为100~400 mg/L时,与CK比较,对芽长的抑制率分别为1.44%~45.55%,对根长的抑制率为3.55 %~49.60%,对活力指数的抑制率为6.42%~50.29%.随着乙酸铀处理浓度逐渐增加,脱氢酶(DH)活性和过氧化物酶(POD)活性则明显下降,藜幼苗脯氨酸和蛋白质含量提高,C4H6O6U处理与脱氢酶活性和过氧化物酶活性的递降呈显著负相关,均显著降低藜幼苗的脱氢酶活性,表明其体内氧化还原活性减弱,C4H6O6U对藜幼苗的正常代谢已产生严重胁迫.

  13. Physiological Responses of Plants Derived from the Heteromorphic Seeds of Chenopodium album to Salt Stress%藜异型性种子后代植株对NaCl和KCl短期胁迫的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰欣欣; 姚世响; 兰海燕

    2015-01-01

    [目的]研究不同盐(NaCl和KCl)胁迫对藜(Chenopodium album)的抗氧化系统的影响,探讨异型种子后代植株之间对盐胁迫生理响应机制的可能差异.[方法]以藜异型性种子后代植物为材料,测量藜黑色及褐色种子在不同浓度(0、50、300 mmol/L) NaCl或KCl短时间胁迫下相关生理指标(氧自由基、MDA;SOD、CAT、POX).[结果]在不同浓度(0、50、300 mmol/L) NaCl或KCl短时间胁迫下,藜黑色及褐色种子后代植株活性氧水平随时间有升高但不显著,异型性种子后代植株之间无显著差异;MDA随盐胁迫时间增加,呈显著上升趋势,NaCl胁迫上升更明显.短时间盐胁迫下,两种种子后代中抗氧化酶活性(SOD、CAT、POX)均呈上升趋势,CAT和POX增加更显著;NaCl比KCl胁迫,低浓度比高浓度盐,对氧化酶活性的促进更明显.以上参数在异型性种子后代植株间未显示显著差异.[结论]抗氧化酶在藜耐受短期高盐(NaCl或KCl)胁迫过程中发挥重要作用;藜异型性种子后代植株在短期盐胁迫下表现相似的生理生化特性.

  14. 新疆干旱区植物藜的种子异型性及其萌发机理%Seed heteromorphism and germination mechanism of Chenopodium album in Xinjiang Arid Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚世响; 油天钰; 徐栋生; 李秀明; 王浚桉; 兰海燕

    2010-01-01

    新疆干旱区分布的植物藜(Chenopodium album)的种子有黑色和褐色两种类型.对藜的异型性种子从形态结构、不同环境因素及激素或化学物质对萌发的影响以及同工酶谱等方面进行了研究,并对其萌发及适应异质环境的机理进行了讨论.结果表明:(1)藜的异型性种子在形态结构、萌发休眠特性等方面都存在明显差异:黑色种子种皮厚且硬,休眠,萌发慢,萌发率低;褐色种子种皮薄而软,不休眠,萌发快且萌发率高;(2)黑色种子的休眠可通过切除胚根外缘种皮得以完全解除;(3)赤霉素、乙烯利对黑色种子的萌发无明显促进作用;KNO3可较显著促进黑色种子的萌发;协同使用乙烯利和KNO3时,可显著提高黑种子萌发率,完全打破休眠;(4)黑色种子和褐色种子的酯酶、过氧化物酶及过氧化氢酶同工酶谱带存在差异;(5)黑色种子的萌发需要光照,而褐色种子则对光不敏感;低温贮藏对二者的萌发均无显著影响,尽管黑色种子的萌发率有波动.研究结果初步显示黑色种子的休眠是内源(胚)和外源(种皮)因素共同所致.藜的种子异型性及其萌发机理的形成是其对新疆干旱区异质化环境的高度适应.

  15. 藜个体在高密度种群中的氮素利用效率%NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY OF COMPETING INDIVIDUALS IN A DENSE STAND OF AN ANNUAL HERB,CHENOPODIUM ALBUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志友; 李凌浩; 韩兴国

    2004-01-01

    氮素利用效率(NUE)是植物养分策略研究中的一项重要内容.该文利用Berendse和Aerts提出的氮素利用效率概念和原理研究了高密度的藜(Chenopodium album)种群中不同植物个体在种内竞争条件下的氮素利用效率.结果表明,由于植株的氮素吸收速率与其个体大小成非线性关系,说明不同植株个体对氮素的竞争属于非对称竞争.个体较大的植株氮素输入较高,而个体较小的植株氮素输出较高,因而较大个体植株的氮素净增加也较高.植株的氮素损失随着个体大小的增加而增加,较大植株个体的氮素浓度随着生长而下降,而较小植株个体的氮素浓度随时间的变化不大,说明个体较小的植株的生长受光照的限制比受氮素的限制更大,而对较大的植株个体而言,它们的生长受氮素的限制更大.高密度藜种群中的不同植物个体具有不同的养分策略,氮素利用效率及其组成部分氮素生产力(NP)和氮素滞留时间(MRT)均不同.植株的NP和MRT与其个体大小正相关,较大的植物个体具有较高的NP和较长的MRT,因而氮素利用效率也高于个体较小的植株.在个体水平上,种内不同植株的NP与MRT不存在权衡关系(Trade-off).因此,Berendse和Aerts提出的氮素利用效率概念不仅适用于研究种间的养分策略,对于研究种内不同植株的养分策略也同样适用.

  16. Response of root border cells of soybean to cultured Chenopodium ambrosioides root exudates%大豆根边缘细胞对土荆芥组培根分泌物的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安奇; 王亚男; 张红; 汪利沙; 马丹炜

    2012-01-01

    运用组织培养技术和悬空气培养法,研究了大豆根边缘细胞对土荆芥组培根分泌物的响应.结果表明:在土荆芥组培根分泌物作用下,随处理浓度的升高和处理时间的延长,边缘细胞数量和存活率持续下降.游离的根边缘细胞周围聚集了一些颗粒状物质,根边缘细胞可能螯合土荆芥根系分泌物.土荆芥根系分泌物能促进根冠果胶甲基酯酶活性上调,但是随着处理浓度增大和处理时间延长,这种促进效应降低.这些结果表明土荆芥组培根分泌物对大豆根边缘细胞具有一定的胁迫效应,根边缘细胞通过加速死亡并分泌一些活性物质螯合土荆芥根系分泌物,可在一定范围内缓解根系分泌物的毒害作用.%By using the techniques of tissue culture and aeroponic culture, response of root border cells of soybean ( Gtycine max L.) to cultured Chenopodium ambrosioides root exudates was studied. The results showed the number and activity of root border cells decreased consecutively when treated with cultured C. Ambrosioides root exudates. Some granules gathered around free root border cells would result from chelation between root border cells exudates with that of the cultured root. The cultured root exudates could stimulate the activity of pectin methylesterase of the root cap of soybean, but the effect gradually lowered down along with the increasing of treatment concentration and treatment time. The results suggested that the cultured root exudates had stress on root border cells of soybean and root border cells of soybean alleviated the allelopathic effects of the cultured root exudates on root tips though programmed cell death and chelating.

  17. Flavonoid extraction and flavonoid content with genotypic variation from Chenopodium quinoa leaves%藜麦叶片黄酮类物质的提取及基因型差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏佳; 蒋玉蓉; 陈国林; 毛前; 陆国权

    2014-01-01

    为了优化藜麦Chenopodium quinoa叶片黄酮的乙醇提取工艺和分析基因型间的差异,为藜麦黄酮的开发和高黄酮的品种筛选提供理论依据,采用3因子3水平正交试验设计,探讨了乙醇体积分数、料液比和浸提时间等因素对藜麦叶片黄酮提取率的影响;并采用最佳提取条件,对10个不同基因型品种藜麦的叶片黄酮得率进行了比较分析.结果表明:藜麦叶片黄酮最佳提取条件为体积分数70%乙醇,1∶40料液比,80℃水浴下回流浸提0.5 h.在优化条件下,1次提取工艺得率达85%以上.各因素对叶片黄酮提取率的影响程度依次为:浸提时间>乙醇体积分数>料液比.比较结果发现:藜麦叶片黄酮得率存在明显基因型差异,其中品种PI814932的叶片黄酮类物质得率最高,达0.933%.所测藜麦品种的叶片黄酮平均得率为0.619%,变异系数为34.44%.研究表明:乙醇回流法适于提取藜麦总黄酮类化合物.

  18. Effect of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 Stress on Seed Germination of Chenopodium album L.%NaHCO3和Na2CO3胁迫对藜种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠文森

    2012-01-01

    用两种钠盐不同浓度对藜种子进行了发芽试验,研究了两种钠盐胁迫对藜种子萌发的影响,探讨其耐盐性。结果表明:两种钠盐胁迫对藜种子的萌发有抑制作用,随着盐浓度的增加,种子的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数、活力指数均呈显著下降趋势(p〈0.01),盐浓度过高会抑制种子萌发,NaHCO3浓度250mmol/L、Na2CO3浓度200mmol/L时,藜种子无发芽能力。两种钠盐对藜种子发芽后的胚根及胚芽生长的抑制作用表现不同,NaHCO3对藜种子的抑制:胚根〉胚芽,Na2CO3对种子的抑制:胚根〈胚芽。%The research used two different sodium salt with different concentrations acting on Chenopodium album L. and though sprout experiment to study the influence of two sodium salt stress to Chenopodium album L. seeds sprouting as well as to analyse its salt tolerance. The results showed that with the increase of the concentration of two salt, germination rate, germination potential, germination index and vigor index had a significant decrease and an overtopped salt concentration (NaHCO3 at 250 mmol/L, Na2CO3 at 200 mmol/L) could inhibit the seeds sprout completely. The inhibition effect of two sodium salt to radicle and germ of sprouted Chenopodium album L. was different. The inhibition effect of NaHCO3 was root 〉 bud, the inhibition effect of Na2CO3 was root 〈 bud.

  19. 藜麦新品种陇藜1号的选育及应用前景%Breeding and Application Prospects of New Variety Chenopodium quinoa cv. Longli 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨发荣

    2015-01-01

    陇藜1号是甘肃省农业科学院畜草与绿色农业研究所采用系统育种和栽培驯化相结合的方法选育而成的国内首个藜麦新品种。在2013—2014年进行的多点区域试验中,陇藜1号2 a 10点(次)平均折合产量为2100.0 kg/hm2,比对照品种静乐藜麦增产9.6%。陇藜1号属中晚熟品种,植株呈扫帚状,株高181.2~223.6 cm,生育期128~140 d,分枝数23~27个。种子为圆形药片状,千粒重2.40~3.46 g。籽粒含粗蛋白171.5~187.8 g/kg、脂肪56.5~59.3 g/kg、赖氨酸5.5~6.9 g/kg、全磷4.5~6.8 g/kg。陇藜1号在田间表现为抗霜霉病和叶斑病,总体抗病能力强。陇藜1号植株抗倒伏,再生能力强。具有耐寒、耐旱、耐盐碱、耐瘠薄等特性,适应性广。适宜在甘肃省无霜期大于120 d,降水量250 mm以上,海拔1500~3000 m的山地、川地及灌溉区域种植。并对藜麦的应用前景进行了展望。%Chenopodium quinoa cv. Longli 1 is the first new variety in China,which is bred by pasture and green Agriculture Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences through the methods of line breeding,cultivation and domestication. In multiple locations of regional tests,the average yields of Longli 1 are 2 100.00 kg/hm2,which is increased 9.6%compared with control. Longli 1 is mid-late maturing quinoa variety. The plant likes brooms,which plant height is 181.2~223.6 cm,growth period is 128~140 d,and the numbers of branch are 23~27. The seeds are round pill shaped,the weight of a thousand seeds is 2.40~3.46 g. Crude protein,fat, proline,total phosphorus contents in seeds are 171.5~187.8 g/kg,56.5~59.3 g/kg,5.5%~6.9 g/kg and 4.5~6.8 g/kg,respectively. Longli 1 displays the strong disease-resistant ability. Longli 1 shows lodging resistance and strong regeneration. It has some physiological characteristics,such as cold-resistant,drought-resistant and salty-resistant. It is suitable for planting in hilly and irrigation areas in

  20. Biologie en ecologie van Melganzevoet (Chenopodium album)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den W.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Behandeling van eigenschappen en het gedrag van een van de lastigste onkruidsoorten in de Nederlandse akkerbouw. Veel aandacht wordt besteed aan de kieming, opkomst en groei. Verder wordt ingegaan op factoren die de kieming en opbrengst beinvloeden; opbrengstperiodiciteit; groei als monocultuur en i

  1. Extraction and gelatinization characteristics of Chenopodium quinoa Willd starch based on ridge analysis%基于岭脊分析的藜麦淀粉提取及糊化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽红; 李晓斌

    2016-01-01

    为优化藜麦淀粉碱法提取工艺,以藜麦为试验材料,采用岭脊分析法研究料液比、NaOH 质量分数和浸提时间对淀粉提取率的影响,并对藜麦淀粉的颗粒形貌、化学结构及淀粉糊化特性进行研究。结果表明,碱法提取藜麦淀粉的优化工艺参数为料液比1:5 g/mL、NaOH质量分数0.2%和浸提时间5.5 h,淀粉提取率为98.94%±0.26%;藜麦淀粉为限制性膨胀淀粉,形态多呈不规则形,具有-OH、-CH2、-CHO、C-O-C和吡喃环典型淀粉分子官能团;随静置时间增加,淀粉透光率降低,凝沉体积增加,12 h后基本稳定;藜麦淀粉糊第四次冻融循环后达到稳定状态;对淀粉凝胶质构特性分析,硬度、内聚性、弹性、胶黏性和咀嚼性5个指标都随藜麦淀粉糊浓度增加而增大;流变性分析表明藜麦淀粉糊为假塑性流体,其弹性优于黏性。该文系统研究藜麦淀粉提取工艺和糊化特性,拓展了新的淀粉资源,同时也为藜麦淀粉的生产和应用提供一定的借鉴和参考。%Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to high nutritional value. Recently, quinoa has attracted more and more attention. Starch is main nutritional constituent of quinoa. In order to understand the gelatinization characteristics of starch, quinoas were collected from Xinzhou City in Shanxi Province. The granule morphology, functional group, swelling power, transparencies, freezing thawing stability, texture and rheological characteristics of starch granules were investigated in this study. Firstly, the quinoa starches were obtained by alkali extraction method. The cardinal parameters of extracting technique have been studied including solid-liquid ratio, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration and extraction time. The ridge analysis was used to find the condition on a set of design variables that maximize or

  2. 土荆芥挥发油对豌豆根边缘细胞的诱导和胁迫作用%Induced and stress effects of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioide L. on root border cells of pea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兵; 汪利沙; 王亚男; 张红; 李群; 马丹炜

    2013-01-01

    as the pectin methylesterase (PME) level, were used to evaluate the response of pea RBCs to different doses of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. The results showed that: 1) compared with the control, root elongation was inhibited significantly (P<0.05) with the increasing of volatile oil dosage used in treatment; 2) with increased dosage of volatile Oil from C. ambrosioides L., the number of RBCs increases firstly and then decreases at different process-time. Therein, RBCs amount reached a maximum when low-dose of was added (2 μL); 3) Volatile oil from C. Ambrosioides L. could contribute to the death of RBC. Both prolonged process-time and increased dosage could aggravate the toxic effect. After treatment for 24 h using 10μL volatile oil, the death rate reached 100%in the experimental group (removing root border cells). On the contrary, with the function of low concentration of volatile oil, the mortality of control was higher than experimental group. 4) During the same treatment time, the activities of PME in different experimental groups increased with the increasing of volatile oil concentration. And PME levels of all experimental groups are significantly higher than the control after treating for 24 h. In conclusion, our study revealed that RBCs plays a protective role in allelopathy related stress induced by C. ambrosioides L. On the other hand, allelopathy contributes in the generation of RBCs.

  3. NaCl胁迫对藜幼苗叶片渗透调节物质和保护酶的影响%Effects of NaCI Stress on Osmotic Adjustment Solute and Protective Enzyme in Seedling Leaves of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施剑杰; 金慧丽; 孙存华; 孙东; 李百伟; 王丹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同浓度NaCl胁迫对纂叶片中渗透调节物质和保护酶活性的影响,以探讨黎的耐盐机理,为藜的人工栽培及推广提供理论依据.[方法]待藜幼苗长到4叶期时,用0%、0.6%、1.2%、1.8%NaCl溶液进行根部胁迫处理,分别于处理0、1、3、5、7 d后从藜幼苗上部取第3~5片功能叶片进行各项生理指标的测定.[结果]在0.6%Nacl胁迫下,渗透调节物质(可溶糖、脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白质)含量和保护酶(SOD、POD和CAT)活性都是缓慢增加的.丙二醛含量增加不大,膜脂过氧化水平低.在1.2%、1.8%NaCl胁迫下,渗透调节物质(可溶性糖、脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白质)含量随胁迫时间的延长而增加,SOD、POD、CAT活性随胁迫时间的延长先升高后降低,丙二醛含量显著提高,膜脂过氧化水平增大.[结论]藜可以通过渗透调节物质增加和保护酶活性增大来对适度的盐胁迫有一定的适应性,但高浓度、长时间的盐胁迫会对藜造成严重损伤.%[ Objective ] Chenopodium album L. were stressed by different concentration NaCI and identified of osmotic adjustment solute and protective enzyme activity in order to lay a foundation for studying clarifying the salt-tolerant physiolngical mechanism of Chenopodium album L. and supplied theoretical basis and practical guidance for artificial cultivation and popularization of C. album. [ Method ] C. album seedlings grown to 4th leaf stage were treated by NaCI stress with concentrations of 0% ,0.6%, 1.2% and 1.8% and the various physiological indexes of the 3th-5th function leaves in upper plant were determined after treating for O, 1,3,5 band 7 days. [ Result] Under stress with 0.6%NaCl, the osmotic adjustment solute content( the soluble sugar, proline, the soluble protein) and protective enzyme activities (SOD, POD ,CAT ) in seedling leaves of C. album increased slowly and the change of MDA content was not apparent. Under I. 2%, 1.8% Na

  4. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile Diversidade genética e comparação das características físico-químicas e nutricionais de seis genótipos de quinoa (Chenopodiumquinoa Willd. cultivados no Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise das propriedades agronômicas, físicas, nutricionais e antioxidantes de seis genótipos diferentes de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, cultivados em três distintas zonas geográficas do Chile. Ancovinto e Cancosa, provenientes do norte do Altiplano (19 ºS, Cahuil e Faro, originários do centro (34 ºS, e Regalona e Villarica, do sul (39 ºS, foram representativos da alta diferenciação genética das amostras combinadas, em particular entre Altiplano e os grupos centro-sul. O ensaio do jardim de coleção a 30 ºS mostrou diferenças significativas entre as origens das sementes em todos os parâmetros morfom

  5. Effect of Osmotic Stress with PEG6000 on Osmotic Adjustment Solute in Seedling Leaves of Chenopodium album L.%PEG6000渗透胁迫对藜幼苗叶片渗透调节物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙存华; 李扬; 贺鸿雁; 杜伟; 金会丽; 王东升; 陈湘玲; 徐新娜

    2007-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose was to discuss dronsht resistance mechanism of Chenopodium album L. and supply theoretical basis and praotical guidance for artificial cultivation and popularization of C. album.[Method]C. album seedlings grown to 6th leaf stage were conducted osmotic stress treatment with PEG6000 osmotic whose concentration was set up as 0,5%,10% and 20% and the various physiological indices of the 3rd-5th function leaves in upper plant were determined after being treated flor 0,1,3,5,7 and 9 d.[Result]Under osmotic stress with 5% PGE,the relative water content(RwC)of C. album reduced less.Under osmotic stress with 10%,the RWC in seedling leaves of C. album decreased to 62% on the fifth day and the leaves began to wither.Under osmotic stress with 20%,the RWC in seedling leaves of C. album decreased to 61.9% on the third day and the leaves appeared withering,and the RWC decreased to 48.6% on the 7th day and the leaves were dry and yellow.Proline contents in seedling leaves of C. album under osmotic stress with 5%,10% and 20%PEG were 7.64,10.9 and 29.4 times of CK on the 7th day.[Conclusion]C.album had sonle adaptability to moderate osmotic stress,but the PEG osmotic stress with high concentration and long time might lead to severe damage on C. album.

  6. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  7. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  8. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. PMID:25983037

  9. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  10. Characterization of Chenopodium quinoa chromosomes using fish and repetitive sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinoa is one of the underestimated crops, which recently attracted attention. During last few years many efforts were done to save the natural genetic diversity of quinoa cultivars and landraces as well as to obtained new variability by mutagenesis. Plant characteristics based mainly on morphological and molecular markers. Cytogenetic analysis was not used for these studies. Quinoa is an allotetraploid species with 36 small chromosomes. To follow the chromosomal rearrangement cause by spontaneous or induced mutations it is necessary to find cytogenetics markers for chromosomes and chromosome arms. The physical mapping of repetitive DNAs by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can provide a valuable tool in studies of genome organization and chromosome rearrangements. To characterized quinoa genome several repetitive sequences were used as DNA probes for FISH. Double FISH with rRNA genes as probes allowed to distinguished three pairs of homologue chromosomes. Telomeric repeats hybridisation signals were present only in terminal part of all chromosome arms and no intercalar position was observed. Other tandem repetitive sequence - minisatellite was characteristic for centromeric and pericentromeric region of all quinoa chromosomes although number of repeats differ between loci. It allowed to divided quinoa chromosomes into few groups. Disperse repetitive sequences such as mobile element-like sequences used in this study were detected in all eighteen chromosome pairs. Hybridization signals were characteristics for pericentromeric region of one or both chromosome arms as relatively weak but discrete signals although few chromosomes exhibited signals in intercalary position. Two others repetitive sequences also exhibited disperse organization; however they are not mobile elements. Their FISH signals were spread throughout whole chromosome arms but only one was present on all quinoa chromosomes. The other revealed hybridization signals only on the half of the chromosomes. Presumably it allows identification of the sets of chromosomes belonging to the two ancestral genomes. (author)

  11. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  12. Environ: E00709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00709 Chenopodium ficifolium fruit Crude drug Chenopodium ficifolium, Chenopodium ...[TAX:3558] Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Chenopodium ficifolium fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plant...s: others Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) E00709 Chenopodium ficifolium fruit ...

  13. The Alleviate Effect of Extracellular DNA and Protein in Maize Root Border Cells on the Allelochemical Stress from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.%玉米根边缘细胞exDNA和胞外蛋白对土荆芥化感胁迫的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠良; 王亚男; 马丹炜; 陈斌; 何亚强; 周健

    2015-01-01

    合物的毒性最小;土荆芥挥发油具有诱导根边缘细胞黏胶层面积增大的效应,并表现出剂量效应,当挥发油剂量达到5μL时,黏胶层相对面积与对照差异显著(P<0.05)。与对照相比,在对伞花素和α-萜品烯的作用下玉米根边缘细胞黏胶层面积变化不显著;当exDNA或胞外蛋白被DNA酶或蛋白酶降解后,根边缘细胞黏胶层相对面积缩小,细胞活性降低,其中,挥发油处理组根边缘细胞活性均在10%以下,对伞花素处理组、α-萜品烯处理组、对伞花素和α-萜品烯混合物处理组根边缘细胞活性虽然有所降低,但仍保持在80%左右。【结论】土荆芥挥发油及其主要成分对伞花素、α-萜品烯具有细胞毒性,可导致玉米根边缘细胞活性降低,根边缘细胞黏胶层中的exDNA和胞外蛋白对土荆芥挥发油、对伞花素、α-萜品烯的细胞毒性具有缓解效应,可在一定程度上缓解土荆芥的化感胁迫。%[Objective]Root border cells (RBCs) are released from the root cap as individual cells or a group of attached cells. The mucilage of root border cells acts in a manner similar to that of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in defense, thus, known as border cell extracellular traps (BETs). The extracellular DNA (exDNA) and proteins are components of border cell mucilage, which have been considered to play a vital role in protecting root tip from biotic and abiotic stresses. Allelopathy is one of the successful mechanisms of exotic plant for invading. The objective of this study is to reveal the roles of the exDNA and extracellular proteins of root border cell mucilage in resistance to allelochemical stress from an invasive plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides L..[Method]Experiments were performed with maize (Zea mays L.)‘Yayu26#’, a widely grown crop in the introduced habitats of C. ambrosioides under aeroponic culture with agar medium. The developmental

  14. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis; Evaluacion de calidad de semilla de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) mejorada por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R{sub 1}10, 94, 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 2}27, 20R{sub 3}42 and 20R{sub 3}7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R{sub 3}33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 3}42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  15. Environ: E00708 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00708 Chenopodium album fruit Crude drug Chenopodium album [TAX:3559] Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Chen...opodium album fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) E00708 Chenopodium album fruit ...

