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Sample records for chenopodiaceae

  1. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform). PMID:16219440

  2. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform).

  3. Effects of Salinity: Calcium Interaction on Growth and Nucleic Acid Metabolism in Five Species of Chenopodiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    ABO-KASSEM, Essam El-Deen Mohaned

    2007-01-01

    Seed germination, seedling growth, and some enzyme activity of nucleic acid metabolism were studied in 5 members of Chenopodiaceae [Beta vulgaris L., Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Spinacea oleracea L., Allenrolfia occidentalis (S.Watson) Kuntze, Atriplex hortensis L.] under NaCl salinity alone or combined with 0.5 mM CaSO4. High salinity delayed radical emergence and decreased germination percentage in all plants. Combined CaSO4 reduced inhibition of seed germination in B. vulgaris, S. oleracea,...

  4. Leaf anatomy and subgeneric affiliations of C3 and C4 species of Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The halophytic genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) includes species with the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. North American species of this genus were investigated to determine whether C3 and C4 leaf anatomy are consistent within the two sections of Suaeda, Chenopodina and Limbogermen, present on this continent. All species from section Chenopodina were found to possess C3 anatomy, whereas all species from section Limbogermen were found to be C4 species. Characteristics of leaf anatomy and chloroplast ultrastructure are similar to those reported from C3 and C4 species, respectively, from the Eastern Hemisphere. All species from section Limbogermen have the suaedoid type of leaf anatomy, characterized by differentiation of the mesophyll into palisade parenchyma and a chlorenchymatous sheath surrounding central water-storage tissue, as well as leaf carbon isotope ratios of above -20. All species from section Chenopodina have austrobassioid leaf anatomy without a chlorenchymatous sheath and leaf carbon isotope ratio values of below -20. According to our literature review, the photosynthetic pathway has now been reported for about half (44) of the Suaeda species worldwide. The C3 and C4 photosynthetic syndromes are with few exceptions distributed along sectional or subsectional lines. These findings throw new light on the infrageneric taxonomy of this genus

  5. Immunochemical Characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen Extract: Extensive Cross-reactive Allergenic Components among the Four Species of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae

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    Mohsen Tehrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen in causing respiratory allergy has been well ascertained in many countries including Iran with a high positive rate (69% among Iranian allergic patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the allergenic properties of A. retroflexus pollen. Sixteen patients with allergy to A. retroflexus pollen were selected for the study. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of the A. retroflexus pollen extract as well as pollen extracts from other species of the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family, including Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, and Salsola kali, were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunoblot inhibition assays. The resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE ranged from 10-85 kDa. Several allergenic components (MW 85, 45, 39, 18, 15, and 10 kDa of the A. retroflexus pollen extract were recognized by using patients' sera by specific antibody of IgE class using ELISA and immunoblot assays. The IgE reactivity of the A. retroflexus pollen extract was partially inhibited by all three pollen extracts tested. the inhibition by the S. kali pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters by the A. retroflexus pollen extract were highly correlated with those by C. album, K. scoparia and S. kali pollen extracts. In conclusion, three proteins with apparent MWs of 39, 45, and 66 kDa are suggested as the common allergenic components among the four pollens from the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. It appears that there are some common (similar epitopes among the four common allergenic pollens.

  6. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, E V; Chuong, S D X; Koteyeva, N K; Franceschi, V R; Freitag, H; Edwards, G E

    2007-11-01

    C (4) species of family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae have two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda, sections Salsina and Schoberia, both of which have an outer (palisade mesophyll) and an inner (Kranz) layer of chlorenchyma cells in usually semi-terete leaves. Features of Salsina (S. AEGYPTIACA, S. arcuata, S. taxifolia) and Schoberia type (S. acuminata, S. Eltonica, S. cochlearifoliA) were compared to C (3) type S. Heterophylla. In Salsina type, two layers of chlorenchyma at the leaf periphery surround water-storage tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. In leaves of the Schoberia type, enlarged water-storage hypodermal cells surround two layers of chlorenchyma tissue, with the latter surrounding the vascular bundles. The chloroplasts in Kranz cells are located in the centripetal position in Salsina type and in the centrifugal position in the Schoberia type. Western blots on C (4) acid decarboxylases show that both Kranz forms are NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C (4) species. Transmission electron microscopy shows that mesophyll cells have chloroplasts with reduced grana, while Kranz cells have chloroplasts with well-developed grana and large, specialized mitochondria, characteristic of NAD-ME type C (4) chenopods. In both C (4) types, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is localized in the palisade mesophyll, and Rubisco and mitochondrial NAD-ME are localized in Kranz cells, where starch is mainly stored. The C (3) species S. heterophylla has Brezia type isolateral leaf structure, with several layers of Rubisco-containing chlorenchyma. Photosynthetic response curves to varying CO (2) and light in the Schoberia Type and Salsina type species were similar, and typical of C (4) plants. The results indicate that two structural forms of Kranz anatomy evolved in parallel in species of subfamily Suaedoideae having NAD-ME type C (4) photosynthesis.

  7. Two new bioactive salsolanol and biphenylsalsinol from the aerial parts of Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul.(Chenopodiaceae) growing in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Habib; Oueslati; Faraj; A.Al-Ghamdi; Adel; Noubigh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the bioactive secondary metabolites from aerial parts of widespread Chenopodiaceae taxa growing in Saudi Arabia: Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul. Methods: Antibacterial activities of chloroformic extract, fractions and isolate compounds was evaluated against five bacterial strains(Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), using a paper disc diffusion method. The purification of compound(s) of chloroform extract was done by chromatographic column of silica gel. The structure elucidation was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis(1H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence and nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy analysis.Results: Bioactivity guided fractionation of the chloroformic extract led to the isolation of two bioactive compounds: 4-(4’-hydroxy-2’-methylcyclopent-2’-enyloxy)-4-methylcyclopent-2-enol(1) named salsolanol and 4’-[3-(hydroxymethyl)oxiran-2-yl]-3-[(E)-3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl]-6, 2’-dimethoxy [1, 1’-biphenyl]-2-ol(2) named biphenylsalsinol. The antibacterial effects of the chloroform extracts, fractions and isolated compounds 1 and 2 were also evaluated in this work. Results showed that the compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activities against four strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with diameter of zone of inhibition ranging between(9.33 ± 0.94) to(26.33 ± 0.94) mm.Conclusions: Based on data presented here, two new natural compounds secondary cyclic alcohol 1 and biphenylpropanoid 2 isolated from bioactive chloroformic extract from aerial parts of Salsola villosa can be responsible for its antibacterial activities.

  8. Effect of Temperature and Salinity on Germination of Two Kalidium Species (Chenopodiaceae)%温度和盐分对两种盐爪爪属植物种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利; 张希明

    2007-01-01

    The effects of temperature and NaCl on germination of two leaf-succulent halophytes Kalidium capsicum and K. foliatum (Chenopodiaceae) were tested. Growth chamber studies revealed that there was a significant difference in optimum temperature range for seed germination of the two species. For K. capsicum, the optimum temperature range was between 20~30 ℃. The germination percentage of K. foliatum was higher at alternating temperature. The final germination percentage and germination rate of the both species decreased as NaCl concentration increased. K. capsicum was less tolerant to salinity than K.foliatum. Hypersaline conditions could induce dormancy. The percentage of germination recovery for the both species by NaCl treatments was not significantly different from the controls and the germination rate was enhanced when salinity stress was alleviated. Although K. capsicum only germinated at less than 300 mmol/L NaCl concentration and K. foliatum at less than 400 mmol/L, which were lower than some other halophytes did at, the both species seemed to be highly tolerant to salinity stress due to their germination characteristics. Fig 3, Tab 1, Ref 24%通过研究温度和NaCl对两种藜科叶肉质化盐生植物--里海盐爪爪和盐爪爪种子萌发的影响,显示出里海盐爪爪的最适萌发温度范围为20~30 ℃,而盐爪爪适合在变温条件下萌发,两者对温度的反应有显著差异;两者的萌发率和萌发速率都随NaCl浓度升高而降低,里海盐爪爪比盐爪爪的耐盐能力低;高盐分条件能诱导两个种的休眠,而当盐浓度降低时两者都能很好地恢复萌发,且萌发速率加快.因此,尽管里海盐爪爪仅能在低于300 mmol/L,盐爪爪在低于400 mmol//L NaCl浓度下萌发,这种耐盐能力低于很多盐生植物,但根据两个种所表现的综合萌发特性,它们依然被认为属于具有较高耐盐能力的盐生植物类型.

  9. EST-SSR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Salt Tolerant Plants from Six Species in Chenopodiaceae%藜科6种耐盐植物遗传多样性的EST-SSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐照龙; 易金鑫; 余桂红; 张大勇; 何晓兰; 王秀娥; 马鸿翔

    2011-01-01

    利用EST-SSR标记分析了藜科6种耐盐植物的遗传基础和遗传多样性,以期为藜科耐盐植物遗传育种提供快速、可靠的分子标记辅助选择工具.采用31对藜科海蓬子属和碱蓬属的EST-SSR引物对藜科6种植物进行PCR扩增,其中16对引物得到较好扩增,引物通用率为51.6%,共检测到18个多态性位点,每位点等位基因数2~4个,多态性丰富.进一步采用Nei's遗传距离聚类分析表明6种植物可以分为3组,主成分分析也支持上述分组,而且DY529957、DY529903和DY5298853个EST在分组中贡献率最高.经与GenBank中序列相似性比对,前两者分别编码生长素抑制蛋白(Auxin-repressed protein,ARP)和植物防御素(Defensins,Def),都参与植物逆境胁迫响应,但分属于不同代谢途径;后者则编码未知蛋白.总体而言,16对SSR引物在藜科6种植物间具有较好的通用性,能够揭示该6种植物间广泛的遗传多样性,及其存在不同耐盐机制提供分子证据.%This report focus on EST-SSR based evaluation of genetic diversity in salt tolerant plant from six species in Chenopodiaceae. Thirty-one pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed according to ESTs sequence collected from Salicornia and Suaeda genera. Only sixteen out of all primer pairs successfully amplified the DNA fragments by using PCR procedure across all samples, which demonstrated 51.6% over all primers was transferrable. Total 18 polymorphic loci were detected by the 16 primer pairs, and allele number at each locus ranged from 2 to 4, indicating a wide range of genetic diversity. Clusterring analysis based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the six plants could be grouped into three clades, and the division was confirmed by principal component analysis. Moreover, this grouping profile was mainly attributed to polymorphism of three ESTs, e. g. DY529957, DY529903 and DY529885.According to the sequence similarity, the three ESTs were assumed to encode an auxin

  10. Two Na+ and Cl- Hyperaccumulators of the Chenopodiaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Fu ZHAO; Hai FAN; Jie SONG; Ming-Xia SUN; Bao-Zeng WANG; Sheng-Qiang ZHANG; I. A. UNGAR

    2005-01-01

    The authors found five sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) hyperaccumulating halophytes in the Temperate Desert of Xinjiang, China and studied two of them (Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and Kalidium folium (Pall.) Moq.). K. folium and S. salsa had a NaCl content of 32.1% and 29.8%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. X-ray microanalysis of the Na+ in the vacuole, apoplasts and cytoplasm of the two plants indicated a ratio of 7.3:5.6:1.0 in K. folium and 7.3:6.6:1.0 in S. salsa. These data show that K. folium and S. salsa both have a high Na+ and Cl-accumulating capacity, which is related to high activity oftonoplast H+-ATPase and H+-PPase.

  11. The Species of Arthrocnemum and Salicornia (Chenopodiaceae in Southern Africa

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    H. R. Tölken

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available In the genus  Arthrocnemum, ten species and three varieties are recognized. The new species and combinations are:  A. mossianum,  A . terminale,  A. xerophilum, A. decumbens,  A. natalense var. affine (Moss  (A. affine Moss, A. pillansii var. dunense (Moss  {A. dimense Moss.  A. perenne var.  lignosum is a new record for South Africa. In Salicornia, of the three species dealt with, one is new:  S . uniflora. Two keys are provided for the identification of fertile and sterile material respectively. The anatomy is discussed. The presence or absence, and the type and shape of sclereids were found to have taxonomic significance. Twenty-four naturally occurring hybrids in the genus  Arthrocnemum and one in the genus  Salicornia are recognized on the basis of sterility and pollen irregularities.

  12. Biological and chemical study of paico (Chenopodium chilense, Chenopodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R; Lemus, I; Rivera, P; Erazo, S

    1997-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial portion of Chenopodium chilense Schrad., used in Chilean traditional medicine as a remedy for stomach-ache, has been found to exert the major spasmolytic activity in acetylcholine contracted rat ileum. This extract, with a complex flavonoid patterns on thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, is practically non-toxic both for rats and brine shrimp Artemia salina in acute toxicity test. PMID:9254110

  13. Halopeplis amplexicauis (Vahl Ung.-Sternb (Chenopodiaceae Family. Re-collection in Zarqa of Jordan

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    Fakher J. Aukour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Halopeplis amplexicaulis is an annual halophytic species that is widespread in salty habitats throughout the countries of the Mediterranean. This species is a Naturalized exotic. In Jordan it was reported that this species was dominant in Wadi Araba, Wadi Rum, Eastern Desert, Shaumari and Al-Azraq Oasis, in the desert (saharo-arabian around the Dead Sea region, and Abar al Hazim. This species might be considered as invader one in such chorotype area, in that it is distributed in the Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrub lands, Deserts and extreme deserts. as the study area considered a dry habit, and on account of its special edaphic and water requirements, it is rare to see this species in such habitat.

  14. Microcnemum coralloides (Chenopodiaceae- Salicornioideae: an example of intraspecific East-West disjunctions in the Mediterranean region

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    Kadereit, Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microcnemum is a monotypic genus of Salicornioideae comprising rare, annual, hygrohalophytic herbs growing in hypersaline inland lagoons and salt pans. Microcnemum coralloides shows an East-West disjunction in the Mediterranean region: M. coralloides subsp. coralloides occurs in central and eastern Spain while M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum grows in Turkey, Syria, Armenia and Iran. We studied the phylogeny, biogeography and morphological differentiation of M. coralloides. Molecular analyses, using five western and eight eastern accessions of the species, were based on three different markers (nuclear ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL spacer and trnT/F region analysed with Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood. Estimates of divergence times were calculated using a Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT and the Penalized Likelihood (PL method. The two subspecies can be clearly distinguished by their different seed testa surface. Other diagnostic characters were not found. The molecular data (ITS and ML analysis of the trnT/F region indicate that M. coralloides subsp. coralloides originated from within M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum which implies an East Mediterranean origin and subsequent westward dispersal. Age estimates for the split of the two subspecies range from 2.8–0.5 million years ago. Considering the relatively low genetic differentiation and the low crown group age (0.7–0.1 mya of M. coralloides subsp. coralloides in comparison to M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum we favour the hypothesis that the Iberian part of the species range was established during cold periods of the Early Pleistocene and that the range of the species was fragmented during a warmer period soon after its arrival in Iberia.Microcnemum es un género monotípico de Salicornioideae que consiste en hierbas higrohalófilas, anuales, raras, que crecen en cuencas endorréicas hipersalinas del interior y salares. Microcnemum coralloides muestran una disyunción Este-Oeste en la región mediterránea: M. coralloides subsp. coralloides aparece en el centro y el levante español, mientras que M.coralloides subsp. anatolicum crece en Turquía, Siria, Armenia e Irán. Estudiamos la filogenia, la biogeografía y la diferenciación morfológica de M. coralloides. Los análisis moleculares, empleando cinco adquisiciones occidentales y ocho orientales de la especie, se basaron en tres marcadores distintos (ITS nuclear, espaciadores plástidos atpBrbcL y región trnT/F analizados con Máxima Parsimonia y Máxima Verosimilitud. Las estimaciones de tiempos divergentes se calcularon empleando una Prueba de Verosimilitud (LRT y el método de Verosimilitud Penalizada. Las dos subspecies se distinguen claramente por la diferencia en la superficie de su envoltura. No se encontraron otras características de diferenciación. Los datos moleculares (ITS y análisis ML de la región trnT/F indican que M. coralloides subsp. coralloides originó de dentro de M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum, lo cual implica un origen en el este del Mediterráneo y su posterior dispersión hacia el oeste. Las estimaciones de edad para la separación de las dos subespecies data desde hace 2,8 a 0,5 millones de años. En vista de la diferenciación genética, relativamente baja y la reducida edad del grupo terminal (0,7-0,1 millones de años de M. coralloides subsp. coralloides en comparación con M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum, favorecemos la hipótesis de que la parte ibérica de la gama de la especie se estableció durante periodos fríos del Bajo Pleistoceno y que la gama de la especie se fragmentó durante un periodo más cálido no mucho después de su llegada a la Península.

  15. CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE OF THE GENUS SALICORNIA L. (CHENOPODIACEAE IN ITALY

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    M. IBERITE

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a new arrangement of the genus Salkornia L. in Italy. S. patufa Duval·Jouve, S. emerici Duval-Jouve, S. veneta Pign, et Lausi and S. dolichostachya Moss are recognized. The key of the genus, a description and original drawings for each species are given.

  16. Preliminary study of the digestive effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae leaves extracts in goats

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    Daga Dadjo Florian,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the crude aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves on food intake and digestibility were evaluated with twelve Sahelian goats weighing about 25 kg. Three experimental groups, each consisting of three animals, were treated respectively with the dose of 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/kg of body weight. Treatment was daily and lasted three days. One control group, receiving the same diet as the experimental groups, was involved. The experiment revealed that the herbal extract induced a highly significant variation (p <0.01 in voluntary feed intake expressed in grams of dry matter (DM from 366.67 g ± 86 (control group to 631.67 g ± 106.37 (4ml/kg/BW treated group. Concerning digestibility, the results indicated an increase in the absorption of ash and fibre (39.65 % ± 2.65 to 51.38 % ± 4.91. But the digestibility of protein was only slightly influenced by the herbal extract. Animals treated with 4ml/kg/BW dosage had soft and pasty faeces. The aqueous extract of C. ambrosioides leaves would own interesting digestive effects in small ruminants in the fattening stage or those suffering from indigestion due to rumen stuffing. Further specialized studies may clarify those effects.

  17. Efecto del NaCl y de los termoperiodos sobre la germinación de semillas de Suaeda mexicana (Standl. Standl. (Chenopodiaceae Effect of NaCl and thermoperiod on seed germination of Suaeda mexicana (Standl. Standl. (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sánchez-Tizapantzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del cloruro de sodio (NaCl y de los termoperiodos en la germinación de la especie Suaeda mexicana, en tres tipos de semillas: 1 sin testa, 2 con testa café y 3 con testa negra. Las semillas se sometieron a tres diferentes termoperiodos (0 °C/20 °C, 5 °C/25 °C y 10 °C/30 °C y a siete diferentes concentraciones de NaCl (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500 y 3000 mM y como testigo se usó agua destilada (0 mM NaCl utilizando un fotoperiodo de 12 h oscuridad/12 h luz. En los resultados, las semillas sin testa presentaron el mayor porcentaje de germinación en todos los termoperiodos en agua destilada. En los termoperiodos de 5 °C/25 °C y 10 °C/30 °C se obtuvo una germinación de alrededor del 97% para los tres tipos de semillas, mientras que en el de 0 °C/20 °C en semillas sin testa se obtuvo el 72%; en las semillas de testa café fue del 7% y en las de testa negra del 1%. Las concentraciones de NaCl reducen la germinación de las semillas sin testa en promedio un 12% a 1000 mM de NaCl en todos los termoperiodos. En las semillas de testa café la reducción fue del 3% a 600 mM de NaCl en un termoperiodo de 5 °C/25 °C y en las de testa negra no hubo germinación en concentraciones salinas. En conclusión, la germinación de Suaeda mexicana varía de acuerdo al tipo de semilla, termoperiodo y salinidad expuesta, siendo la semilla sin testa la que mejor responde.In this study, we assessed the effect of NaCl and thermoperiod on germination of halotolerant plant Suaeda mexicana, in three types of seeds: without testa, black testa and brown testa.The three thermoperiod were 0o C/20o C, 5oC/25oC and 10o C/30o C. Were evaluated seven concentrations of NaCl (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500 and 3000 mM and distilled water as a control under a photoperiod of 12 h light and 12 h darkness. The best results indicated that germination in the thermoperiods 5o C/25o C and 10o C/30o C are about 97% for the three types of seeds. At 0o C/20o C thermoperiod in seeds without testa 72% was obtained; coffee seed testa was 7% and 1% black. Adding NaCl reduces the cumulative germination percentage in 20 days, but there is a different response depending on the type of seed. Black testa seed did not germinate from the lowest concentration of NaCl (200 mM. The brown seed germination was the highest in the thermoperiod 10o C/30o C con 21%, decrease in 5o C/25 oC with 4% and is zero in the thermoperiod of 0o C/20o C. Finally the seed without testa is the best response to salinity, the highest germination was in 10 o C/30 o C thermoperiod with 83%, decreases in 5o C/25o C with 50% and 0o C/20o C thermoperiod 30%. These results provide the basis for Suaeda mexicana, will be considered a potentially useful species for biomass generation in irrigated saline environments.

  18. Efecto del NaCl y de los termoperiodos sobre la germinación de semillas de Suaeda mexicana (Standl.) Standl. (Chenopodiaceae) Effect of NaCl and thermoperiod on seed germination of Suaeda mexicana (Standl.) Standl. (Chenopodiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Sánchez-Tizapantzi; Angélica Ruiz-Font

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del cloruro de sodio (NaCl) y de los termoperiodos en la germinación de la especie Suaeda mexicana, en tres tipos de semillas: 1) sin testa, 2) con testa café y 3) con testa negra. Las semillas se sometieron a tres diferentes termoperiodos (0 °C/20 °C, 5 °C/25 °C y 10 °C/30 °C) y a siete diferentes concentraciones de NaCl (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500 y 3000 mM) y como testigo se usó agua destilada (0 mM NaCl) utilizando un fotoperiodo de 12 h o...

  19. EFECTO DEL ESTRÉS HÍDRICO Y SALINO SOBRE LA GERMINACIÓN DE Atriplex nummularia (CHENOPODIACEAE) Effect of Water and Saline Stress on Germination of Atriplex nummularia (Chenopodiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MÓNICA B. RUIZ; CARLOS A. PARERA

    2013-01-01

    Los suelos salinos, característicos de zonas áridas, pueden afectar la germinación de las especies por presentar bajos potenciales hídricos o por toxicidad iónica. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto del estrés hídrico y salino sobre la germinación de Atriplex nummularia, una alternativa forrajera para zonas áridas. Las semillas fueron escarificadas para minimizar el efecto inhibidor de las brácteas y germinadas a 23 ºC sobre papel de germinación en soluciones con diferente potencial hídri...