  16. Introducing deficit irrigation to stabilize yields of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, S; Raes, D.; Garcia, M.; Vacher, Jean; Mamani, R.; Mendoza, J.; Huanca, R.; Morales, B.; Miranda, R.; J. Cusicanqui; Taboada, C.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture needs to increase its production with a small amount of available fresh water. Deficit irrigation (DI) is now widely been investigated as one of the solutions for this problem. The effects of concentrated drought stress in various phenological stages of quinoa on total production were assessed in above-ground mini-lysimeters under controlled conditions in the Bolivian Altiplano. From the results of the controlled experiment a promising DI strategy was obtained which consisted in m...

  17. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. PMID:24958776

  18. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  19. APROVEITAMENTO, COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E ANTINUTRICIONAL DA FARINHA DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Oliveira LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa é um pseudocereal originário dos Andes, cultivado há milênios e amplamente distribuído ao mundo. No Brasil, foi introduzido na década de 90 e, através de modifi cações genéticas, desenvolveu-se a variedade BRS Piabiru, adaptada para cultivos em solos brasileiros. Nutricionalmente, destaca-se em relação a muitos cereais, como o trigo, o milho e a cevada, por apresentar qualidade protéica comparável à caseína do leite e pela ausência de proteínas formadoras de glúten. Além disso, possui elevado teor de lisina, vitaminas (como tiamina, ribofl avina, niacina e piridoxina e minerais (como magnésio, zinco, cobre, ferro manganês e potássio. É essencial a realização de estudos dos nutrientes e antinutrientes da quinoa, de utilizá-la no preparo e desenvolvimento de receitas isentas de glúten. Diante disso, o presente estudo objetivou elaborar uma farinha de quinoa (FQ, caracterizar a sua composição nutricional e antinutricional, além de aproveitá-la na formulação de bolinhos fritos e avaliar sua aceitabilidade. Para a obtenção da farinha, os grãos de quinoa foram secos em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 60-65oC, triturados e peneirados. A FQ foi submetida às avaliações da composição centesimal, de alguns minerais (potássio, cálcio, ferro e zinco e antinutricional (nitrato, ácido oxálico e inibidor de tripsina, sendo ainda formuladas e avaliadas a aceitabilidade de três preparações de bolinhos fritos com diferentes adições de FQ em escala hedônica de 5 pontos. Observou-se que a FQ destacou-se em proteínas, fi bras, cinzas, potássio, ferro, cálcio e zinco. Os valores (mg/100g dos antinutrientes encontrados na FQ foram de 63,26 para o nitrato, 380 para o ácido oxálico e 2,11UTI/mg para inibidor de tripsina, sendo considerados teores menores aos de outros alimentos vegetais comumente utilizados na alimentação humana. O bolinho de formulação com 12,61% de FQ apresentou a maior aceitação dos julgadores, seguido das formulações com 17,79% e 22,40%. Conclui-se que a FQ destacou-se na maioria dos nutrientes avaliados, apresentando nutrientes à alimentação humana. Os antinutrientes avaliados foram baixos, não apresentando, portanto, riscos à nutrição e à saúde humana. A FQ constitui matéria-prima para a elaboração de bolinhos fritos, sendo bem aceitos pelos julgadores.

  20. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    .... Inhalation exposure. Non-occupational inhalation exposures are not expected to result from the agricultural uses of this synthetically manufactured extract. Any inhalation exposure associated with this...) 305-5805. II. Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of May 6, 2009 (74 FR...

  1. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima;

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc......), the activities of SOD under dry conditions (33%ETc) increased significantly by 39 and 90%, in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Under rainfed conditions, the activities of SOD increased by 178.71 and 322.42 %. The CAT activity in rainfed treatment increased significantly by 103.15% (2011) and 87.4% (2012) compared...

  2. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe;

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety......, and especially drought-related adaption strategies. Soil water status was expressed as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). Relative stomatal conductance (RSC), relative transpiration (RT) and relative leaf water potential (RLW) were calculated by determining stomatal conductance, transpiration rate...... and leaf water potential of the drought-treated plants relative to those of fully irrigated plants. The responses of RSC, RT and RLW to decreasing FTSW were described by a linear-plateau model. The critical value of FTSW was the threshold of FTSW where the parameters studied decreased. The thresholds...

  3. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. E. Jarvis; O. R. Kopp; E. N. Jellen; M. A. Mallory; J. Pattee; A. Bonifacio; C. E. Coleman; M. R. Stevens; D. J. Fairbanks; P. J. Maughan

    2008-04-01

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 SSR markers developed from bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BES-SSRs). Heterozygosity (H) values of the SSR markers ranges from 0.12 to 0.90, with an average value of 0.57. A linkage map was constructed for a newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population using these SSR markers. Additional markers, including amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), two 11S seed storage protein loci, and the nucleolar organizing region (NOR), were also placed on the linkage map. The linkage map presented here is the first SSR-based map in quinoa and contains 275 markers, including 200 SSR. The map consists of 38 linkage groups (LGs) covering 913 cM. Segregation distortion was observed in the mapping population for several marker loci, indicating possible chromosomal regions associated with selection or gametophytic lethality. As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean regions of South America.

  4. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    Water scarcity, soil salinity and high temperatures are the major causes of yield losses worldwide. The halophytic crop quinoa that originates in the South American Andes, provides very nutritious seeds and can tolerate high levels of soil salinity. It is therefore considered an option to sustain...... crop production in other salt affected areas worldwide. The large genetic variability within the species may allow the selection of varieties for cultivation under various climatic conditions. In the study, intra-species differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity in terms of biomass production...... and a number of physiological traits were assessed. The Mediterranean region increasingly suffers from soil salinization, and could therefore benefit from quinoa cultivation. However, highly salt tolerant quinoa cultivars originate in the cool Andean highland. Hence, for a successful production of quinoa...

  5. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yao; Zhenxing Shi; Guixing Ren

    2014-01-01

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results s...

  6. Phenotypic flexibility in exotic quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd.) germplasm for seedling vigor and viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and root (more than 3.5 cm) or shoot lengths (more than 4.0 cm) presented themselves as important associated traits, in addition to germination index (22 to 33) and seedling survival percentage (between 90-100%). However, final germination percentage and root length were demonstrated to be reliable and environment-proof traits for the crop. Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and root (more than 3.5 cm) or shoot lengths (more than 4.0 cm) presented themselves as important associated traits, in addition to germination index (22 to 33) and seedling survival percentage (between 90-100%). However, final germination percentage and root length were demonstrated to be reliable and environment-proof traits for the crop. (author)

  7. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-01-01

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators. PMID:25342323

  8. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. PMID:24679767

  9. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R110, 94, 20R333, 20R227, 20R342 and 20R37 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R333 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R333, 20R342 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  10. Embutidos fortificados con proteína vegetal a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maldonado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Español:El objetivo de esta investigación es substituir la mayor cantidad de proteína animal, por proteína vegetal a base de quinua, sin disminuir la calidad y aceptabilidad del producto, se optó por este pseudocereal ya que posee características nutricionales muy importantes para la alimentación humana. En la actualidad el país atraviesa por una crisis en la disponibilidad de alimentos y por una dependencia crítica de materia prima importada, por lo cual necesita de alternativas propias, que fomenten el consumo de productos nativos y autóctonos. Al elaborar productos con materia prima disponible en el país logramos disminuir la dependencia externa y promover el trabajo interno y por ende contribuir a garantizar la Soberanía Alimentaria. La Soberanía Alimentaria es el derecho de los pueblos a definir sus propias políticas y estrategias sustentables de producción, distribución y consumo de alimentos que garanticen el derecho a la alimentación para toda la población, con base en la pequeña y medi

  11. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle;

    2011-01-01

    water potential (Wl), shoot and root abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and transpiration rate were measured in full irrigation (FI; around 95 % of water holding capacity (WHC)) and progressive drought (PD) treatments using the irrigation water with five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1......); the treatments are referred to as FI0, FI10, FI20, FI30, FI40; PD0, PD10, PD20, PD30, PD40, respectively. The measurements were carried out over 9 days of continuous drought. The results showed that increasing salinity levels decreased the total soil water potential (WT) and consequently decreased gs and Wl...... values in both FI and PD. During the drought period, the xylem [ABA] extracted from the shoots increased faster than that extracted from the roots. A reduction in WT, caused by salinity and soil drying, reduced transpiration and increased apparent root resistance (R) to water uptake, especially in PD0...

  12. Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stikic, Radmila; Glamoclija, Djordje; Demin, Mirjana;

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa is an Andean seed crop of many potential uses. In 2009 a field trial was carried out to explore the potential for quinoa growing in climatic conditions of South Eastern Europe. Even under rainfed conditions, without fertilization, a seed yield as high as 1.721 t ha-1 was obtained. Seed...... quality was remarkably good, with protein content ranging from 15.16 to 17.41 % on a dry weight basis, depending on whether seeds were processed. Amino acid and mineral composition revealed the potential of quinoa seeds as a valuable ingredient in the preparation of highly nutritious foods. Quinoa seeds...... had higher contents of most essential amino acids, especially lysine, than wheat flour. Dehulled quinoa seeds, devoid of saponins, were included into wheat bread formulations, with up to 20%, which resulted in a positive effect on the rheological characteristics of dough. Furthermore, protein content...

  13. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  14. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal com proteínas de alto valor biológico, carboidratos de baixo índice glicêmico, fitosteróis e ácidos graxos ômega 3 e 6. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da quinoa no perfil bioquímico e antropométrico e pressão arterial em humanos, parâmetros dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Vinte e dois estudantes com 18 a 45 anos de idade foram tratados diariamente, por 30 dias, com quinoa sob a forma de barra de cereal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes e após os 30 dias do tratamento para determinar o perfil glicêmico e bioquímico do grupo. Os resultados mostraram efeitos positivos do uso da quinoa já que se observou redução significativa nos valores de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e LDL-c. Conclui-se que o uso da quinoa na alimentação pode ser considerado benéfico na prevenção e tratamento de fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares que estão entre a principais causas de morte no mundo globalizado, embora sejam necessários mais estudos para comprovação dos benefícios observados.

  15. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado; Sandra Maria Barbalho; Marie Oshiiwa; Ricardo Goulart; Osvaldo Pessan Junior

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a...

  16. The effect of herbicides on Chenopodium album L. phenology in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the time of occurrence of the emergence, budding, fruiting and seed shedding stages, as well as the degree of advancement of the white goosefoot fruiting and diaspores shedding stages in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops under mechanical and chemical weed control. Phenological observations were conducted in the years 2000-2002 at 10-day intervals, starting from the day of crop sowing on alluvial soil made of light loam. Chemically weed controlled objects were treated with herbicides: fodder beet - lenacil 80%; spring wheat - MCPA 30% + dicamba 4%; faba bean - linuron 50%. It was proven that the times of occurrence and the scale of the studied phenological stages of white goosefoot depended on the crop species, the in-crop weed control method and the pattern of weather conditions in the study years. White goosefoot had the most favourable conditions of growth in the fodder beet crop. The herbicides in the fodder beet and faba bean crops delayed the emergence and the time of occurrence of successive white goosefoot growth stages. These agents also decreased the degree of diaspores shedding by the weed species studied. The most white goosefoot specimens shed fruits on the mechanically weed controlled plots. The diaspores dissemination was promoted by a warm and moist growing season.

  17. 藜挥发油成分GC-MS分析%Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Chenopodium album

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月红; 杨晓虹; 刘松艳; 陈滴; 董雷

    2007-01-01

    采用GC-MS技术,分析了藜中的挥发性成分.气相色谱共检测出125个峰,经与质谱标准图谱比较,鉴定了其中13种化学成分,含量较高的为3,7,11,15-四甲基-2-十六碳烯-1-醇、六氢化法呢基丙酮和β-紫罗兰酮,相对百分含量分别为56.77%、9.51%、4.21%.

  18. Caracterizacion de carbohidratos de Chenopodium quinoa y variabilidad cenética usando marcadores de tipo RAPD.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, A; Ames, M.; Barrantes, W.; N Leiva

    2004-01-01

    La quinua ( Willd.) es una de las especies nativas caracterizada por su reconocido aporte nutricional y su elevada productividad. Esta especie ha sido cultivada desde hace miles de años en los Andes de Perú y Bolivia, principalmente en el Altiplano, de donde provienen la mayoría de las variedades. Las cuales se pueden diferenciar por características morfológicas del grano (tamaño, color, sabor) y otras propiedades agro-fisiológicas. Sin embargo, para fines de mejoramiento ge...

  19. Effects of nitrogen availability and spore concentration on the biocontrol activity of Ascochyta caulina in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, R.; Scheepens, P.C.; Zweerde, van der W.; Leifert, C.; McDonald, A.J.S.; Seel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Common lambsquarters is an annual weed of many important crops. Ascochyta caulina is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes necrotic lesions on the leaves and stems of common lambsquarters. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of plant N supply on the biocontrol activity of A

  20. 40 CFR 180.1287 - Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1287 Extract of... near ambrosioides when used as an insecticide/acaricide on all food commodities....

  1. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.

  2. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. PMID:25529712

  3. Farmers' willingness to adopt irrigation for Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) in communities of the central altiplano of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Cristal, Taboada; Armando, Mamani; Dirk, Raes; Erik, Mathijs; Magali, García; Sam, Geerts; Jere, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Quinoa is considered a strategic crop because it is well adapted to the adverse abiotic conditions of the Bolivian Altiplano; however, the average yield is low. Previous studies have demonstrated that quinoa yield would increase with deficit irrigation technology. Nevertheless, to irrigate quinoa is not a normal practice in the farming systems of the Altiplano. This paper examines the main factors that determine the attitude of farmers towards adopting deficit irrigation using a sample of 137...

  4. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched embryo fraction. Subsequently, this fraction was milled, suspended, and further fractionated by aqueous phase separation. The efficiency of aqueous phase separation could be improved by addition of Na...

  5. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples. PMID:26593460

  6. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. PMID:25149016

  7. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado; Sandra Maria Barbalho; Marie Oshiiwa; Ricardo Goulart; Osvaldo Pessan Junior

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a...

  8. Biochemical and immunochemical evidences supporting the inclusion of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a gluten-free ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Uberti, Francesca; di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Brandolini, Andrea; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    To date, the only acceptable therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD) is a strict elimination from the diet of gluten-containing foods, but this diet does not always guarantee an adequate nutritional intake. Pseudocereals are receiving considerable attention as interesting alternatives for the formulation of gluten-free products, and quinoa grains arise as nutritive substitutes of conventional cereals. The aim of this study was the characterization of different quinoa samples corresponding to 11 quinoa varieties, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting techniques to assess their suitability for celiac subjects. Some of these varieties were grown in Italy to assess if the reproduction in a new habitat can guarantee the retention of the "safe" protein pattern. None of the quinoa varieties studied presented protein bands with electrophoretic mobility comparable with those of wheat gliadins, the toxic protein for celiac subjects. All the quinoa samples showed a low binding affinity for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and IgAs from celiac subjects, confirming that quinoa can be considered as a safe ingredient for celiac patients. However, reliable varieties should be previously selected since the immuno cross-reactivity with anti-gliadin antibodies can vary significantly. PMID:25359556

  9. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  10. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  11. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE À BASE DE PITAIA (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS, ENRIQUECIDO COM QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA E SUCRALOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Thiago Matos Carvalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O mercado para alimentos que visam determinado benefício à saúde tem se mostrado promissor, aliado a esse fato é crescente o número de estudos na área de alimentos derivados do leite, como o iogurte, produto de alto valor biológico, com propriedades benéficas a saúde e de fácil comercialização. O iogurte se adicionado de polpa de pitaia (Hylocereus undatus, fruta exótica de potencial sensorial e pouco explorada, tende a ser um produto de fácil aceitação pelos consumidores, adicionalmente é possível aumentar seu valor nutricional adicionando quinoa, cereal de elevado teor protéico e conteúdos significativos em ácidos graxos, e não obstante a utilização da sucralose que é considerado um edulcorante sem restrições de uso, torna o produto ainda mais atrativo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar sensorialmente iogurtes acrescidos de polpa de pitaia em diferentes concentrações e verificar qual foi a de maior aceitação. Foram feitas as análises microbiológicas de coliformes a 30ºC, 45ºC e presença de Salmonella sp. para verificar a qualidade do produto. O modelo adotado para a análise sensorial foi o teste de ordenação de preferência, para comparação do iogurte em suas diferentes concentrações de polpa. As análises microbiológicas encontradas para os iogurtes nas concentrações de 20%, 30% e 40% de polpa foram satisfatórias de acordo com a legislação vigente para esse tipo de produto. Os resultados obtidos para o teste sensorial apontaram à preferência do consumidor a amostra com maior concentração de polpa de pitaia (40%.

  12. Study on Extraction Leaf protein of Chenopodium Album L.%藜(灰菜)叶蛋白提取试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康英

    2011-01-01

    对藜的利用做了研究和探讨,试验采用加热絮凝的方法,从藜的地上部分提取叶蛋白,对不同生育期、不同收获时间、不同存放时间对藜叶蛋白提取率的影响进行了实验研究.结果表明:在开花期提取叶蛋白,效率较高(3.26%),提取物纯度较高(产品中CP为51.86%),有效成分含量大(8.867g/株);在开花期白天不同时间收获的藜,叶蛋白提取率差异不显著(P>0.05);采集物应在24h内及时进行提取,延长时间会降低叶蛋白提取量和品质.

  13. 药用植物红落藜组织培养研究%Studies on Plantlet Regeneration and Propagation of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧珠; 吴少华; 邱万翔

    2009-01-01

    以红落藜为试验材料,进行茎段组织培养及植株再生的研究.试验结果表明75%酒精5s+0.1%升汞8 min既可进行彻底消毒,又保证具有较高的成活率;通过初代培养筛选出NAA为最适的生长激素,最适培养基为MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L+琼脂0.8%+蔗糖2%+活性炭0.2%;通过继代培养筛选出最适培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L+琼脂0.8%+蔗糖2%+活性炭0.2%;最适的生根培养基为1/2MS+IBA1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L+琼脂0.8%+蔗糖2%+活性炭0.2%,生根率为80%.当试管苗叶片数3~5片,苗高2~3 cm,生根数3~4条时,移栽至蛭石和腐殖土(1:2)混合的基质中,保湿遮阴,成活率可达90%以上.

  14. Effect of simulated drought inducement on drought-resistance of Chenopodium album%模拟干旱诱导对藜抗旱力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙存华

    1999-01-01

    以藜为研究材料,经过5年人工模拟干旱诱导,测定其耐旱形态结构及生理特征的改变以探讨提高植物抗旱的途径.结果表明,经模拟干旱诱导后藜叶片典型耐旱特征增加:叶片厚度和肉质度增加,比叶面积、饱和渗透势和蒸腾速率下降,渗透调节能力和持水力增强,临界饱和亏值增大,蒸腾效率提高.经干旱诱导形成耐旱特征后收获的种子种植于正常供水环境中长成的植株仍能保持其已形成的耐旱特征,在重度干旱胁迫下经过干旱诱导的植株各抗旱指标与对照相比有明显差异(P<0.01),证明藜是耐旱可变植物,可通过干旱诱导锻炼提高其抗旱性.

  15. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods.

  16. Purificação e Caracterização de uma Protease do Pólen de Chenopodium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Denis Manuel de Castro

    2013-01-01

    Os pólenes de plantas anemófilas são importantes indutores de doenças alérgicas, como a asma e a rinite. O pólen quando é hidratado, para além de libertar uma diversidade de alergénios, liberta também proteases. Estas podem desempenhar um papel relevante na sensibilização alérgica, uma vez que levam à fragilização da barreira epitelial, potenciando o contacto entre os alergénios e células do sistema imunitário. Podem também activar receptores específicos de proteases, que levam...

  17. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. PMID:26919812

  18. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. PMID:24262578

  19. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    to compensate the negative effect of water deficit through the improvement of soil water-holding capacity. This research was conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir) between October 2011 and January 2012. The mean objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of organic matter...

  20. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. PMID:27173545

  1. Extracción y caracterización fisicoquímica y funcional del almidón de semilla de huauzontle (Chenopodium berlandieri Moq.).

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, Lourdes Raquel

    2013-01-01

    El Huauzontle es un pseudocereal que se consume en México y puede ser una alternativa de producción de almidón. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar el rendimiento de almidón del huauzontle y sus características fisicoquímicas y funcionales, para determinar su posible uso industrial. El rendimiento utilizando NaOH fue muy bajo, 0.8%, con H2O al 50% v/p fue de 50%, mientras que para papa fue de 68.81% y 67.58% en maíz. El contenido de humedad fue de 17.00 %, cenizas 1.90%, mat...

  2. Utilização de farinha de soja (Glycine max) e de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) no preparo de macarrão caseiro sem glúten
    Using of soy bean (Glycine max) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) fl our to make homemade pasta without gluten

    OpenAIRE

    P. KIRINUS; C. COPETTI; Oliveira, V R

    2011-01-01

    Sabendo da reduzida disponibilidade de produtos especÃ­ï¬ cos e indispensáveis para a melhoria da qualidade de vida de pacientes celíacos, este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar dois tipos de massa para macarrão caseiro como alternativa alimentar para indivíduos que apresentam restrição ao consumo de glúten. Os macarrões foram elaborados por meio das seguintes etapas: homogeneização parcial, hidratação, amassamento e moldagem da massa, seccionamento em...

  3. Utilização de farinha de soja (Glycine max e de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa no preparo de macarrão caseiro sem glúten
    Using of soy bean (Glycine max and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa fl our to make homemade pasta without gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KIRINUS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Sabendo da reduzida disponibilidade de produtos específi cos e indispensáveis para a melhoria da qualidade de vida de pacientes celíacos, este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar dois tipos de massa para macarrão caseiro como alternativa alimentar para indivíduos que apresentam restrição ao consumo de glúten. Os macarrões foram elaborados por meio das seguintes etapas: homogeneização parcial, hidratação, amassamento e moldagem da massa, seccionamento em macarrão tipo talharim e cozimento em água e sal. Para realização da análise sensorial, participaram 40 provadores não treinados e não portadores de doença celíaca, os quais receberam três amostras de macarrão de farinha de trigo, macarrão de soja e macarrão de quinoa. A massa elaborada com farinha de soja foi mais bem aceita do que a elaborada com farinha de quinoa, podendo então ser sugerida como alternativa para a não privação de alimentos à base de glúten. Com o presente estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe a viabilidade de elaboração de macarrão caseiro do tipo talharim com farinha de soja ou de quinoa. Contudo, a massa elaborada com farinha de soja sugere características sensoriais mais promissoras.

  4. Responses of two summer annuals to interactions of atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The competitive relationship between Chenopodium album L. (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus L. (C{sub 4}) was investigated in two atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and tow soil nitrogen levels. Biomass and leaf surface area of Amaranthus plants did not respond to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Only in high nitrogen did Chenopodium plants respond to increased CO{sub 2} with greater biomass and leaf surface area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was higher in Amaranthus than in Chenopodium in all treatments except for the high-nitrogen high-CO{sub 2} treatment. Under conditions of high nitrogen and low CO{sub 2}, Chenopodium was a poor competitor, but competition favored Chenopodium in high nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Chenopodium on a dry weight basis, but favored Amaranthus on a seed weight basis, reflecting early senescence of Chenopodium. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Amaranthus on a dry weight basis, but favored Chenopodium on a seed weight basis. Physiological aspects of the growth of Chenopodium and Amaranthus were studied. Acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} occurred at the enzyme level in Chenopodium. Under conditions of high nitrogen and no competition, individual Chenopodium plants responded to elevated CO{sub 2} with greater biomass, leaf surface area, and maximum net photosynthetic rates. In high nitrogen, leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, and RuBP carboxylase activity of Chenopodium decreased and NUE increased when grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen without competition, Chenopodium showed no significant response to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Amarantus grown in high and low nitrogen without competition showed no significant changes in leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, carboxylase activity, chlorophyll, or NUE of in response to CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  5. Co-Administration of CpG Oligonucleotides and Chenopodium album Extract Reverse IgG2a/IgG1 Ratios and Increase IFN-Gamma and IL-10 Productions in a Murine Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mousavi

    2008-03-01

    We conclude that Co- administration of Ch.a. allergen and CpG ODN prevents the development of TH2-mediated response probably through the IL-10 regulatory effects. Thus, these components could be used with the other allergens in order to induce the prevention of inflammatory conditions. We suggest further studies are necessary to identify the potential effects of CpG-ODNs administration in conjunction with other antigens prepared from the regional allergens in Iran. Taken together, we suppose that the results obtained in this study in animal models may be useful in human trials conducted by other investigators

  6. 灰灰菜黄酮类化合物的提取及其体外抗氧化性研究%Study on Extraction of Flavonoids from Chenopodium album Linn. And Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华

    2013-01-01

    以灰灰菜为原料,采用微波辅助提取黄酮类化合物,研究各因素对黄酮提取率的影响及其抗氧化性.在单因素的基础上,通过正交试验确定提取黄酮类化合物的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:从灰灰菜中提取黄酮的最佳工艺为:微波功率为400 W,辐射时间为5min,微波处理温度为50℃,乙醇体积分数为80%,此条件下灰灰菜黄酮类化合物的提取率为0.3842%,并且灰灰菜黄酮化合物有较好的清除DPPH自由基的作用.

  7. Nutritive compositions of Chenopodium album and the evaluation as a vegetable resource%藜的营养成分及作为新型蔬菜资源的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙存华; 李扬; 贺鸿雁; 杜伟; 陈小峰

    2005-01-01

    对藜的营养成分进行了测定并对其作为新型蔬菜进行了评价.藜具有较高含量的维生素C,β-胡萝卜素,以及Fe、Zn、Mn和Cu等微量元素,氨基酸的种类达17种,其中7种为人体必需氨基酸.藜种子中粗脂肪的含量是16.4%,含有多种油酸,其中亚油酸和亚麻酸是人体必需脂肪酸,尤其是亚油酸含量高达53.86%.还讨论了藜的生物学特性、对环境的适应性及食用处理方法.并认为藜是一种很有开发利用前景的野生蔬菜资源.

  8. Study on the Technology of Ultrasonic Extraction of Lutein from the Wild Chenopodium Album Linn%超声波提取野生灰灰菜中叶黄素的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦博; 石燕; 唐慧安

    2014-01-01

    以野生灰灰菜真空冻干叶粉为原料,研究超声波强化四氢呋喃提取叶黄素的工艺条件.在室温25℃条件下进行单因素试验,通过正交试验研究了料液比、超声波功率、超声作用时间对提取效果的影响,比较超声提取与静态溶剂提取法的提取效果.试验结果显示:较理想的提取条件:料液比1∶10;超声作用时间20 min;超声功率400W.在此条件下,超声提取法的提取率为90%,而溶剂静态浸提法仅32.7%.

  9. 电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定藜中多种无机元素%Simultaneous Determination of Inorganic Elements in Chenopodium album L Using ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松艳; 岳发贵; 李清民; 杨晓虹

    2010-01-01

    应用电感耦合等离子体质谱法分析藜根及茎叶两部分18种无机元素含量.结果显示:藜植物根及茎叶部均检出16种无机元素,其中13种元素为人体必需的宏量元素和微量元素,未检出对人体有害元素Hg、Cd元素.宏量元素中Ca、K、Mg含量较高;微量元素中Fe含量最高.

  10. 藜叶中黄酮类化合物体外抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activity in vitro of Flavonoids from Chenopodium album L. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊青玲; 张耀兮; 李天才

    2009-01-01

    为了探讨藜叶中黄酮类化合物的体外抗氧化活性,采用有机溶剂提取法和色谱柱法对藜叶中化学成分进行提取与分离;以Vc作对照,对分离纯化的芦丁、乙酸乙酯浸膏和正丁醇浸膏进行DPPH·、O_2~-·和·OH的清除效果试验.结果表明:三者对DPPH·、O_2~-·、·OH均具有清除作用,且与浓度呈量效关系,芦丁对·OH清除效果优于V_C,芦丁具有较强的清除DPPH·能力,其IC_(50)为0.05 μg/mL.

  11. The Influence of Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination of Chenopodium album L.%模拟酸雨对藜种子萌发过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史冬燕

    2008-01-01

    [目的]探索藜种子萌发对酸雨胁迫的响应.[方法]藜种子消毒后,分别用pH值为7.0、5.5,4.5、3.0、2.5的模拟酸雨溶液浸泡24h,然后放入加有相应的模拟酸雨溶液培养皿内进行培养.10d后记录种子发芽数,测量POD活性和MDA含量.[结果]随着pH值的下降,藜种子发芽率降低.对照组的最高,pH值5.5处理组次之,pH值2.0处理组最差.pH值2.5处理组的发芽率下降45.07%,pH值3.0处理组的发芽率下降17.54%.酸雨对发芽势的影响与发芽率相同.POD酶活性变化是随胁迫时间的延长呈先高后降的变化趋势.各处理组的MDA含量随处理浓度的升高呈先升后降、再升高的变化规律.[结论]模拟酸雨对藜种子的萌发有一定的抑制作用,且随着酸化程度的提高抑制作用加强.

  12. 藜麦在青海的引种及适应性鉴定方法探讨%Introduction and Investigate Some Methods for Evaluating the Adaptability of Chenopodium quinoa in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 闫殿海; 毛玉金; 张玉清; 姚有华; 党斌; 迟德钊

    2016-01-01

    藜麦原产南美洲因其全营养特性广受关注.青海海西州进行了藜麦引种,获得成功,但能否在青海省内各地都种植,需进行适应性鉴定,因此对适应性鉴定的方法进行了探讨,期望为藜麦在青海育种、引种及品种布局提供依据.

  13. Progress in Research on Nutritional and Functional Components and Bioactivity of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%藜麦营养功能成分及生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏爱春; 杨修仕; 么杨; 刘浩; 秦培友; 赵德刚; 李怡; 任贵兴

    2015-01-01

    藜麦是适宜人类食用的全营养食品,不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、淀粉、VB1、叶酸、矿物质(Ca、Zn、Fe)等营养物质,还含有多酚、黄酮、芦丁、槲皮素、异槲皮素、皂苷等功能成分,具有抗氧化、抗炎、降血糖、减肥等生理活性.本文综述藜麦的营养功能成分及其生物活性的国内外研究进展,并对其发展应用前景进行展望.

  14. Ethno-Ecological and Agronomic Contributions toward the Knowledge, Conservation and Use of Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) and Ahipa (Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi) in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Calle, Juan Pablo

    communities still cultivate a wide range of diverse crop resources, but faced with reduced demands this agro-biodiversity is in danger of becoming significantly reduced. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to contribute to the conservation and use of cañahua and ahipa by records of ethno...

  15. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1962-01-01

    This first part of a series of acquisitions to the Netherlands adventitious flora contains descriptions of 1. Chenopodium nitrariaceum (F. v. Muell.) F. v. Muell. ex Benth., 2. Amaranthus bouchonii Thell., and 3. Brassica carinata A. Braun.

  16. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  17. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) miers on some weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF; M. Badruzzaman SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germinati...

  18. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  19. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform). PMID:16219440

  20. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform).

  1. Insecticidal activity of petroleum ether extract and essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae) against Anopheles gambiae(Diptera: Culicidae)%土荆芥的石油醚提取物及精油对冈比亚按蚊的杀虫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abiodun A. DENLOYE; Oluwakemi K. AJELARA; Rasaq A. OLOWU; Adeolu O. ESHILOKUN; Winifred A. MAKANJUOLA

    2009-01-01

    . ambrosioides for the control An. gambiae.%48 h致死中浓度(LC50)的测试结果表明,石油醚提取物对1龄幼虫的毒性最强(14.89 mg/L),其次是对4龄幼虫(18.90 mg/L),对3龄幼虫的毒性最低(183.77 mg/L); 精油对4龄幼虫毒性最强(36.62 mg/L),其次是对1龄幼虫(90.75 mg/L).推算的土荆芥精油对冈比亚按蚊的LC50为1.01 μL/L.本研究揭示了土荆芥对冈比亚按蚊的防治潜力.

  2. 土荆芥挥发油化感作用下根边缘细胞对豌豆根尖的保护效应%Protective Effect of Root Border Cells on Root Tip Cell by Treated with Volatile Oil from Chenopodium ambrosioide L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪利沙; 何兵; 马丹炜; 王亚男; 张红; 李群

    2013-01-01

    采用悬空气培养法,通过保留根边缘细胞和去除根边缘细胞2种处理方法,研究了在土荆芥挥发油作用下根边缘细胞对豌豆根尖的保护效应.结果表明,土荆芥挥发油抑制了豌豆幼根的生长,在去除根边缘细胞的情况下这种抑制效应更加明显;与对照相比,根尖丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧岐化酶(SOD)活性明显增加,过氧化物酶(POD)活性和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性明显下降.这些结果与挥发油剂量呈正相关.去除根边缘细胞的根尖与保留根边缘细胞的根尖相比,MDA含量较高,SOD活性较低,POD活性和CAT活性下降幅度更大.上述结果说明,根边缘细胞对根尖具有一定的保护效应.

  3. 酶-热水浸提法提取藜麦麸水溶性非淀粉多糖工艺研究%Extraction process of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides from Chenopodium quinoa willd bran by enzyme-water method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林

    2016-01-01

    Using Cheopodium quinoa willd bran,the extraction process of water-soluble non-starch polysaccha-rides (NSP)was studied by enzyme-water method.Phenol-sulfate method was used to measure the yield of NSP.The optimal extraction conditions were determinated through single factor assay and orthogonal assay.The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were material-liquid ratio(w /v)1 16,the addition of viscozyme 2.0 mg/g,extraction temperature 90 ℃,extraction time 100 min.Under the experiment conditions, the yield of NSP was 7.55%.Compared with other extraction methods,the extraction yield of water-soluble NSP was higher,to the use of Cheopodium quinoa willd bran more fully.And because extraction solvent was water,there was no strong acid alkali waste liquid generated in extraction process,which would not cause en-vironmental pollution.%以藜麦麸为原料,采用酶-热水浸提法对藜麦麸水溶性非淀粉多糖(NSP)提取工艺进行研究.利用苯酚-硫酸法测定 NSP 的得率,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件:料液比(w /v)为116,复合多糖酶添加量为2.0 mg/g,浸提温度为90℃,浸提时间为100 min.该试验条件下藜麦麸水溶性 NSP 得率为7.55%.与其他提取方法相比,该法提取水溶性 NSP 的得率较高,对藜麦麸的利用更加充分,且浸提溶剂为水,在提取过程中没有强酸强碱性废液产生,不会造成环境污染.

  4. Studies on Gene Sequence of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus in Chenopodium quinoa and Pear%梨树苹果褪绿叶斑病毒在昆诺藜与梨树上的基因序列比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓燕; 牛建新; 刘宏; 樊新民; 戴志新

    2006-01-01

    以已知带苹果褪绿叶斑病毒的梨树叶片和皮层及昆诺藜为实验材料,对两种植物总RNA的提取、RT-PCR、目的片断的克隆及其酶切鉴定、基因序列进行了分析比较.结果表明,从两种植物中均可以获得高纯度的总RNA及RT-PCR特异性产物,序列分析结果表明,从梨树中提取的病毒目的片断基因序列与从昆诺藜中提取的病毒基因序列之间存在着差异,但差异不大.

  5. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  6. Molecular cloning of dsRNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, C.D.; Miglino, R.; Jelkmann, W.; Leone, G.

    1998-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus was transmitted from Fragaria vesca to Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana occidentalis 37B. In all plants, SMoV infection-associated dsRNA was detected but dsRNA patterns showed some differences between the herbaceous hosts. The differences were more evident when the dsRNA prep

  7. Phytotoxic Activity of a Benzofuran Isolated from Trichocline reptans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vaccarini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic Activity of the 6-acetyl-5-hydroxy-2isopropenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofurane (1 isolated from Trichocline reptans (Asteraceae was investigated in two weed species. Results indicate that the best growth inhibition effect ocurres on Chenopodium album weed. Phythotoxic effect of the T. reptans chloroformic extract and of the benzofurane are discussed and compared in the two weed species.

  8. Increasing weed flora in Danish beet, pea and winter barley fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Stryhn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    .g. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik, Cirsium arvense (L. Scop.), Galium aparine L., Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löwe, Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch. Bip.) have been favoured. Some weeds have declined in some crops but increased in other crops (e.g. Chenopodium album L., Geranium pusillum L.), while...

  9. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  10. An investigation to enhance understanding of the stimulation of weed seedling emergence by soil disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced understanding of soil disturbance effects on weed seedling recruitment will guide improved management approaches. Field experiments were conducted at 16 site-years at 10 research farms across Europe and North America to 1) quantify superficial soil disturbance (SSD) effects on Chenopodium ...

  11. Binding site of novel 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3,5-triazine herbicides in the D1 protein of Photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikeda, Y.; Ohki, S.; Koizumi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Watanabe, H.; Kohno, H.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Böger, P.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2003-01-01

    A series of replacement experiments of [C-14]-triazines, [C-14]-atrazine and [7-C-14]-2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3,5-triazine, bound to thylakoids isolated from wild-type and atrazine-resistant Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) were conducted. Replacement experiments of [C-14]-triazi

  12. A crossing method for quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Adam; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Bonifacio, Alejandro;

    2015-01-01

    As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding wor...

  13. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...... but the biological activity of glyphosate was not improved....

  14. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...... but the biological activity of glyphosate was not improved....

  15. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Martinus; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  16. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium qu

  17. Unstable infectivity and abundant viral RNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Schoen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A not yet identified virus (SMoV) associated with the strawberry mottle syndrome was mechanically transmitted from infected Fragaria vesca UC-5 to Chenopodium quinoa and from C. quinoa to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. occidentalis 37B and N. hesperis 67A. C. quinoa, N. benthamiana, and N. occidentalis 3

  18. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  19. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  20. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  1. Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer

    OpenAIRE

    Cillen, L.; Timmer, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen, om ons hier iets meer over te vertellen.

  2. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KUMAUN HIMALAYA AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sati, S. C.; POONAM TAKULI; Kumar, P.; K. KHULBE

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial property of methanol, ethanol and hexane extracts of Berberis aristata, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Tinospora cordifolia grown in Kumaun Himalayan were investigated against some pathogenic gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas phaseoli and Erwinia chrysanthemi) using disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of B. aristata was found with highest inhibitory activity against E. chrysanth...

  4. Ascaridole as a pharmacologically active principle of "Paico," a medicinal Peruvian plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, E; Umeyama, K; Saito, Y; Yamazaki, M; Satake, M

    1993-07-01

    "Paico," Chenopodium ambrosioides L., is a traditional Peruvian medicine which is considered to be nervine, antirheumatic, anthelmintic, etc. An attempt was made to isolate the component having sedative and/or analgesic properties from "Paico" and "Aritasou" (the Japanese name for C. ambrosioides). Ascaridole was identified as the active principle in both materials. PMID:8374999

  5. Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillen, L.; Timmer, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen, o

  6. Aspects of participatory plant breeding for quinoa in marginal areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily subsisten

  7. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Ilić; Jasenka Ćosić; Draženka Jurković; Karolina Vrandečić

    2013-01-01

    Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency ...

  8. Time sequence of the damage to the acceptor and donor sides of photosystem II by UV-B radiation as evaluated by chlorophyll a fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.; Rodrigues, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on photosystem II (PS II) were studied in leaves of Chenopodium album. After the treatment with UV-B the damage was estimated using chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques. Measurements of modulated fluorescence using a pulse amplitude modulated fluoromete

  9. Reaction of some weed species to herbicides in sugar beet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Domańska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1975-1980, on the Experimental Farm Chylice fields of the Warsaw Agricultural University, herbicide activity was evaluated on commonly appearing weed species in sugar beet cultivation. The most frequent weeds were: Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Polygonum convolvulus and Polygonum lapatifolium. Preemergence use of chloridazon and furthermore postemergence use of phenmedipham were most effective in control. Metolachlor or bentiocarb mixed with metamitron and chloridazon were effective too. It was found that 70% control of Chenopodium album increased crops of sugar beets by about 25% on the basis of two years experiments (1979-1980, differing in quantity and periods of rainfall, a visible dependence of herbicide effectiveness on climatic conditions was demonstrated.

  10. In Vitro Skin Permeation of Osthol from Hydro-Alcohofic Gel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANZhen-ting; DINGPing-tian; LuBo; CHENDa-wei

    2004-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption behavior of osthol from a series of hydro-alcoholic gel formulations containing three penetration enhancers through excised human skin (stratum cormeum and epidermis,SCE). Methods Excised human skin was mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells. The samples withdrawn from the receptor cell were analyzed for osthol content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The enhancers azone, menthol and chenopodium increased the osthol percutaneous steady-state fluxes 3.12, 2.00 and 1.25 times those of the enhancer-free formulations (controls), separately. Conclusions The main enhancement mechanism of the skin penetration enhancers azone, menthol and chenopodium is to destroy the barrier fimction of stratum corneum, reducing the resistance of drug transport through the skin and increasing the diffusion coefficients of osthol.

  11. Antiphytoviral Activity of Satureja montana L. ssp. variegata (Host P. W. Ball Essential Oil and Phenol Compounds on CMV and TMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Cukrov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Satureja montana L. ssp. variegata (Host P. W. Ball (Lamiaceae was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (71.3%, among which carvacrol (19.4% and thymol (16.6% were the major compounds. When the essential oil was applied on local hosts Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste & Reyn. and Chenopodium quinoa Willd. simultaneously with the infecting virus, the number of local lesions on both Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV infected plants was reduced for 29.2% and 24.1%, respectively. When applied individually for each virus, thymol was more effective in reducing CMV infection (33.2%, while carvacrol was more effective in reducing the TMV infection (34.3%. No synergistic effect of both monoterpenes was observed in the antiviral activity of the oil.

  12. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros; Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior; Adalci Leite Torres

    2005-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum L. (folhas), Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos), Poth...

  13. Survey on species composition of weed community at wheat-rape rotation fields in conservation tillage system of Qinghai province%保护性耕作制度下青海麦油轮作田间杂草群落组成调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 冯俊涛

    2011-01-01

    Weed survey was conducted by sampling methods of inverted W-pattern to determine the species composition and structure of weed communities in wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system. The results showed that among 55 weed species belonging to 22 families, 4 species were considered as dominant weeds, including Elsholtzia densa Benth, Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvlus L and thlaspi arvense Linn.; 9 species were regional dominant weeds; 8 common weed species and 34 normal weed species. The overall abundance of Avenafatua Linn( Elsholtzia densa Benth), Sonchus arvensis Linn. And Chenopodium album were relatively high and were the main components of weed communities at the wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system.%采用倒置"W"取样法对青海麦油轮作区保护性耕作田间杂草进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作田杂革有55种,隶属于22科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、藜(Chenopodium album)、荞麦蔓(Polygonum convolvlus L.)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvense Linn.)等4种,区域性优势杂草有9种,常见杂草有8种,一般杂草有34种.发生优势度较大的杂草为野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn)、密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、苣荬菜(Sonchus artensis Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album)等,是构成保护性耕作制度下麦油轮作田间杂草群落的优势种.

  14. 特色蔬菜灰条菜高产优质栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 灰条菜(chenopodium album L)为藜科藜属1 a生草本植物.又名藜、灰灰菜、灰菜、猪菜、粉仔菜、白藜等.原产我国,广布于全国各省区,也为世界广泛布种.其性喜冷凉气候,耐旱耐瘠的野菜.

  15. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  16. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  17. Weed management in conventional, no-till, and transgenic corn with mesotrione combinations and other herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Armel, Gregory Russell

    2002-01-01

    Weed management programs in corn typically include herbicides applied both preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) for season-long weed control. Mesotrione is a new triketone herbicide registered for PRE and POST control of broadleaf weeds in corn. Triketone herbicides function through inhibition of the enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Mesotrione applied PRE did not adequately control common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.), commo...

  18. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts. PMID:11849838

  19. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  20. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seed...

  1. Příprava těstovin s různým podílem merlíkové mouky a jejich kvalitativní hodnocení

    OpenAIRE

    BIGASOVÁ, Věra

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a very nutritionally valuable crop with versatility. The aim of this work was a practical experiment to test the possibility of pasta production with different proportions of quinoa flour and evaluate their selected qualitative properties. The thesis includes also photos of pasta production and the results of questionnaires summarizing the views of consumers on pasta containing quinoa flour. We can advise to use of quinoa flour up to 30% share for the production...

  2. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Mirjana M.; Demin Mirjana A.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.; Žarković Branka M.; Stikić Radmila I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was d...

  3. Distribution et extension de la résistance chloroplatique aux atrazines chez les adventices annuelles en France

    OpenAIRE

    GASQUEZ, Jacques; BARRALIS, Gilbert; Aigle, N.

    1982-01-01

    La résistance chloroplastique aux triazines a été observée en France chez 13 espèces, dont les auteurs précisent l’importance agronomique et la distribution géographique ; les 3 espèces qui présentent la plus grande dispersion sont Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L. et Solanum nigrum L.

  4. Determination of potassium concentration in organic samples by means of x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of x-ray fluorescence analysis and the inner standard method using KH2PO4 as the added chemical compound, potassium concentration of roots, stems , leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd). which was previously treated with a nitrogen ed fertilizers has been determined taking into account the increasing effect the average atomic number due to used standard. Experimental errors are lower than 10 %

  5. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development

    OpenAIRE

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-01-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucle...

  6. Effects of Salinity: Calcium Interaction on Growth and Nucleic Acid Metabolism in Five Species of Chenopodiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    ABO-KASSEM, Essam El-Deen Mohaned

    2007-01-01

    Seed germination, seedling growth, and some enzyme activity of nucleic acid metabolism were studied in 5 members of Chenopodiaceae [Beta vulgaris L., Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Spinacea oleracea L., Allenrolfia occidentalis (S.Watson) Kuntze, Atriplex hortensis L.] under NaCl salinity alone or combined with 0.5 mM CaSO4. High salinity delayed radical emergence and decreased germination percentage in all plants. Combined CaSO4 reduced inhibition of seed germination in B. vulgaris, S. oleracea,...

  7. When Fair Trade increases unfairness: The case of quinoa from Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Carimentrand; Jérôme Ballet

    2010-01-01

    Fair Trade movement tackles the question of global justice. It is experiencing growing success. Fair Trade therefore sorts the beneficiaries, usually by means of certification. Numerous impact studies have assessed the beneficial effects of Fair Trade on the intended beneficiaries. Several studies have nevertheless called into question both the impact of certification and Fair trade. Following these studies this paper shows that Fair Trade in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is actually inc...

  8. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente "bio-équitable" = Quinoa in Bolivia : an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with "organic fair-trade" labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo, Carmen; Mahy, G.; Winkel, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resi...

  9. Is the "Mother Grain" feeding the world before her own children? An examination of the impact of the global demand for quinoa on the lives and diets of Peruvian quinoa farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Milo Juniper

    2015-01-01

    This project examines factors the impact of the increasing global demand for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) on its production and local consumption in southern Peru through a methodological triangulation of semi-structured interviews, external data from national monitoring sources, and secondary sources collected from other researchers. This paper presents data collected through semi-structured interviews with 50 participants from 12 villages in the vicinity of Puno and Cuzc...

  10. Enhancing the Sustainability of Quinoa Production and Soil Resilience by Using Bioproducts Made with Native Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Gutiérrez; Violeta Angulo; Marlene Angulo; Daniel Barja; Oscar Navia; Mayra Claros; José Antonio Castillo; Noel Ortuño

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in a network of interactions with plants, promoting growth and acting as biocontrol agents against diseases. In this work, we studied native microorganisms associated with quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) and the application of these organisms to the organic production of quinoa in the Andean Altiplano. Quinoa is a non-cereal grain native to the Andean highlands and is highly nutritious and gluten-free. As such, the international demand for quinoa has increased s...

  11. Atahualpa's revenge: the spread of quinoa downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, Anna L.; Backman, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The Andean crop quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa, has gained popularity in recent years due to its nutritious seed and desirable agricultural traits, such as its tolerance to drought and high saline soils. Prized by the Inca, quinoa is now highly desirable to health conscious consumers in North America and Europe. Quinoa also has interesting applications to plant pathology, including being a “universal” virus host as well as its production of antimicrobial compounds. Quinoa is affected by quinoa do...

  12. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van, R.; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60, 90 and 120 °C for 30 min led to protein denaturation and aggregation, which was enhanced at higher treatment temperatures. The in vitro gastric digestibility measured during 6 h was lower for protein ...

  13. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel T.; Del Castillo C.; Mahy G.

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drough...

  14. A Crossing Method for Quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Peterson; Sven-Erik Jacobsen; Alejandro Bonifacio; Kevin Murphy

    2015-01-01

    As sustainable production of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, e...

  15. Quinua in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Enrique A.; Fuentes, Francisco F.; Chia, Eduardo; Namdar-Irani, Mina; Olguin, Pablo; Saa, Constanza; Thomet, Max; Vidal, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The biogeography of quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd.) provides a comprehensive view of a crop that is relatively minor in Chilean agriculture, despite growing in a large geographical area (18°–47°S). Quinoa’s genetic diversity illustrates that it is a vital crop in the South American Andes region. It was domesticated in various geographical zones, which generated a wide variety of adaptative morphological and environmental features. Specific adaptations in each macrozone throughout the Andes...

  16. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Poulev, Alexander.; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), tem...

  17. Detection of Infectious Tobamoviruses in Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Fillhart, Ronald C.; Bachand, George D.; Castello, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate elution and bait plant methods to detect infectious tobamoviruses in forest soils in New York State. Soils were collected from two forest sites: Whiteface Mountain (WF) and Heiberg Forest (HF). The effectiveness of four buffers to elute tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) from organic and mineral fractions of WF soil amended with ToMV was tested, and virus content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effectiveness of Chenopodium quinoa (W...

  18. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Abhay K; Singh Pooja; Palni Uma T.; Tripathi N.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA) for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vi...

  19. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Geyang eWu; Adam Joshua Peterson; Craig F Morris; Kevin Matthew Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and...

  20. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Conceição Maciel; Ricardo Ferreira da Silva; Marcelo Silva Reis; Adriana Salomão Jadão; Daniel Dias Rosa; José Segundo Giampan; Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Luis Eduardo Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorot...