  20. EFECTO DEL ESTRÉS HÍDRICO Y SALINO SOBRE LA GERMINACIÓN DE Atriplex nummularia (CHENOPODIACEAE Effect of Water and Saline Stress on Germination of Atriplex nummularia (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA B. RUIZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos salinos, característicos de zonas áridas, pueden afectar la germinación de las especies por presentar bajos potenciales hídricos o por toxicidad iónica. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto del estrés hídrico y salino sobre la germinación de Atriplex nummularia, una alternativa forrajera para zonas áridas. Las semillas fueron escarificadas para minimizar el efecto inhibidor de las brácteas y germinadas a 23 ºC sobre papel de germinación en soluciones con diferente potencial hídrico (-0,5, -1,0 y -1,5 MPa de cloruro de sodio (NaCl y polietilenglicol (PEG, utilizando agua destilada como control. El porcentaje de germinación y la velocidad de germinación fueron significativamente afectados por la concentración de la solución y el soluto utilizado. A valores de potencial osmótico más negativos el porcentaje de germinación y velocidad de germinación fueron significativamente menores. En los tres potenciales hídricos ensayados la velocidad y el porcentaje de semillas germinadas en NaCl fue significativamente menor que en PEG, siendo especialmente notoria esta diferencia a -1,0 MPa. Los datos sugieren que las semillas de A. nummularia presentan sensibilidad a la presencia de los iones Na+ y Cl- que afectan el proceso de germinación.Saline soils, characteristic of arid zones, can affect the germination of the species due to low water potential or ion toxicity. The effect of water and saline stress on germination was evaluated in Atriplex nummularia a potential source of forage for arid zones. The seeds were scarified to reduce the inhibitory effect on germination and incubated in at 23 ºC on germination paper imbibed with solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl and polyethylen glycol (PEG at three water potentials: -0,5; -1,0 and -1,5 MPa. The percentage germination and germination speed were significantly affected by the concentration of the solution and the solute used. While more negative osmotic potentials, the percentage of germination and germination speed were significantly lower. The seeds germinated in PEG solution have higher germination and germination speed than the seeds germinated in NaCl, specially in -1,0 MPa. The data suggest that the seeds of A. nummularia show sensitivity to the presence of Na+ and Cl- ions affecting the germination process.

  1. Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F.; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridizatio...

  2. Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J

    2003-08-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridization events and locally infesting fields. Using a chloroplastic marker and a set of nuclear microsatellite loci, the occurrence of crop-to-wild gene flow was investigated in the French sugar beet production area within a 'contact-zone' in between coastal wild populations and sugar beet fields. The results did not reveal large pollen dispersal from weed to wild beets. However, several pieces of evidence clearly show an escape of weedy lineages from fields via seed flow. Since most studies involving the assessment of transgene escape from crops to wild outcrossing relatives generally focused only on pollen dispersal, this last result was unexpected: it points out the key role of a long-lived seed bank and highlights support for transgene escape via man-mediated long-distance dispersal events.

  3. Efecto del estrés hídrico y salino sobre la germinación de atriplex nummularia (chenopodiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Mónica Beatriz; Parera, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Los suelos salinos, característicos de zonas áridas, pueden afectar la germinación de las especies por presentar bajos potenciales hídricos o por toxicidad iónica. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto del estrés hídrico y salino sobre la germinación de Atriplex nummularia, una alternativa forrajera para zonas áridas. Las semillas fueron escarificadas para minimizar el efecto inhibidor de las brácteas y germinadas a 23 ºC sobre papel de germinación en soluciones con diferente potencial hídri...

  4. Germination studies in Juncus acutus L. (Juncaceae), Schoenus nigricans L. (Cyperaceae) and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) Moris (Chenopodiaceae) for salt-marshes restorati

    OpenAIRE

    Conesa Gallego, Encarnación; Vicente Colomer, María José; Álvarez Rogel, José; Franco Leemhuis, José Antonio; Martínez Sánchez, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970’s, salt marshes have been reduced in area by a great antropogenic pressure derived from agriculture, and more recently, from demand for tourist urban facilities. Therefore, restoration and preservation of plant communities in salt marshes are needed. Among the perennial species that appear typically in maritime sands, on the Mediterranean region and western Europe Juncus acutus L. (Juncaceae), Schoenus nigricans L. (Cyperaceae) and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) Moris (Che...

  5. Effects of Pb(Ⅱ) on Seed Germination of Three Different Plants of Chenopodiaceae%重金属Pb(Ⅱ)对3种藜科植物种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎瑞; 苏雪; 晏民生; 孙坤

    2009-01-01

    以珍珠猪毛菜(Salsola passerina Bunge)、地肤(Kochia scoparia(L.)Schrad.)和白藜(Chenopodium album L.)3种藜科植物为研究对象,研究不同浓度(0、50、150、300、600、800、1 000 mg·L-1)的Pb(Ⅱ)处理对植物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:当Pb(Ⅱ)浓度为50和150 mg·L-1时,珍珠猪毛菜和地肤种子的发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数与对照相比差异不显著,Pb(Ⅱ)浓度为150mg·L-1时,对白藜种子发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数有明显影响,Pb(Ⅱ)浓度大于300mg·L-1对3种植物种子萌发均有抑制作用,对白藜和地肤的抑制大于珍珠猪毛菜.3种植物的种子活力指数除珍珠猪毛菜在50 mg·L-1时与对照无显著差异,其余各处理均与对照有极显著差异.Pb(Ⅱ)浓度为50 mg·L-1时,对3种植物的胚根长和胚芽长都影响不大,随着Pb(Ⅱ)浓度的升高,对3种植物的胚根长和胚芽长都有明显的抑制作用,对地肤和白藜的抑制强度更大.地肤和白藜幼苗分别在Pb(Ⅱ)浓度为300和600mg·L-1时死亡,当Pb(Ⅱ)浓度达到1 000mg·L-1时,珍珠猪毛菜仍可生长,但生长比较缓慢.3种植物幼苗对Pb(Ⅱ)的耐受性为:珍珠猪毛菜>白藜>地肤.

  6. Insecticidal activity of petroleum ether extract and essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae) against Anopheles gambiae(Diptera: Culicidae)%土荆芥的石油醚提取物及精油对冈比亚按蚊的杀虫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abiodun A. DENLOYE; Oluwakemi K. AJELARA; Rasaq A. OLOWU; Adeolu O. ESHILOKUN; Winifred A. MAKANJUOLA

    2009-01-01

    . ambrosioides for the control An. gambiae.%48 h致死中浓度(LC50)的测试结果表明,石油醚提取物对1龄幼虫的毒性最强(14.89 mg/L),其次是对4龄幼虫(18.90 mg/L),对3龄幼虫的毒性最低(183.77 mg/L); 精油对4龄幼虫毒性最强(36.62 mg/L),其次是对1龄幼虫(90.75 mg/L).推算的土荆芥精油对冈比亚按蚊的LC50为1.01 μL/L.本研究揭示了土荆芥对冈比亚按蚊的防治潜力.

  7. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 μg radiolabelled Cs g-1 soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author)

  8. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  9. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  10. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George

    2007-01-01

    ), Anacardiaceae (80), Apiaceae (2, 58), Asteraceae (3, 4, 61, 62, 83, 117, 123-127), Boraginaceae (5, 63, 84-86), Brassicaceae (64), Campanulaceae (45, 46, 118), Caprifoliaceae (6), Caryophyllaceae (51, 59, 87, 119), Chenopodiaceae (7, 8, 136), Cistaceae (88, 89), Convolvulaceae (9, 65), Cupressaceae (116...

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    -56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  13. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-05-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species. PMID:23599273

  14. Surface pollen in the east of Qaidam Basin%柴达木盆地东部表土花粉分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 赵东升; 吕新苗

    2006-01-01

    Pollen analysis of 23 surface samples in the east of Qaidam Basin reveals the characteristics of pollen assemblages and their relationships with vegetation and climate. In pollen assemblages, Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia are preponderant types in all the samples, and Ephedra, Gramineae and Compositae are common types. The results of DCA (Detrended Correspondance Analysis) and Correlation Analysis show different pollen assemblages indicate different vegetations, coincided with respective vegetation types. A/C (Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae) in the desert can indicate the aridity. Depending on the aridity, the vegetation communities are divided into four groups: severe drought group, moderate drought group, slight drought group and tropophilous group. A/C value is less 0.2 in the severe drought group, 0.2-0.5 in the moderate drought group, 1.63 in the slight drought group and 5.72 slight-wetness group.

  15. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarr...

  16. Internal transport of seeds by migratory waders in the Odiel marshes, south-west Spain: consequences for long-distance dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2006-01-01

    Waders (Charadriiformes) undergo particularly long migratory flights, making them ideal vectors for long-distance dispersal. We present a study of dispersal of plant seeds by migratory waders in the Odiel saltworks in south-west Spain. This is the first field study to demonstrate excretion of viable seeds by waders. Viable seeds of Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (Aizoaceae), Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae) and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Chenopodiaceae) were frequent in pellets and fa...

  17. Substitution of potassium by sodium in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) : Nutrition with special reference to K-fixing soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeel, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth does not response to the application of generally recommended levels of potassium (K) fertilizer in the soils with expandable three layer clay minerals. In the soils rich in illite and vermiculite clay minerals with high cation exchange capacity, a major part of applied K is fixed and becomes unavailable to plants immediately. It is known that several members of the family Chenopodiaceae such as sugar beet, spinach, red beet etc. are capable to use sodium (Na) as a...

  18. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    OpenAIRE

    Juan  F Costa; Walter Cosio; Maritza Cardenas; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae), in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the capacity of E. me...

  19. 地肤子与伪品藜的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈丽达; 许青; 阿德列提

    2004-01-01

    地肤子异名落帚子《日华子本草》、竹帚子《滇南本草》、帚菜子(新疆)、铁扫把子(四川),以果实供药用。是藜科(Chenopodiaceae)植物地肤(Kochia scoparia (L.) schrad]的干燥成熟果实。全国各地均有栽培。

  20. Salt-Responsive Transcriptome Profiling of Suaeda glauca via RNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hangxia Jin; Dekun Dong; Qinghua Yang; Danhua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Background Suaeda glauca, a succulent halophyte of the Chenopodiaceae family, is widely distributed in coastal areas of China. Suaeda glauca is highly resistant to salt and alkali stresses. In the present study, the salt-responsive transcriptome of Suaeda glauca was analyzed to identify genes involved in salt tolerance and study halophilic mechanisms in this halophyte. Results Illumina HiSeq 2500 was used to sequence cDNA libraries from salt-treated and control samples with three replicates e...

  1. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gary M. Booth; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Erica Kipp; Alexandra Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytoto...

  2. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  3. Effects of grazing and climate change on species diversity in sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiya; Okuro

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effects of animal grazing activities and climate change on sandy grassland vegetation in northern China, a field grazing and protected enclosure experiment was conducted from 1992 through 2006 in Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia. The results showed that (1) the grazing was primary responsible for changes of the vegetation richness and diversity in the grazing grassland and that changing climate was the main reason for changes in the species richness and diversity in the grassland protected from grazing; (2) light and moderate grazing can promote restoration of the richness and the diversity in the degraded grassland, and heavy grazing could result in a decrease of the richness and diversity; (3) heavy grazing can result in significant decrease of the perennial diversity, and moderate and light grazing promotes increase of the perennial diversity; the grazing, whether heavy or moderate and light grazing, was beneficial to increase of the annual diversity; (4) heavy grazing was not beneficial to diversity of Graminean and Chenopodiaceae, and moderate and light grazing was favorable the diversity of Compositae and Chenopodiaceae; (5) the warm-humid climate was favorable to increase of the richness and the diversity, and the warm-drought climate could result in decease of the richness and the diversity; (6) increased precipitation was favorable to perennial diversity and the diversity of Graminean, Leguminosae, and Compositae, and decreased precipitation had few effects on the annual diversity and Chenopodiaceae diversity.

  4. Pollen indication to source plants in the eastern desert of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuecong; XU Qinghai; ZHAO Yingkui; YANG Xiaolan; XIAO Jule; CHEN Hui; L(U) Xinmiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the indication of major pollen types to source plants, 39 surface pollen samples are collected from 39 plant communities. The results show that diversity of pollen assemblages presents in different communities. Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are highest in Kalidium communities and Ceratoides communities (higher than 45%, average is 63.4%), but high Ephedra pollen percentages (higher than 3.3%, average is 16.5%)in Ceratoides communities make it distinguished from Kalidium communities. Artemisia pollen percentages (more than 50%) are much higher than Chenopodiaceae (less than 35%) in Artemisia Communities. Nitraria pollen percentages (higher than 2%, average is 13.6%) are highest in Nitraria communities compared with those in other community patterns. Tamariceae pollen percentages (higher than 2%, average is 8.6%) are highest both in Tetraena and Reaumuria communities compared with those in other community patterns. But in Reaumuria communities, Artemisia pollen percentages are higher than Chenopodiaceae with some other pollen types such as Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae; on the contrary, in Tetraena communities, Artemisia pollen percentages are less than Chenopodiaceae with few other pollen types. Calligonum pollen only appears in Calligonum communities (higher than 2%,average is 5%). The results of cluster analysis (CLA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) show that the pollen indication to source plants can be reflected by association indices (A), over-representation indices (O), under-representation indices (U), R-value, the average pollen percentages where parent plants are absent (Xa) and the average pollen percentages where parent plants are present (Xp). Zygophyllum, Calligonum, Tetraena, Tribulus and Tamariceae can indicate source plants very well, owing to high A scores. Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae have high R-values, and Nitraria, Cruciferae and sedum have high O scores, so they are over-represented types

  5. Palinología arqueológica: su implicancia en el estudio del prehispánico tardío de las sierras de Córdoba (Argentina Archaeological Palynology: Its Impact On The Study Of The Late Prehispanic Period Of The Sierras De Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías E. Medina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro sitios arqueológicos correspondientes al Periodo prehispánico tardío de las sierras de Córdoba (ca. 1000-300 AP: Los Algarrobos 1, Puesto La Esquina 1 (Pampa de Olaen, C.Pun.39 y Las Chacras 2 (valle de Punilla, fueron estudiados en base a su contenido palinológico. Los sitios Los Algarrobos 1 y Puesto La Esquina 1 registraron, como consecuencia de sesgos tafonómicos, insuficiente contenido polínico. En cambio, las asociaciones polínicas de C.Pun.39 y Las Chacras 2 permitieron inferir paleo-comunidades vegetales dominadas por Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae y Brassicaceae (C.Pun. 39 y por el primer taxón (Las Chacras 2. Las dos familias vegetales tienen baja representación en la lluvia polínica actual. Se postula la posibilidad de que las significativas proporciones de Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae podrían estar sugiriendo la presencia de cultivos prehispánicos de Chenopodium quinoa y Amaranthus caudatus en los alrededores de los sitios. Otras evidencias de macro y microrrestos ligadas a cultivos sustentan dicha hipótesis. Las importantes proporciones tanto de Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae como de Brassicaceae registradas en C.Pun.39 son también analizadas como indicativas de sucesivos abandonos y reocupaciones de los sitios, coherentes con un patrón de alta movilidad residencial entre los grupos prehispánicos tardíos. Ambientes perturbados por actividad antrópica habrían contribuido al desarrollo de tales plantas.Four archaeological sites dating from the Late Prehispanic Period of the Sierras de Córdoba (ca. 1000-300 BP are studied by means of palynological analysis. These sites are Los Algarrobos 1, Puesto La Esquina 1 (Pampa de Olaen, C.Pun.39 and Las Chacras 2 (Punilla valley. Los Algarrobos 1 and Puesto La Esquina 1 sites present scarce pollinic grains as a consequence of taphonomic bias. However, from the pollinic spectrum from C.Pun.39 and Las Chacras 2 sites it was possible to infer vegetational paleo

  6. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  7. Airborne Pollen Grains of Bozüyük (Bilecik, Turkey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz T(U)RE; Elif SALKURT

    2005-01-01

    Airborne pollen grains in the atmosphere of Bozüyük were investigated over a 2 yr period from 2000 to 2001 using a Durham sampler. A total number of pollen grains of 5 170 pollen grains belonging to 32taxa were identified and recorded along with some unidentified pollen grains. Of all the pollen grains, 78.66%were arboreal, 19.20% were non-arboreal, and 2.12% were unidentified. The majority of pollen grains investigated were Pinus, Platanus, Quercus, Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Fagus, Salix, Rosaceae, Urticaceae,Asteraceae, and Chenopodiaceae. The maximum number of pollen grains was recorded in May.

  8. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.

  9. Carbohydrate – protein complex of the waste of climacoptera obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seitimova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from Climacoptera obtusifolia family Chenopodiaceae has antidiabetic activity. For the first time carbohydrate-protein complex of the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia was studied. It was found that the quantity of extractive substances with 80% ethanol in aerial part – 52;6% and in the waste – 12;35%. The technique of separation of the carbohydrate-protein complex from the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia is developed by means of classical and physical-chemical methods. The composition of carbohydrate-protein complex was identified: oligosaccharide; polysaccharide and two glycoproteins.

  10. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Spehar; Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2002-01-01

    A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos), e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Br...

  11. Airborne Pollen Grains Of Afyon, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Süheyla ERGUN; Sevcan TATLIDIL; Hulusi MALYER; Sabri OZYURT; Ahmet AKKAYA; Nihat SAPAN

    2002-01-01

    The airborne pollen grains of Afyon have been studied for a two-year period (1999-2000) with a Durham sampler. A total of 14 367 pollen grains belonging to 40 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 6 732 were identified in 1999 and 7 635 in 2000. Of the total pollen grains, 69.67% were arboreal, 26.64% non-arboreal and 3.68 % unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus, Gramineae, Cupressaceae, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Quercus, Ailanthus, Moraceae, Juglans, Salix, Cedrus and Rosaceae. The highest level of pollen grains was in May.

  12. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    ew chorological data are presented for 90 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 49-52), Greece (2-36, 53-90) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 37-48). The taxa belong to the following families: Apiaceae (21), Araceae (87), Asteraceae (5-9, 22-26, 82), Boraginaceae (53, 83), Brassicaceae (54......-56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 90 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 49-52), Greece (2-36, 53-90) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 37-48). The taxa belong to the following families: Apiaceae (21), Araceae (87), Asteraceae (5-9, 22-26, 82), Boraginaceae (53, 83), Brassicaceae (54......-56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  15. The surface pollen and relative pollen production of the desert vegetation of the Alashan Plateau, western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Herzschuh; H. Kürschner; MA Yuzhen

    2003-01-01

    This preliminary investigation focuses on the comparison of the recentpollen precipitation and its related vegetation of eight different plant communities in the Alashan Region, the most western part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Most zonal and azonal communities can be well identified by their pollen spectra. Relative pollen production factors of various plant taxa have beencalculated and the following sequences from over- to under represented taxa have been found for zonal vegetation: Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Ephedra, Nitraria,Reaumuria, Calligonum, Zygophyllum; and for azonal vegetation: Peganum, Populus, Tamarix, Lycium.

  16. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  17. Characteristics and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa%“粮食之母”、“超级食物”——藜麦“落户”青海

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 熊国富; 闫殿海; 毛玉金

    2014-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)为藜科(Chenopodiaceae)藜属(Chenopodium)的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,以其极高的营养价值和多种开发利用价值近年来引起人们的普遍关注.2014年,在青海西宁、乌兰、德令哈和格尔木市进行了适应性种植,长势良好,丰收在望.

  18. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Booth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  19. Aerobiological study in east-central Iberian Peninsula: pollen diversity and dynamics for major taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Vaquero, Consolación; Fernández-González, Federico

    2011-01-01

    A study was made of airborne pollen counts in Cuenca (east-central Iberian Peninsula, Spain), using data obtained over a 3-year period (2008-2010). This is the first such study carried out in the World Heritage city of Cuenca, situated in the large region of Castilla-La Mancha. Air monitoring was performed using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. Sampling commenced in mid- 2007, and provided the first recorded pollen-spectrum for the area. The greatest pollen-type diversity was recorded in spring, whilst the highest pollen counts (over 80 percent of the annual total) were observed between February and June. The lowest counts were found in September, November and December. The 10 leading taxa, in order of abundance, were: Cupressaceae, Quercus, Urticaceae, Pinus, Olea, Poaceae, Populus, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago. The pollen calendar was thus typically Mediterrean, and comprised the 27 pollen types reaching 10-day mean counts of over 1 grain/m(3) of air. Maximum concentration values during the day were recorded between 12:00-20:00, coinciding with the highest temperatures and lowest humidity levels. The pollen types responsible for most allergies in the city of Cuenca, ordered by the number of days on which risk levels were reached, were: Poaceae, Urticaceae, Cupressaceae, Olea, Platanus and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. PMID:21736275

  20. Pollen spectrum and risk of pollen allergy in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492

  1. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  2. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; YANG XiaoLan; ZHENG ZhenHua

    2007-01-01

    205 surface pollen samples from different communities in Northern China were analyzed to understand the quantitative relationship between pollen and its original vegetation. Pollen analysis and vegetation investigation show that the pollen assemblages differ a lot in different vegetation regions. Arboreal pollen account for more than 30%in temperate broad-deciduous forests region. In temperate steppe regions, herb pollen percentages are more than 90%,where Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are dominant pollen types with Artemisia percentages more than 30%.In temperate desert, Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are more than Artemisia, where ferns are rare. Cyperaceae pollen percentages are more than 20% in sub-alpine or cold meadows. The relations between pollen percentages and vegetation cover indicate that most arboreal pollen shows a close relationship with parent plant covers, most shrubby pollen types have more or less correlations, but most herbs do not show clear correlations. For arboreal pollen types, Picea pollen shows the closest correlation with spruce trees coverage, then is Quercus and Carpinus. Betula, Larix and Juglans have also high correlation coefficients with their plants coverage, but Betula pollen is of overrepresented pollen type and more than 40% in birch forest, while Larix and Juglans pollen is underrepresented and pollen percentages are more than 10%in Larix or Juglans pure forests. Pinus is of overrepresented pollen type, and pollen percentages have some relations with plants cover. Pine forest might present when Pinus pollen percentages are more than 30%.The relations between Ulmus and Populus pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not close, where they are mixed with other arbors. They cannot be recorded easily, but if their pollen percentages are more than 1%,Uimus or Populus trees should exist. For shrubby pollen types, the correlation between Vitex pollen percentages and vegetation cover is the highest, then is Corylus, Tamariaceae

  3. Pollen record and environmental evolution of Caotanhu wetland in Xinjiang since 4550 cal. a BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; KONG ZhaoChen; NI Jian; YAN Shun; YANG ZhenJing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in Caotanhu wetland using pollen, phytolith and charcoal records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size analysis, and susceptibility. Results reveal that between 4550 and 2500 cal. a BP, a dry climatic condition was not favorable for the accumulation of peat. Since 2500 cal. a BP, the climate became humid and the wetland developed with abundant freshwater aquatic plants, which contributed to peat accumulation. Never-theless, alternate periods of rain and dry climate occurred during that period. Between 2500 and 1810 cal. a BP (550 BC-140 AD), the climate was more humid than at present. A lot of emerged plants, such as Phragmites, Typha and Sparganium, and freshwater green algae grew in the wetland which was sur-rounded by desert-steppe vegetation composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae, Arternisia, Compositae and Thalictrum. However, from 1810 to 1160 cal. a BP (140-790 AD), the water level started to decrease and hydrophyte species reduced greatly, but some Phragmites still grew in the wetland and around it was desert vegetation with high proportion of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia. Then from 1160 to 650 a BP (790-1300 AD), it entered a period of desert-steppe with abundant mesic and xerophytic plants. And a lot of aquatic plants prevailed in the wetland. Here, what is noticeable is that percentages of arboreal pollen, consisting mainly of Betula and Picea, increased greatly and reached a maximal value of 27.2%, in which, Betula percentages rose to 23.2%. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that Betula grew in the highland of the wetland, or Picea timberline shifted downward resulting in the increase of percentages of Betula and Picea pollen, which were transported into the wetland by flood or wind. But since 650 cal. a BP, desert vegetation prevailed around the wetland again with dominant Chenopodiaceae and Ar-temisia, and the climate was similar to modern one. Despite some aquatic

  4. Pollen taphonomy in a canyon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    1987-11-01

    Surface soil samples from the forested Chuska Mountains to the arid steppe of the Chinle Valley, Northeastern Arizona, show close correlation between modern pollen rain and vegetation. In contrast, modern alluvium is dominated by Pinus pollen throughout the canyon; it reflects neither the surrounding floodplain nor plateau vegetation. Pollen in surface soils is deposited by wind; pollen grains in alluvium are deposited by a stream as sedimentary particles. Clay-size particles correlate significantly with Pinus, Quercus, and Populus pollen. These pollen types settle, as clay does, in slack water. Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthus, Artemisia, other Tubuliflorae, and indeterminate pollen types correlate with sand-size particles, and are deposited by more turbulent water. Fluctuating pollen frequencies in alluvial deposits are related to sedimentology and do not reflect the local or regional vegetation where the sediments were deposited. Alluvial pollen is unreliable for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

  5. Introduction of the flora, life forms and chorology of plants of some regions in western Chabahar (Sistan and Baluchestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Salimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Zarabad, Cheraghabad and Nogombecom plants of sub-basin watershed city of Chabahar, Iran. The studied flora included 78 species which belonged to 66 genera and 29 families. Poaceae with 16 genera and 19 species, Asteraceae with 7 genera and 8 species, Chenopodiaceae with 5 genera and 4 species, Papilionaceae, with 5 genera and 6 species, constituted the largest plant families respectively. The largest genera of the region were: Salsola, Heliotropium and Plantago, respectively. 42% of the flora belonged to Nobo-Sindian elements, 35%to Irano-Turanian, 18%were bioregional elements and 5% of the species were cosmopolitan. Flora of the studied area, included therophytes (56%, chamaephytes (15%, phanerophytes (14%, geophytes (12% and hemicryptophytes (3%.