  1. Aspects of participatory plant breeding for quinoa in marginal areas of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily subsistence crop, is mainly managed by women. Farmers¿ field selection criteria for quinoa in the field were mostly based on yield, earliness and plant colour; however only breeders¿ measurements of yield a...

  2. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Lazkov; Alexander Sennikov

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica ( Asteraceae ), Crambe orientalis ( Brassicaceae ) and Salvia aethiopis ( Lamiaceae ) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria ( Amaranthaceae ) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia...

  3. Parasitismo sobre eurysacca melanocampta meyrick (lepidoptera: gelechiidae) en dos localidades de cusco, perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Costa; Yábar,Erick; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de ...

  4. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Costa; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los...

  5. La capacidad desfaunante del extracto de plantas en el rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Ley de Coss; Jaime Jorge Martínez Tinajero; Francisco Javier Marroquín Agreda; Carlos Gumaro García Castillo; Oziel Dante Montañez Valdez; Enrique Guerra Medina

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la capacidad de eliminar protozoarios del rumen con el uso del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas Buddleia cordata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Datura inoxia, Marrubium vulgare, Mentha piperita y Verbesina perymenioides, las cuales contienen compuestos secundarios con posible efecto tóxico sobre los protozoarios ciliados del rumen. La capacidad desfaunante (CD) del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas se realizó inoculando 0,5 mL de un concen...

  6. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović Branko I.; Meseldžija Maja U.

    2006-01-01

    Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., R...

  7. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré

    1990-01-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed spec...

  8. VEGETATIVNA KOMPATIBILNOST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM IZOLIRANOGA S KOROVA U ISTOČNOJ HRVATSKOJ

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jelena; Ćosić, Jasenka; Jurković, Draženka; Vrandečić, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Različite formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum glavni su uzročnik fuzarijskih venuća. U 2008. i 2009. godini prikupili smo F. oxysporum uzorke sa sljedećih korova bez simptoma bolesti: Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense i Hibiscus trionum. Izolirali smo nit mutante za 16 od 41 izolata F. oxysporum...

  9. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  10. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2, and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  11. Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in pea field in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer, in 2003-2004, pea viruses were identified in twenty pea fields of Tehran. Some leaf samples were collected randomly from pea fields of Tehran. Samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) technique using polyclonal antiserum of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), AS-0001, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The samples were extracted in 0.1 M Phosphate buffer pH 7 to 7.5 and inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quina, Phaseolus valgaris, Vicia faba, Vignia unguiculata. Pea cultivars were infected by AMV, causing mild mosaic, translucent veins and a diffuse green-yellow of tender parts and spots may also was involved necrosis of tissue. Infected plants grow slowly and malformed pods produce fewer ovules. In Chenopodium amranticolor, C. quina chlorotic and necrotic flecks, and Vicia faba systemic mosaic had produced. Phaselous vulgaris and Viginia unguiculata are good assay hosts for strains that produce local lesions after 3-5 days in these plants. Back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba and tested with DAS-ELISA that had been confirmed the results. This is the first report of AMV on pea from Iran. PMID:16637206

  12. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vitex negundo completely inhibited the growth of test bacteria. Furthermore MIC & MBC values of C. ambrosioides oil were least for Erw. herbicola (0.25 & 2.0 μl/ml and Ps. putida (0.12 & 1.0 μl/ml respectively than other 7 oils as well as Agromycin and Streptomycin drugs used in current study. GC and GC-MS analysis of Chenopodium oil revealed presence of 125 major and minor compounds, out of them, 14 compounds were recognized. The findings concluded that Chenopodium oil may be regarded as safe antibacterial agent for the management of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables.

  13. 藜麦功能成分综合研究与利用%Comprehensive Research and Utilization of Functional Components in Quinoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云双; 曾亚文; 闵康; 易斌

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an annual herb of Chenopodium genus in the Chenopodiaceae familia, which attracts the attention of the researchers for its unique nutritional value and potential health functions.This article summarized the research progress for growth, nutritive value, functional components, gene analysis and physiological function of quinoa. According to the progress of comprehensive research and utilization of functional components in Quinoa at home and abroad, we put forward to countermeasures of germplasm innovation, health food, pharmaceutical research, new functional food development and industrialization for quinoa, which had important reference value for quinoa industry, health food, pharmaceutical development and other fields.%藜麦( Chenopodium quinoa Willd)为藜科藜属一年生草本植物,因独特的营养价值和潜在的保健功能引起研究者们的关注。概述了藜麦的生长发育、营养价值、功能成分、基因分析及其生理功能的研究进展。针对国内外藜麦功能成分综合研究利用进展,提出藜麦的种质创新、食品保健、医药研发及其新型功能食品研制与产业化对策,对藜麦产业、食品保健和医药研发等领域具有重要的参考价值。

  14. Study on the Uptake of Copper, Cadmium and Zinc by Three Plants around the Gold Mining Area%黄金矿区周围三种植物对土壤中铜、镉和锌的吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞

    2012-01-01

    测定并分析了陕西省潼关县某黄金生产区及附近不同地区生长的三种植物远志(Polygala tenuifolia Willd.)、灰灰菜(Chenopodium album L)、千金子[ Leptochloa chinensis(L)Nees]体内的Cu、Cd和Zn含量,为确定富集植物修复土壤重金属提供依据.结果表明:三种植物中,千金子对Zn和Cu的富集能力均最高,千金子对Zn的富集系数为11.79,转移系数为0.87;对Cu的富集系数和转移系数分别为5.32和0.90.灰灰菜和远志对Zn的富集能力也较强;三种植物对Cd的富集能力均较弱.%The content of heavy metals in three kinds of plants [ Polygala tenuifolia Willd. ,Chenopodium album L. and Leptochloa chinensis ( L. ) Nees ] grown in the heavy metal polluted soil near the gold mine in Tongguan county, Shanxi, China, were investigated to provide the basis for the heavy metal removal of hyperaccumulators. The results were as follows -. Among three kinds of plants in different places, the concentration of zinc and copper in Leptochloa chinensis (L. )Nees. was the strongest. Its concentration factor and transfer factor to zinc was 11. 79 and 0. 87,respectively. And its concentration factor and transfer factor to copper was 5. 32 and 0. 90, respectively. Chenopodium album L. and Polygala tenuifolia Willd. had a strong concentration capacity to zinc. The three kinds of plants had a weak concentration capacity to cadmium.

  15. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; E. Acosta Barrientos; G. Rojas Valdivia; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) y lupino (Lupinus albus L.), provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficienci...

  16. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; V. Urtuvia Gatica; V. Ramírez Quintanilla; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  17. Zapažanja o infekciji češnjaka (Allium sativum L.) virusom mozaika krastavca

    OpenAIRE

    Štefanac, Zlata; Miličić, Davor

    1992-01-01

    Virus mozaika krastavca (CMV), već prije izdvojen iz nepoznatog kultivara jesenskog češnjaka (Allium sativum L. subsp. sagittatum Kuzn.), prenijeli smo na češnjak cv. Moravan koji je već bio zaražen latentnim nitastim virusima. Prenošenje virusa CMV postizali smo uz pomoć Myzus persicae no samo iz zaraženih primjeraka Nicotiana megálosiphon, N. glutinosa i Chenopodium quinoa, ali ne iz češnjaka. Zaražene biljke koje su rasle na otvorenom pokazivale su malobrojne klorotične pruge na listovima ...

  18. Uptake of more important mineral components by common field weeds on loess soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Malicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in winter wheat, spring barley, sugar beets and winter rape, as well as in the most common weed species infesting these crops. It was established that the percentage of mineral components in the dry matter of the majority of weeds is higher than in that of the cultivated plants. The most dangerous weed species competing with plants for the investigated nutrients were: Chenopodium album, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Sonchus arvensis and Stellaria media.

  19. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  20. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  1. Influence of nitrogen rate on the efficacy of herbicides with different modes of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Swanton, C. J.; Kudsk, Per Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    -methyl. An increased susceptibility at high nitrogen rate was also observed for Anagallis arvensis, but in contrast to T. inodorum, growth of unsprayed A. arvensis was unaffected by nitrogen rate. Growth of unsprayed Chenopodium album was also promoted by nitrogen supply. However, no influence of nitrogen rate...... on herbicide efficacy was evident for C. album with tribenuron-methyl or ioxynil+bromoxynil in pot experiments. Field experiments with tribenuron-methyl were conducted on natural populations of C. album in spring barley grown at different nitrogen rates showed similar results. In conclusion, nitrogen rate...

  2. Pathogenicity of Alternaria tenuissima HZ-1 to broadleaf weeds and its safety on crops%极细链格孢菌HZ-1对阔叶杂草的致病性及对作物的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海霞; 马永强; 程亮; 郭青云

    2016-01-01

    采用形态学结合分子鉴定的方法,对生防潜力菌株HZ-1进行分类学鉴定,通过菌株发酵液致病性测定,评价该菌株对5种阔叶杂草的除草活性,采用盆栽生测法评价其对青海省主栽作物的安全性.结果表明,HZ-1为极细链格孢菌(Alternaria tenuissima),菌株发酵液对猪秧秧(Galium aparine)、刺儿菜[Cephalano-plos setosum(Willd.)Kitam]、藜(Chenopodium album)、冬葵(Malva crispa)、酸模叶蓼(Polygonum lapathifolium L.)表现出不同程度的致病作用,尤其对猪秧秧、藜致病效果最为突出.安全性评价结果显示,该菌株除对春油菜有轻微影响外,对春小麦、蚕豆、豌豆和青稞4种作物相对安全.综上,HZ-1可作为防除猪殃殃、藜等阔叶杂草生物除草剂的候选菌株.%Strain HZ-1 was identified through morphology observation and sequence analysis. The herbicidal activity of HZ-1 against 5 broadleaf weeds was evaluated by the pathogenicity of fermentation broth, and its safety to major crops in Qinghai was tested by pot bioassay. It was shown that strain HZ-1 was identified as Alternaria tenuissima. The fermentation broth of strain HZ-1 exhibited varied pathogenicity to Galium aparine, Cephalanoplos setosum ( Willd. ) Kitam, Chenopodium album, Malva crispa, Polygonum lapathifolium, and within these 4 species, the pathogenicity to Galium aparine and Chenopodium album was more severe. Strain HZ-1 was safe to major crops ex-cept spring rape. In general, strain HZ-1 was candidate of microbial herbicide against broadleaf weeds such as Gali-um aparine and Chenopodium album.

  3. 藜的早熟栽培%The Forwarding Culture of Goosefoot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泸; 李坤林; 石丽华; 骆颖俊; 杨丽琼

    2002-01-01

    @@ 藜(Chenopodium album Linn.)常生于地边、沟边及路旁、坡地.有三种类型较为常见,即叶片较窄的披针形、叶片较宽的菱状卵形或卵状三角形以及红叶类型.云南滇中一带分布较多.目前,作为商品蔬菜的藜野外采集较多,但已有少量人工栽培.

  4. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.

  5. Vineyard weed flora in the Jastrebarsko area (NW Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović Purgar, D.; Hulina, N.

    2004-01-01

    Vineyard weed flora was surveyed over the wider Jastrebarsko area (a part of Ple{ivica Mountain, north-west part of Croatia), a well known wine-growing area. The survey was carried out in the years 2001 and 2002, in ten vineyards at six different localities. Ahundred and nine (109) weed species were noted. The presence of segetal weeds such as Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L.)Vill. was recorded in well cultivated vineyards. In addition, ruderal weed species...

  6. Differential response of corn (Zea mays L. to postemergence application of CGA-136872 at different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngouajio, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available CGA-136872 injured corn more when applied at the 5-leaf stage than when applied at the 7- and 9-leaf stage of corn. Symptoms of herbicide phytotoxicity were primarily stunting and chlorosis. Most injury occurred with high rates (400 g ai/ha and appeared during the first two weeks following treatment. At five weeks after treatment, corn recovery from injury was complete and no yield reduction was recorded. Yield loss occurred in the weedy check, due to competition with johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrn., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

  7. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Spehar; Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2002-01-01

    A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos), e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Br...

  8. Molecular identification and biological characterization of a new potyvirus in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Marina; Mammella, Marco; Vallino, Marta; Caciagli, Piero; Turina, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    A potyvirus causing necrosis and leaf distortion on lettuce was found in the Lazio region of Italy. Host range analysis showed its ability to infect only Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor in addition to some lettuce cultivars. The virus could be transmitted by aphids of the species Myzus persicae. The complete 9829-nt genome was characterized. BLAST analysis of sequence of the complete encoded polyprotein showed that the most closely related virus is asparagus virus 1, with 52 % amino acid sequence identity. These results suggest that this virus should be considered a member of a new species in the genus Potyvirus. PMID:27287434

  9. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  10. Application of the techniques of Multivariate analysis in the characterization of germplasm of Quinua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Its were evaluated 20 lines of Chenopodium quinoa respect characters of agronomical interest finding that nine lines overcame the witness highlighting the lines: 20R1-41, 20R1-10, 20R2-27 that presented near yield to 1.5 ton/ha. The multivariate analysis of main components generated a dendrogram in that is appreciated that at an Euclidean distance of 0.75 its were formed seven groups according to its morphological characteristics and of yield, it highlights the formation of two big groups at a distance of 1.125, that they separate according to the radiation dose (200 and 250 Gy). (Author)

  11. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60, 90 and 120 °C for 30 min led to protein denaturation and aggregation, which was enhanced at higher treatment temperatures. The in vitro gastric digestibility measured during 6 h was lower for protein ...

  12. Agronomía Del Cultivo De Quinoa (Chenopoium Quinoa) En Dinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Gómez, Iván; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio; Jacobsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    La quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) es un pseudocereal muy utilizado en la cordillera de los Andes con excelentes cualidades nutricionales, como su elevado contenido en proteína. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en conocer su comportamiento agronómico en las condiciones de cultivo del norte de Europa. Para ello, se han analizado y comparado resultados de producción en Copenhaguen (Dinamarca) para distintos tratamientos en los que se varió la dosis de siembra y el control de malas hierbas ...

  13. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA) CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA) NO CERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos; Juliana Evagelista da Silva Rocha; Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2011-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher...

  14. Complete genome sequence of nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus reveals its relationship to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ravendra P; Rajakaruna, Punsasi; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2015-03-01

    Complete genome sequences were obtained from nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus (CaYSV). CaYSV belongs to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses with johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) as its closest relative. Multiple sequence alignments showed a pattern of amino acid substitutions in the CP sequences, which enabled us to relate these isolates to South East Asian or European isolates. Biological characterization of CaYSV identified Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Phaseolus vulgaris as experimental hosts. Given the popularity and global trade of cannas, a clear picture of the genetic diversity of CaYSV is critical to disease management. PMID:25567205

  15. Bioatividade de diversos pós de origem vegetal em relação A Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Bioactivity of powders from some plants on Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio de Oliveira Procópio; José Djair Vendramim; José Ivo Ribeiro Júnior; José Barbosa dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Foram avaliadas, em condições de laboratório, a repelência, sobrevivência e emergência de adultos de Sitophilus zeamais em grãos de milho tratados com pós de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (frutos), Capsicum frutescens L. (frutos e folhas, separadamente), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, flores e frutos, conjuntamente), Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (folhas), Melia azedarach Blanco (folhas) e Ricinus communis L. (folhas). As plantas que provocaram repelência foram E. citriodora e C. frutescens (...

  16. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  17. La estabilidad térmica de Ascaridol en solución acuosa : Su importancia en la acción farmacológica

    OpenAIRE

    Rimada, Rubén S.; Jeandupeux, René; Cafferata, Lázaro F.R.

    2007-01-01

    Ascaridol es un endoperóxido cíclico que constituye el principal principio farmacológicamente activo de la planta conocida popularmente como "paico" (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.). Sus infusiones y decocciones acuosas se aplican como antihelmíntico, aunque existen discrepancias sobre el grado de efectividad terapéutica y toxicidad. Se considera que el conocimiento de la estabilidad térmica de ascaridol en medio acuoso constituye un aporte a una más exacta evaluación de su acción te...

  18. Método simple y rápido para la determinación de ascaridol en medio acuoso utilizando CLAE (RP-HPLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Cafferata, Lázaro F.R.; Jeandupeux, René; Rimada, Rubén S.

    2005-01-01

    Ascaridol es un endoperóxido cíclico que constituye el principal principio farmacológicamente activo de la planta medicinal conocida popularmente como "paico" (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.). Sus infusiones y decocciones continúan aplicándose como antihelmíntico aunque existen discrepancias sobre su efectividad terapéutica y grado de toxicidad. Dada la importancia de la estabilidad térmica de ascaridol en medio acuoso para su uso medicinal, se presenta aquí un procedimiento analítico simple y r...

  19. [Traditional medicine in the treatment of enteroparasitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giove Nakazawa, R A

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluating Chenopodium ambrosioides (paico) as an antiparasitic agent was conducted in two villages near Tarapoto, San Martin. Extracts from leaves of "paico" were given to 72 patients (children and adults) with intestinal parasitic infections. Their stools were analized before and 8 days after the intake. We observed antiparasitary efficacy in 56% of the cases. With respect to the parasites tested for, the efficacy was 100% for Ancilostoma and Trichuris and 50% for Ascaris. We didn't observe any significant difference relative to age or sex.A review of other popular methods used in this region is done. PMID:12165783

  20. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Fghire; Fatima Anaya; Oudou Issa Ali; Ouafae Benlhabib; Ragab Ragab; Said Wahbi

    2015-01-01

    Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed). The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in ...

  1. Rural Women organized around the Cultivation of Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Paola Oyola Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural women have always participated in the reproductive and productive spheres of family systems. Today they are continuously participating in organizational spaces beyond the household, where they play a determinant role in the welfare of their family members by generating income that increases the possibility of the household’s economic sustainability. The article illustrates this phenomenon through the experience of a group of women from the municipality of Soracá (Boyacá, Colombia, who have started to cultivate quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

  2. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA NO CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher than those reached by the BRS Piabiru and Kancolla check cultivars. The grains are saponin-free and have a mean weight of 2.9 g 1000-1. The results reveal that the BRS Syetetuba meets the desirable characteristics for commercial yield in Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Chenopodium quinoa; grain weight; biomass; plant height.A Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., originária dos Andes, tem sido adaptada ao cultivo no Brasil, via seleção de progênies. Entre as progênies avaliadas, tem-se destacado a Q4.5, proveniente da população Q4, originária dos vales equatorianos. O genótipo foi uniformizado em suas características agronômicas, recebendo o nome de BRS Syetetuba. Em experimentos de verão e entressafra, apresentou rendimentos de 2,3 t ha-1 de grãos e 7,5 t ha-1 de biomassa total, em 120 dias, da emergência à maturação. Estes resultados superaram aqueles alcançados pelas cultivares padrões BRS Piabiru e Kancolla. Os grãos são livres de saponina e têm peso médio de 2,9 g 1000-1. Os resultados indicam que a BRS Syetetuba reúne características favoráveis para desencadear a produção comercial de quinoa no Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chenopodium quinoa; peso de grãos; biomassa; altura de planta.

  3. Reconstrucción 3D de malas hierbas utilizando cámaras de profundidad

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar, D.; Ribeiro, A.; Bengoechea, J. M.; San Martín, C.; Fernández Quintanilla, C.; Dorado, J.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue optimizar el ángulo de posicionamiento del sensor Kinect para la reconstrucción de la estructura tridimensional de Xanthium strumarium L., Datura stramonium L. y Chenopodium album L., utilizando para ello algoritmos que permiten la captura y combinación de imágenes de profundidad y RGB. Se han comparado diferentes ángulos, fijando en cada uno de ellos el sensor Kinect de forma estática respecto de la planta objetivo. Los resultados han confirmado la correlación...

  4. De plantis legionensibus. Nótula X

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Marta Eva; Puente García, Emilio; López Pacheco, María José; Herrero Cembranos, Luis; Penas Merino, Ángel

    1987-01-01

    [ES] En el presente trabajo se aportan datos ecológicos y fitosociológicos sobre algunos táxones que se citan por primera vez para la flora leonesa, tales como: Chenopodium multifidum, Atriplex laciniata, Spergularia bocconii, Ailanthus altíssima, Mentha x villoso-nervata, Scrophularia nodosa, Xanthium strumarium, Galinsoga parviflora y Lactuca saligna . De otras se indican nuevas localidades. [EN] In this paper, some écologie and phytosociological facts about some taxa recorded for the fi...

  5. Application of the techniques of Multivariate analysis in the characterization of germplasm of Quinua; Aplicacion de tecnicas de Analisis multivariado en la caracterizacion de germoplasma de Quinua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Torres de la Cruz, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jmga@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Its were evaluated 20 lines of Chenopodium quinoa respect characters of agronomical interest finding that nine lines overcame the witness highlighting the lines: 20R1-41, 20R1-10, 20R2-27 that presented near yield to 1.5 ton/ha. The multivariate analysis of main components generated a dendrogram in that is appreciated that at an Euclidean distance of 0.75 its were formed seven groups according to its morphological characteristics and of yield, it highlights the formation of two big groups at a distance of 1.125, that they separate according to the radiation dose (200 and 250 Gy). (Author)

  6. Untersaaten in Kartoffeln zur Reduzierung der Spätverunkrautung

    OpenAIRE

    Stumm, Christoph; Köpke, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    On six “Organic Pilot Farms in North Rhine-Westfalia” and on the Experimental Farm Wiesengut in Hennef, oil radish, white mustard, buckwheat and oats were under-seeded in potato stands in order to control weed infestation after senescence of potato shoots. Different sowing dates were tested. In all field trials underseeds suppressed weed growth significantly. Weed dry matter as well as the density and length of Che-nopodium album were reduced mainly by oil radish and early sowing combined wit...

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KUMAUN HIMALAYA AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. SATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial property of methanol, ethanol and hexane extracts of Berberis aristata, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Tinospora cordifolia grown in Kumaun Himalayan were investigated against some pathogenic gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas phaseoli and Erwinia chrysanthemi using disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of B. aristata was found with highest inhibitory activity against E. chrysanthemi (ZOI, 11±0.3mm. Whereas lowest inhibition was recorded in ethanolic extract of B. aristata against E. coli. The hexane extract of B. aristata and methanolic extract of C. ambrosioides were found totally inactive against all the pathogens tested.

  8. 地肤子及其伪品的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛文

    2001-01-01

    @@地肤为藜科植物地肤Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.的干燥果实[1]。现发现在地肤子药材中有掺伪品,经鉴定检索为土荆芥Chenopodium anbrosioides L.的干燥果实。本文就土荆芥的生药性状、理化鉴别及其与地肤子的主要区别报道如下。

  9. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi ryegrass, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation was also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the South. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi ryegrass in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greenhouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 11 references, 7 tables.

  10. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  11. Viability of various weed seeds in anaerobic conditions (biogas plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.; Hansen, J.

    1983-04-01

    Seeds from different weeds, Urtica urens L. (nettle), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), Avena fatua L. (wild oat-grass), Brassica napus L. (rape), Chenopodium album L. (goose-foot), were put into small polyester net bags, which were placed in biogas reactors containing cattle manure. These ''biogas reactors'' were placed at different temperatures . Net bags were taken out after 4.5, 10.5, 21.5, 38 and 53 days, and the seeds were tested for their viability by germination tests and the tetrazolium method. Concerning all seeds it was manifested that the viability decreased very steeply at 35degC. Most of the seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 2-5 days; Chenopodium album L seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 16 days. After 4.5 days it was not possible to find living Avena fatua L seeds. The decrease in viability was less steep at 20degC and even less steep at 2degC.

  12. Nitrogen fixation (Acetylene Reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for nitrogen fixing capacity on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi rye, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation were also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the south. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi rye in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greehouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 7 tables.

  13. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  14. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  15. Antinociceptive, antioxidant and phytochemical studies of Pakistani medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ghias; Rauf, Abdur; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Khan, Haroon; Barkatullah; Ullah, Rooh

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the selected Pakistani medicinal plants (Chenopodium botrys, Micromeria biflora and Teucrium stocksianum) in-vivo followed by their antioxidant potential against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) in-vitro. The results demonstrated profound antinociceptive effect of both the crude methanolic extract of Chenopodium botrys (CBM) and subsequent aqueous fraction (CBW) of C. botrys with 80.76% and 84% pain relief in acetic acid induced writhing test at 100 mg/kg i.p respectively. Similarly the crude methanolic extract of Micromeria biflora (MBM) and its subsequent aqueous fraction (MBW) with 66.46% 78.08% pain reversal in acetic acid induced writhing test respectively at 100mg/kg i.p. However, the crude methanolic extract and isolated water fraction of Teucrium stocksianum (TS) did not show any significant effect at test doses. Both the crude extracts and aqueous fractions of selected medicinal plants exhibited marked scavenging effects on DPPH and therefore strongly support the antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of various classes of natural products (alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids etc.) and thus the current finding can be attributed to the presence of these compounds. In short, our findings provide a strong scientific background to the folk uses C. botrys and M. biflora in the management of various painful conditions. PMID:27166536

  16. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of sodium monosulfuron-ester%单嘧磺酯钠盐的合成及除草活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇俊杰; 鞠国栋; 李正名

    2013-01-01

    Monosulfuron-ester is a patented novel sulfonylurea herbicide with ultra-low dosage of application.In order to improve its environmental property,sodium monosulfuron-ester was synthesized by reaction of monosulfuron-ester and sodium hydroxide in water at room temperature; the structure was comfirmed by 1H NMR,IR,MS and elemental analysis.Its herbicidal activity was compared with monosulfuron-ester by greenhouse bioassay using Digitaria ciliaris,Echinochloa crusgalli,Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium aldum which indicated that the two compounds have the same level of herbicidal activity.%单嘧磺酯是新型超高效磺酰脲类除草剂,为了寻找生物活性与之相当、环境友好的同类药剂,室温条件下用单嘧磺酯与氢氧化钠在水中反应合成了单嘧磺酯钠盐,其结构经核磁共振氢谱、红外、质谱及元素分析确认.室内生物测定结果显示,单嘧磺酯钠盐与其母体单嘧磺酯对马唐Digitaria ciliaris、稗草Echinochloa crusgalli、苋菜Amaranthus retroflexus和藜Chenopodium aldum 的除草活性基本相当.