  6. A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record of paleoecologic environment evolution in the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuli; FANG Xiaomin; MA Yuzhen; AN Zhisheng; LI Jijun

    2004-01-01

    A 1.5 Ma sporopollen record was obtained from a continuous loess-paleosol sequence at Chaona in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. It shows that (1) arid herbs of largely Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae and arbors of mainly Pinus, Betula and Quercus dominate loess and paleosol, respectively, reflecting cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid conditions of glaciation and interglaciation; (2) that similar vegetation pattern and cold-dry condition were found in times of unusual thick and coarse loesses L9 and L15, which have been regarded as two extremely cold and dry times as indicated by inorganic climatic proxies; and (3) that shifts of vegetations from earlier forest-steppe to open-forest and steppe and then to steppe were found at 0.95 and 0.5 Ma, implying a stepwise of drying of the Loess Plateau in the Quaternary.

  7. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  8. Forest injurious plants and their control in Lishui City of Zhejiang Province%丽水山区林业有害植物种类调查及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仁友; 王明月; 徐真旺; 程荣亮; 朱振新; 叶玉珠

    2006-01-01

    调查表明,浙江省丽水市共有林业有害植物13科39种,其中禾本科Gramineae 8种,桑寄生科Loranthaceae 8种,菊科Compositae 7种,藜科Chenopodiaceae 3种,旋花科Convolvulaceae 3种,豆科Leguminosae 2种,车前科Plantoginaceae 2种,桑科Moraceae 1种,蓼科Polygonaceae,苋科Amaranthaceae 1种,锦葵科Malvaceae 1种,唇形科Labiatae 1种,雨久花科Pontederiaceae 1种.针对丽水市的实际,提出了有害植物的防控对策.表1参11

  9. Interspecific plant association effects on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza occurrence in Atriplex confertifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.M.; Moorman, T.B.; Schmidt, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    Earlier studies with the shrub Atriplex confertifolia (Chenopodiaceae) suggested that the occurrence of mycotrophy was related to the community from which root samples were obtained; plants in disturbed areas were non-mycotrophic, while those growing in native areas possessed infection. Upon closer examination when neighbouring plants were studied, the level of mycorrhizal infection of Atriplex confertifolia was found to be related to its interspecific plant associations. When Atriplex confertifolia occurred solitarily, or in the presence of non-mycorrhizal A. gardneri, it was non-mycotrophic. However, when occurring near grasses or Artemisia spinescens, it possessed mycorrhiza infection. What appeared to be a community effect for the occurrence of mycorrhiza is nothing more than an association effect in which level of infection is related to the degree of mycorrhizal host plant cover. In disturbed communities little chance occurs for encountering a neighbouring mycorrhizal plant, while native plant communities are composed primarily of mycorrhizal counterparts. 22 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. Secondary Metabolites from Halostachys caspica and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglin Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine secondary metabolites have been isolated from the aerial parts of Halostachys caspica C. A. Mey. (Chenopodiaceae. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as betaine (1, diphenylamine (2, benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, β-sitosterol (4, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (5, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (6, 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (7, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid (8, and 3,4-dihydroxy benzeneacrylic acid (9. All compounds were isolated from this plant species for the first time. They were screened to exhibit antimicrobial and antioxidant activities to some extent except for the compounds 1 and 3. The results indicated that the isolated phenol acids and diphenylamine (2 could be the main bioactive components in the crude ethanol extract of H. caspica.

  11. Pollen-climate response surfaces of selected taxa from Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湘君; 王琫瑜; 宋长青

    1996-01-01

    Pollen-climate response surfaces of major taxa from surface pollen data of Northern China is studied. Response surfaces are nonlinear functions that describe the way in which each taxon’s expected abundance (the response variables) depends on the combined effects of several environmental variables(prediction variables). Response surfaces for 8 major taxa--Pinus, Picea, Betuta, Artemisia, Ephedra,Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae--from 215 surface pollen samples and related climatic data(mean July temperature and annual precipitation) have been generated by analysis of second- or third-degree polynomial regression. Surface samples were collected from surface soil under natural vegetation of Northern China. The results can be used to re-evaluate the ecological significance of abundances of some taxa by quantifying the paleoclimatic variables from fossil pollen abundances.

  12. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  13. Discovery of C4 species at high altitude in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Luo; L(U) Houyuan; WU Naiqin; CHU Duo; HAN Jiamao; WU Yuhu; WU Haibin; GU Zhaoyan

    2004-01-01

    Plant specimens are collected from the areas between latitude 27°42'N and 40°57'N, and longitude 88°93'E and 103°24'E, with an altitudinal range from 2210 to 5050 m above the sea level in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The stable carbon isotope analysis indicates that two of Chenopodiaceae and six of Poaceae in the samples are C4 plants. Four of the C4 plants are found in 11 spots with altitudes above 3800 m,and Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Arundinella yunnanensis and Orinus thoroldii are present in six spots above 4000 m, even up to 4520 m. At low CO2 partial pressure, that sufficient energy of high light improving C4 plant's tolerance of low temperature and precipitations concentrating in growing season probably are favorable for C4 plants growing at high altitude in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Spectrum of allergenic pollen in Karachi and their characterization using conventional and electron microscopy: Potential candidates for allergy vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the distribution of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and study their pollen morphology in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: We performed field surveys of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and studied their pollen morphology using conventional (light) as well as scanning electron microscopy. Results: About 80 allergenic pollen producing species were identified which are distributed in 45 genera and 9 angiospermic families. Grasses belonging to Graminae are most abundant followed by plants from family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Highly allergenic weeds were also found widely growing in the city areas belonging to Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. Conclusion: Our study provides an updated information about the allergenic plants growing in Karachi city. All desensitization efforts should be designed in accordance to the available information regarding the prevalent allergens in the environment so that appropriate therapy can be given to the affected population. (author)

  15. Palynological investigation of a Holocene profile section from the Palaeo-Gaxun-Nur-Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Demske; S. Mischke

    2003-01-01

    Palynological investigations on lacustrine sediment samples revealed ageneral dominance of open Artemisia-Chenopodiaceae vegetation in the Palaeo-Gaxun- Nur-Basin (Inner Mongolia) between 5250 and 3500 cal. aBP. Riverside woods (Hippophae, Populus) developed between 3500-3250 cal. aBP and reflect moister growing conditions. During the following moist-dry transition pronounced cooling occurred around 3000 cal. aBP, in upper elevations favouring the spread of montanewoods (Picea, Betula). Aridity strongly increased from 2900 to 2700 cal. aBP. The recorded vegetational and environmental changes after 3500 cal. aBP can be correlated with glacier advances in the mountains and with a humid phase in the Tengger Shamo followed by desertification.

  16. Vegetational ecotype of the Gyirong Basin in Tibet, China and its response in stable carbon isotopes of mammaltooth enamel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Tao; LI Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of modern herbaceous plants in the Gyirong Basin (Tibet, China) indicates that although C3 plants are dominant, C4 plants rarely comprise of the vegetation in the area at 4000 m above sea level. The C4 plants discovered in the Gyirong Basin are Salsola nepalensis of Chenopodiaceae and Pennisetum flaccidum of Gramineae, affirming that C4 plants affected by high solar gain can be distributed at high altitude, which supports the opinion that some C4 plants can exist in areas of high elevation. Carbon isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel from the Gyirong Basin indicates that carbon isotopes of structural carbonate in biogenic apatite at high altitude still keep a stable enrichment relationship with those of plants in their diet. Carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are therefore an accurate proxy for vegetation ecotypes and should reflect climatic and environmental features.

  17. Comparison of climatic threshold of geographical distribution between dominant plants and surface pollen in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEDDADI; Rachid; BEAUDOUIN; Celia

    2008-01-01

    The geographical distribution of dominant plant species in China was georeferenced and climatic variables were interpolated into all grids.Accordingly,the percentage distributions of principal pollen taxa based on 1860 surface pollen sites in China were selected and the related climate values were interpolated with the same method. The geographical and climatic comparison between the two data-sets indicated that the climate threshold of most pollen taxa from surface pollen is coherent with plant distributions. The climatic envelopes of dominant plant are mostly accordant with those of pollen taxa at certain levels. However, some distinct offsets of the climate ranges exist between the two datasets for most pollen taxa identified at family level, such as Ericaceae,Asteraceae, Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae. The present study provides for the first time rich information on temperature and precipitation in relation to pollen and plant distribution based on the datasets on a continental scale useful for global ecological modeling and Quaternary palaeoclimate reconstruction.

  18. Aeropalynologic analysis of Timisoara (Romania during 2006 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a one year qualitative-quantitative study of airborne pollen. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the daily presence and distribution of pollen and to identify the pollen types that are abundantly represented in the atmosphere of the city of Timisoara. A continuous aeropalynologic survey was accomplished between 1 mai 2006 and 8 octombrie 2006. Plants with anemophilous pollination were the best represented: Pinaceae, Poaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Ambrosia, Fraxinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Quercus, Juglans, Platanus, Morus, Tilia. The total pollen spectrum was represented by 17 pollen types. Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen types was dominant. The highest level of pollen emission was recorded during August-September.

  19. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  20. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; López, P; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2002-06-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) is an anthelmintic herb used in Latin-America's folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plant which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 microg/ml), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic indexes (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed (a) a statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both preparations of Paico, (b) a decrease in MI of both preparations assayed, although no modification in the CPK values either in the infusion or in the decoction was observed. These results suggest a possible genotoxic effect of both preparations, probably due to different active principles. PMID:12020922

  1. The utility of rbcl and matk regions for dna barcoding analysis of the genus suaeda (amaranthaceae) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Suaeda (Forssk.) belongs to the family Chenopodiaceae. Identification of Suaeda species based on morphological data is quite difficult due to high phenotypic plasticity, few distinguishable and many overlapping characters. In current research, the efficiency of rbcL and matK (plants core barcode regions) for species identification of the genus Suaeda was assessed. The determination of intraspecific and interspecific divergence, assessment of barcoding gap, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and evaluation of barcode regions for species identification (based on best match and best close match) were carried out. The results revealed that rbcL showed comparatively less overlapping for the distribution of interspecific and intraspecific divergence. In addition, the highest discriminating ability for correct species identification was also observed in this region. Therefore, rbcL was found to be a significant barcode region for the identification of Suaeda species. (author)

  2. Modern pollen rain in the Lake Qinghai basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Lake Qinghai is the largest inland brackish lake in China and lies within the NE Tibetan Plateau. Our study shows that pollen assemblages in each vegetation belt are significantly correlated with the vegetation types of this area. Among the herbaceous and shrubby pollen assemblages, Artemisia is over-represented, while Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Polygonaceae are under-represented. Artemisia/ Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratios with the regional vegetation characteristic can be used as a proper index to reconstruct the history of vegetation and climate in Lake Qinghai basin. Modern pollen in the lake mainly comes from the nearby vegetation, controlled by the directions and velocity of the wind. The distribution of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai tends to be similar in most part of the lake. The difference of pollen sedimentation process in the lake can be potentially influenced by the focusing function of the lake, river streams, and lake current.

  3. Host range and transmission of Tobacco streak virus (TSV causing cotton mosaic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Utpal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco streak virus (TSV causing cotton mosaic disease was found to be transmissible by mechanical means specially when extracts were made in neutral phosphate buffer 0.02M containing reducing agent like 2-Mercaptoethanol.The disease was found to be transmitted by Thrips palmi (cotton thrips and Thrips tobacci (onion thrips. TSV was detected in sample showing mosaic symptoms.TSV was readily graft transmissible but not transmissible by mechanical means, no evidence of its transmission through seed or by thrips was obtained. About 19 plant species belonging to five different families viz.malvaceae, chenopodiaceae, compositeae, leguminoceae and solanaceae were tested for host range and virus isolate causing cotton mosaic disease.

  4. Assessment of some chemical element contents in Traganum nudatum Del shrub using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bouzid Nedjimi; Brahim Beladel

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to determine some chemical element contents (K, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Sb, and Sc) in Traganum nudatum Del (Chenopodiaceae family) consumed in North African rangelands by sheep livestock. Samples were collected from the area of Djelfa in an arid steppe of Algeria. Results show that pasture halophyte had sufficient levels of K, Ca, Zn, and Co to meet the requirements of ruminants. However, it seems that this halophyte shrub had substantial amounts of Na, higher than the critical level established by the National Research Council (NRC). Eu, Sb, and Sc were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by the NRC. The high Na content (∼10 g/kg) in this halophytic species requires elevated intake of water by livestock.

  5. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  6. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina eMeinen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR-attenuated total reflection (ATR spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae, and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae. Fresh (moist and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section and root tip of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100 % separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP and high residual predictive deviation (RPD values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species.

  7. ANÁLISIS DE MACRORRESTOS VEGETALES EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO LOS TRES CERROS 1 (ISLA LAS MORAS, VICTORIA, ENTRE RÍOS / Macroremains plant analysis on the Tres Cerros 1 archaeological site (Las Moras island, Victoria, Entre Ríos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Milagros Colobig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es la primera aproximación al estudio de macrorrestos botánicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. Estos restos fueron recuperados mediante la técnica de flotación manual. A partir del material extraído, se exploró el rol de los recursos vegetales y su importancia en la subsistencia en los grupos humanos que habitaron el Delta Superior del río Paraná durante el Holoceno tardío. Se identificaron cinco familias: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae y Oryzoideae y Amaranthaceae. Los estudios permitieron estimar que a partir de 700 ARCP hubo un incremento en la abundancia y variabilidad de recursos vegetales utilizados con respecto a períodos anteriores. La presencia de elementos oryzoides, y graminoides (específicamente Maideae evidenció la existencia de vegetales silvestres y domesticados, aportando nuevos registros sobre el aprovechamiento, manejo y cultivo de las plantas en el área de estudio en el Holoceno tardío.   Abstract  This paper entails the first approach to macrobotanical remains obtained from Los Tres Cerros 1 (Isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. The remains were recovered by means of manual flotation technique. The extracted material allowed us to explore the role played by vegetable resources role and their importance to the subsistence of human populations of Upper Paraná Delta during the late Holocene. Five botanical families were recognized: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae and Ehrhartoideae and Amaranthaceae. Studies estimate that from 700 RCYBP, there was an increase in the abundance and variability of plant resources used, as compared to previous periods. The presence of oryzoides and graminoid elements (specifically Maideae showed the presence of wild and domesticated plants, providing new records on the use of plants in the area studied, in the late Holocene.

  8. Diversidade e razão sexual de syrphidae em leguminosas e plantas espontâneas, em León (Espanha Diversidad y proporción sexual de syrphidae en cultivos de leguminosas y plantas espontáneas, en León (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sirfídeos adultos visitam flores para obter néctar e pólen. A disponibilidade de plantas em floração é essencial para a sobrevivência destes insectos. O presente estudo teve como objectivo determinar o efeito de plantas espontâneas na diversidade de sirfideos e sua influência na proporção sexual. Para o feito, foram identificados e sexados adultos capturados em culturas leguminosas e plantas espontâneas associadas. Em ambos os casos, a proporção entre os sexos foi de 1,4♀:1,0♂, mas a diversidade específica foi maior nas fêmeas. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H foi ligeiramente maior nas plantas espontâneas, do que nas culturas (2,12 contra 2,13. O índice de equidade foi maior nas culturas, e no caso das fêmeas nas plantas espontâneas. A diversidade vegetal ajuda a manter a diversidade de sirfideos, especialmente do sexo feminino. As famílias de plantas espontâneas, Umbelliferae, Asteraceae e Chenopodiaceae foram, por ordem decrescente de importância, aquelas onde se efectuaram mais observação.Los adultos de sírfidos visitan las flores para obtener néctar y polen. La disponibilidad de plantas en floración es esencial para la supervivencia de estos insectos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el efecto de las plantas espontáneas en la diversidad de sírfidos y su influencia en la proporción sexual. Para ello se identificaron y se sexaron los adultos capturados en cultivos de leguminosas y en las plantas espontáneas asociadas. En ambos la proporción sexual fue 1,4♀:1,0♂, pero la diversidad específica de hembras fue mayor en las plantas espontáneas. La diversidad de Shannon (H fue apenas mayor en las plantas espontáneas que en los cultivos (2,12 vs. 2,13. El índice de equidad fue mayor en los cultivos y, en las hembras en las plantas espontáneas. La diversidad vegetal contribuye a mantener la diversidad de los sírfidos, especialmente de las hembras. Las familias de plantas espont

  9. 副特提斯东部地区Sarmatian期(中-晚中新世)古植物群的演化%THE SARMATIAN (MIDDLE-LATE MIOCENE) PALEOFLORA EVOLUTION IN THE EASTERN PARATETHYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The territory of Moldova lies within the Eastern Paratethys. The continental and marine Sarmatian sedimentsare wide spread. Based on mollusc and foraminifera fossils three-members of the Sarmatian is locally adopted. The recentlyobtained palynological spectra of 700 samples from 37 wells and outcrops in various parts of Moldova support the three-member division of the Sarmatian. These fossil data indicate the changes in regional vegetation in response to climate varia-tions and marine transgressions and regressions. The broad-leaved Fagacean-type forests with subtropical species predomi-nated the Early Sarmatian. Sometimes the quota of dark-coniferous species increased. During the regressive Late Sarmatian,abundance of herbs with halophylous species (Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthus, Artemisia) increased. The obtained data show acyclic evolution of vegetation in Eastern Paratethys during the Sarmatian time with a steady decrease in diversity of subtropi-cal flora and increase of grasses. This suggests a climate change toward a lower average annual temperature, a higher aridity,and more pronounced continental character.%摩尔多瓦位于东特提斯地区内,海相、陆相Sarmatian期沉积都很发育.根据软体动物和有孔虫化石,当地Sarmatian期沉积被分为三段.最近从摩尔多瓦各地3 7口井下和露头700块样品获得的孢粉结果支持Sarmatian期三分.这些孢粉化石资料说明区域性植被响应气候演变、海进、海退等所发生的变化.含有亚热带种类的山毛榉阔叶林统治了早Sarmatian期,有时暗针叶林增加.在海退期的晚Sarmatian期,含有喜盐植物(Chenopodiaceae,Amaranthus,Artemisia)的草本类增加.已有的资料显示了在东特提斯地区Sarmatian期植被的周期性变化.伴随着亚热带植物不断减少和禾草类不断增加,说明当时气候在朝年均温逐渐降低、干早化增加、更加大陆性方向变化.