  17. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  18. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  19. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia D.P. Huaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L. and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated by international agencies. For the Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 with and without microsomal fraction (S9 were used. Four doses of the beverage were tested and also a possible protective effect (same four doses of beverage added to plates with mutagens. Cultures of binucleated lymphocytes and five doses of the beverage were used for the micronucleus test. Both Ames and the micronucleus tests showed the beverage has not genotoxic effect in all tested doses. However, in evaluating the possible protective effect of the beverage, it would be evident that on the contrary, the mutagenic effect of mutagens used for each strain is enhanced. These results suggest that additional tests should be performed to check the genotoxic potential of this beverage before consumption.

  20. The potential role of biotechnology and induced mutations in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional techniques including mutation induction have increased the productivity of crops, the application of biotechnological tools such as tissue culture and molecular markers can speed up crop improvement. Through the application of in vitro culture techniques in Mammilaria san-angelensis, an ornamental cactus severely endangered, we proved through flow cytometry, genetic uniformity in massive in vitro derived plantlets and after irradiation we were able to regenerate it up to M1V4 generation. Solid mutants are expected if somatic embryos are treated with mutagenic agents due to its unicellular origin. Somatic embryogenesis was successfully achieved in Agave tequilana and after irradiation of embryogenic callus cultures, survivors were challenged with pathogenic crude bacterial extracts allowing the selection of resistant or tolerant individuals. Specially important are studies on neglected crops due to the interruption of its domestication and they are locally important for indigenous people as marginal crops. The trend now is to combine biotechnology and induced mutations to overcome problems with this highly promising crops. Chenopodium quinoa exhibits a strong constraint as food due to the undesirable production of saponins. The mutation induction strategy has enabled the reduction of this compounds in M5 generation, but further research is needed to overcome productivity and adaptability problems. Here the use of molecular markers (RAPDS) and flow cytometry techniques acquire relevance in the study of related species such as Chenopodium berlandieri in order to design an inter-specific breeding programme among selected mutants and outstanding local races to combine productivity, adaptability and grain quality

  1. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  2. Evaluating Different Weeds for Phytoremediation Potential Available in Tannery Polluted Area by Conducting Pot and Hydroponic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Girdhar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiments were conducted to determine and compare the toxic effects of Chromium, Copper, Cadmium, Nickel and Lead on different parameters like shoot length, number of branches and area of leaf on different wild weedCannabis sativa, Solanumnigrum and Chenopodium album. The investigated amounts of metal were in the range of 7 different concentrations i.e. 5ppm, 10ppm,50ppm,100ppm,200ppm,300ppm and 350ppm.The average toxicity increases with increase in the concentration of metals but in certain cases variations were observed in toxicity parameters. The morphological response in Cannabis sativa showed that most of the changes on the morphological characteristics were observed at 100 ppm. The shoot length, leaf area and number of branches decrease at 100 ppm and above. The maximum variations as compared to other metals were shown in copper stress condition. In Chenopodium album all the metals except lead show morphological variation with increase in metal concentration. The morphological toxicity increases with increase in metal concentration. The overall pollen fertility analysis shows that metal exposure leads to the development of sterile pollens. This shows the relative toxic effect of metals on the pollen fertility. In the hydroponic experiments, the Chromium metal exposure on the weed Cannabis sativa(C and (P for 15 days shows decrease in the amount of Chromium in the medium detected throughdiphenylcarbazide method, which shows the hyper accumulation of chromium by these weeds.

  3. A Crossing Method for Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Peterson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems.

  4. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  5. 藜麦功能成分研究及利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)为藜科(Chenopodiaceae)藜属(Chenopodium)的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,已有5 000多年的栽植历史.近些年因为其全面的营养价值和均衡的氨基酸比例以及药用保健价值收到追捧,引起了许多科研工作者的兴趣,为了给科研工作者提供一些研究方向的参考,通过对国内外藜麦的研究文献进行汇总,归纳了藜麦中总多酚、皂武、黄酮类、多糖、蛋白质与氨基酸、矿质营养素及其他化学成分等方面的研究进展,并阐述了藜麦在食用和药用等方面的开发利用现状.

  6. Some Weeds Community Percent in Response to Pumice Application on Soil under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Zarehaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A factorial experiment (using RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2014 at the University of Tabriz-Iran, in order to determine the effects of pumice application (P1, P2, P3 and P4: control, 30, 60 and 90 tons per ha on soil and water stress (I1, I2 and I3: 100%, 70% and 50% water requirement calculated from class A pan, respectively on dominante weeds community percent. Results showed that community percent of weed species changed as a result of water stress and pumice application on soil. Distributions of Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris were sensitive to water stress but, Amaranthus retroflexus and Solanum nigrum were neutral to water stress. In contrast, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cardaria draba, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium irio, Xanthium strumarium, Convolvulus arvensis and Salsola rigida distribution were resistant to water stress. Community percent of Chenopodium album as sensitive species to water stress and Salsola rigida as resistance species to water stress positively affected by pumice application especially under water stress condition. Amaranthus retroflexus, Xanthium strumarium and Convolvulus arvensis were positively affected by pumice application under well and limited water supply conditions. In contrast, Cardaria draba, Sisymbrium irio and Solanum nigrum negatively affected by pumice under water stress and it had positive effect on community of these species under well watering conditions. Thus, application of pumice and water stress are two factors which change weed community precent.

  7. Reseach on Physiological and Biochemical Index Reponse of Halophytes and Non-Salt Plants under Mixed Saline-alkali Stress%盐生和非盐生植物对混合盐碱胁迫的生理生化指标的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖玉红; 董宝池; 魏健

    2013-01-01

    Using SOD activity materials, morphological response characteristics of artificially regulated halophytes and non-salt plants under mixed saline-alkali stress were studied. At the same time, the effect of SOD activity increased substance on plant salt resistance was also discussed. Halophyte Chenopodium quinoa are Chenopodium album L.and Kochia sieversiana (Pallas) C. A. Mey.Non-salt plants are Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.and Ambrosia trijida L. The results showed that SOD activity increased substance could obviously improve the physical and biochemical indexes of halophytes and non-salt plants, and the effect on halophytes was more remarkable. Relative conductivity under high-concentration mixed saline and alkali decreased by 21 %, SOD activity of two halophytes increased to 28 U/g and 37 U/g respectively. Leaf chlorophyll content of Chenopodium album reached 19.7 mg/g, close to that of the control. Halophytes often have higher SOD activity, which may effectively recover the damage of salinization.%利用SOD活性增强物质,研究了人工调控下盐生和非盐生植物对混合盐碱胁迫的形态响应特点,同时探讨了SOD活性增强物质对植物抗盐性的影响.结果表明:SOD活性增强物质对盐生植物和非盐生植物的生理生化指标影响有明显改善作用,并且对盐生植物的作用更显著,高浓度混合盐碱条件下相对电导率降低了21%;2种盐生植物的SOD活性分别增大到28 U/g和37 U/g;而藜的叶片叶绿素含量达到19.7 mg/g,接近对照水平,这与盐生植物常具有较高的SOD活性使得植物盐害得到有效修复有关.

  8. 瑞香狼毒化感作用研究%Study on Allelopathy of Stellera chamaejasme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国君; 夏继桥

    2012-01-01

    The extracting solution from Stellera chamaejasme L. Was used to study its effects on seed germination and seedling growth of five plants, Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L., Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. And Celosia cristata L.. The results revealed the existance of allelopathy of 5. Chamaejasme L., which had different levels of affection on seed germination when using distinctive extracting solvents such as distilled water, ethanol and acetone. All the three kinds of extracting solution from S. Chamaejasme L. Had significant inhibition effect on the seedling growth of L. Heterophyllus Sweet. There was obvious inhibitive influence on the fresh weight of shoot roots, plumules and seedlings of Chenopodium album L., L. Heterophyllus Sweet and Celosia cristata L., except the slight increase on the radicle growth of Portulaca oleracea L. And seedling growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. By the extracting solvent of distilled water.%研究了瑞香狼毒(Stellera chamaejasme L.)提取液对藜(Chenopodium album L.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、益母草(Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet.)、籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.)、鸡冠花(Celosia cristata L.)等5种植物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,瑞香狼毒化感作用是存在的,并且瑞香狼毒的水、乙醇、丙酮提取液对种子萌发的影响不同.3种瑞香狼毒提取液对益母草幼苗生长的影响强度一直最大,除瑞香狼毒水提取液对马齿苋幼根生长和籽粒苋幼苗生长略有促进外,其他溶剂提取液对其他几种植物苗根、幼芽和幼苗鲜重均有明显抑制作用.

  9. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Conservacion y mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mapes S, C. [Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Laguna C, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  10. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Lazkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae, Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.

  11. 上海外来植物新记录%New records for alien plants in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠茹; 汪远; 马金双

    2016-01-01

    报道了上海外来植物新记录共9科10属10种,分别是刺酸模(Rumex maritimus L.)、尖头叶藜(Chenopodium acuminatum Willd.)、匙叶南庭荠(Aubrieta deltoidea (L.) DC.)、扭花车轴草(Tri folium resupinatum L.)、圆叶锦葵(Malva pusilla Sm.)、琉璃繁缕(Anagallis arvensis L.)、柳叶马鞭草(Verbena bonariensis L.)、大花益母草(Leonurus macranthus Maxim.)、田野水苏(Stachys arvensis L.)和稷(Panicum miliaceum L.),其中匙叶南庭荠、扭花车轴草为中国外来植物新记录.

  12. Investigation on Distribution and Damage of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Liaoning Province%辽宁省烟田杂草种类、分布与危害程度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 吴元华; 贝纳新; 赵秀香; 高萍

    2011-01-01

    为明确辽宁省烟田杂草的分布和危害情况,采用倒置W九点取样法对辽宁省烟田杂草进行了调查.结果表明,辽宁省烟田杂草共有51种,分属20科,其中阔叶杂草40种,占78.43%,禾本科杂草6种,占11.76%,其它杂草5种,占9.80%;一年生杂草占绝对优势,有41种,占80.39%,多年生杂草10种,占19.61%.马唐、铁苋菜、灰藜、反枝苋、莎草、列当、鸭跖草和稗草的相对多度在15%以上,是辽宁省烟田的优势杂草.地区间杂草危害情况差异显著,鹅不食和马唐在丹东地区危害较重,铁岭烟区杂草以铁苋菜和灰藜危害为主,朝阳烟区列当、马齿苋和反枝苋的危害占优势,而阜新烟区则以列当、反枝苋、灰藜和刺藜的危害为重.%An investigation was carried out by inverted W - 9 point sampling to study the distribution and damage of weeds in tobacco fields in Liaoning Province.The results showed that there were 51 weed species belonging to 20 families, including 40 kinds of broad-leaved weeds (accounted for 78.43% ) , 6 kinds of gramineous weeds (accounted for 11.76% ) and 5 kinds of the others (accounted for 9.80% ) ; among them, there were 41 kinds of annual weeds ( accounted for 80.39% ) and 10 kinds of perennial weeds (accounted for 19.61% ).The weeds whose relative abundance was more than 15% were Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Acalypha australis L., Chenopodium album L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Cyperus diffbrmis L., Orobanche caerulescens Stephan, Commelina communis L.and Echinochloa crusgalli ( L.) Beauv., which were dominant weeds in Liaoning.Weed damages in different districts differed significantly, in Dandong area, the major injurious weeds were Centipeda minima ( L.) A.Br.et Ascher.and Digitaria sanguinalis ( L.) Scop.; in Tiding area were Acalypha australis L.and Chenopodium album L.; in Chaoyang area were Orobanche caerulescens Stephan, Portulaca oleracea L.and Amaranthus retroflexus L.; in Fuxin area were

  13. WEED INFESTATION IN DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of ecological and conventional farming systems on weed seedbank and actual weed infestation of winter wheat at agricultural farms Sebechleby, Plavé Vozokany and Dačov Lom. Significant differences between systems were determined only at the co-operative Sebechleby where the higher weed seedbank was in ecological system. Higher number of determined weed species in weed seedstock was in ecological system at Plavé Vozokany and Sebechleby. Dominant weed species in both systems were Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Higher degree of actual weed infestation was determined in ecological system. Characteristics of systems was the occurrence of perennial species Cirsium arvense and non detection of Amaranthus retroflexus L., weed that had very high weed seedbank in soil.

  14. Allelopathic Inhibiting Effect of the Aqueous Extracts from Aerial Part of Ocimum basilicum L.on Germination of Weed Seeds%罗勒地上部水浸液对杂草种子萌发的化感抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜男; 刘保东; 白红彤; 李慧; 李东; 崔洪霞; 石雷

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨罗勒(Ocimum basilicum L.)化感作用在杂草防治中的可行性,采用培养皿滤纸法研究了罗勒花期地上部分的水浸液对田间常见杂草马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus L.)和灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)种子萌发的抑制作用.结果表明,罗勒水浸液处理对3种杂草的种子萌发均有抑制作用,抑制作用随着水浸液浓度的增加而逐渐增强;抑制强度因杂草种类而异,表现为灰菜>反枝苋>马齿苋.

  15. 几种耐盐碱植物种子的油脂成分及形态分析%Studies on Fatty Acids and Morphology of Seeds From Saline Soil Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经华; 杨若明; 周宜君; 刘春兰; 摆亚军; 田魁祥

    2002-01-01

    本文对生长于盐类土壤地带的白刺(Nitraria schoberi L.)、碱蓬(Atriplex cenpralasiapicalⅡ-jin)、藜(Chenopodium album L.)、麦蒿(Descurainia sophia(L.)Webb.ex Prantl)等一些野生植物的种子进行了分析,采用气相色谱法测定了其中饱和脂肪酸和不饱和脂肪酸的含量;采用扫描电子显微镜观察了种子的外观形貌和内部形态.通过实验找到了不同种子的差异性,探讨了进一步开发利用的可能性.

  16. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  17. 辽宁省草坪杂草调查初报%A preliminary survey report of weeds in turf of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莹莹; 魏松红; 刘大旻; 尹晓东; 刘冰; 何志勇

    2007-01-01

    在一年的时间里,对辽宁省草坪杂草进行调查、鉴定和统计,总结了辽宁省草坪杂草的种类、分布特点以及沈阳地区主要草坪杂草的危害情况.调查结果表明,辽宁省草坪杂草共有62种,隶属于27个科;沈阳地区危害较重的杂草有蒲公英(Taraxacum mongolicum)、车前(Plantago asiatica)、光头稗(Echinochloa colonum)、荠菜(Capsella burss-pastoris)、藜(Chenopodium album)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、酢浆草(Oxalis corniculata).

  18. Bioassay of Mixtures of ZJ0777 and Ethametsulfuron to Weeds in Rape Field%溴嘧草醚与胺苯磺隆混配制剂对油菜田杂草的室内防除效果筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付群梅; 董德臻; 陈杰; 王永华

    2007-01-01

    溴嘧草醚(代号:ZJ0777)为化学结构新颖的油菜田专用除草剂,为扩大其杀草谱,提高除草活性,我们以日本看麦娘(Alopecurus aequalis)和小藜(Chenopodium album)等为试验靶标进行了与胺苯磺隆(Ethametsulfuron)混用的室内防除效果配方筛选研究,并采用共毒系数法和等效线法对二者混用的联合作用进行评价.结果表明,两者混用后表现相加或增效作用,最佳配比为溴嘧草醚:胺苯磺隆质量比为1:0.2.

  19. Compendium of dietary sources of vitamin A in the Thar desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed long term solution to prevent nutritional blindness lies in changing the dietary habits of a given population through nutritional education, nutritional supplementation, and nutritional rehabilitation. Before such strategies can be successfully implemented, it becomes necessary to study the existing dietary pattern of the population and to identify locally grown foods rich in vitamin A. Seventy eight rural women were interviewed to determine the common dietary items in western Rajasthan. These items were then matched with their B-carotene contents, only to discover that, 100 grams of any of them would not provide the RDA for a 1-3 year old child, with the exception of Suva (Peucedanum graveolens and Bathua (Chenopodium album leaves. The B-Carotene contents of several food items is unknown at present and there is an urgent need to evaluate them.

  20. Study on the Botanical Component and Quantity of Weed Populations During the Seedling in Alfalfa Spring-sowing Field in Oasis of Shihezi City%新疆石河子绿洲区春播苜蓿幼苗期田间杂草的植物学成分及数量调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娟娟; 于磊; 鲁为华; 周培孝; 张凡凡

    2013-01-01

    对石河子绿洲区春播苜蓿幼苗期田间杂草进行了调查.结果表明,春播苜蓿建植幼苗期田间杂草共有10科,26种.其中主要的田间杂草有6种,分别是狗尾草(Selaria viridis)、藜(Chenopodium album)、反枝苋(Amamnthus restroflexus)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea)、苘麻(Abutilon theophrcasti)和刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos seqetum),同时对6种主要的田间杂草的形态学特征进行了简要描述.

  1. The floristic changes on excluded from agricultural production field after single Roundup spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment conducting on the field, weedy by Agropyron repens (L. P. B. was established what is the degree of elimination of Agropyron repens plants from experimental plots by single Roundup spraying. The changes of the species composition on the fields with different clover-grass mixtures or with Phacelia tanacaetifolia Benth. were studied as well. The stand tables have been made in the first year of the conducting experiment, to determination the density of weeds, after different agricultural practices. It has been found the great elimination of Agropyron repens (L. P. B. plants after Roundup spraying and the great density of Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. B. plants. It has been found the great density of Chenopodium album L. at VII treatment and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. at III, V, VII and VIII treatments as well (Table I.

  2. Important indigenous plants used in the Transkei as food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Wehmeyer

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that there is a tendency to rely more and more on foods which can be purchased at stores, the indigenous edible plants or veld foods play a significant role in the diet of the people living in the rural areas of the Transkei. Although more work is required to gather and prepare veld foods, they can be an important and inexpensive source of macronutrients — carbohydrates, fats and protein — and also micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins. Some of the more commonly-used plants such as  Sonchus asper, Chenopodium album, Centella coriacea, Galinsoga parviflora, Urtica urens and Solanum nigrum are discussed and nutrient composition given. The names of a few plants which should rather be avoided, are also given. Many of these edible plants are also regarded as weeds and. instead of eradicating them, their cultivation should perhaps be encouraged.

  3. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.;

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  4. Nutritional and toxic factors in selected wild edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil, J L; Rodríguez-García, I; Torija, E

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and carotenes); antinutritional and toxic components (oxalic acid, nitrate and erucic acid) were determined in sixteen popular species of wild edible plants which are collected for human consumption in southeast Spain. Ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acids contents were very high in several species, especially in Chenopodium album L. (155 mg/100 g). Carotenoid content ranged from 4.2 mg/100 g (Stellaria media Villars) to 15.4 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). A range of values was found for oxalic acid from absence to 1100 mg/100 g of plant material. Nitrate contents ranged from 47 mg/100 g (Salicornia europaea L.) to 597 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). Low amounts of erucic acid were found in the Cruciferae family (Sisymbrium irio L. 1.73%; Cardaria draba L. 1.23%) and Plantago major L. 3.45%.

  5. Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folb Peter I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodium opulifolium was found to be 97% as effective as DEET after 2 mins, time lag studies revealed a substantial reduction in efficacy (to 30% within two hours. Conclusions None of the plant extracts investigated exhibited residual repellencies >60% after three hours.

  6. Image-based thresholds for weeds in maize fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Christensen, Svend;

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of site-specific weed management strategies suggests patch application of herbicides to avoid their excessive use in crops. The estimation of infestation of weeds and control thresholds are important components for taking spray decisions. If weed pressure is below a certain level...... in some parts of the field and if late germinating weeds do not affect yield, it may not be necessary the spray such places from an economic point of view. Consequently, it makes sense to develop weed control thresholds for patch spraying, based on weed cover early in the growing season. In Danish maize...... field experiments conducted from 2010 to 2012, we estimated competitive ability parameters and control thresholds of naturally established weed populations in the context of decision-making for patch spraying. The most frequent weed was Chenopodium album, accompanied by Capsella bursa-pastoris, Cirsium...

  7. Hıyarda (Cucumis sativus L.) yabancı ot çıkış zamanın tahminine yönelik araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Tursun; İrfan Ersin Akıncı; Mustafa Şahin; Ahmet Uludağ

    2015-01-01

    İstatistiki modellerin geliştirilmesi için hıyar bitkisinde on bir önemli yabancı otun çıkış zamanın belirlenmesinde modellemeler yapılmıştır. Hıyar deneme arazisinde bulunan önemli yabancı otlar çıkış zamanlarına göre gruplara ayrılmıştır. Bu yabancı otlardan; Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare ve Solanum nigrum erken, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea ve Sorghum halepense bütün vejetasyon boyunca ...

  8. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season......The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content...

  9. Nomenclatural notes about the names in Amaranthaceae published by Roberto de Visiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamonico Duilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The names in Amaranthaceae published by R. de Visiani are investigated. Amaranthus gangeticus var. cuspidatus is a nomen nudum and thus invalid according to Art. 38.1a of the ICN. Amaranthus hierichuntinus, Atriplex patula var. hastifolia, and Chenopodium album var. oblongum are lectotypified, respectively, on a specimen preserved at PAD, and illustrations by Scopoli and Vahl. We here propose to synonymyze the three names (new synonymies respectively with Amaranthus graecizans subsp. graecizans, Atriplex patula subsp. patula, and the type subspecies of C. album. For nomenclatural purposes, also the name C. lanceolatum Willd. (heterotypic synonym of C. album subsp. album is investigated and lectotypified, on a specimen preserved at B.

  10. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  11. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops.

  12. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  13. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  14. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  15. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  17. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  18. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  19. Molecular and biological characterization of highly infectious transcripts from full-length cDNA clones of broad bean wilt virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriol, Inmaculada; Ambrós, Silvia; da Silva, Dorivaldo M; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1), genus Fabavirus, has a genome composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs of ∼5.8 (RNA1) and 3.4kb (RNA2). Full-length cDNA clones of both genomic RNAs (pBenR1 and pBenR2) from BBWV-1 isolate Ben were constructed under the control of the T7 promoter. In vitro derived capped transcripts were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Vicia faba plants. The biological activity of viral transcripts was not affected by extra bases at the 5'-terminus introduced during in vitro transcription. Virions derived from the infectious cDNA clones displayed similar viral infectivity and accumulation, as well as symptom induction as the wild-type BBWV-1 isolate. PMID:26951858

  20. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 μg radiolabelled Cs g-1 soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author)

  1. SEROLOGICAL IDENTITY OF POTATO VIRUS X (PVX AND PCR CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS COAT PROTEIN (CP GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudsia Nosheen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato virus X (PVX is among top ten most economically damaging plant viruses in the world and its increasing incidence is getting an alarming situation in potato crop of Pakistan. During two consecutive years (2010-11 and 2011-12, the incidence of PVX was recorded in potato fields at Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad and Sahiwal. The samples were collected and subjected to Double Antibody Sandwiched (DAS Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA and average incidence of PVX was determined about 16.86% (OD405nm 1.38 during 2010-11 and 27.10% (OD405nm 0.479 in 2011-12. The infectivity of the virus was assayed through mechanical inoculation on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, N. rustica, Datura stramonium, Chenopodium sp. Gomphrena and Capsicum annuum producing local lesion, mosaic and mottling symptoms. Coat protein (CP gene specific sense and antisense primer successfully amplified a 750bp fragments through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay.

  2. La fuente de nitrógeno como herramienta auxiliar en el manejo de las malas hierbas

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Asensio, J. S.; Bardisi, E.; Fernández García, N.; Soto, A.; Olmos, E.

    2015-01-01

    Los resultados de producción de biomasa, tanto de parte aérea como de raíz, nos muestran las distintas preferencias por una u otra fuente [(nitrato (NO3 -) o amonio(NH4 +)] de nitrógeno (N), así como La influencia de la fuente de N en la respuesta a la dosis (2 mM vs. 0,2 mM) en la zona radicular: Amaranthus viridis y Chenopodium album prefieren el NO3- y no responden a la dosis de NH4+, Conyza bonaeriensis y Solanum nigrum también prefieren NO3- pero responden a la dosis de NH4+, mientras qu...

  3. Isolation of bioactive allelochemicals from sunflower (variety Suncross-42) through fractionation-guided bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Tehmina; Bajwa, Rukhsana

    2010-11-01

    Plants are rich source of biologically active allelochemicals. However, natural product discovery is not an easy task. Many problems encountered during this laborious practice can be overcome through the modification of preliminary trials. Bioassay-directed isolation of active plant compounds can increase efficiency by eliminating many of the problems encountered. This strategy avoids unnecessary compounds, concentrating on potential components and thus reducing the cost and time required. In this study, a crude aqueous extract of sunflower leaves was fractionated through high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated fractions were checked against Chenopodium album and Rumex dentatus. The fraction found active against two selected weeds was re-fractionated, and the active components were checked for their composition. Thin layer chromatography isolated a range of phenolics, whereas the presence of bioactive terpenoids was confirmed through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:20981619

  4. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  5. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E EFEITO DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE ERVA-DE-SANTA-MARIA SOBRE O ÁCARO-RAJADO DE MORANGUEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    JOÃO PAULO PEREIRA PAES; VANDO MIOSSI RONDELLI; ADILSON VIDAL COSTA; ULYSSES RODRIGUES VIANNA; VAGNER TEBALDI DE QUEIROZ

    2015-01-01

    O ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae), é a principal praga na cultura do morangueiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização química do óleo essencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e a avaliação de seus efeitos sobre o ácaro-rajado. Os compostos do óleo essencial foram identificados pelasanálises de CG-DIC e CG-EM. A mortalidade e a oviposição foram avaliadas após a pulverização do óleo (2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0% v v-1) sobre fêmeas do ácaro-rajado. O ren...

  6. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  7. Appraisal of different plant products against trogoderma granarium everts to protect stored wheat - a laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory study was initiated to analyze various locally available botanical materials such as Chenopodium album L. (White goose foot), Cichorum intybus L. (Chicory) and Meliolotus parviflora L. (Honey clover) applied at the rate of 2 percent into wheat grain for the control of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). After data computation on the basis of fixed parameters, it was observed that all natural protectants used had shown potentiality in controlling T. granarium as these proved very effective compared to no pesticide application treatment. It is worthwhile to mention that among various products tested, C. intybus powder showed the best results to control pest, approached by C. album and M. parviflora treatments as compared to untreated kernels. The results of this findings show that natural protectants used in the study could be useful and desirable tools in stored wheat pest management plan. (author)

  8. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  9. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  10. COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA E ATIVIDADE ACARICIDA DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE ERVA-DE-SANTA-MARIA SOBRE O ÁCARO-RAJADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAUANA PELLANDA DE SOUZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to extract, identify the chemical composition and evaluate the acaricidal acti-vity of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. Adult female spotted spider mite were treated with concentrations 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μL of essential oil per liter of air. Among the eight chemical substances that make up the essential oil of C. ambrosi-oides, the (Z-ascaridol (81.40% was the major component. The LC50 and CL90 found after 72 h of exposure to the essential oil were, respectively, 5.82 and 10.79 μL L-1 air and fecundity of females of T. urticae was redu-ced inversely proportional to the increased concentrations utilized in this study.

  11. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Burčul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae, as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0% and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%. Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively.

  12. Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M J; Marioli, J M

    2010-07-01

    Vegetal water extracts, namely the water remaining after hydro-distillation and decoctions, and essential oils of 10 plant species were tested as inhibitors for the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood. Achyrocline satureioides, Chenopodium ambrosioide, Eucalyptus cinerea, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum, Lippia turbinata, Marrubium vulgare,Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, Tagetes minuta and Thymus vulgaris were included in the study. The water remaining after hydro-distillation showed the highest antibacterial activities, the growth of almost all the P. larvae strains tested was inhibited by these extracts. Regarding the plants tested, E. cinerea and M. verticillata were the plant species with the highest biological activity with 100% efficacy (all its extracts inhibited the growth of all P. larvae strains). Essential oils were less active for the inhibition of P. larvae growth. PMID:20398671

  13. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  14. 由锯齿棕果实、野大豆、燕麦等配制的化妆品和药品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳(摘)

    2007-01-01

    该化妆品或药品由锯齿棕Serenoa repens果实、野大豆Glycinesoja、燕麦Avena sativa、蚕丝(silk)的蛋白水解物、桑树Morusalba根、红芒柄花Ononis spinosa根、马蚕豆Vicia faba var.eguina、番茄、鱼卵(fishroe)、蚕豆蛋白、鱼粉(fishflour)、小麦、马铃薯、黄芩、玉米、昆诺阿藜Chenopodium quinoa、欧芹根、凤梨、丝兰(yucca)、葡萄柚和经生物技术改良的芒果、枣椰子(date)、猕猴桃、番木瓜、苹果和鸡蛋果(passion)等提取物组成。

  15. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  16. Manutenção da infectividade de Tymovírus em extratos de plantas Maintenance of infectivity of Tymovirus in plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mércia Barradas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro isolados do vírus do mosaico da berinjela (EMV - "eggplant mosaic virus" - grupo tymovírus foram armazenados a partir de extratos foliares de hospedeiras com sintomas sistêmicos. Os virus EMV-Al (isolado de Abelia, EMV-Sc (isolado da Escócia, -ts (estirpe-padrão e VNBT (vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro, que induzem sintomas em Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa (Família Chenopodiaceae Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum e Nicotiana glutinosa (Solanaceae, foram conservados em extratos destas plantas, à temperatura ambiente, em geladeira e em congelador. A infectividade dos vírus, em diferentes períodos de armazenamento, foi testada em plantas de datura e glutinosa, para se determinar a longevidade in vitro. Constatou-se que, quando guardados em baixas temperaturas,os extratos preservam por mais tempo a infectividade dos vírus. No caso de datura e glutinosa, por exemplo, resultados positivos foram obtidos até 413 e 282 dias de armazenamento, respectivamente, em congelador. Entretanto, com relação às espécies de Chenopodium testadas, mesmo alguns extratos recém-preparados conduziram a resultados negativos, confirmando a presença de inibidores de infecção viral nestas plantas. Das três espécies, é sugerida a utilização apenas de C.quinoa para o preparo de extratos visando preservar estes vírus e, assim mesmo, por um período relativamente curto (entre 53 e 80 dias. A avaliação geral dos resultados mostra que, para os tymovírus estudados neste trabalho, é possível conservar a infectividade através da técnica de armazenamento de extratos foliares de plantas sistemicamente infectadas.Four isolates of EMV (eggplant mosaic virus - tymovirus group were preserved in crude extracts from systemically-infected plants. EMV-Al (Abelia strain, EMV-Sc (Scottish strain, EMV-ts (type-strain and TWNV (tomato white necrosis virus which induce symptoms in Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa

  17. 加拿大产藜麦可溶性酚类物质组成及抗氧化活性%Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities in Canada's quinoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 张文涛; 汤尧; 李喜宏; RONG Tsao

    2016-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa willd.)的营养价值和潜在的健康功效日益引起人们重视,文中借助HPLC/LC-MS等技术方法对不同品种加拿大产藜麦的酚类物质组成及抗氧化能力进行比较研究.鉴定的23种游离态酚类和19种结合态酚类中主要成分是酚酸,如香草酸、阿魏酸及其衍生物,也有部分黄酮类化合物存在.其中红色品种藜麦的总酚和总黄酮含量及其抗氧化活性显著高于白色品种.

  18. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  19. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects. PMID:17583499

  20. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAAD El-Zemity; HUSSIEN Rezk; SAHER Farok; AHMED Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove,matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids,cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  1. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  2. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkel T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resistance of the plants, and the capacity to recover high photosynthetic activity after drought. Under field conditions, the genetic diversity in local landraces and the crop practices also contribute notably to the adaptation of quinoa to climatic hazards.

  3. 保护性耕作对农田杂草群落组成及物种多样性的影响%Effect of protective cultivation on weed community composition and species diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵森霖; 黄高宝

    2009-01-01

    以陇中黄土高原旱地连续7 a保护性耕作定位试验为基础,通过测定株数、盖度、鲜重等指标,计算了农田杂草群落的优势度、物种丰富度、香农威纳指数、辛普森指数、均匀性指数、相似性指数,并分析了不同耕作方式对农田杂草群落组成及物种多样性的影响,结果表明:传统耕作秸秆覆盖、免耕、免耕秸秆覆盖3种耕作方式下,豌豆、小麦田的藜科杂草发生较为普遍,灰绿藜(Chenopodium glaucum)、藜(Chenopodium album)、地肤(Kochia scoparia)、猪毛菜(Salsola collin)的综合优势度达43.78,3种耕作方式下杂草群落物种多样性差异不显著(P<0.05).杂草群落之间种相似性系数的变化表明,传统耕作秸秆覆盖、免耕及免耕秸秆覆盖经过多年实施后,农田杂草群落开始逐步向较稳定的传统耕作杂草群落方向演替.

  4. Analysis of the differential response of five annuals to elevated CO sub 2 during growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbutt, K. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (USA)); Williams, W.E. (St. Mary' s College of Maryland, St. Mary' s City (USA)); Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects, without competition, of CO{sub 2} on germination, growth, physiological response, and reproduction, the authors focussed on co-occurring species that are prominent members of an annual community in Illinois. Five species of old field annual plants - Abutilon theophrasti (C{sub 3}), Amaranthus retroflexus (C{sub 4}), Ambrosia artemisiifolia (C{sub 3}), Chenopodium album (C{sub 3}), and Setaria faberii (C{sub 4}) - were grown for their entire life cycle as individuals at CO{sub 2} concentration of 350 {mu}L/O, 500 {mu}L/L, and 700 {mu}L/L. Emergence time, growth rate, shoot water status, photosynthesis, conductance, flowering time, nitrogen content, and biomass and reproductive biomass were measured. There was no detectable effect of enhanced CO{sub 2} on timing of emergency in any of the species. The three levels of carbon dioxide concentration were shown to produce varying effects on remaining quantities measured in the five different plants. Some of these differences were not statistically significant. The response of most characters had a significant species {times} CO{sub 2} interaction. However, this was not simply caused by the C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} dichotomy. Reproductive biomass (seed, fruits, and flowers) increased with increasing CO{sub 2} in Amaranthus (C{sub 4}) and in Chenopodium and Ambrosia (both C{sub 3}), but there was no change in Setaria (C{sub 4}), and Abutilon (C{sub 3}) showed a peak at 500 {mu}L/L. Species of the same community differed in their response to CO{sub 2}, and these differences may help explain the outcome of competitive interactions among these species above ambient CO{sub 2} levels.

  5. CONVISO® SMART – a new solution to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALStolerant sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgheim, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONVISO SMART is a new system to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. This system consists of an ALS-inhibiting herbicide and a sugar beet variety which is tolerant against the complementary herbicide due to classic breeding mechanisms. The herbicide CONVISO is a combination of the two active ingredients foramsulfuron and thiencarbazonemethyl. Whereas foramsulfuron is the leaf active compound, thiencarbazone-methyl is leaf as well as soil active. The product will be formulated as an oily dispersion (OD. The registration was requested with an application rate of 1 x 1 l/ha or 2 x 0.5 l/ha in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. Application should be done from BBCH 10 – 14 of the weeds, especially of Chenopodium album as well as from BBCH 12 – 18 of the sugar beet. The estimated introduction of this system on the German market will be 2018. CONVISO is well active against the most important weeds in sugar beets, including Polygonum and Chenopodium species. Furthermore several difficult to control weeds as Aethusa cynapium and Mercurialis annua will be controlled by CONVISO. The addition of special herbicides to control those difficult weeds will no longer be necessary. The tolerance of the variety against CONVISO is very strong, which will be shown by the results of the weed free selectivity trials. Due to the high tolerance of the variety against CONVISO and the not occurring of negative herbicide effects, the full yield potential can be utilized.

  6. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of N- [ 2- (4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin -2-yloxy) benzylidene ] substituted amine derivatives%N-[2-(4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶-2-氧基)苯亚甲基]取代胺类衍生物的合成及除草活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元祥

    2011-01-01

    Six title compounds (3a - 3f) were synthesized using 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde as starting material by substitute reaction,addition reaction and elimination reaction. Thereinto,3a -3d were new compounds. All of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay results showed that the inhibition rate of synthesized compounds to the Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Bluegrass ,Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album reached 80% , except 3f to the E. Crus-galli was 55% at the application rate of 150 g a. I. /hm2. The inhibition rate of some of the compounds to E. Crus-galli,Poa annua,A. Retroflexus or C. Album reached 100% at the application rate of 150 g/hm2.%以水杨醛为原料,经取代、加成和消除反应合成了6个标题化合物(3a~3f),其中4个(3a~3d)为新化合物,其结构经核磁共振氢谱、质谱和元素分析确认.初步的除草活性测试结果表明,在有效成分150 g/hm2的剂量下,除化合物3f对稗草Echinochloa crus-galli的抑制率为55%外,其余5个化合物对供试杂草的抑制率均在80%以上,部分化合物对稗草、早熟禾Poa annua、反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus或小藜Chenopodium album的抑制率达100%.

  7. The differential effects of CO{sub 2} on relative growth rates of a C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grise, D.J.; Sage, R.F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    We examined growth and allocation in Chenopodium album (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus (C{sub 4}) at three CO{sub 2} levels (350, 750 and 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}), at 34{degrees}C. Although net assimilation rate increased at higher than current ambient CO{sub 2} treatments for Chenopodium, relative growth rates for this species were significantly lower (P<0.001) than for Amaranthus at all CO{sub 2} treatments. However, the nature of the difference in relative growth rate changed across CO{sub 2} treatments. At 350 and 750 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, differences in relative growth rates between species were not linearly maintained throughout the course of the experiment, the difference in relative growth rates between species was larger at the start of the experiment than at the end of the experiment. At 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, the difference in relative growth rate between species was linearly maintained throughout the course of the experiment. In this treatment, the pattern of relative growth rate for the C{sub 3} plant is the same as that of the C{sub 4} plant. On the basis of this experiment, we predict, at 34{degrees}C, the C{sub 3} plant will not successfully compete with the C{sub 4} plant at 350 or 750 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, but might be able to compete successfully at 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}.

  8. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti < C. album < P. oleracea ≤ A. retroflexus. The results were in agreement with recent findings of the suppression of these weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management. PMID:22614450

  9. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  10. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker, el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrearon 26 manchones de maleza en los estados de Aguascalientes y Zacatecas. Se capturaron adultos de C. tenellus en 69.2% de los manchones de maleza muestreados; la mayoría (75.5% de los especímenes eran hembras. El Beet mild curly top fue identificado sólo 15.4% de los sitios de muestreo infectando especies de maleza como Eruca sativa, Reseda sp., Chenopodium sp. y Solanum rostratum L.One of the most important diseases of chili pepper for drying in the north-central Mexico is called yellowing of chili. There is little information about the interaction between the vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker, the Beet mild curly top virus and weeds during the winter in this region; therefore, the objective was to identify winter weeds that serve as are fuge for the vector and host of the virus in this region. Between January and March, 2011, 26 patches of weed were sampled in Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Adult C. tenellus were captured in 69.2% of the weed sampled patches; most of the specimens were females (75.5%. Beet mild curly top was identified in only 15.4% of the sampling sites, infecting weed species suchas Eruca sativa, Reseda sp., Chenopodium sp. and Solanum rostratum L.

  11. Effects of salinity and desalination on seed germination of six annual weed species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-hua; JIANG De-ming; LI Xiao-lan; ZHOU Quan-lai

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various salinities and desalination on seed ger- mination of six annual glycophytes (Artemisia sieversiana, J. Scoparia, Chloris virgata, Eragrostis pilosa, Chenopodium acuminatum and Chenopodium glaucum) were studied in Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mon- golia, China. NaCl solutions of five concentrations (0 mM, as the control, and 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM) were used for saline stress and desalina- tion treatments. Increasing salinity significantly reduced germination percentages of A. Sieversiana, A. Scoparia, Ch.virgata and Ch. Acumi- nature, but had no effect on the germination percentages of E. Pilosa. Lower salinity levels (50 mM) significantly increased germination per- centage of Ch. Glaucum. High salinity might be a precondition for germi- nation after desalination for five of the six species, excepting E. Pilosa at NaCl concentration of 300 mM in comparison with non-primed seeds. Higher salinity (>200 mM) led to some specific ion toxicity and reduced seed viability of A. Sieversiana. No specific ion toxicity but an osmotic effect limited the germination of other five species was observed The final germination percentages (salinity stress and desalination) of the six species showed three variations in comparison with the controls, namely, indiscrimination, stimulation, and reduction. Germination responses to salinity and desalination suggested that the six species were separated into three categories. Three species (A. Sieversiana, Ch. Virgata and Ch. Acuminatum) showed similar germination responses to salinity with those of halophyte, but also showed a lower tolerance limit than most halo- phytes, although this was not always the case. A. Scoparia and Ch. Glau- cure exhibited some 'salt stimulation' in seed germination percentages after desalination, whereas E. Pilosa did not show any obvious response to salinity. Therefore, salinity usually induces dormancy of seeds with strong germination capacity in fresh water, but has few, or even positive

  12. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  13. Bioatividade de diversos pós de origem vegetal em relação A Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Bioactivity of powders from some plants on Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Sérgio de Oliveira Procópio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas, em condições de laboratório, a repelência, sobrevivência e emergência de adultos de Sitophilus zeamais em grãos de milho tratados com pós de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (frutos, Capsicum frutescens L. (frutos e folhas, separadamente, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, flores e frutos, conjuntamente, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (folhas, Melia azedarach Blanco (folhas e Ricinus communis L. (folhas. As plantas que provocaram repelência foram E. citriodora e C. frutescens (folhas, com efeito mais pronunciado na primeira espécie. A única planta que afetou a sobrevivência da praga foi C. ambrosioides, que provocou mortalidade total dos insetos infestantes e nenhuma emergência de adultos. Para essa planta, foi também determinado o limiar de atividade inseticida, constatando-se que a dosagem mínima necessária para controle total da população dos insetos foi de 0,1645 g/ 20 g de milho.The repellency, reproduction and survival of Sitophilus zeamais were evaluated under laboratory conditions with maize grains treated with powders obtained from fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, leaves and fruits of Capsicum frutescens L., leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Melia azedarach Blanco, Capsicum frutescens and Ricinus communis L., and a mixture of leaves, flowers and fruits of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.. The most repellent plant species were E. citriodora and C. frutescens (leaves. The only treatment that showed significant effect on survival and reproduction of S. zeamais was C. ambrosioides which caused 100% mortality and avoided the emergency of adults. The insecticide activity threshold was determined for this plant species and the minimal dosage for total control of this insect was 0.1645 g of powder per 20 g of maize.

  14. In Vitro Skin Permeation of Osthol from Hydro-Alcoholic Gel Formulations%蛇床子素凝胶药物经皮吸收的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑振亭; 丁平田; 吕波; 陈大为

    2004-01-01

    目的体外测定含有渗透促进剂的蛇床子素凝胶经人体皮肤的吸收.方法以离体人皮肤为渗透模型,应用Franz扩散池进行实验.样品以高效液相法测定蛇床子素的含量.结果与对照组相比,渗透促进剂Azone、薄荷醇、土荆芥油可以使得蛇床子素的稳态流量分别提高3.12、2.00、1.25倍.结论三种渗透促进剂的作用机理为破坏了皮肤角质层的屏障作用,降低了药物的扩散阻力,因而提高了蛇床子素的扩散系数.%Aim To evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption behavior of osthol from a series of hydro-alcoholic gel formulations containing three penetration enhancers through excised human skin (stratum cormeum and epidermis,SCE). Methods Excised human skin was mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells. The samples withdrawn from the receptor cell were analyzed for osthol content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The enhancers azone,menthol and chenopodium increased the osthol percutaneous steady-state fluxes 3.12, 2.00 and 1.25 times those of the enhancer-free formulations (controls), separately. Conclusions The main enhancement mechanism of the skin penetration enhancers azone, menthol and chenopodium is to destroy the barrier function of stratum corneum, reducing the resistance of drug transport through the skin and increasing the diffusion coefficients of osthol.

  15. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

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    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  16. 青海保护性耕作农田杂草群落组成及生物多样性%The community composition and biodiversity of weeds in conservati on tillage system in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 郭良芝; 翁华; 程亮

    2013-01-01

    采用倒置“W”9点取样法对青海保护性耕作农田杂草种类进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作农田杂草有67种,隶属于25科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、猪殃殃(Galium maborasense Masamune)、野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album L.)、苣荬菜(Sonhus arvensis Linn.)、大刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos setosum(Willd.) Kitam.)6种,是构成青海各地区保护性耕作农田杂草群落的主要优势种,区域性优势杂草有5种,常见杂草有17种,一般杂草有39种.湟中地区主要形成猪殃殃+密花香薷+藜+野燕麦+大刺儿菜+芦苇+尼泊尔蓼为主的杂草群落;民和地区为狗尾草+藜+扁蓄+野燕麦+田旋花+荞麦蔓+大刺儿菜,平安地区为野燕麦+猪殃殃+苣荬菜+大刺儿菜+赖草+荞麦蔓+密花香薷+扁蓄+泽漆,化隆地区为薄蒴草+猪殃殃+野燕麦+荞麦蔓+苣荬菜+密花香薷,大通地区为野燕麦+猪殃殃+藜+大刺儿菜+问荆+密花香薷,刚察地区为密花香薷+西伯利亚蓼+薄蒴草+藜+微孔草+旱雀麦+苣荬菜+野胡萝卜.湟中和大通地区保护性耕作农田杂草群落的物种丰富度、多样性及均匀度较其它地区高,而优势度较低.从群落相似性来看,湟中和大通群落结构最为相似.地理环境、气候条件及控草措施的不同,可能是导致保护性耕作农田杂草发生及群落组成产生差异的原因.%Weed survey was conducted by the method of inverted W-sampling to determine the composition of species and structure of weed communities in conservation tillage system in Qinghai Province. The results showed that there were 67 weed species belonging to 25 families in conservation tillage fields. The predominant species were Elsholtzia densa Benth, Galium maborasense Masamune, Avena fatua Linn, Chenopodium album L., Sonchus arvensis Linn and Cephalanoplos setosum (Willd.) Kitam. There were 5

  17. 黑龙江省主要草本可燃物燃烧性分析:Ⅱ燃烧性综合评价%Analysis of combustibility of major herb species in Heilongjiang Province: Ⅱ comprehensive evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雪; 彭徐剑; 胡海清

    2013-01-01

    通过对黑龙江省48种主要草本可燃物理化性质的测定,并分析了草本间在各指标上的差异,采用层次分析法(AHP)对可燃物的燃烧性的各指标进行权重的确定,并计算各草本的燃烧性值,最后对草本的燃烧性进行排序.结果表明:各草本风干含水率在10.53%~104.55%,其中假升麻Aruncus sylvester Kostel.最低,铃兰Convallaria majalisL.最高;绝干含水率在135.29%~2200%,其中苔草Carex tristachya最低,水金凤Flos seu Radix Impatientis nolitangeris最高;灰分含量在4.52%~25.84%,其中耳叶蓼Polygonum manshuriense V.Petr.ex Kom.最低,灰菜Chenopodium albumL.最高;热值在6342J/g~12687J/g,其中灰菜Chenopodium albumL.最低,独行菜Lepidium apetalum最高;苯-乙醇抽提物含量在2.42%~11.40%,其中耳叶蓼Polygonum manshuriense V.Petr.exKom.最低,水金凤Flos seu Radix Impatientis nolitangeris最高;最难燃的草本是水金凤Flos seu Radix Impatientis nolitangeris,最易燃的草本是苔草Carex tristachya.%The combustibility of 48 major herbs properties in Heilongjiang Province was comprehensively evaluated by the analysis of physical property,the differences of testing indexes between different herb fuels were also explored.By using analytic hierarchy process (AHP),the weighing values of combustibility indexes were determined,the combustibility values of different herbs fuels were calculated,finally the combustibility values of different herbs were ordered by magnitude.The results show that the dried herbs moisture rates were from 10.53% to 104.55%,of them,that of Aruncus sylvester Kostel was the lowest,the Convallaria majalis L.was the highest; the ash content was from 4.52% to 25.84%,that ofPolygonum manshuriense V.Petr.ex Kom.was the lowest and that of Chenopodium album L.is the highest; the heat values were from 6 342 J/g to 12 687 J/g,that of C.album was the lowest,that of Lepidium apetalum was the highest; the contents of

  18. Dynamics of Weed Community among Three Growing Seasons in Alpine Cultivated Grassland%高寒地区人工草地年际间的杂草群落动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾梦鹤; 霍国飞; 王涛; 杜国桢