  10. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  11. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos, e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Brasil central. Os frutos, do tipo aquênio, são pequenos, achatados e sem dormência. BRS Piabiru, primeira recomendação de quinoa ao cultivo no Brasil, originou-se da linhagem EC 3, selecionada em uma população procedente de Quito, Equador. Após dois anos de ensaios, foi uniformizada em suas características agronômicas a partir de 1998. Em sucessão à soja (safrinha e na entressafra, sob irrigação, apresentou produção média de 2,8 t/ha de grãos, com 145 dias da emergência à maturação. Constitui um potencial componente do sistema plantio direto.Diversification of production systems contributes to improve income, to reduce costs, to improve nutrient availability, to protect the soil, to reduce negative environmental impact, and, to provide raw material. The Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a Chenopodiaceae, presents outstanding characteristics of drought tolerance, high quality of kernel protein, low cholesterol content, absence of gluten (suitable to celiac patients, utilisation as animal feed. The species presents variability, with days from emergence to maturity varying between 80 to 150, under savannah conditions. The fruit, achene type, is small and flat in shape, without dormancy. The BRS Piabiru, the first recommended quinoa for cropping system in Brazil, was a selection of breeding line EC 3, originating from a plant population of Quito, Ecuador. After being tested for two years in variety trials, in Central

  12. Polen y esporas de la Formación Navidad, Neógeno de Chile Pollen and spores of the Navidad Formation, Neogene from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIANA BARREDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El análisis palinológico de la Formación Navidad en afloramientos de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile central, brindó asociaciones dominadas por leños, cutículas, algas de agua dulce, esporas y granos de polen (elementos de origen continental con muy escasa participación de quistes de dinoflagelados, acritarcos y cubiertas internas de foraminíferos arenáceos (componentes marinos indicando que estas asociaciones se habrían acumulado en un ambiente marino. Las asociaciones de polen y esporas indican el desarrollo de una vegetación de bosque con participación de elementos gondwánicos (Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, Nothofagaceae y neotropicales (Sapotaceae, Malphigiaceae, Arecaceae, Chloranthaceae, Tiliaceae/Bombacaceae -Paleoflora Mixta- apoyando hipótesis previas basadas en las megafloras. En las márgenes de los bosques se habrían desarrollado parches con vegetación esclerófila con AAnacardiaceae y Fabaceae como componentes principales. Sobre suelos arenosos o marismas salinos se habrían desarrollado elementos herbaceo-arbustivos, xerofíticos y halofíticos, como Chenopodiaceae y Calyceraceae. Se destaca el primer registro de taxones endémicos de las familias Calyceraceae y Asteraceae (Barnadesioideae para la palinoflora de Chile. Estas comunidades vegetales se habrían desarrollado bajo condiciones de clima subtropical, cálido y húmedo. Desde el punto de vista cronoestratigráfico las asociaciones esporopolínicas sustentan una edad neógena para la Formación Navidad.Palynological assemblages recovered from the Navidad Formation in outcrops of the Cordillera de la Costa, central Chile, are dominated by wood remains, cuticles, spores and pollen grains and fresh water algae (continental elements with scarce dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, foraminiferal linnings marine palynomorphs indicating that these assemblages would have been accumulated in a marine environment. Spore-pollen assemblages indicate a forest vegetation

  13. Characterisation of the airborne pollen spectrum in Guadalajara (central Spain) and estimation of the potential allergy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Sabariego, Silvia; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Aerobiological research into airborne pollen diversity and seasonal variations in pollen counts has become increasingly important over recent decades due to the growing incidence of asthma, rhinitis and other pollen-related allergic conditions. Airborne pollen in Guadalajara (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) was studied over a 6-year period (2008-2013) using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The highest pollen concentrations were recorded from February to June, coinciding with the pollen season of the pollen types that most contribute to the local airborne pollen spectrum: Cupressaceae (32.2%), Quercus (15.1%), Platanus (13.2%), Olea (8.3%), Populus (7.8%) and Poaceae (7.2%). These are therefore critical months for allergy sufferers. The pollen calendar was typically Mediterranean and comprised 25 pollen types. Between January and March, Cupressaceae pollen concentrations exceeded allergy risk thresholds on 38 days. Other woody species such as Olea and Platanus have a shorter pollen season, and airborne concentrations exceeded allergy risk thresholds on around 13 days in each case. Poaceae pollen concentrations attained allergy risk levels on 26 days between May and July. Other highly allergenic pollen types included Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, though these are less abundant than other pollen types in Guadalajara and did not exceed risk thresholds on more than 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  14. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  15. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  16. Phenology of flowering and pollen release of selected herbaceous plants in Szczecin and Gudowo (Western Pomerania and the risk of pollen allergy

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    Aleksandra Kruczek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the course of the pollen season of selected allergenic taxa (Secale spp., Rumex spp., Plantago spp., Urtica spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae in Szczecin (2009 and Gudowo (Western Pomerania, Poland (2009–2010, and also the flowering pattern of Chenopodium album, Artemisia vulgaris and Secale spp. Pollen deposition was studied by the gravimetric method using a Durham sampler. In 2010 the flowering period of the studied taxa was shorter than in 2009 and its onset was observed later; the maximum values of daily pollen deposition were lower. Pollen grains of most of the taxa studied appeared in the atmosphere of the city earlier than in the rural area, but in the rural area significantly higher values of daily deposition were recorded. The effect of weather conditions on pollen fall in Szczecin in 2009 was analysed. Statistically significant positive correlations with pollen deposition were found only with maximum, minimum, and mean air temperature, dew point and maximum wind speed, while a negative correlation was found with precipitation and – only for Rumex pollen grains – with air humidity and pressure.

  17. 宁夏盐池栽培甘草田杂草种类普查与防治技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左忠; 李明; 温淑红; 安钰; 张清云

    2011-01-01

    通过大面积普查和小样方调查的方式,对宁夏盐池栽培甘草田杂草种类、防治现状等做了1次普查分析,共普查到27科76属119种杂草.其中,种类最多的是禾本科(Gramineae)杂草,有32种;菊科(Compositae)次之,有19种;藜科(Chenopodiaceae)14种.杂草密度在3级以上的有31种,占杂草总种教的26.05%,是人工防除的重点.在灌溉移栽的甘草药剂除草试验田中,危害最严重的为菊科的猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)和丝叶山苦荬(lxeris chinensis var.graminifolia),试验所选除草剂对菊科杂草无效,但时灰藜(Chenopodium album)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、猪毛菜(Salsola collina)、白草(Pennisetum centrasiaticum)等恶性杂草防效明显.同时,提出了放牧除草、机械除草、施肥、防虫等简单有效的防控措施.

  18. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

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    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  19. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhubala, R; Bhadramurthy, V; Bhat, A I; Hareesh, P S; Retheesh, S T; Bhai, R S

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  20. Breeding and selection of plant materials for rehabilitation of mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, H. C.

    1977-04-01

    Because strip mine spoils are significantly different from native communities, the plants which will ultimately occupy them will necessarily also be different. A number of species already grow elsewhere in the world in somewhat similar harsh environments, and these may be immediately successful when introduced to mine spoils. There are also a number of hybrids and hybrid products from contrasting adaptive parents which may be immediately successful. These, together with derivatives from controlled breeding and selection programs, can be expected to provide the permutations of germ plasm which will include types specifically adapted to growth on strip mine spoils. Utah International's Navajo Mine was selected as a research site for the development of plants suitable for rehabilitating mined land. Because the disturbed areas at the Navajo Mine are mostly heavy saline clays, the plants most likely to be immediately successful under the regime of hot summers, cold winters, and sporadic, low precipitation are members of the family Chenopodiaceae and particular species of grasses. The plants which are being used in this research are Atriplex and grasses from the tribe Hordeae. The growth of containerized and seed-sown plants following irrigation only, irrigation plus fertilizer, fertilizer only, or unamended were studied. Preliminary data on population dynamics and hybridization are reported.

  1. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  2. Prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fouladseresht

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of various environmental allergens is the major challenge in allergic diseases and the only treatment is avoiding these allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients using Skin Prick Test (SPT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on clinically confirmed patients of atopic-dermatitis (n=54, allergenic-rhinitis (n=64 and chronic-urticaria (n=39 who referred to asthma and allergy clinic at Afzali-Pour hospital in Kerman during 2008-2010. Skin prick test was done using allergen extracts to determine the patients' sensitivity to food and airborne antigens. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients responded to at least one allergen. Allergy to airborne and food allergens was 55.9 % and 21.7%, respectively. Chenopodiaceae (22.9% and egg white (10.2% were most prevalent airborne and food allergens. Allergy to cockroach, egg white, egg yolk and tomato was significantly higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that allergy to food and airborne allergens is different depending on the nutrition and environmental conditions.

  3. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-05-23

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  4. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-06-01

    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  5. Deglacial climate variability in central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Brooks, G.R.; Cronin, T. M.; Edgar, T.; Larson, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen and ostracode evidence from lacustrine sediments underlying modern Tampa Bay, Florida, document frequent and abrupt climatic and hydrological events superimposed on deglacial warming in the subtropics. Radiocarbon chronology on well-preserved mollusk shells and pollen residue from core MD02-2579 documents continuous sedimentation in a variety of non-marine habitats in a karst-controlled basin from 20 ka to 11.5 ka. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), much drier and cooler-than-modern conditions are indicated by pollen assemblages enriched in Chenopodiaceae and Carya, with rare Pinus (Pinus pollen increased to 20–40% during the warming of the initial deglaciation (∼ 17.2 ka), reaching near modern abundance (60–80%) during warmer, moister climates of the Bølling/Allerød interval (14.7–12.9 ka). Within the Bølling/Allerød, centennial-scale dry events corresponding to the Older Dryas and Intra-Allerød Cold Period indicate rapid vegetation response (

  6. Salt-Responsive Transcriptome Profiling of Suaeda glauca via RNA Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangxia Jin

    Full Text Available Suaeda glauca, a succulent halophyte of the Chenopodiaceae family, is widely distributed in coastal areas of China. Suaeda glauca is highly resistant to salt and alkali stresses. In the present study, the salt-responsive transcriptome of Suaeda glauca was analyzed to identify genes involved in salt tolerance and study halophilic mechanisms in this halophyte.Illumina HiSeq 2500 was used to sequence cDNA libraries from salt-treated and control samples with three replicates each treatment. De novo assembly of the six transcriptomes identified 75,445 unigenes. A total of 23,901 (31.68% unigenes were annotated. Compared with transcriptomes from the three salt-treated and three salt-free samples, 231 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected (including 130 up-regulated genes and 101 down-regulated genes, and 195 unigenes were functionally annotated. Based on the Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG classifications of the DEGs, more attention should be paid to transcripts associated with signal transduction, transporters, the cell wall and growth, defense metabolism and transcription factors involved in salt tolerance.This report provides a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of a halophyte, Suaeda glauca, under salt stress. Further studies of the genetic basis of salt tolerance in halophytes are warranted.

  7. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area. PMID:25503327

  8. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  9. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  10. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.

  11. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  12. Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Moreno, J; Arellano, R O

    2003-01-01

    The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla H.B.K (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum Dun (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was -17 +/- 2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines.

  13. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  14. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation. PMID:27116401

  15. Cytotoxicity of Atriplex confertifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Capua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for cancer treatment continues to be a global effort. As part of this global effort, many natural products have been tested against cancer cell lines, mostly from tropically located plants. This study reports that extracts of Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem. S. Watson (Chenopodiaceae, a native North American plant (also known as shadscale or saltbush, has significant bioactivity against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB 435, MDA-MB 231, and HeLa cells (cervical cancer cells. The bioactivity of A. confertifolia extracts on these cells lines was compared to an FDA-approved cancer drug (Onxol® and an industry-standard leukocyte control cell line. Active portions of the extracts were found primarily in the polar fractions of the plant. A dose-response curve of the extracts displayed significant cell death similar to Onxol®. The plant extracts did not significantly inhibit the viability of the leukocyte cell line. In a timed study, over 90% of cell lines MDA-MB 435 and HeLa died after 24 hours. Cell death appears to result from apoptosis.

  16. Quaternary forest associations in lowland tropical West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial fossil pollen records are frequently used to reveal the response of vegetation to changes in both regional and global climate. Here we present a fossil pollen record from sediment cores extracted from Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa). This record covers the last c. 520 thousand years (ka) and represents the longest terrestrial pollen record from Africa published to date. The fossil pollen assemblages reveal dynamic vegetation change which can be broadly characterized as indicative of shifts between savannah and forest. Savannah formations are heavily dominated by grass (Poaceae) pollen (>55%) typically associated with Cyperaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Forest formations are palynologically more diverse than the savannah, with the key taxa occurring in multiple forest zones being Moraceae, Celtis, Uapaca, Macaranga and Trema. The fossil pollen data indicate that over the last c. 520 ka the vegetation of lowland tropical West Africa has mainly been savannah; however six periods of forest expansion are evident which most likely correspond to global interglacial periods. A comparison of the forest assemblage composition within each interglacial suggests that the Holocene (11-0 ka) forest occurred under the wettest climate, while the forest which occurred at the time of Marine Isotope Stage 7 probably occurred under the driest climate.

  17. Holocene grassland vegetation, climate and human impact in central eastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Fei; Kealhofer; Lisa; XIONG; Shangfa; HUANG; Fengb

    2005-01-01

    Phytolith and pollen preserved in the Taipusi Banner paleosol profile, central eastern Inner Mongolia, provide evidence of Holocene grassland vegetation, climate and human impact. The combined phytolith and pollen records reveal a major change in vegetation composition about 5000 a BP. Before 5000 a BP, the vegetation was dominated by Aneurolepidium chinese-Stipa grandis grassland of C4 grasses. After 5000 a BP, C4 grasses rapidly retreated,indicating a shift to colder and more arid conditions. The gradual invasion of Stipa krylovii, Agropyron desertorum, Ephedra, Chenopodiaceae and Caragana reveal the onset of grassland degeneration. Between 10000 and 8720 a BP, the Aneurolepidium chinese-Stipa grandis grassland included a small proportion of Artemisia shrub and Echionopos type plants, implying a strong winter monsoon and very weak summer monsoon. From 8720 to 7000 a BP, C4 grasses were common, indicating a strengthening of the summer monsoon. Between 7000 and 5000 a BP,the Holocene thermal maximum was evident, with a significant expansion of C4 grasses and the presence of some trees (such as Pinus and Betula, and so on) in or near the study site. From 4200-3000 a BP, a sandy grassland of Artemisia and Agropyron desertorum together with As ter-type taxa occurred. Precipitation amelioration took place between 3000 and 2170 a BP, with a rapid development of Echinops type plants and a small expansion of C4 grasses. From 2170 a BP to present, human activities accelerated the process of grassland degeneration.

  18. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  19. Meteorological factors and pollen season dynamics of selected herbaceous plants in Szczecin, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of mugwort, plantain, sorrel, nettle and pigweed is an important airborne allergen source worldwide. The occurrence of pollen grains in the air is a seasonal phenomenon and estimation of seasonal variability in the pollen count permits evaluation of the threat posed by allergens over a given area. The aim of the study was to analyse the dynamics of Artemisia, Plantago, Rumex, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae pollen season in Szczecin (western Poland in 2004-2008 and to establish a relationship between the meteorological parameters versus the pollen count of the taxa studied. Measurements were performed by the Hirst volumetric trap (model Lanzoni VPPS 2000. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 99% of annual total and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, temporary differences in the dynamics of the seasons were most evident for Artemisia. Correlation analysis with weather parameters demonstrated that the maximum wind speed, mean and maximum air temperature, relative humidity and dew point are the main factors influencing the average daily pollen concentrations in the atmosphere.

  20. Pollen calendar of Lublin, 1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of pollen fall were carried out in Lublin in 1995 - 2000 years by the gravimetric method. The modified Durham sampler was applied, located at 9 m above ground level. On the base of results 6 year observations - the pollen calendar for Lublin was prepared. The following 15 plant taxa were taken under consideration: Alnus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula, Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. The anemophilous plants' pollen season in Lublin began in half of February and lasted till half of September. First appeared pollen grains of decidous tress' and shrubs, then the coniferous. High values of pollen fall of these plants were noted till the end of May. Start of grass pollen season was recorded from the half of May, and at the latter part of this month, also other herbaceous plants. The highest concentrations of pollen were found in April and May when trees and shrubs pollinated. The highest annual totals were marked for plants of the following taxa: Betula, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Alnus, Urtica.

  1. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  2. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  3. Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R A; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Boyko, V; Reddy, A S; Dawson, W O; Reddy, D V

    1998-01-01

    Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus.

  4. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  5. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  6. Response of AM fungi spore population to elevated temperature and nitrogen addition and their influence on the plant community composition and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xue; Guo, Rui; Guo, Jixun

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of elevated temperature and nitrogen (N) addition on species composition and development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the effect of AMF on plant community structure and aboveground productivity, we conducted a 5-year field experiment in a temperate meadow in northeast China and a subsequent greenhouse experiment. In the field experiment, N addition reduced spore population diversity and richness of AMF and suppressed the spore density and the hyphal length density (HLD). Elevated temperature decreased spore density and diameter and increased the HLD, but did not affect AMF spore population composition. In the greenhouse experiment, AMF altered plant community composition and increased total aboveground biomass in both elevated temperature and N addition treatments; additionally, AMF also increased the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the grasses Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) and Setaria viridis (Gramineae) and significantly reduced the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the Suaeda corniculata (Chenopodiaceae). Although elevated temperature and N addition can affect species composition or suppress the development of AMF, AMF are likely to play a vital role in increasing plant diversity and productivity. Notably, AMF might reduce the threat of climate change induced degradation of temperate meadow ecosystems. PMID:27098761

  7. Associations of dominant plant species with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during vegetation development on coal mine spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydlova, J.; Vosatka, M. [Academy of Science. Pruhonice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    Among plants colonizing mine spoil banks in Northern Bohemia the first colonizers, mainly ruderal annuals from Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae were found not to be associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These species cultivated in pots with soil from four sites in different succession stages of the spoil bank did not respond to the presence of native or non-native AMF. All grass species studied (Elytrigia repens, Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius) were found moderately colonized in the field. Carduus acanthoides was found to be highly colonized in the field; however, it did not show growth response to AMF in the pot experiment. The AMF native in four sites on the spoil banks showed high infectivity but low effectiveness in association with colonizing plants compared to the non-native isolate G. fistulosum BEG23. In general, dependence on AMF in the cultivation experiment was rather low, regardless of the fact that plants were found to be associated with AMF either in the field or in pots. Occurrence and effectiveness of mycorrhizal associations might relate primarily to the mycotrophic status of each plant species rather than to the age of the spoil bank sites studied.

  8. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

  9. Quantitative reconstructions of mid- to late holocene climate and vegetation in the north-eastern altai mountains recorded in lake teletskoye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Andreev, Andrei; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei; Babich, Valery; Li, Hong-Chun; Shilov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We report the first high-resolution (20-50 years) mid- to late Holocene pollen records from Lake Teletskoye, the largest lake in the Altai Mountains, in south-eastern West Siberia. Generally, the mid- to late Holocene (the last 4250 years) vegetation of the north-eastern Altai, as recorded in two studied sediment cores, is characterised by Siberian pine-spruce-fir forests that are similar to those of the present day. A relatively cool and dry interval with July temperatures lower than those of today occurred between 3.9 and 3.6 ka BP. The widespread distribution of open, steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae reflects maximum deforestation during this interval. After ca. 3.5 ka BP, the coniferous mountain taiga spread significantly, with maximum woody coverage and taiga biome scores between ca. 2.7 and 1.6 ka BP. This coincides well with the highest July temperature (approximately 1 °C higher than today) intervals. A short period of cooling about 1.3-1.4 ka BP could have been triggered by the increased volcanic activity recorded across the Northern Hemisphere. A new period of cooling started around 1100-1150 CE, with the minimum July temperatures occurring between 1450 and 1800 CE.

  10. Medicinal flora of Hingol National Park, Baluchistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to record medicinal use of native plants by the inhabitants of the study area. Thirty nine plant species belonging to 32 genera and 22 families were documented having medicinally important and are being used by the local people for treating their various diseases. Generally, 25 different ailments were treated from the reported species. Most of the reported taxa were used as tonic (13%), followed by diarrhea (9.2%), wound healing (7.41%), constipation, cooling agent, cough and throat pain (5.56% each). In addition, four plant species were used to treat fracture, stomach problems and fever of livestock. Fabaceae contributed significant number of species (7 spp.), followed by Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae and Zygophyllaceae (3 spp. each), Capparaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Tamaricaceae and Tiliaceae (2 spp. each), while 9 families represented by single species. For each species, botanical name, family, habit, local name, part(s) used and ethnomedicinal uses are provided in this paper. (author)

  11. Medicinal uses of plants by the inhabitants of Kunjerab National Park, Gilgit, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many other mountain communities, people living in the peripheries of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) have been using plant resources for food, medicine, shelter, fuel and other purposes since long. The present study was carried out to record the most common medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) and their traditional uses by the local inhabitants from the study area. A total of 43 plant species belonging to 40 genera and 28 families were recorded from Dhee, Barkhun, Shimshal and Khunjerab pastures during field visits conducted in 2006-2008, which are being used by the people of the area for the preparation of herbal recipes. In all, Asteraceae family contributed the highest number of species (11.63%), followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (9.30% each), Chenopodiaceae and Elaeagnaceae (4.65% each). Twenty nine diseases were treated by the reported species. Maximum number of species were employed for treating fever (9 spp.), followed by cough, in digestion (5 spp. each), wounds, eye infection, abdominal pain, jaundice, blood pressure and diarrhea (4 spp. each). The study area is a fragile ecosystem which is rapidly degrading due to excessive grazing and over exploitation by the inhabitants for their customary needs. In order to protect the dwindling floral resources and their classical uses, concrete conservation measures i.e., education and awareness, integration of traditional knowledge with modern health care and ex situ conservation of threatened species, supporting local livelihoods and rural economy is inevitable. (author)

  12. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  13. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  14. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  15. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS. PMID:11542242

  16. Investigation on Weed Species in Alfalfa Field in Qingdao%青岛苜蓿田杂草种类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 田净净; 刘志英; 孙娟; 朱华敏; 杨国锋

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on weeds in artificial alfalfa field in Qingdao Animal Husbandry Technology Demonstration Garden was made from the end of March to the end of September in 2012.Twenty-one kinds of weed species (belonging to 12 families) were found.Among them,weeds belonging to Brassicaceae,Convolvulaceae,Asteraceae,Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae were severely harmful.Descuminia Sophia (L.)webb.Ex Prantl,Cirsium setosum (Wild.) MB.and Convolvulus arvensis L.were dominant species in winter-spring.Gramineae weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.,Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.,and Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.were dominant species in summer-autumn.%2012年自3月底苜蓿返青开始至9月底,对青岛畜牧科技示范园牧草试验基地的苜蓿田杂草调查发现:苜蓿田杂草种类有12科21种,其中十字花科、旋花科、菊科、禾本科和藜科的杂草危害较大;冬春季杂草优势种为麦蒿、刺菜和田旋花;夏秋季杂草优势种为马唐、狗尾草、稗草等禾本科植物和葎草.

  17. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in the halophyte Halostachys caspica under salt and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suwei; Zeng, Youling; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    The plants are always subjected to various environmental stress, because of plant sessile growth. qRT-PCR is a sensitive and reliable technology, and the normalization of target gene expression with suitable reference genes is very important for obtaining accurate data. Halostachys caspica is an extremely salt-tolerant halophyte belonging to Chenopodiaceae and a good candidate to explore the stress-physiological and molecular mechanism. To get truly the expression profiles of coding genes and miRNAs in H. caspica in response to salt and drought stress using qRT-PCR, suitable reference genes need to be confirmed. In this study, 10 candidate genes including ACT, UBC10, UBC13, TUB2, TUB3, EF1α, 5S rRNA, tRNA, U6 and miR1436 from H. caspica are chosen, and among them, the former nine are commonly used as internal control genes, and miR1436 with high sequence copies is no significant difference expression in high salinity-treated and untreated small RNA libraries of this species. The three softwares are used to analyze expression stability. The results showed that EF1α and TUB3 were the most stable under salt and drought stress, respectively, and UBC10 was the most constant aross all the samples with the both stressed combination. This work will benefit deep studies on abiotic tolerance in H. caspica. PMID:27527518

  18. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  19. Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three Chenopodium species (family Chenopodiaceae) namely Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was investigated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) G. Goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. All the extracts of the three Chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fungal growth. However, there was marked variation among the various extract treatments. Methanol inflorescence extract of C. album exhibited highest antifungal activity resulting in up to 96% reduction in fungal biomass production. By contrast, methanol leaf extract of the same species exhibited least antifungal activity where 21-44% reduction in fungal biomass was recorded due to various employed extract concentrations. The various methanol extracts of C. murale and C. ambrosioides decreased fungal biomass by 62-90 and 50-84%, respectively. Similarly, various n-hexane extracts of C. album, C. murale and C. ambrosioides reduced fungal biomass by 60-94, 43-90 and 49-86%, respectively.

  20. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  1. 藜麦功能成分研究及利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)为藜科(Chenopodiaceae)藜属(Chenopodium)的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,已有5 000多年的栽植历史.近些年因为其全面的营养价值和均衡的氨基酸比例以及药用保健价值收到追捧,引起了许多科研工作者的兴趣,为了给科研工作者提供一些研究方向的参考,通过对国内外藜麦的研究文献进行汇总,归纳了藜麦中总多酚、皂武、黄酮类、多糖、蛋白质与氨基酸、矿质营养素及其他化学成分等方面的研究进展,并阐述了藜麦在食用和药用等方面的开发利用现状.