    2011-01-01

    本试验选取青藏高原常见多年生牧草垂穗披碱草(Elymus nutans)、中华羊茅(Festuca sinensis)和羊茅(FPstuca ovina)建植人工草地,设计7种播种组合,4个密度水平,通过3年的野外样方调查,分析了人工草地中杂草丰富度和杂草生物量的变化规律.结果表明:人工草地建植当年,共出现30种杂草,其中附地菜(Trigonotis peduncularis)、萼果香薷(Elsholtzia patrini)、白藜(Chenopodium album)、宝盖草(Lamium amplexicaule)等一年生阔叶杂草对草地影响较大;人工草地建植第2年,杂草丰富度最低(19种),对草地影响较大的是萼果香薷、甘青蒿(Artemisia tangutica)、车前(Plantago asiatica)及臭蒿(Artemisia hedinii)等多年生杂草;人工草地建植第3年,草地的杂草丰富度最高(40种).对草地影响较大的有甘青蒿、车前和老鹳草(Geranium wil fordii)以及草石蚕(Humata tyermanni)等多年生杂草.中华羊茅和羊茅草地抵制杂草的能力在建植当年(2003年)最弱,2004年和2005年之后逐渐增强;垂穗披碱草抵制杂草的能力在建植当年(2003年)最强,2004年和2005年以后随着建植时间的增加而逐渐减弱.%Weed abundance and biomass among three perennial grasses (Elymus nutans, Festuca sinensis, and Festuca ovina) cultivated widely in the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau were studied. Seven different sowing methods and four density levels were used in the experiment. Field quadrats were tracked and investigated for three years. Results showed 30 kinds of weeds in the cultivated grassland during first growing season. Annual broadleaf weeds, such as Trigonotis peduncularis, Chenopodium album, Elsholtzia patrini, and Lamium amplexicaule had considerable impact on the cultivated grassland. In the second growing season, weed abundance was the lowest (19 kinds) among three years. Perennial weeds, such as Chenopodium album 、Artemisia tangutica 、and Asiatic plantain had impact on the cultivated grassland. In the

  19. Influência pH na reposta de sementes de plantas daninhas a substâncias promotoras de germinação Influence of pH on the action of chemicals on weed seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carmona

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito do pH na ação de algumas subst âncias promotoras de germinação em sementes de Chenopodium album L., Avena fatua L. e Rumex crispus L. A azida de sódio (A, nitrato de potássio + etileno (NE, NE + A, NE + A + tiuréia + peróxido de hidrogênio foram testados em solo (em bandej as e em papel (in vitro com soluções tampão em ambiente controlado. O efeito do NE no estímulo à germinação de sementes não foi afetado pelo pH na faixa de 3 a 9. A azida de sódio foi a substância que mais afetou as sementes, sendo este efeito pH dependente. Este composto foi extremamente deletério em sementes de C. album e A. fatua em solo ácido (pH 4,0, enquanto em solo básico ele estimulou a germinação em sementes de A. fatua, através da superação da dormência A combinação de NE + A em pH 6,2 inibiu a germinação de C. album e A. fatua, mostrando um antagonismo entre estes compostos. A mistura dos cinco compostos reduziu a influência do pH na ação deletéria da azida de sódio. O efeito deletério da azida foi menos afetado pela temperatura do que sua ação como superador de dormência. A solução extraída do solo não afetou a resposta de tratamentos químicos in vitro em diferentes temperaturas comparado a soluções tampão em pH semelhante. Discute-se a influência das características do solo na eficácia de substâncias químicas como superadores de dormência ou tratamentos deletérios às sementes.The effects of pH on the action of some dormancy-relieving chemicals were investi gated on seeds of Chenopodium album, Avena fatua and Rumex crispus. Sodium azide (A, potassium nitrate + ethephon (NE, NE + A, NE + A + thiourea + hydrogen peroxide were tested in soil trays or in paper (in vitro with buffer solutions in controlled environment. The response to NE was not affected by pH from 3 to 9. Sodium azide had the gre ate st effect on seed decline, but its effect was pH-dependent. This compound was extremely

  20. 重庆市烟田杂草种类、分布与危害程度研究%Investigation on Categories,Distribution and Damage of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金香; 丁伟; 刘元平; 石生探; 何林; 张永强

    2015-01-01

    为明确重庆市烟田杂草的种类、分布和危害情况,采用倒置 W 九点取样法对重庆市烟田杂草进行了调查。结果表明:重庆市烟田杂草共有121种,隶属于35科,其中阔叶杂草93种,占76•86%;禾本科杂草19种,占15•70%;其他杂草9种,占7•44%。一年生杂草68种,占56•20%;多年生杂草53种,占43•80%。根据各杂草相对高度、相对盖度、相对多度的综合值进行评价,藜、紫苏、尼泊尔蓼、马唐、牛膝菊、艾蒿、狗尾草和黄花蒿是重庆市烟田的优势杂草。地区间杂草发生危害情况差异显著,尼泊尔蓼、牛膝菊和雀稗在渝东北植烟区发生危害较为严重,艾蒿、马唐、狗尾草、西来稗、紫苏和藜次之;渝中部植烟区以藜发生危害较为严重,马唐、尼泊尔蓼、牛膝菊、黄花蒿、铁苋菜和春蓼次之;渝东南植烟区以藜、紫苏、黄花蒿和狗尾草的危害占优势。%An investigation was carried out by inverted W nine point sampling method to study the catego ‐ries ,distribution and damage of weeds in tobacco fields in Chongqing Municipality .The results showed that there were 121 weed species belonging to 35 families ,including 93 kinds of broad‐leaved weeds (ac‐counted for 76•86% ) ,19 kinds of gramineous weeds (accounted for 15•70% ) and 9 kinds of the others (accounted for 7•44% ) ;among them ,there were 68 kinds of annual weeds (accounted for 56•20% ) and 53 kinds of perennial weeds (accounted for 43•80% ) .According to comprehensive value of the relative height ,relative coverage and relative abundance of weeds , Chenopodium album L• , Perilla frutescens (L• ) Britt• , Polygonum nepalense Meisn• , Digitaria sanguinalis (L• ) Scop• , Galinsoga p arviflora Cav• ,A rtemisia argyi Levl• et Vant• ,Setaira viridis (L• ) Beauv• and A rtemisia annua L• were domi‐nant weeds in Chongqing .Weed damages in

  1. Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides = Antifungal activity of plant extracts to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercia Ikarugi Bomfim Celoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito fungitóxico de extratos vegetais sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir de plantas secas e moídas, utilizando-se água e etanol como meio extrator. Foram utilizadas 22 espécies de plantas para a obtençãodos extratos. Os extratos foram avaliados por meio da incorporação de 20% do extrato em meio BDA, antes ou após a autoclavagem do mesmo. Determinou-se a percentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial (PIC. Utilizando-se extrato na proporção de 50% e suspensão de esporos, determinou-se a percentagem de inibição da germinação de esporos (PIG. Verificou-se que os extratos hidroetanólicos proporcionaram maior PIC de C. gloeosporioides, enquanto maior PIG foi obtido com os extratos aquosos. Extratos não autoclavados foram mais eficientes na redução do crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides que os extratos autoclavados. Os extratos aquoso e hidroetanólico de melão-de-são-caetano e extrato hidroetanólico de eucalipto proporcionaram maiores PIC. Os extratos aquosos deLuffa acutangula, Eucalyptus citriodora, Chenopodium ambrosioides e Bauhinia, e os extratos hidroetanólicos de Ruta graveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, Zingiber officinale e Chenopodiumambrosioides inibiram mais de 90% da germinação de esporos.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect fungitoxic of plant extracts on the mycelial growth and on the spores germination of C. gloeosporioides. The plant extracts were obtained starting from dried ground plants, using water and ethilic alcohol as extractor. Twenty-two plant species were used to obtain the extracts. The extracts were tested by means of the incorporation of 20% (v/v in PDA medium, before or after sterilization. The percentage ofinhibition of the mycelial growth (PIM was determined. Extract in the proportion of 50% was added to a spore suspension used to

  2. Identificação botânica e química de espécies vegetais de uso popular no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Botanical and chemical identification of plant species of popular use in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    J. Félix-Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais são utilizadas mundialmente como uma das principais formas de cuidado primário de saúde. No entanto, a literatura indica que muitas espécies podem apresentar composição química variável, toxicidade ou difícil identificação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi obter critérios úteis para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico das principais espécies vegetais de uso popular no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, utilizando metodologias de análise botânica (morfodiagnose macro e microscópica e química (triagem fitoquímica e cromatografia em camada delgada, evitando assim adulterações ou uso inadequado dessas plantas medicinais no estado. No total, sete espécies foram analisadas Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus e Rosmarinus officinalis. Diversos marcadores botânicos e fitoquímicos foram identificados, contribuindo dessa forma para a correta identificação destas espécies de plantas medicinais importantes no estado do Rio Grande do Norte.Medicinal plants are worldwide used as one of the main forms of primary healthcare. However, the literature indicates that many species may have variable chemical composition, toxicity, or even difficult identification. The aim of this study was to obtain useful criteria for pharmacognostic quality control of the main plant species of popular use in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, using methods of botanical (macro and microscopic morphodiagnosis and chemical (phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography analysis, thus preventing adulteration or inappropriate use of these medicinal plants in the state. In total, seven species were analyzed Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus and Rosmarinus officinalis. Several botanical and phytochemical markers were identified, thereby contributing to the correct identification of these

  3. Use of solaria to predict weed density and floristic composition in no-till cropping systems Uso de solaria na predição da densidade de ervas daninhas e da composição florística no sistema de semeadura direta

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    Pablo Antonio Calviño

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a new method, developed for predicting density and floristic composition of weed communities in field crops. Based on the use of solaria (100 mm transparent plastic tarps lying on the soil to stimulate weed seedlings emergence, the method was tested in Tandil, Argentina, from 1998 to 2001. The system involved corn and sunflower in commercial no-till system. Major weeds in the experiments included Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata and S. viridis, which accounted for 98% of the weed community in the three years of experiments since 1998. Large numbers of Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album and Ammi majus were present in 2001. Comparison of weed communities under solaria with communities in field crops indicated that the method is useful for predicting the presence and density of some major weed species, at both high and low densities, of individuals in areas of 10 ha using only five solaria. Low density of weed species makes the method particularly useful to help deciding the time for herbicide applications to avoid soil contamination.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novo método, desenvolvido para predizer a densidade e a composição florística das comunidades de plantas daninhas. O método é baseado no uso de solaria (plástico transparente de 100 mm sobre o solo, a fim de estimular o aparecimento de ervas daninhas, e foi testado em Tandil, Argentina, de 1998 a 2001. O sistema envolve milho e girassol, em cultivos comerciais em semeadura direta. As principais espécies experimentadas foram Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata e S. viridis, que responderam por 98% da comunidade nos três anos de experiência. Números altos de Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album e Ammi majus estavam presentes em 2001. A comparação de comunidades de ervas daninhas sob solaria com comunidades fora de solaria indicou que o método é útil para predizer a presença e

  4. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

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    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  5. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

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    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  6. 30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP对春小麦田杂草的防效及安全性评价%Control Effect and Crop Safety of Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP against Broad-leaf Weeds in Spring Wheat Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海

    2012-01-01

    采用田间试验方法研究了30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP对春小麦田杂草的控制效果和应用安全性.结果表明,30%苄嘧·苯磺隆对田间阔叶杂草具有较好的防除效果,于春小麦3~5叶期每公顷施用30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP 281.25~337.50 g/hm2对水300 kg茎叶喷雾,可有效防除密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvnse)、藜(Chenopodium album)、苦苣菜(Sonchus oleraceus)等阔叶杂草;在以大刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos setosum)、泽漆(Euphorbia helioscopia)为优势种群的春麦田需增大剂量至337.50 g/hm2.对供试的乐麦5号和高原483春小麦安全,除草后小麦增产12.02%~17.38%,增产效果总体优于对照药剂.%To provide guidance for chemical weed management in spring wheat fields,experiments were conducted to evaluate the weed control effects and crop safety of Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP. The results showed that Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP has very good efficacy on Elsholtzia densa, Thlaspi arvnse, Chenopodi-um album, Sonchus oleraceus,etc.. Its normal dosage is 281.25~337.50 g/hm2 with 300 kg water in the term of 3~5 leaf—age of spring wheat. The dosage should increase to 337.50 g/hm2 in spring wheat field where the dominant species were Cepha-lanoplos setosum and Euphorbia helioscopia. Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP was safety to spring wheat variety Lemai 5 and Gaoyuan 483; the yield of wheat was increased by 12.02%~17.38% than CK and ecceeded that of the compared herbicides.

  7. 人工饲料对草地螟消化酶活性及羧酸酯酶mRNA表达量的影响%Effects of Artificial Diets on Digestive Enzyme Activities in Loxostege sticticalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋华; 刘爱萍; 徐林波; 高书晶; 韩冰; 康爱国; 张玉慧

    2012-01-01

    通过对经验型筛选和正交试验优化出的饲料配方饲养的草地螟(Loxostege sticticalis)5龄幼虫中肠淀粉酶、蛋白酶、酯酶和脂肪酶4种消化酶进行活性测定.结果表明:饲料HG在蔗糖的添加量稍做改动后,其饲养效果更接近于草地螟天然食料灰菜(Chenopodium album);饲料12的淀粉酶、蛋白酶、酯酶和脂肪酶都与对照组相差较多,蛋白含量、脂类含量与糖类含量需做进一步的修正与试验.另外利用RT-PCR方法,通过研究人工饲料HG,12及对照组H对草地螟羧酸酯酶基因转录水平的影响,从分子水平快速评价出饲料HG优于饲料12.研究结果为今后的草地螟人工饲养及饲料配方进一步改进提供了理论依据.%This paper studied the bowel amylase, protease, ester enzyme and lipase of Loxostege sticticalis 5-instar larva fed by optimal feed formula which was selected by experience screening and orthogonal test. Results showed that the feed effect of artificial diet HG after adding sucrose was closer to that of Chenopo-dium album. The amylase, protease, esterase and lipase activities of artificial diet 12 were different from those of control group. In addition, the effects of artificial diet HG and 12 on carboxylesterase gene transcription levels of Loxostege sticticalis were studied using RT-PCR. Artificial diet HG was superior to artificial diet 12. These results provided a theoretical basis for further improvement of Loxostege sticticalis L. artificial feeding and feed formula.

  8. Common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis living in southwestern part of iran: based on skin prick test reactivity.

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    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeroallergens continue to have a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases and have recently received increased attention in medical research throughout the world. The prevalence of aeroallergens vary in different regions, depending on the type of climate. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence of the sensitivity to aeroallergens among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR, based on skin prick test (SPT reactivity in the province of Bushehr, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 743 patients were enrolled. The participants had asthma and AR and reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard extracts including house dust mites (HDMs, animal dander, molds and pollens were performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. The male to female ratio and mean age of the patients were 1.03 and 27.6± 15.4 year, respectively. Out of 567 patients with AR, the common aeroallergens were HDMs (88.5%, molds (82.9%, animal dander (79.5%, weeds (77.6%, trees (75.5% and grass pollen (71.5%. Moreover, among 176 patients with asthma, the prevalence of aeroallergens were HDMs (90.5 %, molds (80.7%, animal dander (77.5%, weeds (73.3%, trees (73.3% and grass pollen (67.9%. The sensitivity to animal dander, Chenopodium album and Russian thistle pollens were significantly associated with the severity of AR. Moreover, sensitivity to animal dander such as cat and feather of birds, cockroach, Bermuda grass and Chenopodium album pollens were significantly associated with the severity of asthma. The results of this study revealed that HDM was the most common sensitizing aeroallergen in patients with asthma and AR. Molds and animal dander as indoor allergens were also common aeroallergens. We suggest that the hot weather and ambient humidity in the region may be the main cause of the change in the pattern of SPT reactivity.

  9. 甘肃省景泰县胡麻田杂草发生消长规律研究%Research on Growth and Decline Rules of Weeds in Linseed Field in Jingtai County of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉奇; 刘敏艳; 胡冠芳; 牛树君; 胡广瑜

    2012-01-01

    通过定点调查,研究了甘肃省景泰县胡麻田一年生杂草的发生消长规律.结果表明:胡麻田杂草从4月5日左右开始出苗,至5月12日全部出齐;杂草在4月28日出现1个出苗高峰,杂草的平均株高在胡麻成熟期达到最高;平均鲜重在胡麻盛花期达到最高.野燕麦的平均株高在胡麻成熟期达到最高,平均鲜重在胡麻盛花期达到最高;藜的平均株高和鲜重在胡麻成熟期达到最高.5月5 ~12日是防除胡麻田一年生杂草的适宜时期;防除野燕麦的最佳施药时期是4月28日~5月5日;防除藜的最佳施药时期是5月12~19日.%Through the location observation and investigation, the growth and decline rules of annual weeds in linseed field in Jingtai county of Gansu province were studied. The results showed that the emergence date of weed seedlings was from about April 5th to May 12th, and there was a weed seedling emergence peak on April 28th. The average plant height of weeds was the highest in the mature period of linseed, and their average fresh weight reached the highest in the full flowering period of linseed. The average plant height of oat grass was the highest in the mature period of linseed, and its average fresh weight reached the highest in the full flowering period of linseed. The average plant height and fresh weight of Chenopodium album achieved the highest in the mature period of linseed. The suitable control date of annual weeds in linseed field was from May 5th to May I2th. The optimum date of uaing herbicides to control oat grass was from April 28th to May 5th, and that of controlling Chenopodium album was from May 12th to May 19th.

  10. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria

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    Anely Nedelcheva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Materials and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43 and fruits (38, followed by young shoots (9, seeds (7, roots (4, bulbs (4 and inflorescences (2. The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products, dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusion: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a

  11. Cambios en la vegetacion de un campo abandonado despues de un cultivo de trigo Vegetation changes in a field abandoned after a wheat crop

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    Silvia Irene Boccanelli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación prístina de los campos altos del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina son distintos tipos de flechillares caracterizados por la abundancia de varias especies del género Stipa. Cuando un campo agrícola se abandona suele revertir a las comunidades prístinas. El objeto de este trabajo es analizar los diez primeros años de la sucesión secundaria de un campo sometido a agricultura durante largo tiempo que se abandonó después de un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum. En el primer año aparece trigo acompañado de malezas anuales (Chenopodium album y Portulaca oleracea; después del primer año una parcela fue colonizada por Baccharis salicifolia y las otras por Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. Los últimos años constituyen una etapa en la que disminuye la diversidad y se establece una fuerte dominancia de Baccharis salicifolia o Carduus acanthoides. El Sorgo de Alepo (Sorghum halepense aparece en las etapas tempranas y perdura durante todo el período con valores altos de abundancia. Aún, prácticamente no han aparecido especies de los flechillares, por lo tanto se concluye que no ha transcurrido suficiente tiempo para que se regenere el flechillar, o porque sus especies no se encuentran en los bancos de semillas o en las proximidades.The natural vegetation of well drained fields of Southern Santa Fe (Argentina are a different kind of communities characterized by the abundance of several species of Stipa. When agricultural lands are abandoned, they are often recolonized by the original vegetation. The object of this paper is to analize the first ten years of secondary succession on a field under a long time of agriculture abandoned after a wheat crop. On the first year, wheat with annual weeds (Chenopodium album and Portulaca oleracea appeared. After the first year, one plot was colonized by Baccharis salicifolia and the others by Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. The last years

  12. 480g/L嗪草酮SC防除马铃薯田杂草效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉慧; 康爱国; 乔普海; 赵志英; 杨晓娜; 胡俊; 王贵启

    2016-01-01

    为了明确嗪草酮对马铃薯田阔叶杂草的防治效果,采用田间小区试验。结果表明:480g/L嗪草酮SC在马铃薯5—10cm,杂草2—5叶期的适宜用药量为396—594/hm2,该剂量下对马铃薯田主要阔叶杂草藜、萹蓄、苦荞的鲜重防效理想,药后30d的鲜重防效为76.8%—87.7%,对藜、萹蓄、苦荞的鲜重防效随剂量的增加防效明显提高,鲜重防效分别为99.2%—100%、53.2%—96.9%、31.5%—93.0%,一些剂量处理区的马铃薯出现程度不同的轻度药害,药害等级2—3级,但之后5—6天左右即可恢复,药害对马铃薯的产量无不良影响。%The field plot experiment was conducted to study broad-leaf weed control of metribuzin SC in potato. The results showed that when the using dosage was 196-594g/hm2 in 5-10cm high potato 2-5 leaf stage of weed, 480g/L metribuzin SC had good control effect on Chenopodium album, Polygonum aviculare, Tartary buckwheat, the fresh weight control was 76.8%-87.7% after 30 days. The fresh weight control effect on Chenopodium album, Polygonum aviculare, Tartary buckwheat increased significantly with the dosage increasing, and the control effect was 99.2%-100% ,53.2%-96.9,31.5%-93.0%.The little damage about 2-3 grade was showed in potato after some dosage metribuzin SC was used. But the potato would recover and have no harmful effect after 5-6days later.

  13. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

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    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos, e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Brasil central. Os frutos, do tipo aquênio, são pequenos, achatados e sem dormência. BRS Piabiru, primeira recomendação de quinoa ao cultivo no Brasil, originou-se da linhagem EC 3, selecionada em uma população procedente de Quito, Equador. Após dois anos de ensaios, foi uniformizada em suas características agronômicas a partir de 1998. Em sucessão à soja (safrinha e na entressafra, sob irrigação, apresentou produção média de 2,8 t/ha de grãos, com 145 dias da emergência à maturação. Constitui um potencial componente do sistema plantio direto.Diversification of production systems contributes to improve income, to reduce costs, to improve nutrient availability, to protect the soil, to reduce negative environmental impact, and, to provide raw material. The Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a Chenopodiaceae, presents outstanding characteristics of drought tolerance, high quality of kernel protein, low cholesterol content, absence of gluten (suitable to celiac patients, utilisation as animal feed. The species presents variability, with days from emergence to maturity varying between 80 to 150, under savannah conditions. The fruit, achene type, is small and flat in shape, without dormancy. The BRS Piabiru, the first recommended quinoa for cropping system in Brazil, was a selection of breeding line EC 3, originating from a plant population of Quito, Ecuador. After being tested for two years in variety trials, in Central

  14. 黄河三角洲盐碱地混交林林下植被现状%Study on Understory Vegetation of the Mixed Plantations on Saline-Alkali Soil in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚秀粉; 马风云; 辛贺; 侯宝顺

    2012-01-01

    The species of understory vegetation in different mixed plantations, the biodiversity, biomass and growth status under different salt content in the soil in the saline-alkali area in Yellow River delta were studied by sample plot survey. Totally 31 understory plant species were recorded, which belonged to 31 genera and 14 families. Among which, there were 10 species from gramineous family, accounting for the largest proportion. The dominant species of understory vegetation in la, 3a, 7a and 22a mixed plantations were Phrag-mites australis + Artemisia selengensis , Ixerh polycephala + Chenopodium album + Setaira viridis, Plantago asiatica, and Cleistogenes squarrosa respectively. There were few understory vegetation species with low biodiversity , less enriched species and more sparse species. The aboveground biomass of the understory vegetation species was generally greater than that of the underground. The dominate species in the mixed plantations with high salt content were mainly the salt tolerant plant species, and vice versa. Because of the strong adaptability to different environmental conditions, Ixeris polycephala and Chenopodium album grew well on sites with four different salt content levels.%采用样方调查的方法,研究了黄河三角洲盐碱地不同混交林林下植被的种类、生物多样性、生物量及不同土壤盐分林下植被的生长状况.共记录到林下植被31种,隶属于14科31属,其中禾本科最多,为10种;1、3、7、22龄林下植被的优势种分别为芦苇和芦蒿、苦荬菜+灰菜+狗尾草、车前草、韩式隐子草;林下植被的物种并不丰富,生物多样性不高,且富集种少,稀疏种多,地上部分生物量皆大于地下;土壤盐分含量高时,林下植被以耐盐碱植物为主,反之亦然,且由于苦买菜和灰菜具有较强的适应能力,在4个不同土壤盐分含量下都有生长.

  15. Variabilidade biológica de isolados do Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV oriundos de cultivares de laranjeira Biological variability of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV isolates from sweet orange cultivars

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    Jadier de Oliveira Cunha Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A leprose, causada pelo Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV, é uma das principais doenças presentes em pomares cítricos fluminenses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o quadro sintomatológico desenvolvido por isolados de CiLV obtidos de cultivares comerciais de laranjeira (Lima, Pêra e Seleta, inoculados mecanicamente em Chenopodium amaranticolor, em três diluições. Após cinco a sete dias da inoculação foram observadas lesões necróticas, com pequeno halo clorótico quando observadas contra a luz. O maior número de lesões, nas três diluições, foi obtido do isolado de 'Seleta', seguido por 'Pêra' e 'Lima'. A melhor diluição utilizada para a observação das lesões foi de 1:10. Os resultados demonstram uma possível variabilidade biológica entre os isolados virais e/ou uma menor ou maior replicação viral, dependendo da cultivar, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência da planta ao vírus.Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV is one of the major diseases in citrus orchards in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this study was to compare the development of symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with CiLV isolates from 'Lima', 'Pera' and 'Seleta' sweet oranges using three different dilutions. Five to seven-days after inoculation, necrotic lesions exhibiting a small chlorotic halo when exposed to the light, were observed. The highest number of lesions developed using the three dilutions was obtained from 'Seleta', an intermediate value from 'Pêra' and the lowest number from 'Lima'. The best dilution for lesions development was 1:10. The results demonstrate a possible biological variability among the virus isolates and/or a lower or higher viral replication, dependent on the cultivar. This indicates a putative mechanism of Citrus resistance to the virus.