  2. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhubala; V Bhadramurthy; A I Bhat; P S Hareesh; S T Retheesh; R S Bhai

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  3. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of western Rajasthan, Thar desert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Deotare; M D Kajale; S N Rajaguru; S Kusumgar; A J T Jull; J D Donahue

    2004-09-01

    Two playas in the arid core of the western margin of the Thar desert viz., Bap-Malar and Kanod, have been investigated using palynology, geomorphology, archaeology, AMS-radiocarbon dating, stable isotopes, evaporite mineralogy and geoarchaeology. The principal objective was to obtain a reliable lithostratigraphy of the playa sediments. These are about 7m thick in the Bap-Malar and < 2.5 to 3m thick in the Kanod. AMS 14C dates of < 15 ka BP on pollen from sediment layers indicates that the Bap-Malar playa possibly existed even during the LGM. These playas were full of water during the early Holocene (8 ka BP — 5.5 ka BP) and were ephemeral during the Pleistocene- Holocene transition and early to mid to late Holocene. The playas dried almost 1000 years earlier than those occurring on the eastern margin. Pollen of graminaceae, chenopodiaceae / amaranthaceae, cyperaceae etc. and evaporite minerals like gypsum, halite in the profiles indicate that the playas were surrounded by vegetation dominated by grass and that, they remained brackish to saline even during the mid Holocene, lake full stage. Stable dune surfaces, pediments with regoliths, and gravelly channels of ephemeral streams provided a favorable geomorphic niche for nomadic human activity since ∼7 ka BP. Though local ecological factors have played an important role in the evolution of the playas, the winter rains, connected with northwesterly depressions, most likely played a vital role in maintaining these playas.

  4. Caracteres anatómicos de la vegetación costera del Río Salado (Noroeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Anatomic features of Salado river coastal vegetation (Northwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Mariel Apóstolo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Veintiún especies (doce Dicotyledoneae y nueve Monocotyledoneae pertenecientes a la vegetación costera del río Salado (noroeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina fueron estudiadas con el fin de determinar las características anatómicas relacionadas a estrategias adaptativas al medio. Dichas especies pertenecen a los humedales de la cuenca del Salado y, por lo tanto, están afectadas por inundación, sequía temporaria y alta salinidad en agua y suelo. Caracteres anatómicos típicos de las especies que crecen en humedales combinados con características xeromórficas actuarían como estrategia adaptativa para aclimatarse en dicho medio. Los representantes de Poaceae y Cyperacae y algunos de Asteraceae tienen aerénquima en raíz y tallo. El 50% de las especies estudiadas muestran estructura Kranz. Escasas especies de Dicotyledoneae (Aizoaceae y Asteraceae muestran pelos de indumento. El tejido acuífero y los mucílagos son evidentes en especies de Aizoaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Malvaceae y Asteraceae. Ceras epicuticulares están presentes en mayor o menor grado en todas las especies analizadas. El 40% de las especies tienen glándulas de sal, principalmente las Poaceae. Cristales de oxalato de calcio y magnesio en diversas formas se observan en la mayoría de la Dicotyledoneae, no presentándose en Monocotyledoneae. Estas características anatómicas indican la capacidad de las especies para sobrevivir a condiciones extremas del medio en la vegetación costera del río Salado.In order to determine the anatomical features acting as adaptive strategies to the environment, 21 species were studied (12 Dicotyledoneae and nine Monocotyledoneae belonging to the coastal vegetation of the Salado river. These species are included in wetlands of Salado River Basin and are affected by flooding, drought and high salinity in water and soil. Typical anatomical features of wetland plants combined with xeromorphic characters could act as adaptive

  5. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and

  6. Airborne pollen spectrum of Dnіpropetrovsk city as a basis of hay fever control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rodinkova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hay fever is important allergenic complain with number of patients rising year by year. Ukraine holds the leading positions in Europe in accordance with pollinosis morbidity. Therefore, it’s important to determine regional pollen spectrum for all five climatic and geographical zones of the country having certain variety of plants’ allergens. There are just a few cities with a constant pollen monitoring carried out in Ukraine. They are Vinnytsia, Kyiv, Odessa and Lviv. Palynological range of other Ukrainian cities remains unknown or poorly studied. Dnipropetrovsk – Ukrainian city with location in the Central part of the country in the Steppe zone – isn’t exception as well. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine the pattern of airborne pollen distribution and pollen calendar creation for the city of Dnipropetrovsk. Pollen count obtained at Vinnytsia National Pirogov Memorial Medical University (VNMU by Aerobiology Research Group. Study was held in 2010 from the 17th of March till the 20th of October on daily basis employed volumetric methods using the Burkard trap. It stands on the roof of the Dnipropetrovsk Municipal hospital at 20 meters of a relative height above ground. The air samples were sent by currier mail on weekly basis from Dnipropetrovsk to Vinnytsia for the research term. 51 pollen types were determined during the study period. The aeropalinological research was done for the Dnipropetrovsk at first. Study was conducted in association with the European Aeroallergen Network (EAN. The EAN tools and the software package “Statistica 5.5” were used for data statistical analysis. The study showed prevalence of the airborne herbal pollen types in Dnipropetrovsk. The “weeds : trees” pollen ratio was «88 : 12». Most abundant pollen rain (59% of total annual pollen count was produced by Ambrosia. The second position with 6% was held by Amaranthus / Chenopodiaceae pollen group and Urtica dioica pollen. Artemisia and

  7. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  8. Avaliação da atividade leishmanicida in vitro de plantas medicinais Evaluation of the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeamile L. Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na busca de novos agentes leishmanicidas, avaliamos em culturas de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas de Tephrosia cinerea (L. Pers. (Fabaceae, Dichorisandra sp (Commelinaceae, Syzygium jambolanum DC. (Myrtaceae, Julocroton triqueter (Lam. Didr. var. triqueter (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis Sims(Passifloraceae, Cecropia sp (Cecropiaceae, Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae, Pedilanhus tithymaloides (L. Poit (Euphorbiaceae, Peristrophe angustifolia Nees(Acanthaceae e o extrato aquoso do mesocarpo de Orbignya phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae. As promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis foram cultivadas em presença de 31,3; 63,5; 125,0; 250,0 e 500,0 µg/mL dos extratos por 24 horas. Ao final desse período foi calculada a concentração inibitória do crescimento (CI50 em relação às culturas não tratadas com os extratos. Os extratos das espécies J. triqueter, Dichorisandra sp e T. cinerea apresentaram maior eficácia em induzir a morte das promastigotas, com CI50 de 29,5; 32,9 e 43,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. P. edulis, C. ambrosioides e S. jambolanum apresentaram eficácia moderada com CI50 de 150,1; 151,9 e 166,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. P. tithymaloides e O. phalerata apresentaram baixo efeito leishmanicida com CI50 >500 µg/mL, enquanto Peristrophe angustifolia e Cecropia spnão apresentaram efeito. Dessa forma, dos dez extratos testados, três apresentaram uma expressiva atividade leishmanicida in vitro.Searching for new leishmanicidal agents, promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis were cultured with the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the Tephrosia cinerea (L. Pers. (Fabaceae, Dichorisandra sp (Commelinaceae, Syzygium jambolanum DC. (Myrtaceae, Julocroton triqueter (Lam. Didr. var. triqueter (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis Sims(Passifloraceae, Cecropia sp (Cecropiaceae, Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae, Pedilanhus tithymaloides (L. Poit (Euphorbiaceae

  9. Manutenção da infectividade de Tymovírus em extratos de plantas Maintenance of infectivity of Tymovirus in plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mércia Barradas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro isolados do vírus do mosaico da berinjela (EMV - "eggplant mosaic virus" - grupo tymovírus foram armazenados a partir de extratos foliares de hospedeiras com sintomas sistêmicos. Os virus EMV-Al (isolado de Abelia, EMV-Sc (isolado da Escócia, -ts (estirpe-padrão e VNBT (vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro, que induzem sintomas em Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa (Família Chenopodiaceae Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum e Nicotiana glutinosa (Solanaceae, foram conservados em extratos destas plantas, à temperatura ambiente, em geladeira e em congelador. A infectividade dos vírus, em diferentes períodos de armazenamento, foi testada em plantas de datura e glutinosa, para se determinar a longevidade in vitro. Constatou-se que, quando guardados em baixas temperaturas,os extratos preservam por mais tempo a infectividade dos vírus. No caso de datura e glutinosa, por exemplo, resultados positivos foram obtidos até 413 e 282 dias de armazenamento, respectivamente, em congelador. Entretanto, com relação às espécies de Chenopodium testadas, mesmo alguns extratos recém-preparados conduziram a resultados negativos, confirmando a presença de inibidores de infecção viral nestas plantas. Das três espécies, é sugerida a utilização apenas de C.quinoa para o preparo de extratos visando preservar estes vírus e, assim mesmo, por um período relativamente curto (entre 53 e 80 dias. A avaliação geral dos resultados mostra que, para os tymovírus estudados neste trabalho, é possível conservar a infectividade através da técnica de armazenamento de extratos foliares de plantas sistemicamente infectadas.Four isolates of EMV (eggplant mosaic virus - tymovirus group were preserved in crude extracts from systemically-infected plants. EMV-Al (Abelia strain, EMV-Sc (Scottish strain, EMV-ts (type-strain and TWNV (tomato white necrosis virus which induce symptoms in Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa

  10. Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake Łukie (East Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Słowiński, Michał; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Michał; Milecka, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake Łukie and its catchment (Łęczna Włodawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake Łukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, Łęczna Włodawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the

  11. Preliminary study on the antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants of Khuzestan (Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haniyeh Koochak; Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad; Hussein Motamedi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To search for antimicrobial agents among natural products.Methods: Ethanolic extracts of 4 plant species, includingBeta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae),Amaranthus graecizans (A. graecizans) L. (Amaranthaceae),Rumex obtusifolius (R. obtusifolius) L. andPolygonum patulum (P. patulum) M.B. (Polygonaceae), were evaluated for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion method against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa),Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis),Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus),Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae),Salmonella typhi(S. typhi),Bacillus cereus (B. cereus),Bacillus anthracis(B. anthracis),Escherichia coli(E. coli) andStreptococcus pyogenes (Str. pyogenes)]. These extracts were obtained from aerial parts of the used plants.Results:The majority of these extracts had inhibitory effect at different concentrations (0.05 g/mL, 0.10 g/mL, 0.20 g/mL and 0.40 g/mL) against above mentioned bacteria.E. coli was the most resistant strain. The highest inhibitory zone was showed by ethanolic extract ofP. patulumagainstStr. pyogenes (28 mm) and followed by ethanolic extract ofB. vulgaris againstS. epidermidis(23 mm). The extract ofA. graecizans didn't show inhibitory activity except at 0.40 g/mL againstB. cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ofR. obtusifolius extract that was measured againstStr. pyogeneswere equal (MIC=MBC=5.00mg/mL).Conclusion:The findings of this study could also be as new source for antibiotics discovery and infection treatment.

  12. STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING FOR ANTI-MITOTIC EFFICACY OF SALICORNIA BRACHIATA ROXB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Pavan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicorniabrachiata is a euhalopytic plant belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae. The present study investigates the phytochemistry, characterization and antimitotic activity of ethanolic extract of S.brachiata.Plants popularly known as Sea asparagus are cooked and eaten or pickled. It is also a good fodder for cattle, sheep and goat. Plant material is also used as raw material in paper and board factories. Its seeds yield high quality edible oil which is highly polyunsaturated and similar to safflower oil in fatty acid.S.brachiata was collected from the back waters of Bapatla,Guntur district. The collected plant material was shade dried and pulverized. The plant material Was studied for phytochemistry,spectroscopic analysis i.e.,UV- Visible, FT-IR and anti mitotic activity.S. brachiata has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of intestinal ailments, nephropathy, and hepatitis in Oriental countries. In addition, S.brachiata has recently reported to be effective on the atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. A variety of pharmacological experiments have revealed that solvent-extracted fractions of S.brachiata exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities,supporting rationale behind its several traditional uses.The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of Tannins and Flavonoids in the plant. UV-Vis Spectrum, used for the quantitative analysis of the plant extract showed peaks at 280 and 290 nm. Identification of the functional groups was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of phenolic, alcoholic and aromatic compounds.

  13. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole. PMID:6497393

  14. Comparative effects of NaCl and sea salt on seed germination of arthrocnemum indicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthrocnemum indicum is a stem succulent perennial halophyte from the family Chenopodiaceae. Experiments on seed germination were carried out using NaCl and sea salt (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 dS m/sup -1) at alternating temperature regimes (10:20 deg.C, 15:25 deg. C, 20:30 deg. C and 25:35 deg. C) at photo period of 12 h dark: 12 h light and in 24 h dark. Seed germination of A. indicum was substantially delayed and/or prevented with an increase in NaCl and sea salt concentrations. Only few seeds germinated above 20 dS m/sup -1/. Sodium chloride and sea salt differ in their effect on seed germination at all temperature regimes. NaCl prevented more seeds from germination in comparison to sea salt. Optimal germination was obtained in non saline control at lower temperature regime whereas warmer temperatures in our experiment inhibited more seeds from germination. Seed germination was not affected either by photo period or dark conditions in non saline control at all temperature regimes. At low NaCl treatments there were significant differences between light and dark germinated seeds at 15:25 deg. C and 20:30 deg. C. Seed germination in sea salt was similar in both light and dark conditions except at 20 dS m/sup -1/ at 15:25 deg. C. Highest recovery was obtained at cooler temperature regime of 10:20 deg. C while lowest at warmer temperature regime of 25:35 deg. C. Most of the un-germinated seeds were found dead in both salt treatments and their mortality increased with an increase in temperature. (author)

  15. 藜麦功能成分综合研究与利用%Comprehensive Research and Utilization of Functional Components in Quinoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云双; 曾亚文; 闵康; 易斌

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an annual herb of Chenopodium genus in the Chenopodiaceae familia, which attracts the attention of the researchers for its unique nutritional value and potential health functions.This article summarized the research progress for growth, nutritive value, functional components, gene analysis and physiological function of quinoa. According to the progress of comprehensive research and utilization of functional components in Quinoa at home and abroad, we put forward to countermeasures of germplasm innovation, health food, pharmaceutical research, new functional food development and industrialization for quinoa, which had important reference value for quinoa industry, health food, pharmaceutical development and other fields.%藜麦( Chenopodium quinoa Willd)为藜科藜属一年生草本植物,因独特的营养价值和潜在的保健功能引起研究者们的关注。概述了藜麦的生长发育、营养价值、功能成分、基因分析及其生理功能的研究进展。针对国内外藜麦功能成分综合研究利用进展,提出藜麦的种质创新、食品保健、医药研发及其新型功能食品研制与产业化对策,对藜麦产业、食品保健和医药研发等领域具有重要的参考价值。

  16. A Late-Glacial/Holocene Pollen Record from the Eastern Andes of Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Rodbell, Donald T.

    1995-09-01

    A pollen and sediment record of a core 4.2-m-long from Laguna Baja (7°42' S, 77°32' W, 3575 m) in the Cordillera Oriental of northern Peru suggests several episodes of major vegetational and climatic change over the past 13,000 yr. The oldest pollen assemblage consists of a mixture of paramo elements (tropical alpine vegetation), including high percentages of Poaceae (40%) that decline upward, moist montane forest (Compositae and Polylepis), and wet montane forest (e.g., Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae). Organic carbon content range from 60%), with high percentages of Jamesonia, a fern characteristic of paramo and decreasing values of Plantago tubulosa and the wet montane forest elements Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae. Charcoal percentages are at a maximum during this period, magnetic susceptibility and sand percentages are high, and percentages of organic matter are low. Several explanations for these changes are possible, including a reduction in temperature and moisture, more frequent periods of aridity with increased fires, or natural succession. The Holocene record begins with pronounced increases in organic carbon and pollen of wet montane forest, primarily Hedyosmum , Podacarpaceae, and Urticales. High values of Podocarpaceae pollen (>35%) and a decline in charcoal suggest temperature and moisture levels above modern-day values. Wet montane forest pollen remain high and charcoal values are low from about 10,000 to 6000 yr B.P., suggesting that warm and moist conditions prevailed for about 4000 yr. Subsequently Podocarpaceae and Urticales decline, and for a brief time Alnus is prominent in the pollen record. Following the Alnus maximum at about 5000 yr B.P., Poaceae, Ambrosia and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae become frequent. Increased paramo and disturbance indicator pollen suggest increased anthropogenic activities in this region from the middle Holocene to the present.

  17. Land use changes and its climatic implications in Northern Italy during the Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Oeggl-Wahlmüller, Notburga; Festi, Daniela; Zagermann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Here we present an interdisciplinary study on land use changes in Northern Italy at the transition from the Roman Empire to the Early Middle Ages. The combination of archaeological data and high-resolution pollen analyses carried out in the Fiavè basin (Trentino) provide a detailed insight in socio-economic changes and its implications with climate in the Dark Ages. The vegetation in this area is dominated up to 1000 m by submediterranian trees like Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, superseded by a mixed Fagus and Abies forest with variable amounts of Picea abies. Since 2008 archaeological surveys in the Fiavè basin as well as excavations conducted on a fortified hill-top settlement (castrum) in 985m register the settlement development of this settlement cluster and reveal an almost continuous occupation from Roman to Early Medieval Times. In addition a high-resolution pollen record from a 1.30 m thick peat sequence of the bog "Palude di Fiave" discloses four main phases: (1) in the Late Iron Age high amounts of arboreal pollen and the spread of Abies demonstrate a decrease in settlement activity suggested by wetter climate conditions. (2) During the Roman Empire a phase with arable farming in the basin starts. Olea, Juglans and Castanea sativa are introduced and document the onset of horticulture in this region. (3) After 300 AD - during the Migration Period - the wet and cool conditions have had poor impact on settlement activity. Agricultural (Cerealia) and nitrophilous indicators (Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae) are continuously proved. However a change within the cultivated crops in relation to the climate conditions is observed. Subsequently a progressive recovery of Pinus followed by Abies and Fagus marks the climatic improvement at the beginning of the Early Medieval Times. (4) The time from 600 to 800 AD is characterized by increasing frequency and diversity of anthropogenic-related indicators. The implications of these land use changes with

  18. 卡拉麦里山自然保护区蒙古野驴的食性%Food habits of Kulan (Equus hemionus hemionus)in Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文轩; 杨维康; 乔建芳

    2009-01-01

    We quantified food habits of Kulan (Equus hemionus hemionus) at Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve (KNR) in northern Xinjiang, September 2006 - August 2007, using faecal microscopic methods. We identified 46 plant species in Kulan fecal samples, representing 17 families. Diets veried seasonally: in autumn, we documented 25 plant species from 8 families consumed by Kulans; in winter, Kulan consumed 13 plant species from 5 families; 30 plant species from 14 families were used by Kulan in spring; and 26 plant species from 13 families were used by Kulan in summer. Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae were major foods of Kulan, comprising 64. 7% -84. 1% of their diet, and forbs were very important to Kulan in spring. Stipa glareosa was a major food of Kulan in spring and summer, of lesser but significant importance were Haloxylon ammodendron and Ceratoides latens. Similar to the summer, grasses like Stipa glareosa also played an important role in autumn, but shrubs became of more importance. In winter, Anabasis spp. and Reaumuria soongonica were the major food of Kulan. We believe that the Kulan in KNR occupied a grazer-mixed feeder continuum, and the change of the Kulan food habits through the year were due to the seasonal changes in plant nutrient quality and human interferences. Anabasis spp. , which played a major role in winter, was utilized as a strategy for energy metabolism.%@@ 蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus hemionus),国家一级保护动物.由于人类活动的加剧,分布范围缩小,加之过度狩猎,目前已处于濒危状态.

  19. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto CASMUZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.

  20. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  1. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  2. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  3. Characterisation of bio-aerosols during dust storm period in N-NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh; Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam

    Bio-investigations for pollen and spores were performed on dry free-fall dust and PM 10 aerosol samples, collected from three different locations separated by a distance of 600 km, situated in dust storm hit region of N-NW India. Presence of pollen of trees namely Prosopis ( Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cinearia), Acacia, Syzygium, Pinus, Cedrus, Holoptelea and shrubs namely Ziziphus, Ricinus, Ephedra and members of Fabaceae, Oleaceae families was recorded but with varying proportions in the samples of different locations. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae and Cyperaceae (sedges) were some of the herb pollen identified in the samples. Among the fungal spores Nigrospora was seen in almost all samples. Nigrospora is a well known allergen and causes health problems. The concentration of trees and shrubs increases in the windward direction just as the climate changes from hot arid to semiarid. The higher frequency of grasses (Poaceae) or herbs could either be a result of the presence of these herbs in the sampling area and hence the higher production of pollen/spores or due to the resuspension from the exposed surface by the high-intensity winds. But we cannot ascertain the exact process at this stage. The overall similarity in the pollen and spore assemblage in our dust samples indicates a common connection or source(s) to the dust in this region. Presence of the pollen of the species of Himalayan origin in our entire samples strongly point towards a Himalayan connection, could be direct or indirect, to the bioaerosols and hence dust in N-NW India. In order to understand the transport path and processes involved therein, present study needs further extension with more number of samples and with reference to meteorological parameters.

  4. Immunochemical characterization of prosopis juliflora pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the most allergenic pollens in tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Khodadadi, Ali; Amini, Akram; Shakurnia, Abdol-Hosein; Marashi, Seyed Saeid; Ali-Sadeghi, Hosein; Zarinhadideh, Farnoosh; Sepahi, Najmeh

    2015-02-01

    Allergy to Prosopis juliflora (mesquite) pollen is one of the common causes of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Mesquite is widely used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The inhalation of mesquite pollen and several species of Amaranthus/Chenopodiaceae family is the most important cause of allergic respiratory symptoms in Khuzestan province. This study was designed to evaluate IgE banding proteins of mesquite pollen extract and its IgE cross-reactivity with other allergenic plants. Twenty patients with allergic symptoms and positive skin prick tests (SPT) for mesquite pollen extract participated in the study. Crude pollen extract was prepared from local mesquite trees and used for the evaluation of allergenic profiles of P. juliflora pollen extract by Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting. There were several protein bands in mesquite pollen extract using SDS-PAGE with the approximate range of molecular weight of 10-85 kDa. The most frequent IgE reactive bands among the patients' sera were approximately 20 and 66 kDa. However, there were other IgE reactive protein bands among the patients' sera with molecular weights of 10, 15, 35, 45, 55 and 85 kDa. Inhibition experiments revealed high IgE cross-reactivity between mesquite and acacia. There are several IgE-binding proteins in P. juliflora pollen extract. Results of this study indicate that proteins with a molecular weight of 10 to 85 kDa are the major allergens in P. juliflora pollen extract.

  5. Mid-late Holocene climatic changes in the Southwestern Iberian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S.; Naughton, F.; Rodrigues, T.; Drago, T.; Sanchez-Goñi, M.; Freitas, C.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation (pollen analysis) and alkenone-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) reconstructions from a south western Iberian shelf core (POPEI VC2B) (36°53'12,99'' N, 8°03'57,98'' W) show orbital and suborbital climate variability at extremely high resolution for the last 6000 years in this region. In particular, the mid-late Holocene is marked by a long-term cooling revealed by the gradual decrease of arboreal pollen (AP) percentages and SST which parallels the general decreasing trend of the δ18-O isotope composition recorded in Greenland ice records and the decrease of the mid-latitudes summer insolation. The short-term vegetation changes, reflecting millennial scale climatic variability, are clearly identified in the POPEI VC2B over the last 6000 years. In particular, the basement of this record is marked by the presence of semi-desert plants (Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ephedra) reflecting dry conditions. These particular dry conditions have been detected elsewhere in the southern Iberian Peninsula and in North African records. Following the particularly dry period, there is a decline of semi-desert plants and an increase of Ericaceae and Pinus associated with establishment of an incipient forest of Quercus deciduous type reflecting temperate and humid conditions. This period was followed by a decrease of arboreal pollen percentages, suggesting a relative climate cooling. Finally, the last 2500/2000 years, are marked by the presence of anthropogenic associations (including Cerealia-type, Plantago lanceolata-coronopus type, and Olea) and are characterized by several vegetation and climate oscillations associated with the Roman Period (RP), the Dark Ages (DA), the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA), and the Little Ice Age (LIA).

  6. An analysis of assessment outcomes from eight years' operation of the Australian border weed risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jason; Dane Panetta, F; Virtue, John; Pheloung, Paul

    2009-02-01

    The majority of Australian weeds are exotic plant species that were intentionally introduced for a variety of horticultural and agricultural purposes. A border weed risk assessment system (WRA) was implemented in 1997 in order to reduce the high economic costs and massive environmental damage associated with introducing serious weeds. We review the behaviour of this system with regard to eight years of data collected from the assessment of species proposed for importation or held within genetic resource centres in Australia. From a taxonomic perspective, species from the Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae were most likely to be rejected and those from the Arecaceae and Flacourtiaceae were most likely to be accepted. Dendrogram analysis and classification and regression tree (TREE) models were also used to analyse the data. The latter revealed that a small subset of the 35 variables assessed was highly associated with the outcome of the original assessment. The TREE model examining all of the data contained just five variables: unintentional human dispersal, congeneric weed, weed elsewhere, tolerates or benefits from mutilation, cultivation or fire, and reproduction by vegetative propagation. It gave the same outcome as the full WRA model for 71% of species. Weed elsewhere was not the first splitting variable in this model, indicating that the WRA has a capacity for capturing species that have no history of weediness. A reduced TREE model (in which human-mediated variables had been removed) contained four variables: broad climate suitability, reproduction in less or than equal to 1year, self-fertilisation, and tolerates and benefits from mutilation, cultivation or fire. It yielded the same outcome as the full WRA model for 65% of species. Data inconsistencies and the relative importance of questions are discussed, with some recommendations made for improving the use of the system. PMID:18339471

  7. The effects of chrysin and pinostrobin, two flavonoids isolated from Teloxys graveolens leaves, on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; Paz, D; Acosta, J; Mata, R

    1998-12-01

    The pharmacological effects of pinostrobin and chrysin obtained from the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens (Chenopodiaceae) were evaluated using isolated in vitro guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle. Both flavonoids inhibited the contractions evoked by high concentrations of potassium. The potency of the relaxant effect was determined by measuring the capacity of each product in reducing the phasic and the slower sustained tonic contractile responses induced by depolarization with 60 mM K(+). Concentrations up to 5 × 10(-7) M of pinostrobin and 1 × 10(-7) M of chrysin induced a non-competitive depression of responses to Ca(2+) in ileum preparations bathed in a Ca(2+)-free, high K(+) medium. Both compounds produced a rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to Ca(2+) with a concentration-dependant increase of EC(50) and a decrease of the maximal response. Examination of the inhibitory effect produced by these flavonoids on the phasic component of contractile response evoked with K(+) and on the contraction induced with caffeine, led to propose a different intracellular mechanism of action used by these compounds. The results obtained led us to conclude that the previously detected relaxant effect of Teloxys graveolens crude extract is due in part, to the presence of chrysin and pinostrobin, which inhibit intestinal smooth muscle contractions by means of a calcium-mediated mechanism. Since the modulation of calcium fluxes in the mucosal epithelium may play a role in antidiarrheal drug action, the observed effects in vitro could in the same way explain the popular use of the plant for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:23196029

  8. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  9. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  10. PALYNOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE BOREHOLE ZKA4 AT DAQIAO TOWN, JIANGDU CITY, JIANGSU PROVINCE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL MEANINGS%江苏省江都市大桥镇ZKA4钻孔第四纪孢粉组合及其环境变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗言; 于俊杰; 蒋仁; 韩芳; 柯学; 徐亚东; 何卫红

    2014-01-01

    本文依据江苏省江都市大桥镇第四系钻孔(ZKA4)中孢粉的分布,自下至上划分了11个孢粉组合:1.Betula-Ulmus-Artemisia,2.Ulmus-Chenopodiaceae-Quercus,3.ArtemisiaGramineae-Quercus,4.Liquidambar-Polypodiaceae-Ulmus,5.Pinus-Quercus-Betula-Juglans,6.Quercus-Juglans-Artemisia,7.Quercus-Polygonum-Juglans-Carya,8.Betula-Gramineae-Artemisia,9.Quercus-Polypodiaceae,10.Podocarpus-Triorites-Polypodiaceae,11.Pinus-Podocarpus-Juglans-Pterocarya.依据孢粉组合,识别出更新世以来七个气候冷暖变化阶段.孢粉组合1为常绿落叶针阔叶混交林,气候以冷干为主,向上气候回暖;孢粉组合2为高寒灌丛—落叶针阔叶混交林,以冷干为主;孢粉组合3为草本—落叶针阔叶混交林,较前一阶段气候变暖,偏暖干;孢粉组合4-5以落叶阔叶为主,整体上以变暖为主;孢粉组合6-7为落叶针阔叶混交林,整体气候为暖湿,早期略干;孢粉组合8-9为以针叶为主的针阔叶混交林,气候温凉偏湿;孢粉组合10-11为常绿落叶阔叶混交林,气候以湿暖为主.

  11. Preliminary screening of biologically active constituents of Suaeda monoica and Sesuvium portulocastrum from palayakayal mangrove forest of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kamaladevi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are utilized in many parts of the world as a renewable resource. Harvested for durable, water-resistant wood, mangroves have been used in building houses, boats, pilings, and furniture. The wood of the black mangrove and buttonwood trees has also been utilized in the production of charcoal. Tannins and other dyes are extracted from mangrove bark. Leaves have been used in tea, medicine, livestock feed, and as a substitute for tobacco for smoking. Several workers have reported the usefulness of mangrove plants in traditional medicine [1-3]. In view of earlier research works the following mangrove species would be selected for the study of phytoconstituents. Suaeda monoica Forssk ex. Gmel belongs to Chenopodiaceae family is a salt marsh mangrove herb similar to Suaeda maritima in appearance. S.monoica is smaller in size, simple leaves which are edible. Traditionally, the leaf from S. monoica is known to use as a medicine for hepatitis and scientifically it is reported to be used as ointment for wounds and possess antiviral activity, because of the presence of triterpenoids and sterols [4, 5]. Sesuvium portulacastrum (L belongs to Aizoaceace is a sprawling perennial herb that grows in coastal areas throughout the world, which is native to Africa, Asia, Australia, North America and South America, and has naturalised in many places. It is commonly known as shoreline purslane or sea purslane in English. It has smooth, fleshy, glossy green leaves that are linear and its flowers are pink or purple. The plant extract showed antibacterial and anticandidal activities and moderate antifungal activity. As well-known criteria of mangrove and mangrove associate plants are proved to have rich of high value secondary metabolites viz, saponins, alkaloids, polyphenols which possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiplasmodial and hepatoprotective activities [6]. Therefore, the present attempt has been made to identify the groups of phytoconstituent of S

  12. Characteristics of Vertical Distribution of Vegetation Community in the North Slope of Qilian Mountain%祁连山北坡植被群落垂直分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玉媛; 王红义

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the characteristics of distribution of vegetation community in vertical climatic zones in the north slope of Qilian Mountain ,adopting combined methods of sample survey & file data compilation ,gradient characteristic of vegetation community was discussed according to changes of altitude .Result shows that :(1) it has 84 families ,399 genera & 1 044 species in the north slope of Qilian mountain .These first ten families are Asterace-ae ,Poaceae ,Ranunculaceae ,Rosaceae ,Leguminosae ,Chenopodiaceae ,Umbelliferae ,Lamiaceae ,Caryophyllaceae ,Cru-ciferae ,which accounted for 54 .89% of all kinds of genera and species in Qilian Mountains .(2) according to altitude gradient ,five major vegetation zones and 16 typical vegetation communities were presented in the north slope of Qil-ian Mountain .%为了探索祁连山北坡垂直气候带植被群落分布特征,采用样地调查和档案资料整理相结合的方法,按照海拔梯度变化格局研究植被群落的梯度特征,结果表明:(1)祁连山北坡植物分属84科399属1044种,从大到小依次为菊科、禾本科、毛茛科、蔷薇科、豆科、藜科、伞形科、唇形科、石竹科、十字花科,这前10个科的属和种均占祁连山植物属和种的54.89%;(2)沿海拔梯度,祁连山北坡植被群落呈现5大植被带和16个主要的、典型的植被群落。

  13. Ethnobotanical magnitude towards sustainable utilization of wild foliage in Arabian Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phondani, Prakash C; Bhatt, Arvind; Elsarrag, Esam; Horr, Yousef A

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was deals with identifying traditional uses of medicinal plants for curing a variety of ailments and degree of religious conservation for retention of ethnobotanical knowledge. The study was carried out in the State of Qatar to document the ethnobotanical uses of 58 medicinally important plant species including identification, botanical name, Arabic name, family, habit, habitat, distribution pattern, and the plant parts used for curing variety of ailments. The documented species belong to 54 plant genera and 30 botanical families. They have been used to cure more than 38 different kinds of human ailments. A majority of ethnobotanical plant species belonging to shrubs (41.38%) followed by perennial herbs (31.04%), annual herbs (18.96%) and trees (8.62%) respectively. The frequency of ethnobotanical plant species were recorded maximum in fabaceae (13.79%), followed by lamiaceae, chenopodiaceae (6.89% each), asteraceae, capparaceae, polygonaceae, boraginaceae, aizooaceae (5.17% each), brassicaceae, asclepiadaceae, convolvulaceae, zygophyllaceae, solanaceae (3.44% each) while, remaining 17 families had one (1.72%) species each. Perception of stakeholders concerning prioritization and categorization of potential native plants and 25 ethnobotanical species were prioritized and ranked on the basis of their multipurpose use value, feasibility climatic conditions and Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS) criteria measures i.e. drought resistant, low water requirement, growth performance, survival rate, canopy size, adaptation potential, low maintenance and use value for sustainability and landscaping. The analysis emphasized the potentials of ethnomedicinal research, sustainable utilization, conservation initiatives, and urgent need to document ethnobotanical knowledge for sustainability and scientific validation to prevent their losses. PMID:27419083

  14. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Flávia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.

  15. Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Patrício, Fernando J; Costa, Graciomar C; Sousa, Sanara M; Frazão, Josias B; Aragão-Filho, Walmir C; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Amaral, Flávia M M; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2007-04-20

    The leaves and the oil from the seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), a plant known in Brazil as 'mastruz', have been used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. Experimentally it was shown that Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibits the Ehrlich tumor growth, what could be due to an immunomodulatory effect of this product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on macrophage activity and on lymphoid organs cellularity. C3H/HePas mice received the HCE (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal via and were sacrificed 2 days later. HCE treatment did not alter the cell number in bone marrow, but it increased the cell number in peritoneal cavity, spleen and lymph node. The spreading and phagocytosis activity, the PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release and the nitric oxide (NO) production were also increased when compared to control group. Similar results were obtained with concanavalin A (Con A), used as a positive control, with exception of the NO production that was only detected in HCE-derived macrophages. The in vitro treatment with HCE induced a dose-dependent NO production by resident macrophages, but did not enhance the NO production by HCE-derived macrophage, which however, was enhanced by Con A, suggesting that HCE and Con A induce NO production by different routes. In conclusion, HCE-treatment was able to increase the macrophages activity and also the cellular recruitment to secondary lymphoid organs, what could explain the previously related anti-tumor activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides.

  16. Study of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Indicator Species of District Bannu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ullah khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess record and report the chemical constituents and ethnobotanical knowledge of indicator species of District Bannu. Medicinal outlines of about 57 plants were recorded through interview local people i.e. farmers, herbalists, hakims and Medicinal plants user dealers. The present investigation comprises the indigenous uses of 57 species belonging to 36 families of Angiosperms based upon their utility. Out of this rich Medicinal germplasm, 66.15% plants are wild while 44.18%, species were found to be cultivated, 26.74% species are both wild and cultivated of the total flora of this area. The most important medicinal families are Solanaceae (7 spp, 12.28%, Asteraceae (5 spp, 8.77%, Mimosaceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Moraceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rhamnaceae (2 spp, 3.51% While the remaining 25 families having 1 species each which is 1.75% of all families. The most common medicinal plants in the area are Abroma augusta (L. F., Acacia modesta wall., Achyranthes bidentata Blume , Albizia lebbeek L., Calotropis procera L., Capparis decidua Forsk Carthamus oxycantha M. B, Chenopodium album L., Citrus medica L., Citrullus colocynthis Schrad, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb, Cynodon dactylon L. Cyperus rotundrus L., Dodonia viscosa L., Eucalyptus globule L., Nerium oleander L., Papaver somniferum L., Trachy spermum ammi L. Typha orientallis J. Preslw., Vitex negundo L., Withania somnifera L., Xanthium strumarium L., Zizphus mauratiana Lam., Some plants have wild fruits i.e.., Solanum nigrum L., while Nerium oleander L. and Dodonaea viscosa (L. Jaeq are ornamental.

  17. Monitoring the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Space Flight: Interspecific Variation in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures Induced by Different Root Zone Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Patterson, Mark T.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used extensively as a tool to indicate stress to the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. A rise in fluorescence has been attributed to the blockage of photosystem II photochemistry, and patterns of fluorescence decay (quenching) from dark adapted leaves can be related to specific photochemical and non-photochemical deexcitation pathways of light trapped by the photosynthetic apparatus and thus result in characteristically different fluorescence signatures. Four distantly related plant species, Hypocharis radicata (Asteraceae), Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), Spinacea oleracea (Chenopodiaceae) and Triticum aestivum (Poaceae), were grown hydroponically for three weeks before the initiation of three different root zone stresses (10 mM Cu, 100 mM NaCl and nitrogen deficient nutrition). After 10 days, characteristic fluorescence signatures for each stress could be noted although the degree varied between species. Fast kinetics analysis showed a reduction in plastoquinone pool size for copper and nitrogen stress for all species but a more species specific result with NaCl stress. Photochemical quenching kinetics varied between species and stress treatments from no quenching in S. oleracea in copper treatments to increased photochemical quenching in NaCl treatments. Non-photochemical quenching kinetics demonstrated a distinct pattern between stresses for all species. Copper treatments characteristically exhibited a shallow, flat non-photochemical quenching profile suggesting a general blockage of electron transport whereas NaCl treatments exhibited a slow rising profile that suggested damage to thylakoid acidification kinetics and nitrogen deficiency exhibited a fast rising and declining profile that suggested an altered state 1-state 2 transition regulated by the phosphorylation of LHCII. These results demonstrate characteristic fluorescence signatures for specific plant stresses that may be applied to different, unrelated plant

  18. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport.

  19. Recursos florísticos de la cuenca baja del río mayo, Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Duarte Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En México se presentan prácticamente todos los grandes tipos de vegetación que existen en el mundo y su distribución a menudo es compleja. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en realizar un listado de la flora silvestre ribereña del Río Mayo, localizado en el sur del estado de Sonora, para conocer su composición. La recolección de especímenes se realizó mediante la técnica de intercepción o línea de Canfield (1941, en 15 sitios con dos repeticiones sumando 30 transectos. Se encontraron un total de 40 familias, 79 géneros y 99 especies. Las familias mejor representadas fueron: Leguminoseae, Cactaceae, Gramineae, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae y Asteraceae. La dominante fue Leguminoseae con vegetación de bosque espinoso compuesta por Acacia cymbispina, Acacia farnesiana, Parkinsonia aculeata y Prosopis juliflora. Resulta perceptible la pérdida de flora debido al cambio de uso de suelo. Especies representativas de la zona riparia como Populus fremontii y Salix bonplandiana están desapareciendo por alteración del ecosistema. Poblaciones de mangle como Rhizophora mangle y Conocarpus erectus están disminuidas. El área estudiada es rica en especies a pesar de la perturbación. La diversidad varía de acuerdo al gradiente altitudinal y el número de especies guarda relación con los géneros y familias recolectadas. La agricultura, acuicultura, ganadería, la industria pesquera y la urbanización, son los giros que causan mayor afectación en los ecosistemas

  20. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fahu; HUANG; Xiaozhong; ZHANG; Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN; Jianhui

    2006-01-01

    Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.

  1. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  2. Neogene Palynology of the Snake River Plain: Climate Change and Volcanic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O. K.; Ellis, B.; Link, P.; Wood, S.; Shervais, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    . Palynology of late Miocene - early Pliocene samples on the Snake River Plain (Banbury Basalt) is characterized by elevated percentages of Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthus pollen, abundant Sarcobatus pollen and low percentages of the pollen of oak, elm, and other deciduous forest taxa. High percentages of these types, found in the mid-Miocene Succor Creek deposits (Taggart and Cross, 1980) might result from a combination of factors, including late-Miocene subsidence of the western Snake River Plain and late-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range.

  3. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  4. Biodiversidad del complejo de artrópodos asociados al follaje de la vegetación del norte de Chile, II región Biodiversity of the canopy arthropods associated to vegetation of the north of Chile, II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO SAIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los componentes principales de la biodiversidad de los ecosistemas corresponde al complejo plantas hospederas, fitófagos y organismos que regulan a las poblaciones de fitófagos. El conocimiento de este complejo en la región árida de Chile es escaso, situación que motiva la presente investigación. Como hipótesis se plantea que a más favorables condiciones ambientales, a mayor diversidad de plantas hospederas y a mayor contenido de nitrógeno y de agua en los vegetales se sustentará una mayor biodiversidad de fitófagos, los que, a su vez, sustentarán mayor diversidad de depredadores y de parasitoides. El estudio se realizó en la II Región del país, mediante un transecto longitudinal, desde la Costa a la Cordillera de los Andes, el que cruza las siguientes zonas bioclimáticas: Desierto Litoral (DL, Desierto Interior (DI, Tropical Marginal (TM Tropical de Altura (TA, con un gradiente altitudinal de 0 a 4.000 msnm. La colecta de los artrópodos del follaje se hizo mediante la técnica del paraguas entomológico sobre las plantas vegetativamente activas y los formadores de cecidias, minadores y defoliadores por colecta directa de los órganos afectados. En total se colectó e identificó un total de 97 especies vegetales distribuidas en 28 familias. Desde este punto de vista, la zona ecológica más pobre es el DI, destacando DL y TM como las zonas más ricas en vegetación. Sin embargo, existe fuerte aislamiento de la vegetación del DL y una casi total sobreposición de la vegetación del DI con la de la zona TM. En cuanto a familias, la mayor riqueza específica la presenta Asteraceae, seguida por Chenopodiaceae, Solanaceae, Nolanaceae, Fabaceae y Portulacaceae. Asteraceae y Chenopodiaceae destacan, además, por estar presentes en las cuatro zonas ecológicas. Desde el punto de vista nutricional, el contenido foliar de agua y de cenizas de la vegetación varía considerablemente, con valores promedio extremos en el DL y en TA

  5. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

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    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds and often have a high nature conservation interest. They rarely exist in isolation and form an integral part of many estuaries, other tidal inlets and bays. The objectives of this study are flora and vegetation of salt marshes. In this study, on the basis of field surveys, is given a phytosociological classification of the Albanian salt marshes vegetation by the European standard methods of phytosociology (Zurich-Montpellier. The salt marsh communities of Albania are poor in endemism and generally similar to relevant vegetation types elsewhere in the Mediterranean. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. Coastal salt marshes of Albania are offered a number of 62 taxa, extended in 16 diverse families. The most presented families are Chenopodiaceae 24 %, followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 11%. Salt marshes are populated by halophytes, plants that can live under saline conditions. Plant species diversity is low, since the flora must be tolerant of salt and anoxic mud substrate [4]. The most common salt marsh plant communities in coastal area of Albania are salt meadows dominated by glasswort (Salicornia europaea, pioneer marsh communities, perennial vegetation of marine saline mud’s mainly composed of scrub such as

  6. The origin of shallow lakes in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan, and the history of pesticide use around these lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Crootof, Arica; Reidy, Liam; Saito, Laurel; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Scott, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    The economy of the Khorezm Province in Uzbekistan relies on the large-scale agricultural production of cotton. To sustain their staple crop, water from the Amu Darya is diverted for irrigation through canal systems constructed during the early to mid-twentieth century when this region was part of the Soviet Union. These diversions severely reduce river flow to the Aral Sea. The Province has >400 small shallow (<3 m deep) lakes that may have originated because of this intensive irrigation. Sediment cores were collected from 12 lakes to elucidate their origin because this knowledge is critical to understanding water use in Khorezm. Core chronological data indicate that the majority of the lakes investigated are less than 150 years old, which supports a recent origin of the lakes. The thickness of lacustrine sediments in the cores analyzed ranged from 20 to 60 cm in all but two of the lakes, indicating a relatively slow sedimentation rate and a relatively short-term history for the lakes. Hydrologic changes in the lakes are evident from loss on ignition and pollen analyses of a subset of the lake cores. The data indicate that the lakes have transitioned from a dry, saline, arid landscape during pre-lake conditions (low organic carbon content) and low pollen concentrations (in the basal sediments) to the current freshwater lakes (high organic content), with abundant freshwater pollen taxa over the last 50–70 years. Sediments at the base of the cores contain pollen taxa dominated by Chenopodiaceae and Tamarix, indicating that the vegetation growing nearby was tolerant to arid saline conditions. The near surface sediments of the cores are dominated by Typha/Sparganium, which indicate freshwater conditions. Increases in pollen of weeds and crop plants indicate an intensification of agricultural activities since the 1950s in the watersheds of the lakes analyzed. Pesticide profiles of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its degradates and γ-HCH (gamma

  7. Diversity of 18S rRNA Gene of 19 Wild Herbage Germplasms%19种野生牧草种质资源18S rRNA 基因的多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉祥; 田兵; 王啸; 陈彬; 冉雪琴; 王嘉福

    2014-01-01

    为了开发牧草资源,对贵州部分野生草本植物种质资源的遗传多样性进行研究。根据模式植物拟南芥18S rRNA 基因序列设计特异性引物,对贵州大学农场试验田自然生长的19种野生草本植物的18S rRNA 基因序列进行扩增、测序、构建进化树。结果表明:将获得的1000 bp 左右的 DNA 片段测序进行同源比对,共找到2280个碱基变异位点,分布在8个区段。据各样本18S rRNA 基因的遗传距离构建进化树推测,菊科、苋科和藜科之间存在较近的遗传相似性,豆科中三叶草属与豌豆属之间有较近的遗传距离。%In order to explore forage resource,the genetic diversity of 18 S rRNA gene in 19 kinds of wild herb germplasms were investigated,which were collected from the farm of Guizhou Unversity.The results showed that about 1000 bp fragments of 18 S rRNA genes were amplificated using specific primers based on the gene of Arabidopsis thaliana.After sequencing and homologous comparison,a total of 2 280 nucleotides were found out to be polymorphim sites.Phylogenetic tree of each family were constructed by similarity of 18S rRNA gene.The molecular classification of 19 kinds of wild herbs was consistent with its category based on morphological characteristics.Furthermore,the molecular classification could be useful to distinguish those similar species in morphology, and the genetic data suggested a close genetic relationship in three families,Compositae,Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae.Trifolium and Pisum might share a high genetic similarty with each other.