  16. Prevalencia de sensibilización a aeroalérgenos en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia

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    Eliot Iván Narváez-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La rinitis alérgica es la enfermedad crónica más común, de elevado impacto sanitario y de importancia creciente en la mayor parte del mundo, los aeroalérgenos de ácaros, hongos y pólenes constituyen los desencadenantes más frecuentes de alergia respiratoria, por lo que se realizó un estudio de prevalencia para comprobar la sensibilización cutánea a los mismos, utilizando la prueba de Prick en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia. El estudio fue descriptivo en el universo de pacientes derivados al servicio de Alergia en la ciudad de Tarija. Se incluyeron 350 pacientes con diagnóstico de rinitis alérgica entre 11 y 60 años y se realizaron 18 pruebas cutáneas a cada uno, asignados por orden consecutivo entre junio de 2013 y julio de 2015. Como instrumentos de recogida de información se utilizaron la historia clínica, registro de pacientes atendidos y una encuesta confeccionada y validada en nuestra institución. Las variables de estudio fueron edad, sexo y sensibilización cutánea hacia Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium notatum, Acer negundo, Betula verrucosa, Cupressus arizonica, Eucalyptus globulus, Salix fragilis, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia trifida y Chenopodium album. La prueba de Prick se consideró positiva cuando los habones fueron ≥3 mm. Se realizaron 6300 pruebas cutáneas, la mayor prevalencia de sensibilización fue para los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (90% y Dermatophagoides farinae (66%, seguido del hongo Alternaria alternata (23% y pólenes Chenopodium álbum (20%, Amaranthus retroflexus (19% y Salix fragilis (21%. Se concluye que los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Dermatophagoides farinae constituyeron la causa de mayor sensibilización cutánea en pacientes con rinitis alérgica.

  17. ESTUDIOS DE ISÓTOPOS ESTABLES EN HUERTAS FAMILIARES ACTUALES DE LA QUEBRADA DE HUMAHUACA (JUJUY, ARGENTINA. SU POTENCIAL APORTE A LOS ESTUDIOS PALEODIETARIOS DEL NOROESTE ARGENTINO / Stable isotope studies on current home gardens of the Quebrada de ...

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    Violeta A. Killian Galván

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una propuesta metodológica para la generación de marcos de referencia en los estudios paleodietarios, mediante el análisis de la composición isotópica del carbono y el nitrógeno (?13C y ?15N en arqueología. En particular, nos centraremos en cómo influyen algunas prácticas de cultivo en los valores isotópicos de las plantas procedentes de huertas familiares (siendo las especies escogidas Zea mays, Solanum tuberosum, Oxalis tuberosa, Ullucus tuberosus, Chenopodium quinoa y Opuntia ficus-indica, esta última como especie silvestre del área. La metodología propuesta consiste en: el relevamiento de información entre productores locales, la caracterización del suelo en cuanto a sus propiedades químicas (pH, conductividad eléctrica, carbono orgánico y nitratos y la medición isotópica de los vegetales muestreados. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, podemos afirmar que al menos en entornos semiáridos, como es el caso de Quebrada de Humahuaca, la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo repercute en los valores ?15N de Zea mays. Si bien no hay una relación lineal entre las variables propuestas y los resultados isotópicos obtenidos, se registró un rango más amplio de valores cuando la calidad del suelo fue menor. AbstractWe present a methodological proposal for the construction of a frame of reference in paleodietary research through the analysis of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes (?13C y ?15N in archaeology. In particular, we focus on the effect of certain harvest practices in the isotopic values of plants from family farms (the species chosen being Zea mays, Solanum tuberosum, Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium quinoa and Opuntia ficus-indica, this last as a wild plant from the area. The methodology consist in: collection of information among local producers, soil characterization in terms of their chemical properties (Ph, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and nitrate and analysis of isotopic values from

  18. The vegetation types and species diversity in Lanzhou section of the Yellow River wetland%黄河兰州段湿地物种多样性及保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2014-01-01

    Based on investigating the wetland resources of Yellow River in Lanzhou on,analysis the wetland flora composition,species diversity and ecological characteristics systematicly.The results show that:there are 132 plants in wetland plant along the Yellow River,belonging to 33 families and 90 genera.Asteraceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae,Cyperaceae and Fabaceae species is the number of families accounted for the top five,share to 59.85% of the total amount,Artemisia,Chenopodium,Polygonum spec and mariqueter is the number of genera accounted for the top four,dominant families,single-species phenomenon obviously.wetland vegetation at Lanzhou section of the Yellow river is divided into 9 associations.Including 2 woody associations,there are Salix matsudana Ass.Tamarix chinensis + Lycium chinense ,and 7 herbaceous associations,there are Phrag-mites + Polygonum aviculare Ass.Artemisia anethoides Ass.Polygonum lapathifolium +Chenopodium glau-cum Ass.Calamagrostis pseudophragmites + Phragmites Ass.Roegneria nustans +Lepidium latifolium Ass. Suaeda glauca Ass.Kochia scoparia +Agropyron cristatum. And proposed countermeasures of wetland vegeta-tion protection and utilization of the Yellow River in Lanzhou.%对黄河兰州段湿地植物区系组成、生态特征和物种多样性进行了系统分析。结果表明:黄河兰州段湿地共有植物132种,隶属于33科90属,菊科、禾本科、藜科、莎草科和蝶形花科是物种数占前5位的科,占总种数的59.85%;蒿属、藜属、蓼属和藨草属是含物种数占前4位的属,优势科、单种属现象明显。湿地植被分为9个群丛,包括木本群丛2个(旱柳群丛、柽柳-枸杞群丛),草本群丛7个(芦苇-萹蓄群丛、莳萝蒿群丛、酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群丛、垂穗鹅观草-宽叶独荇菜群丛、碱蓬群丛和地肤-冰草群丛);并提出了对黄河兰州段湿地植被保护利用的对策。

  19. Detection of three Allexivirus species infecting garlic in Brazil Detecção de três espécies de Allexivirus que infectam o alho no Brasil

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    Péricles de Albuquerque Melo Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic viruses often occur in mixed infections under field conditions. In this study, garlic samples collected in three geographical areas of Brazil were tested by Dot-ELISA for the detection of allexiviruses using monoclonal specific antibodies to detect Garlic virus A (GarV-A, Garlic virus B (GarV-B, Garlic virus C (GarV-C and a polyclonal antiserum able to detect the three virus species mentioned plus Garlic virus D (GarV-D. The detected viruses were biologically isolated by successive passages through Chenopodium quinoa. Reverse Transcriptase Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR was performed using primers designed from specific regions of the coat protein genes of Japanese allexiviruses available in the Genetic Bank of National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI. By these procedures, individual garlic virus genomes were isolated and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis and the one with serological data revealed the presence of three distinct allexiviruses GarV-C, GarV-D and a recently described allexivirus, named Garlic mite-borne filamentous virus (GarMbFV, in Brazil.Infecções virais em alho são normalmente causadas por um complexo viral. Neste estudo, um complexo viral de alho, coletado em campo, em três regiões geográficas, foi testado com anti-soros monoclonais específicos para Garlic virus A (GarV-A, Garlic virus B (GarV-B, Garlic virus C (GarV-C e um anti-soro policlonal capaz de detectar os três vírus mencionados e Garlic virus D (GarV-D. Procedeu-se à amplificação por transcriptase reversa-reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR usando oligonucleotídeos sintetizados a partir de regiões específicas de genes de proteínas capsidiais de allexivirus japoneses e disponíveis no GeneBank (National Center of Biotechnology Information - NCBI. Por esse procedimento, vírus individuais foram isolados e seqüenciados. Os vírus detectados foram biologicamente isolados por meio de sucessivas inocula

  20. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

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    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz y lupino (Lupinus albus L., provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficiencias nutricionales. La formulación se definió por Programación Lineal, se determinó su composición por análisis proximal y se realizaron pruebas físicas, microbiológicas y de aceptación sensorial. Al concluir los 90 días de almacenamiento la bebida obtuvo un contenido de proteínas de 1,36%, siendo el triptófano el aminoácido limitante; por su parte, las coordenadas de cromaticidad del espacio de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas (p This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz and lupine (Lupinus albus L., native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05 maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  1. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  2. Comparative analysis of Medicinal Plants for their Antimicrobial Potential and Phytoconstituents Screening

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    Singh Jagdeep

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of crude extract of the leaves and stems of Amaranthusspinosus L., Capparisdeciduas (kair, Chenopodium album (bathua and Salvadorapersica(meswak/jalagainst pathogenic microbial strains Bacillus subtilis, E.coli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidisand Streptococcus mutansassayed by using agar well diffusion assay. Four different extracts (acetone, benzene,methanol and cow urine of each plant were used during the study. The significant results were obtained by all solvent extracts except cow urine extracts on tested pathogens using Agar well diffusion method. Acetone extract revealed strongest antibacterial activity on E.coliand methanol leaf extract showed strongest antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus epidermidis.Preliminarily phytochemical investigation of the crude extract of the leaves and stems of plantsshowed the presence of tannin, alkaloids, glycoside, terpenoids, flavonoid, steriods and saponin. The presence of these secondary metabolites indicates the pharmacological property of the plant leaves and stem. On the basis of this finding, the extracts demonstrating antimicrobial efficacy could result in the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.

  3. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

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    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  4. Benefits of Precision Farming Technologies for Mechanical Weed Control in Soybean and Sugar Beet—Comparison of Precision Hoeing with Conventional Mechanical Weed Control

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    Christoph Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed infestations and associated yield losses require effective weed control measures in soybean and sugar beet. Besides chemical weed control, mechanical weeding plays an important role in integrated weed management systems. Field experiments were conducted at three locations for soybean in 2013 and 2014 and at four locations for sugar beet in 2014 to investigate if automatic steering technologies for inter-row weed hoeing using a camera or RTK-GNSS increase weed control efficacy, efficiency and crop yield. Treatments using precision farming technologies were compared with conventional weed control strategies. Weed densities in the experiments ranged from 15 to 154 plants m−2 with Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvulus, Polygonum aviculare, Matricaria chamomilla and Lamium purpureum being the most abundant species. Weed hoeing using automatic steering technologies reduced weed densities in soybean by 89% and in sugar beet by 87% compared to 85% weed control efficacy in soybean and sugar beet with conventional weeding systems. Speed of weed hoeing could be increased from 4 km h−1 with conventional hoes to 7 and 10 km·h−1, when automatic steering systems were used. Precision hoeing technologies increased soybean yield by 23% and sugar beet yield by 37%. After conventional hoeing and harrowing, soybean yields were increased by 28% and sugar beet yield by 26%.

  5. Weed infestation of a cereal-legume mixture depending on its concentration and position in a crop rotation

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    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out in the period 2000-2006 at the Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo belonging to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Its aim was to compare weed infestation of a mixture of spring barley and field pea grown in a four crop rotation with different crop selection and sequence. Each year during tillering of spring barley and before the harvest of the mixture, weed species composition and density were evaluated, while additionally weed biomass was also estimated before the harvest. These results were used to determine species constancy, Simpson’s dominance index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices as well as the community similarity index based on floristic richness, numbers and biomass of particular weed species. The cropping frequency and the position of the mixture in the crop rotation did not differentiate the species composition and total biomass of weed communities in the cereal-legume mixture crops. The crop rotation in which the mixture constituted 50% and was grown after itself had a reducing effect on weed numbers. Growing field pea in the 4-year crop rotation promoted weed infestation of the mixture and the dominance of weed communities. Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Polygonum convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis were constant components of the agrophytocenoses. The weed communities were more similar in terms of their floristic composition than in terms of weed density and air-dry weight of weeds.

  6. Response of vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea to pre- or post-emergence applied herbicides

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    I. Vasilakoglou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad-leaved weeds constitute a serious problem in the production of winter legumes, but few selective herbicides controlling these weeds have been registered in Europe. Four field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and repeated in 2010/11 in Greece to study the response of common vetch (Vicia sativa L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and red pea (Lathyrus cicera L. to several rates of the herbicides pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine and flumioxazin applied pre-emergence, as well as imazamox applied post-emergence. Phytotoxicity, crop height, total weight and seed yield were evaluated during the experiments. The results of this study suggest that common vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea differed in their responses to the herbicides tested. Pendimethalin at 1.30 kg ha-1, S-metolachlor at 0.96 kg ha-1 and flumioxazine at 0.11 kg ha-1 used as pre-emergence applied herbicides provided the least phytotoxicity to legumes. Pendimethalin at 1.98 kg ha-1 and both rates of S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine provided the greatest common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. control. Imazamox at 0.03 to 0.04 kg ha-1 could also be used as early post-emergence applied herbicide in common vetch and red pea without any significant detrimental effect.

  7. INFLUENCE OF SOIL TILLAGE AND LOW HERBICIDE DOSES ON WEED POPULATIONS AND SPRING BARLEY YIELD

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    Mira Knežević

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different tillage variants and low herbicide doses of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture (Dicuran forte 80 WP on weed populations and crop yield were studied in spring barley on lessive pseudogley soil in North-Eastern Croatia at the Čačinci locality in 1999. Tillage had no significant influence on annual broad-leaved weed biomass production, which was 22 kg ha-1 , on the average. Chisel ploughing and disk harrowing significantly increased perennial weed biomass by 21 and 44 times, respectively compared to mouldboard ploughing. The average efficacy of total weed biomass control was 95, 89 and 81% at full, onehalf and one-quarter of the recommended herbicide dose, respectively and did not differ very much between tillage treatments. Both reduced herbicide doses ensured very good biomass control of the most abundant weed populations such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L. and Polygonum lapathifolium L. No significant tillage and herbicide dose effects were recorded in barley yields, which ranked from 4.93 t ha-1 in chisel ploughing to 4.48 t ha-1 in disk harrowing. These results suggested a possibility of mouldboard ploughing substitution with reduced tillage practices on lessive pseudogley soil and herbicide dose reduction of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture to 50% or more in spring barley.

  8. The influence of strip cropping and weed control methods on weed diversity in dent maize (Zea mays L., narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. and oats (Avena sativa L.

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    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2008–2010 at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Zamość, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The research design included two factors: I. Method of cultivation – sole cropping and strip cropping (the cultivation of three plants: maize, narrow-leafed lupin and oats, in neighboring strips; II. Weed control method – mechanical and chemical. The subject of this study was weed infestation in maize, narrow-leafed lupin and oats. The greatest diversity of weeds was found in the narrow-leafed lupine crop, while the lowest diversity in maize. The dominant weed species in maize, lupine and oats were Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album and Galinsoga parviflora which ranged from 34% to 99% of the total number of weeds. Strip cropping clearly reduced the number of weeds per unit area in the narrow-leafed lupin and oat crops as well as the aboveground dry weight of weeds in all plant species. Chemical weed control significantly decreased both the number and weight of weeds in comparison with the mechanical method.

  9. Phenology of flowering and pollen release of selected herbaceous plants in Szczecin and Gudowo (Western Pomerania and the risk of pollen allergy

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    Aleksandra Kruczek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the course of the pollen season of selected allergenic taxa (Secale spp., Rumex spp., Plantago spp., Urtica spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae in Szczecin (2009 and Gudowo (Western Pomerania, Poland (2009–2010, and also the flowering pattern of Chenopodium album, Artemisia vulgaris and Secale spp. Pollen deposition was studied by the gravimetric method using a Durham sampler. In 2010 the flowering period of the studied taxa was shorter than in 2009 and its onset was observed later; the maximum values of daily pollen deposition were lower. Pollen grains of most of the taxa studied appeared in the atmosphere of the city earlier than in the rural area, but in the rural area significantly higher values of daily deposition were recorded. The effect of weather conditions on pollen fall in Szczecin in 2009 was analysed. Statistically significant positive correlations with pollen deposition were found only with maximum, minimum, and mean air temperature, dew point and maximum wind speed, while a negative correlation was found with precipitation and – only for Rumex pollen grains – with air humidity and pressure.

  10. Effect of 25% Rimsulfuron on controlling field wild grasses in flax%25%宝成干悬浮剂防治亚麻田杂草药效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振玲; 刘其宁; 何丽红; 曾绍安; 吴学英; 杜刚; 刘飞虎

    2006-01-01

    不同剂量的25%宝成干悬浮剂在亚麻田中的除草试验表明:用量为90g/hm2的宝成即可有效防除亚麻田中各类杂草,药后50天,杂草鲜重防效达71%~99%,株防效达53%~92%,对禾本科(Gramineae)草和齿果酸模(Rumex den-tatus L.)、荠菜[Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.)Medic.]、碎米荠(Cardamine hirsute L.)、辣子草(Galinsoga parvifloraCav.)、通泉草[Mazus japonicus(Thunb.)O.Kuntze]、猪殃殃(Galium aparine L.)、牛繁缕(鹅肠菜)[Malachiumaquaticum(L.)Fries]等阔叶草的防除效果很好,对藜科杂草灰灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)的防除效果相对较差一些.

  11. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  12. 宁夏盐池栽培甘草田杂草种类普查与防治技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左忠; 李明; 温淑红; 安钰; 张清云

    2011-01-01

    通过大面积普查和小样方调查的方式,对宁夏盐池栽培甘草田杂草种类、防治现状等做了1次普查分析,共普查到27科76属119种杂草.其中,种类最多的是禾本科(Gramineae)杂草,有32种;菊科(Compositae)次之,有19种;藜科(Chenopodiaceae)14种.杂草密度在3级以上的有31种,占杂草总种教的26.05%,是人工防除的重点.在灌溉移栽的甘草药剂除草试验田中,危害最严重的为菊科的猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)和丝叶山苦荬(lxeris chinensis var.graminifolia),试验所选除草剂对菊科杂草无效,但时灰藜(Chenopodium album)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、猪毛菜(Salsola collina)、白草(Pennisetum centrasiaticum)等恶性杂草防效明显.同时,提出了放牧除草、机械除草、施肥、防虫等简单有效的防控措施.

  13. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

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    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  14. 草地螟选择大画眉草而非藜产卵的证据及原因%Evidences and causes for selecting stinkgrass rather than lambsquarters as ovipositing plants by the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 罗礼智; 潘贤丽; 康爱国

    2010-01-01

    为了阐明草地螟对产卵寄主的选择性,为改善其测报、防治技术提供科学依据,笔者于2008年8月在河北康保对草地螟的产卵寄主植物进行了系统的调查.主要结果为:在所调查的9科23种植物中,查到有草地螟产卵的有7科13种.成虫对禾本科的大画眉草[Eragrostis cilianensis(All.)Link ex Vignolo-Lutati]具有显著的偏好.大画眉草的单株着卵量、有卵株率、卵密度及相对着卵量均显著高于藜(Chenopodium album Linnaeus)等其他产卵寄主的对应值,并比藜上的对应值多10倍到100倍以上.对此次草地螟成虫主要选择大画眉草产卵的可能原因进行了探讨分析.

  15. The Effects of Artificial Feed Formula and Natural Feed on the Growth of Cabbage Moth%比较人工配方和天然饲料对甘蓝夜蛾生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英春; 王雨薇; 于洪春

    2014-01-01

    分别以甘蓝(Brassica oleracea)、甜菜(Beta vulgaris)和灰菜(Chenopodium album)3种植物叶粉为主要原料配制人工饲料,并以相应的天然新鲜叶片作为对照,在温度为25℃,光照/黑暗=14 h/1O h,相对湿度为75%的条件下饲养甘蓝夜蛾,并调查其前三代的幼虫存活率、化蛹率、羽化率等指标.结果表明,以灰菜叶粉为主要原料的人工饲料的饲养效果最好,和新鲜灰菜叶相比平均产卵量多523粒,平均历期短1.93 d,平均蛹重高30 mg,继代繁殖无明显退化现象;灰菜易于种植与取得,此配方较适合用于实验室对甘蓝夜蛾的连续饲养.

  16. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Euphorbia Helioscopia L. on the Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Three Vegetable%泽漆水浸提液对3种蔬菜种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶

    2016-01-01

    以泽漆为供试植物,以其地上部不同浓度水提液为化感物质,分别以萝卜(Raphanus sativus L.)、白菜(Chenopodium album L.)和甘蓝(Brassica oleracea Linnaeus var.capitata L.)种子为受体,采用培养皿滤纸法进行化感试验,结果表明:泽漆地上部水提液对萝卜、白菜和甘蓝种子的发芽率、发芽指数、根长、苗高和鲜重的影响存在差异,高浓度泽漆浸提液对3种蔬菜种子的发芽率和发芽指数均有显著的抑制作用,泽漆地上部分水浸提液对萝卜幼苗的根长和苗高有着“低促高抑”的影响,对白菜和甘蓝的根长表现为抑制作用,但对其苗高有促进作用,对3种蔬菜的鲜重均表现为促进作用.

  17. The Arable Weeds of Plešivica Hills (NW Croatia

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    Dubravka Dujmović Purgar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The arable weeds (segetal flora were explored on Plešivica hills (NW Croatia during vegetational seasons 2002 and 2003 at 10 locations. The common methods of plant recording, collecting and identification were applied in the research of the arable weeds. Th e nomenclature of plants was according to Tutin et al. (1964-1980, 1993. The total of 107 taxa of arable weeds that classified to 32 families was noted. The most represented families were Poaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Therophytes were dominant in the fields that were the subject of this research. Most of the species were the cosmopolites and the Euroasian origin. 78 weed species were noted in dense crop fi elds (wheat, barley. Some of them (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rausch., Cirsium arvense (L.Scop., Galium aparine L., Papaver rhoeas L., Stellaria media(L.Vill. and Veronica persica Poir. are the most harmful weeds of dense crops. 62 weeds were noted in maize fields. Some of them were typically row crop weeds, as for instance: Amaranthus retrofl exus L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L., Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. PB., Polygonum lapathifolium L. and Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. Very invasive species Abutilon theophrasti Med. was found on the row crop fields. Very dangerous aeroallergenic species Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was dispersed in many of the researched fields.

  18. The influence of strip cropping on the state and degree of weed infestation in dent maize (Zea mays L., common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the years 2008–2010 at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Zamość, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The following factors were analysed in the experiment: I. Cultivation method – sole cropping and strip cropping, which consisted in the cultivation of three plants: dent maize, common bean, and spring barley, in adjacent strips with a width of 3.3 m; II. Weed control methods – mechanical and chemical. The subject of the research was weed infestation of the 'Celio' variety of dent maize, the 'Aura' variety of common bean, and the 'Start' variety of spring barley. Weed infestation of the crops was assessed two weeks before harvesting by determining the species composi- tion as well as the number and dry weight of weeds. The dominant weed species in maize, common bean and spring barley were Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album and Galinsoga parviflora, constituting from 58% to 70% of the total number of weeds. Strip cropping clearly reduced the number of weeds per unit area in all the cultivated species and dry weight of aboveground parts produced by them in common bean and maize crops. The limiting effect of strip cropping on the weed infestation parameters was particularly clear in combination with the mechanical weed control method.

  19. Understanding the long-term effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment on a pasture: the importance of disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.; Potvin, C. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1997-10-01

    Open-top technology was used to examine the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on a pasture, specifically, the interaction between disturbance and the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration at the community level, and the response of a major weed, Chenopodium album, to CO{sub 2} enrichment in a natural field situation. No significant interaction between disturbance and CO{sub 2} was detected. The composition of the grass community that established in the open depended on seed availability, and was independent of CO{sub 2} concentration. There was some evidence of density dependence in the undisturbed quadrats, but the disturbance regimes outweighed the CO{sub 2} increase in importance. Across variables, disturbance explained as much as 80 per cent of changes in vegetation, whereas CO{sub 2} never accounted for more than nine per cent. Neighbouring plants were found to have a strong influence on the growth of C. album, this in spite of the known responsiveness of the photosynthetic activity of C. album to elevated CO{sub 2} levels. This was interpreted as being indicative of the complex feedback interactions occurring when a plant community is exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. The problem of weed infestation in conditions of applying the growth bioregulators and foliar fertilization in potato cultivation

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    Barbara Sawicka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in Parczew in the mid-eastern part of Poland in the 2001-2003 years. It was set up in a split-block design, with the following experimental factors: A – potato cultivars ‘Bila’, ‘Glada’, ‘Danusia’, ‘Ania’, B – treatments of a biostimulator or/and foliar fertiliser: Asahi SL, Insol 7, Asahi SL + Insol 7 and control. The preparations were applied at doses recommended by producers. Application of growth regulator Asahi SL increased growth of fresh and dry weight of weeds, both before closing rows, and before harvest, compared with the control. Preparation Insol 7 limited fresh and dry mass of weeds, but only to the row closeness, while before harvest contributed to the growth of a secondary infestation. Combined use of agrochemicals was conducive to maintaining a greater abundance of weeds monocotyledons, mainly Echinochloa crus-galli, and reduces the number of dicotyledonous weeds, through the elimination of Chenopodium album.