  8. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of the Extracts and Chemical Constituents of an Endemic Turkish Plant, Salsola grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgün Küçükboyacı

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salsola is one of the largest and most important genera in the family Chenopodiaceae. Salsola species are used for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic and antipruritic effects and also as diuretic in traditional medicines worldwide. The aim of the present study is to assess the activity potential of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds from the aerial parts of and Salsola grandis, an endemic species in Turkey in a scientific platform. The effects of the extracts, subextracts and isolated compounds were investigated using in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain in mice, and also total phenolic content of the plant was determined. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and for the assessment of antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced nociception tests in mice were employed. The crude ethanol extract of the plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts, namely n-hexane, CHCl 3, EtOAc, n-BuOH and remaining water subextracts. Further studies were carried out on the bioactive n -BuOH subextract. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures from active fraction , ten flavonoids, i sorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(1, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2,quercetin-3-O-metylether (3,tiliroside (4, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6,quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8,quercetin (9 and manghaslin (10, and two oleanane-type saponins, momordin II b (11 andmomordin II c (12, and one amino acid derivative compound, N-acetyltryptophan (13 were isolated, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of 1 , 4, 6, 7 and 12 were investigated firstly in this study, and 4 and 7 were found to have the most potent inhibitory activity in used models. The present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive

  9. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    . Accumulations of the Chenopodiaceae in the interfluve areas probably indicate local saline swampy environments during sea level fall. The increasing amounts of herbs indicate the existence of wet prairie areas (Thalictrum, Rumex, Valeriana, Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Galium) or steppes (Artemisia - up to 17%, Asteraceae, Campanula, Fabaceae, Daucaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantago). This is the contribution to the projects ESF -EC-009-07, APVT 51-011305, APVV-0280-07 (Slovakia) and MSM0021622427 (Czech republic).

  10. Caracterização parcial de um Tymovirus isolado de tomateiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Um Tymovirus isolado de sementes de tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum 'Paronset' com sintomas de necrose, denominado TyToRS08, foi caracterizado quanto ao círculo de hospedeiras, propriedades físico-químicas, sorológicas e moleculares. O vírus foi transmitido mecanicamente a partir de folhas, frutos e sementes infectadas. A gama de hospedeiras incluiu espécies de Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae e Solanaceae, induzindo sintomas local e sistêmicos na maior parte das espécies, exceto para Nicotiana sylvestris, N. tabacum 'Samsun', 'White Burley' e 'Xanthi' que não manifestaram sintomas. Em tomateiros 'Alambra', 'Thomas', 'Diva', 'Romana' e 'Graziela', o vírus induziu sintomas de mosaico e necrose branca. A presença do vírus foi detectada, nas sementes infectadas de todas as cultivares avaliadas, porém não se notou em plântulas após a germinação destas sementes. Foi obtida uma preparação purificada com concentração de 1,04 mg mL-1, empregada na produção de um antissoro policlonal que reagiu em PTA-ELISA com um título de 1/32768. Utilizou-se um par de oligonucleotídeos degenerados, desenhados para anelar na ORF 1 de espécies de Tymovirus, que permitiu a amplificação por RT-PCR de fragmentos com cerca de 700 pb. Após o alinhamento e a análise das sequências, verificou-se que o isolado TyToRS08 possuía valores abaixo de 70% de identidade com as espécies de Tymovirus, indicando que pode se tratar de uma espécie distinta das descritas no gênero, com potencial epidemiológico, pela sua estabilidade e disseminação por sementes de tomate.

  11. Sensitivity of the grassland-forest ecotone in East African open woodland savannah to historical rainfall variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssemmanda, I.; Gelorini, V.; Verschuren, D.

    2014-04-01

    Fossil pollen records provide key insight into the sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change at longer time scales. However, tracing vegetation response to relatively modest historical climate fluctuations is often complicated by the overriding signature of anthropogenic landscape disturbance. Here we use high-resolution pollen data from a ~200 year lake-sediment record in open woodland savannah of Queen Elisabeth National Park (southwestern Uganda) to assess the sensitivity of the tropical lowland grassland-forest ecotone to historical fluctuations in annual rainfall on the order of 10% lasting several decades. Specifically we trace vegetation response to three episodes of increased regional rainfall dated to the 1820s-1830s, ca. 1865-1890 and from 1962 to around 2000. During inferred wetter episodes we find increases in the relative pollen abundance from trees and shrubs of moist semi-deciduous forest (Allophylus, Macaranga, Celtis, Alchornea), riparian forest (Phoenix reclinata) and savannah woodland (Myrica, Acalypha, Combretaceae/Melostomataceae) as well as local savannah taxa (Acacia, Rhus type vulgaris, Ficus), together creating strong temporary reductions in Poaceae pollen (to 45-55% of the terrestrial pollen sum). During intervening dry episodes, most notably the period ca. 1920-1962, Poaceae pollen attained values of 65-75%, and dryland herbs such as Commelina, Justicia type odora and Chenopodiaceae expanded at the expense of Asteraceae, Solanum-type, Swertia usumbarensis-type, and (modestly so) Urticaceae. Noting that the overall diversity of arboreal taxa remained high but their combined abundance low, we conclude that the landscape surrounding Lake Chibwera has been an open woodland savannah throughout the past 200 years, with historical rainfall variation exerting modest effects on local tree cover (mostly the abundance of Acacia and Ficus) and the prevalence of damp soil areas promoting Phoenix reclinata. The strong apparent expansion

  12. The vegetation types and species diversity in Lanzhou section of the Yellow River wetland%黄河兰州段湿地物种多样性及保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2014-01-01

    Based on investigating the wetland resources of Yellow River in Lanzhou on,analysis the wetland flora composition,species diversity and ecological characteristics systematicly.The results show that:there are 132 plants in wetland plant along the Yellow River,belonging to 33 families and 90 genera.Asteraceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae,Cyperaceae and Fabaceae species is the number of families accounted for the top five,share to 59.85% of the total amount,Artemisia,Chenopodium,Polygonum spec and mariqueter is the number of genera accounted for the top four,dominant families,single-species phenomenon obviously.wetland vegetation at Lanzhou section of the Yellow river is divided into 9 associations.Including 2 woody associations,there are Salix matsudana Ass.Tamarix chinensis + Lycium chinense ,and 7 herbaceous associations,there are Phrag-mites + Polygonum aviculare Ass.Artemisia anethoides Ass.Polygonum lapathifolium +Chenopodium glau-cum Ass.Calamagrostis pseudophragmites + Phragmites Ass.Roegneria nustans +Lepidium latifolium Ass. Suaeda glauca Ass.Kochia scoparia +Agropyron cristatum. And proposed countermeasures of wetland vegeta-tion protection and utilization of the Yellow River in Lanzhou.%对黄河兰州段湿地植物区系组成、生态特征和物种多样性进行了系统分析。结果表明:黄河兰州段湿地共有植物132种,隶属于33科90属,菊科、禾本科、藜科、莎草科和蝶形花科是物种数占前5位的科,占总种数的59.85%;蒿属、藜属、蓼属和藨草属是含物种数占前4位的属,优势科、单种属现象明显。湿地植被分为9个群丛,包括木本群丛2个(旱柳群丛、柽柳-枸杞群丛),草本群丛7个(芦苇-萹蓄群丛、莳萝蒿群丛、酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群丛、垂穗鹅观草-宽叶独荇菜群丛、碱蓬群丛和地肤-冰草群丛);并提出了对黄河兰州段湿地植被保护利用的对策。

  13. 甘肃省西和县马铃薯田间杂草调查及其防治技术%Investigation and Control Technology of Potato Weed in Xihe County, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文斌; 杨小录; 王让军

    2015-01-01

    Field survey results showed that there were a total of 17 kinds of potato weeds in spring planting fields, belonging to 10 families, in Xihe County of Gansu Province, of which three kinds were of Gramineae, accounting for 17.65 percent;four kinds of Asteraceae, accounting for 23.53%;two kinds of Caryophyllaceae and Polygonaceae each, accounting for 11.76%; and one kind of Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Euphorbiaceae, accounting for 5.9%, respectively. Dominant species of potato weed were barnyard grass, green foxtail, cattle chickweed, smartweed flowers axillary, small pigweed, and cotton wool pale smartweed weed, which were a serious hazard, and so should be focused on prevention. As for the major weed species in potato fields in Xihe County, literature was collected, analyzed, and summarized, and corresponding control techniques were put forward as well, which might have important guiding significance for planting demonstration, standardized plant management technology and production of pollution­free potato products and services.%经田间调查结果表明,甘肃省西和县春植马铃薯田杂草共有10科17种,其中禾本科3种,占17.65%;菊科4种,占23.53%;石竹科和蓼科各2种,分别占11.76%;十字花科、藜科、唇形科、茄科、苋科、大戟科各1种,分别占5.9%。马铃薯田杂草优势种有稗草、狗尾草、牛繁缕、腋花蓼、小藜、绵毛酸模叶蓼是严重危害的杂草,应重点防治;针对甘肃西和马铃薯田间主要杂草种类,探讨和查阅文献资料总结,提出相应的防除技术,为种植示范、规范种植管理技术和生产无公害马铃薯产品服务都具有重要的指导意义。

  14. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal

  15. Neogene vegetation and past climate change in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Wagreich, Michael; Draxler, Ilse; Paudayal, Khum N.

    2010-05-01

    The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The basement of Thakkhola-Mustang Graben is made up of Tibetan-Tethyan sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, which are unconformably overlain by continental debris (more than 850 m) of Neogene to Quaternary age. Stratigraphically, the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben sediments have been divided into five formations namely the Tetang Formation, the Thakkhola Formation, the Sammargaon Formation, the Marpha Formation and the Kaligandaki Formation. Different approaches have been made to study the Neogene sediments in this graben. In this study, we mainly focused on sedimentological and palynological studies of the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which provides a basis for discussing the paleo-environmental evolution of the southern continental margin of the Tibetan Plateau towards the end of the Miocene. Field mapping, profile logging, stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis, and palynological studies were carried out to understand the depositional environment and the paleoclimate. The methodology developed by Zetter (1989) was followed for the pollen extraction. Pollen samples were processed in the laboratory and were studied under the light microscope (LM), which were later transferred to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). A variety of sedimentary environments are recognized including alluvial fan, lacustrine, braided river and glacio-fluvial. Neogene sediments are composed of braided fluvial deposits with lacustrine deposits in different level of the succession. Most of the pollens were found in the lacustrine layers of the Tetang and Thakkhola formations. Pollen analysis shows that the sediments contain dominant alpine trees like Abies, Pinus, Keteleeria, Picea Tsuga and Quercus with some steppe elements like Artemisia, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Plantago and

  16. Investigation and Hazard Evaluation on the Alien Plants of Farmland in Hexi Region of Gansu Province%甘肃河西地区农田外来杂草调查和危害评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈叶; 高海宁; 郑天翔; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    调查表明,甘肃河西地区有外来杂草40种,隶属16科32属.外来杂草以禾本科、豆科、菊科、苋科、藜科等少数几个科为主,共计25种,占总数的62.5%.调查发现原产地为欧洲的杂草种类最多,有19种,占入侵杂草的47.5%.其入侵方式以无意引入为主,有24种,占入侵杂草的60.0%.从危害程度上看,藜、反枝苋、田旋花、曼陀罗、狗尾草、稗草危害最重.目前还没有发现对甘肃河西地区的生态安全构成严重危害的杂草.建议在引种植物中,针对性地开展基础研究,加强检疫和宣传,提高防范意识和保护生物多样性意识,建立外来植物的预警机制,预防入侵植物带来的不必要损失.%The survey shows that;there are 40 species of alien plants,belong to 16 families 32 genera in Hexi Region of Gansu Province. There is mainly include Gramineae, Leguminosae, Compositae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodi-aceae and a few main section, A total of 25 species,accounted for 62. 5% of the total number. The most is the origin of European weed species, there is 19 species, accounted for 47. 5% of the alien plants. The main introduction of alien plants is artificially introduced intentionally, accounted for 60.0% of the alien plants. The most harm species are Quinoa, Amaranthus, Convolvulus arvensis, Datura, Setaria, barnyard grass. There is no serious hazard weed to ecological security in Hexi area of Gansu. The Suggestions is that should in view of the basic research, strengthen quarantine and publicity, raise awareness of prevention and protection of biological diversity, establishment early warning mechanism of exotic plants, prevent the unnecessary loss of invasive plants.

  17. Vegetation and climate of the southern Levant during the last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Sediments in the Dead Sea basin are outstanding archives for understanding the paleoenvironment of the southern Levant because of their locations at the boundary between the Mediterranean and Arabian-Sahara climate zones. During the past decades, extensive investigations have demonstrated high lake levels during the last Glacial but low lake levels during the present and last Interglacial. However, palynological results from Lake Kinneret and Birkat Ram suggested a dry last Glacial and wet Holocene (Schiebel, 2013; Chen and Miebach, unpublished). Studies on Lake Samra (last interglacial precursor of the modern Dead Sea) became a focus after deep drilling cores were retrieved in 2011. Core 5017-1A encompasses the most complete Samra profile in the region, which exhibits thick halite layers indicating extremely low lake levels (Neugebauer et al., 2014). As interpreted based on lithological and hydrological results, the marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e was the most arid period (work in progress). In this case, pollen analysis would provide independent evidence of the regional climate changes. Our preliminary result shows that late MIS 6 was characterized by an expansion of goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae)-dominated desert/semi-desert. During the MIS 6/5 transition, an abrupt increase of grasses and a corresponding decline of goosefoot suggest the occurrence of a more humid grass steppe, whereas the woodlands were still open. The MIS 5e has witnessed higher woodland density and moisture availability provided high values of Mediterranean woodland components (mainly olives and deciduous oaks). From MIS 5d to 5a, a drying trend was recorded from the contraction of the Mediterranean biome and the expansion of steppe/semi-steppe. As a key time interval of our study, MIS 5e comprised a typical vegetation succession process that is also prevalent in other Mediterranean pollen records. Therefore, in biostratigraphical terms, high abundances of woody taxa marks the MIS 5e, although the

  18. Environmental history of mangrove vegetation in Pacific west-central Mexico during the last 1300 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lorena Figueroa-Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem due to climate change and human activity, which increases coastal vulnerability. Knowledge about the ecological dynamics of mangroves on a centennial timescale can reveal the different responses in vegetation, which is useful for implementing basic actions for mangrove restoration, conservation and management. A mangrove ecosystem in the Cuyutlán Lagoon area along the Pacific coast of west-central Mexico is significantly altered as a result of industrialization, salt extraction, and road construction. The long-term dynamics of the mangrove ecosystem has also been controlled by Holocene climatic variability. This study reconstructs the environmental history of mangrove vegetation around the Cuyutlán Lagoon during the last ~1300 years in response to periods of human activity and climate change. The reconstruction was performed using paleoecological techniques in sediment cores that include the use of fossil pollen as a proxy for vegetation and magnetic susceptibility and geochemical data (determined by loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence as a proxy for past environmental changes. The chronology was determined using 14C dating and the age-depth model was constructed by linear interpolation. Redundancy analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were used to discern patterns of distribution of the different proxies. Results revealed that the mangrove pollen assemblage of the Cuyutlán Lagoon was dominated by the arboreal taxa Rhizophora mangle, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Pinaceae, herbaceous taxa like Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, and aquatics such as Typhaceae and Cyperaceae. NMDS showed a clear separation between two events of human activity—the Spanish Occupation of Colima (~AD 1523-1524 and the opening of the Manzanillo port (~AD 1824-1825. Climate change events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA (~AD 800-1200 and the Little Ice Age (LIA (~AD 1350-1850 were

  19. New data on morphometrics, distribution and ecology of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1849 (Orthoptera, Acrididae in Spain: is maghrebi a well defined subespecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied different populations of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859 in Spain assigned to subspecies maghrebi by Fernandes (1968 and obtained some new records for the species. To see if maghrebi is a consistent taxon for the Iberian populations, we performed a morphometric analysis involving 53 individuals from different origins considering body size (front of the head to tip of the abdomen; the shape of pronotum and presence of a second anterior notch or sulcus; length of the antennae and epiphallum, according to the characters used to define subspecies maghrebi. If maghrebi is consistent, we would expect intermediate sizes between wagneri and rogenhoferi, the other two well separated subspecies considered for M.w. However, in our measurements we obtained that body size is not intermediate between M. w. wagneri and M. w. rogenhoferi contrary to expectations if assuming the existence of maghrebi. Body size is similar to wagneri and further, we recorded some of the smallest individuals described so far. Also, the pronotum varied widely across and within populations showing different phenotypes that formerly were used to separate maghrebi and wagneri. Taking into account body size, pronotum, length of antenna and epiphallum, we think that differences between the studied Spanish populations and wagneri form are not enough to assign the studied populations to maghrebi. In the studied area, M.w. shows a narrow ecological niche inhabiting shores or proximities of hipersaline lagoons wherever Suaeda vera (Forsskål 1791, Chenopodiacea is present, M.w. uses this plant as refuge and food. The species also inhabits bare saline low grounds with scattered S vera. It presents a markedly discontinuous and patchy distribution in Spain, showing up punctually, where the microhabitat is appropriate. We obtained a morphometric variability with a significant association between body size and locality, and between body size and the colour of posterior wings in

  20. Analyses on types and characteristics of community of urban semi-natural vegetation in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐城市半自然植被群落类型及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南伟疆; 昝勤; 姜逢清; 王蕾; 严成; 尹林

    2011-01-01

    Based on previous study results and combined with investigation of typical sampling plots,community types of urban semi-natural vegetation in Urumqi were classified, and characteristics of community structure, species composition and plant growth-form spectrum were analyzed. The results show that types of urban semi-natural vegetation in Urumqi can be divided into four vegetation races,thirty-three vegetation types and thirty-eight association groups. In which, broadleaved forest vegetation race includes eight vegetation types and eleven association groups; shrub vegetation race does twelve vegetation types and twelve association groups; herb vegetation race does ten vegetation types and eleven association groups; vegetation race associated with human does three vegetation types and four association groups. The number of vegetation types and association groups in shrub vegetation race are the most,while those in vegetation race associated with human are the fewest. In the urban semi-natural vegetation community, the synusium of broadleaved forest vegetation race are two- and three- layers, that of shrub vegetation race mainly two-layer, those of herb vegetation race and vegetation race associated with human one-layer. The synusium types mainly are single herb type, arbor-shrub type and shrub-herb type. There are eighty-eight species of spermatophyte belonging to seventy-four genera of twenty-four families in the urban semi-natural vegetation community, the dominant families are Gramineae, Chenopodiaceae,Leguminosae, Compositae, Rosaceae and Cruciferae, containing forty-seven genera and fifty-seven species accounting for 63.51% and 64.77% of total number of genera and species of spermatophyte respectively in the community. In the community, annual and perennial herbs and perennial semishrub species are more with a percentage of 29.55%, 34.10% and 17.04% of total species, respectively.According to related results, the differences between the urban semi

  1. Palynological evidence of human activity on the gulf of Gdansk coast during the late holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Miotk-Szpiganowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Gdansk is located in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The shores of the Gulf are dominated by the sandy barriers which have developed in front of the Vistula Lagoon and the Vistula Delta Plain to the south-east and south and in front of the Puck Lagoon in the north-west such as the Hel Peninsula. Cliffs occur on the western coast of the Gulf. Neolithic settlements around the coast of the Gulf of Gdansk are mainly located at the foot of the upland slope and on the Vistula Spit and the Vistula Delta and are closely related to the rise and displacement of the shoreline during the Late Holocene. Pollen analyses of the sediment cores from the Vistula Delta, the Vistula Lagoon and the coast of the Puck Lagoon allow four anthropogenic phases to be distinguished in the area of the Gulf of Gdansk. It has been shown that the first indicators of an early husbandry economy in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gdansk appeared in the Atlantic Period. Pollen grains of plants related to this kind of human activity those of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae, motherwort (Artemisia, sorrel (Rumex are present and the first pollen grains of the plantain (Plantago lanceolata also appear. The second anthropogenic phase of Neolithic settlement is one of the best investigated cultures. This is the Rzucewo Culture. Pollen analyses indicate increasing human activity at the beginning of the Subboreal Period. The preserved traces of fauna show that the seal hunting and fishing economy was preferred. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological artifacts indicates the beginning of the settlement at ca. 2 400 B.C. (ca. 4 400 years B.P. (Król 1997. The altitude of peat and marine mollusks shells and their radiocarbon age shows that during the Early Subboreal Period the water level rose from ca. 2.8 m to 1.1 m below the present-day sea level. The date of the beginning of the seal hunters settlement correlates well with the period when the shores of the Puck Lagoon

  2. Lake sediments documented late Quaternary humid pulses in the Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia: Vegetation, hydrologic and paleoglaciation inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaifeng; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schlütz, Frank; Diekmann, Bernhard; Mischke, Steffen; Grunert, Jörg; Murad, Waheed; Nottebaum, Veit; Stauch, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to decipher the late Quaternary moisture and thermal history of the arid central Asia. However, an array of paramount aspects has inhibited our complete understanding of the broad pattern and underlying mechanisms: (i) Biased or even contradictory conclusions may be achieved due to the interpretations of different proxies. (ii) Most of the works poured attention into Holocene period, only few records can extend back to earlier marine isotope stages. (iii) Substantial spatial heterogeneity is noteworthy in the area. Exceeding amounts of studies were carried out in Lake Baikal catchments, northern and western Mongolia, while only two works were hitherto conducted in southern Mongolia. (iv) It remains elusive with respect to how and to what extent have East Asian Summer Monsoon and Westerlies affected the thermal and moisture signals in this spectacular arid region. To address this set of issues, two parallel cores (ONW I, 6.00 m; ONW II, 13.36 m) were retrieved from Orog Nuur, Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia. An array of multidisciplinary investigations involving geomorphologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, geochemical and biotic studies (i.e., palynological and ostracod valve analyses) provide a comprehensive data set for inferences of hydrological perturbations, vegetation development and phases of glacier expansions over the last ~50 ka. Orog Nuur catchment depicted a broadly vulnerable ecosystem that was dominated by Artemisia steppe community in the late Pleistocene, and Chenopodiaceae desert steppe in the Holocene. In addition, the Termination I is ideally documented in a complete suite of geochemical, palynological, and ostracod signatures. In general, the thermal and moisture history in the Gobi Desert were as follows: (i) MIS3 had a relatively warm temperature and sufficient moisture supply in particular between ~40 ka and ~26 ka; (ii) The MIS2 was subject to cold temperature and moisture deficit, which was interrupted

  3. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  4. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  5. 黄河兰州段湿地典型植物群落物种多样性研究%Study on species diversity of typical plant community in wetland along Yellow River in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2016-01-01

    以黄河兰州段分布最广泛的芦苇-假苇拂子茅群落和酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群落为研究对象,研究2个群落的植物物种组成和多样性特征。结果表明:芦苇群落有植物22种,隶属于13科20属,酸模叶蓼群落有植物24种,隶属于11科22属,2个群落的共种有10种,相似性系数为43.48%,菊科、禾本科、藜科、蓼科是该植物区系的优势科。物种多样性的分析说明2个群落的 Pielou 指数(J )波动比较小,Simpson 指数(D )和 Shannon-Wiener 指数(H )均波动都比较大,并且 H 指数与 J 指数存在明显的正比例关系,而与 D 指数呈显著的反比例关系。方差分析表现出两群落 S ,H ,D 和 J 指数的差异并不明显,说明组成两群落的物种有一定的相似性和连续性,也存在着差异。%The typical plant communities (Phragmites australis-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites and Po-lygonum lapathifolium-Chenopodium glaucum )along Yellow River in Lanzhou were selected to investigate the plant species and composition characteristics.The results indicated that there are 22 species in Phragmites aust-ralis-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites community,which belongs to 13 families and 20 genera,and 24 species in Polygonum lapathifolium-Chenopodium glaucum community,which belongs to 1 1 families and 22 genera.To-tally 10 common species were found in 2 communities.The similarity coefficient between 2 communities was 43.48%,Asteraceae,Poaceae,Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae were the dominant families.Species diversity analysis showed that in 2 communities,Shannon-Wiener index(H)and Simpson index(D)varied greatly,while Pielou index (J)showed much less variation.The diversity index was positively correlated with the evenness in-dex and negatively correlated with the ecological dominance index.H,D,J and S values were not significantly different in 2 communities.

  6. 民勤绿洲不同年限退耕地土壤物理性质与群落特征%Soil Physical Properties and Community Characteristics of Different Abandoned Land in the Minqin Oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春秀; 王理德; 何芳兰; 韩福贵; 王方琳; 张莹花; 魏林源

    2015-01-01

    通过对民勤绿洲1a、2a、3a、4a、5a、8a、15a、24a和31a退耕地的生境和植被群落特征的分析,研究了不同年限退耕地植被群落、土壤水分、容重、孔隙度和机械组成的变化。结果表明:(1)民勤绿洲退耕地在31 a自然恢复过程中共出现植物32种,14科,其中灌木6种,草本26种,分别占总物种数的18.75%、81.25%;其中藜科(6种)、菊科(4种),禾本科(4种)、蒺藜科(3种),4科植物占总物种数的53.13%。(2)不同年限退耕地0~40 cm 范围内土壤含水量随土层深度增加经历了先增后减的一个变化过程,而土壤容重及孔隙度变化不太明显。(3)在退耕地0~40cm土层范围内,各样地细沙粒的比例最大,粉粒和黏粒次之,粗沙粒的比例最小,但各粒径所占比例随退耕年限的变化不大。%The habitats &plant community characteristics in different abandoned lands were analyzed after abandon-ment for 1,2,3,4,5,8,15,24 & 31 a.The dynamic change of plant community,soil water content,bulk density,po-rosity and mechanical composition in the different abandoned lands were studied in the Minqin Oasis.Result shows that:(1)Plant of 32 species spread over 14 family live through fifty years appeared in abandoned lands in the study area;shrubs(6 species),herbs (26 species),which constitute 18.75%,81.25% of the total species respectively. Chenopodiaceae(6 species),Compositae(4 species),Gramineous (4 species),Zygophyllaceae(3 species),these four plant constitute 53.13% among them;(2)Within the range of 0-40 cm of different abandoned land,the soil moisture content showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with the increase of soil depth;the changes in soil bulk density and porosity are not significant;(3)In the range of 0-40 cm soil layer,the proportion of fine sand are the lar-gest,followed by silt and clay;the proportion of coarse sand is the smallest;the proportion of each particle size varies little with the restoration years.

  7. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    matter which ions accumulate, and it is the distribution of ions between the symplast and the apoplast that is important. The family Chenopodiaceae contains some extreme halophytes that accumulate very high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- in their shoots. Examples include Salicornia and Suaeda species from coastal marshes and saline deserts. One member of the family, Chenopodium quinoa, was an important crop in pre-Columbian South America. Although it is reputed to be tolerant of salinity as well as drought, little is known about its physiological responses to salinity. When plants of several varieties of quinoa were treated with salinity at 250 mol m-3 NaCl (+ 12.5 mol m-3 CaCl2) we found that some varieties (Utusaya and Kancolla) were good Na+ excluders, while others (E-DK-4, Amarillo de Marangani) accumulated about ten times higher concentrations of Na+. Differences in salt tolerance were not as obvious. Only E-DK-4 showed toxicity symptoms other than reduced growth. These two examples illustrate that responses to salinity are not simple, and reinforce the point that has been made elsewhere that breeding for salt tolerance will require the integration of a variety of physiological mechanisms. (author)

  8. 上海市垃圾填埋场植被特征分析%A study on vegetation characteristics of solid waste landfills in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思俊; 王肖刚; 张庆费; 徐敏

    2013-01-01

    通过调查上海市7个行政区11个典型垃圾填埋场的植物群落,分析其种类组成、区系特征、群落类型等指标,总结了垃圾填埋场的植被特征.结果表明:共记录有种子植物77科165属189种,含种数较多的科依次是菊科、禾本科、蔷薇科和豆科,其他含较多种的科为锦葵科、唇形科和藜科,且单种科比例较高;植物区系以北温带分布比例最高,其次为泛热带分布和东亚分布;植物种类以自然侵入的草本植物为主,木本植物多为人工栽植,偶见构树、朴树、桑树、苦楝等演替先锋种;群落类型可划分为常绿针叶林、针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林、落叶阔叶林和常绿落叶阔叶混交林等5种,群落结构一般缺少灌木层,乔木树种个体径级呈不连续分布.据此,应根据不同垃圾填埋场的植被现状以及周边环境,建设具有乡土特色的植物景观以及城市“森林岛”景观.%Based on the data from plant communities' investigation of 11 landfills at 7 districts of Shanghai city, the characteristic of vegetation in solid waste landfill was summarised, such as species composition, type of distribution are-a, community type and so on. The results showed that 189 seed plant species belonging to 165 genera and 77 families, which were mainly the herb plants, was recorded in 11 landfills. And the family with more than ten species was successively Compositae, Gramineae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae, and there were also many species from the family of Malvaceae , Labiatae and Chenopodiaceae, the family with one specie and native species had the highest ratio in landfills. The main components of the flora in landfills was successively the north temperate zone, pantropic and east asia. The main communities were herbaceous plant communities in early period of solid waste landfills. And the wood plants were mainly consist of artificial plantation species, and some pioneer species, such as Broussonetia

  9. 沙蓬黄酮类和香豆素类化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents of flavonoids and coumarins from the aerial parts of Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝媛; 战凯旋; 周雨华; 郭远强; 回业乾; 李玉山

    2012-01-01

    目的 对蒙药沙蓬的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用大孔树脂柱色谱、反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、ODS柱色谱和半微量制备高效液相色谱分离纯化,根据ESI-MS、1H-NMR和13C-NMR等谱学数据进行结构鉴定.结果 从沙蓬全草的乙醇提取物的正丁醇萃取物和乙酸乙酯萃取物中分离得到7个黄酮类和2个香豆素类化合物,分别鉴定为芦丁(quercetin-3-O-rutinoside,1)、异鼠李糖-3-O-β-D-芸香糖苷(isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-rutinoside,2)、tamarixetin 3-O-rutinoside (3)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,4)、异鼠李素-3-葡萄糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-glucoside,5)、二氢木蝴蝶素A(dihydrooroxylin A,6)、5,2'-二羟基-6,7-亚甲二氧基二氢黄酮(5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavanone,7)、异莨菪亭(isoscopoletin,8)和东莨菪亭(scopoletin,9).结论 化合物3、6、7为首次从藜科植物中分离得到,化合物1、2、4、5、8、9为首次从沙蓬属植物中分离得到.%Objective To isolate the constituents of the Mongolian medicine-Agriophyllum squarrosum(L. ) Moq. and elucidate their structures. Methods The compounds were isolated by macroporous resin,silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semipreparation. HPLC column chromatography, and the ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopic analysis were employed for the structural elucidation. Results Seven flavonoiols and two coumarins were isolated from the n-BuOH extract and EtOAc extract of the aerial parts of Agriophyllum squarrosum(L. )Moq. and their structures were identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside(l),isorhamnetin 3-0-β-D-rutinoside(2) ,tamarixetin 3-0-rutinoside(3) ,quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4),isorhamnetin 3-glucoside(5) ,dihydrooroxylin A(6) ,5 ,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavanone(7) ,isoscopoletin(8) and scopoletin(9). Conclusions Compounds 3,6 and 7 are isolated from the family Chenopodiaceae for the first time and compounds 1,2 ,4 ,5 ,8,9 are

  10. 云南剑川地区象鼻洞遗址孢粉组合和古环境%Palynological Assemblages and Palaeoenvironment of Xiangbidong Site in Jianchuan Area of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继效; 王伟铭; 高峰

    2014-01-01

    assemblages, Xiangbidong site was divided into four stages.In the first stage,Xiangbidong site was under warm and humid climate condition with abundant Nyssa sp.and Pinus sp.pollen grains.Then,a short dry period followed the first stage with distinct occurrence of Chenopodiaceae in the second stage.The warm and humid climate condition was resumed again in the third stage recognized by Nyssa sp.and Fagus sp., and became the maximum in the fourth stage recognized by Cyclobalanopsis sp.and Nyssa sp. Taking into account of high woody pollen content on the whole,the signal for human activities was still weak at that time.Meanwhile,because few plants could serve as food source,fishing and hunting are possible the human being’s main approach for living.Late Paleolithic and early Neolithic climate changes were frequent in the adjacent areas including Heqing Basin and Diancangshan area, so that the climate change in Xiangbidong site might be related with monsoon.

  11. Exploration and Transferability Evaluation of EST-SSRs in Quinoa%藜麦EST-SSR的开发及通用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张体付; 戚维聪; 顾闽峰; 张晓林; 李坦; 赵涵

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa draws more and more attentions from people, since quinoa seed as grain has comprehensive nutrients. But the fundamental research on quinoa just starts and remains in a moderated level. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) development in qui-noa will enhance the resource for its genetic analysis. Here, the available RNA based sequencing (RNA-Seq) and expressed se-quence tag (EST) data of quinoa deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were engaged in EST-SSR development. Totally, 1862 non-mononucleotide EST-SSRs were identified. Among the EST-SSRs, the dinucleotide type was the most abundant (38.3%), and the hexanucleotide was the minimal (11.7%). The amount of the EST-SSR showed the declined trend along with the increase in its motif nucleotide length. Among 119 EST-SSR primers randomly chosen for validation, 66 (55.9%) primers could give clear amplification bands and 39 showed polymorphisms in four quinoa accessions. Further analy-sis showed that the polymorphisms of EST-SSRs had no significant correlation with their motif nucleotide length. In addition, t-test demonstrated that the significant difference of EST-SSR polymorphisms was not occurred between quinoa accessions and other Chenopodiaceae germplasm. These results indicating EST-SSRs developed in quinoa could be transferable in Chenopodi-aceous genus and applied in genetic relationship analysis.%藜麦因营养均衡受到越来越多的关注,但尚未深入开展其基础研究。开发微卫星序列重复 SSR 分子标记将为藜麦的遗传分析提供重要资源。本研究利用NCBI数据库中藜麦RNA测序RNA-Seq及表达序列标签EST数据挖掘、验证及评价藜麦EST-SSR,共发现1862个藜麦非单核苷酸EST-SSR。其中,二核苷酸重复最多(38.3%),六核苷酸重复最少(11.7%)。不同重复类型SSR的数量随着核苷酸数目的增加呈下降趋势。在随机选取验证的119个EST-SSR标记中,66(55.9%)个能够扩增出清晰条带,39个在4

  12. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in

  13. Sequences and Infectious Clones of Tomato aspermy virus Strain Isolated from Beijing%番茄不孕病毒BJ株系基因组测定与侵染性克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟; 金圣塔; 张海峰; 王婷; 陈集双; 廖乾生

    2011-01-01

    番茄不孕病毒(Tomato aspermy virus,TAV)可侵染包括藜科(Chenopodiaceae)、茄科(Solanaceae)等在内的24个双子叶家族和3个单子叶家族的100多种植物,是具有重要经济价值的植物病毒之一.为研究TAV BJ株系(Tomato aspermy virus,TAV-BJ)的基因组功能,本实验对TAV-BJ基因组克隆测序,并构建侵染性克隆.以TAV-BJ侵染心叶烟(ic otiana glutinosa)的总RNA为模板,RT-PCR获得其RNA2和RNA3;以TAV-BJ的dsRNA为模板,RT-PCR获得全长RNA1,目的片段PCR产物克隆测序获得TAV-BJ基因组全序列信息.RNA1全长3 409 nt,编码994个氨基酸的1a蛋白;RNA2全长3 023 nt,含2个开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),2a ORF编码829个氨基酸的2a蛋白,2b ORF编码78个氨基酸的2b蛋白;RNA3全长为2 216 nt,包含2个ORF,3a ORF编码247个氨基酸的3a蛋白,外壳蛋白(coat protein,CP)ORF 编码219个氨基酸的CP蛋白(TAV-BJ基因组RNA1、2和3 GenBank登录号分别为HQ424163,HQ424164和HQ424165).TAV-BJ基因组cDNA克隆体外转录成RNA并接种于心叶烟上,结果表明转录产物在寄主上的症状反应和TAV-BJ病毒粒子RNA的接种相一致,TAV-BJ基因组cDNA侵染性克隆具有活性.由TAV-BJ各个基因片段与缺失2b基因的黄瓜花叶病毒Fny株系(Cucumber mosaic virus,CMV-Fny△2b)构建的假重组病毒接种于心叶烟,结果显示TAV-BJ的RNA2和RNA3能恢复CMV-Fny△2b在寄主上症状反应.嵌合型RNA3F3aTcp和RNA3T3aFcp的症状反应结果表明,F1F2△2bRNA3 T3aFcp在寄主上产生花叶症状与F1 F2△2bT3相一致.本研究获得TAV-BJ的基因组序列,成功构建侵染性克隆,同时发现TAV-BJ的3a基因具有CMV-Fny的2b基因的某些功能.%Tomato mosaic virus (TAV) is an important pathogen in agriculture, infecting more than 100 species of 24 dicotyledoneae and 3 monocotyledoneae, such as Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae. In order to analyze the role of genomic RNAs, full length sequence of TAV isolated from Beijing (TAV-BJ) was

  14. Comparison of Salt Tolerance between Chenopodium album and C. glaucum%藜科植物藜与灰绿藜耐盐性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 蔡明; 兰海燕

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study on salt tolerance between Chenopodium album and C. glaucum of Chenopodiace-ae was performed by investigation of seed germination characteristics and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants under salt stress. Results showed that:(1) The germination and seedling growth of C. album and C. glaucum were promoted at 50 and 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl, while inhibited at more than 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, and the performance of C. glaucum was better than that of C. album. (2) After long-term salinity treatment, the growth characters did not show significant change with rising salt concentration in both C. album and C. glaucum, indicating that these two species are able to grow normally under salt stress. The contents of O·2¯ , H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in C. album were signiifcantly increased compared to that in C. glaucum, suggest-ing that C. album was severely injured by oxidative stress. The activities of four antioxidative enzymes in C. al-bum were increased with rising salinity, except for catalase (CAT), whereas only ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased signiifcantly in C. glaucum (still much lower than that in C. album), which means that these enzymes may play important roles in response to salt stress in C. album. The contents of three antioxi-dants showed no signiifcant change in C. album, except for ascorbic acid (AsA), and the total level of the three antioxidants in C. album was all obviously lower than that in C. glaucum, which implies that these agents may make contributions in relieving of the salt stress in C. glaucum. The concentration of four osmoprotectants was increased signiifcantly in C. album, except for total protein, while for C. glaucum only the proline increased signiifcantly under high salt treatment, which suggests that these osmoprotectants may play important roles in osmotic balance in C. album under salt stress. Taken together, we speculate that both C. album and C. glaucum are all able to tolerate

  15. Research on Spermatophyte Flora in the Xilingol Desert Steppe%锡林郭勒荒漠草地种子植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳秀贤; 刘果厚; 刘慧娟; 扈顺

    2011-01-01

    The local flora structure and the distribution characteristics of seed plants in the Xilingol desert steppe were studied based on wild vegetable survey by processing the data,analyzing the plant families,genera and species and applying the methods of botany and phytogeography.It is suggested to protect and utilize rationally the wild plant resources in the study area,and an important reference is provided as the scientific basis to protect the local plant species.The results show that the local plants belong to the desert steppe flora.So far 348 endemic species in 180 genera and 55 families in the Xilingol desert steppe were recorded.In which there were 4 species in 2 genera and 2 families of Gymnosperm and 344 species(including 31 varieties) in 178 genera and 53 families of Angiosperm.Composed by the families and genera,the plurimotypic families(including more than 10 species),monotypic genera and oligotypic genera were the main part of the local flora and the main sources of flora complexity and species diversity to be as the widely distributed local species.At family level,the proportion of Gramineae,Compositae,Leguminosae,Chenopodiaceae,Cruciferae and Polygonaceae was the highest,there was a trend that the floristic element laid in big families of spermatophyte,and the dominance of plurimotypic families was evident.The proportion of 45 families with less than 10 species was 81.83% of the total families in the region.At genus level,although plurimotypic genera and plurotypic genera were the dominant species of local plant communities and the typical components,but they were not the main part,they had an important influence on the structure of flora and vegetable composition.The single-species genera and few-species genera are the main part of the local flora and the main sources of the local flora complexity and species diversity to be as the widely distributed local species.After analyzing the floristic geographical element of genera and species

  16. Relationship between Species Diversity of Herbaceous Plants in the Shelterbelt and Environment Factors%防护林下草本植物层片物种多样性与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 李生宇; 靳正忠; 雷加强

    2011-01-01

    tree crown of shrub layer and shade density, were recorded and surveyed comprehensively. Sample altitude was measured by GPS; groundwater level was measured with self-made electronic water level meter; shrub crown diameter was measured with steel tape;shade density of shrubs and coverage of herbaceous plants were measured by ocular estimate; groundwater samples in the study area were collected and analyzed in laboratory, their electrical conductivity and mineralization were measured by conductivity gauge; soil samples were collected at soil depths of 0 - 10 cm and 10 - 30 cm and analyzed in laboratory, and their conductivity was measured by conductivity gauge. Main indices included the richness index, important value index, average vegetation coverage in the plots, Shannon-wiener diversity index (H'),Simpson diversity index ( D' ) and Sorensen similarity index. The results are as follows: ( 1 ) There were less herbaceous plants and their species in the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt; these herbaceous plants were composed of 13 species in 12 genera and 8 families. Most of the plants belonged to Chenopodiaceae and Compositae families,and many of them were perennial; (2) Some plant communities were consisted of the scarce species, but manyones are composed of single families; (3) Under different groundwater levels , the electrical conductivity of topsoil,distribution of herbs and species diversity were quite different; (4) The species diversity of herbaceous plants was closely correlated to groundwater level, groundwater electrical conductivity and topsoil electrical conductivity. The correlation coefficients between Shannon-Wiener index and groundwater level, groundwater electrical conductivity,electrical conductivity of soil at depth of 0 - 10 cm were 0.72, 0.63 and 0.69, and those between Simpson index and groundwater level, groundwater electrical conductivity, topsoil electrical conductivity were 0.65, 0.61 and 0.69, respectively. The coverage of herb community and

  17. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July

  18. 新疆荒漠地区C4植物的生态分布与区系分析%Geographic distribution and ecology of C4 plants in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯缨; 段士民; 牟书勇; 赵莉; 赵兴华

    2012-01-01

    以前人工作为基础,对照已发表的C3/C4植物一览表,及近年国内外陆续发表的资料,综合整理出新疆荒漠地区已知的C4植物名录,共有14科63属的279种植物,同时归纳分析了279种C4。植物的分类地位、生活型、地理成分以及区系特点等方面。研究结果表明:藜科最多,其次是禾本科、莎草科、百合科和蓼科等等。所以该区的C4类型中被子植物的双子叶植物多于单子叶植物,蕨类植物和裸子植物就没有C4植物。1年生和多年生植物占优势,C4草本植物对环境的适应能力更强,是荒漠环境中植物适应自然的生物学策略,这与植物的进化密切相关。调查区内C4植物群落优势种占C4种的10%,其中125种C4植物生于沙丘中,103种C4植物生于盐生的环境,有56种C4植物生于湿地或水生的生境。证明C4植物能更好地适应干旱、盐渍等不良环境,体现了C4植物抗逆性强的生物学特点。同时依据中国种子植物属的分布区类型的划分方法,将新疆荒漠区C4植物划分为lO个分布区类型,表现出植物区系地理成分的多样性;其中地中海、西亚至中亚成分占优势有13属60种。区系地理反映了物种演化过程的历史气候、地质变化动态。利用C4植物的特点以期为对当前植物抗逆育种、解决我国西北地区的荒漠化问题均具有积极的意义,对今后该地区研究提供科学依据。%All the C4 plants in the arid area of Xinjiang were identified according to the stable carbon isotope ratios contents and some related literatures. There are 278 species of C4 plants from 66 genuses in 12 families. The tax- onomy, life form, geographical element and the areal - types of genera were accordingly analysis. The results showed that the families with most species orderly from Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae etc. Among which,the dicotyledon more than

  19. Physiological characteristics of the halophytic plant Kalidium foliatum to salt stress%盐生植物盐爪爪的耐盐生理特性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞瑞; 曾幼玲

    2015-01-01

    some physiological indexes.The halophyte K .folia-tum is a kind of very salt-tolerant shrub belonging to Chenopodiaceae with high succulence and grows commonly in saline and alkaline arid-desert regions in Xinjiang.Some physiological parameters were detected including the contents of Na+ ,K+ ,Ca2+ and proline,the water potential of plant leaf tissue,the content of membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA)and phenotype observation;gene expression of KfP 5CS ,encoding protein (pyrroline-5-carboxylate syn-thetase)as a key enzyme catalyzing to synthesize proline by semi-quantitative RT-PCR were assayed to salt stress.The results were as follows:(1)Na+ could accumulate significantly in succulent leaves and roots of K .folia-tum ,and even the content of Na+ in leaves was more than roots;(2)With increasing salt concentration,the content of proline and the gene expression of KfP 5CS were enhanced significantly under salt stress conditions;(3)Na+ and proline as plant effective osmotic regulators,could make the plant cells be still able to absorb water at low water po-tential from the highly concentrated salt solution,extracellularly;(4)Under 0 and 700 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatments, the contents of MDA in the leaves of K .foliatum were higher than other salt treatments,suggesting that the plants might be subjected to oxidative stress under the both treatments.This phenomenon indicated that the growth envi-ronments with the both treatments might be adverse for the plants;(5)From the growth phenotype to salt stress, the biomass of K .foliatum was more under low salt treatments,and the plant growth was better and stronger,in-dicating the low salt environment seemed to be beneficial to the K .foliatum growth.In summary,the results of the investigation of the K .foliatum plant growth in wild grown environment and under long-term salt stress in our lab showed that it was necessary for the good growth of K .foliatum in a certain salt concentration condition.A relative low salt concentration