WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemwx map visualization

  1. Visualizing Dynamic Data with Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashima, Daisuke; Kobourov, Stephen G; Hu, Yifan

    2012-09-01

    Maps offer a familiar way to present geographic data (continents, countries), and additional information (topography, geology), can be displayed with the help of contours and heat-map overlays. In this paper, we consider visualizing large-scale dynamic relational data by taking advantage of the geographic map metaphor. We describe a map-based visualization system which uses animation to convey dynamics in large data sets, and which aims to preserve the viewer's mental map while also offering readable views at all times. Our system is fully functional and has been used to visualize user traffic on the Internet radio station last.fm, as well as TV-viewing patterns from an IPTV service. All map images in this paper are available in high-resolution at [1] as are several movies illustrating the dynamic visualization.

  2. Topological visual mapping in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Anna; Cazorla, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    A key problem in robotics is the construction of a map from its environment. This map could be used in different tasks, like localization, recognition, obstacle avoidance, etc. Besides, the simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) problem has had a lot of interest in the robotics community. This paper presents a new method for visual mapping, using topological instead of metric information. For that purpose, we propose prior image segmentation into regions in order to group the extracted invariant features in a graph so that each graph defines a single region of the image. Although others methods have been proposed for visual SLAM, our method is complete, in the sense that it makes all the process: it presents a new method for image matching; it defines a way to build the topological map; and it also defines a matching criterion for loop-closing. The matching process will take into account visual features and their structure using the graph transformation matching (GTM) algorithm, which allows us to process the matching and to remove out the outliers. Then, using this image comparison method, we propose an algorithm for constructing topological maps. During the experimentation phase, we will test the robustness of the method and its ability constructing topological maps. We have also introduced new hysteresis behavior in order to solve some problems found building the graph.

  3. Musician Map: visualizing music collaborations over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Ji-Dong; Shaw, Chris D.; Bartram, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Musician Map, a web-based interactive tool for visualizing relationships among popular musicians who have released recordings since 1950. Musician Map accepts search terms from the user, and in turn uses these terms to retrieve data from MusicBrainz.org and AudioScrobbler.net, and visualizes the results. Musician Map visualizes relationships of various kinds between music groups and individual musicians, such as band membership, musical collaborations, and linkage to other artists that are generally regarded as being similar in musical style. These relationships are plotted between artists using a new timeline-based visualization where a node in a traditional node-link diagram has been transformed into a Timeline-Node, which allows the visualization of an evolving entity over time, such as the membership in a band. This allows the user to pursue social trend queries such as "Do Hip-Hop artists collaborate differently than Rock artists".

  4. Making maps a visual guide to map design for GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krygier, John

    2016-01-01

    Lauded for its accessibility and beautiful design, this text has given thousands of students and professionals the tools to create effective, compelling maps. Using a wealth of illustrations--with 74 in full color--to elucidate each concisely presented point, the revised and updated third edition continues to emphasize how design choices relate to the reasons for making a map and its intended purpose. All components of map making are covered: titles, labels, legends, visual hierarchy, font selection, how to turn phenomena into visual data, data organization, symbolization, and more. Innovative

  5. Visual SLAM Using Variance Grid Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Marks, Tim K.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm denoted Gamma-SLAM performs further processing, in real time, of preprocessed digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard an off-road robotic ground vehicle to build accurate maps of the terrain and determine the location of the vehicle with respect to the maps. Part of the name of the algorithm reflects the fact that the process of building the maps and determining the location with respect to them is denoted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Most prior real-time SLAM algorithms have been limited in applicability to (1) systems equipped with scanning laser range finders as the primary sensors in (2) indoor environments (or relatively simply structured outdoor environments). The few prior vision-based SLAM algorithms have been feature-based and not suitable for real-time applications and, hence, not suitable for autonomous navigation on irregularly structured terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm incorporates two key innovations: Visual odometry (in contradistinction to wheel odometry) is used to estimate the motion of the vehicle. An elevation variance map (in contradistinction to an occupancy or an elevation map) is used to represent the terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm makes use of a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) from Bayesian estimation theory for maintaining a distribution over poses and maps. The core idea of the RBPF approach is that the SLAM problem can be factored into two parts: (1) finding the distribution over robot trajectories, and (2) finding the map conditioned on any given trajectory. The factorization involves the use of a particle filter in which each particle encodes both a possible trajectory and a map conditioned on that trajectory. The base estimate of the trajectory is derived from visual odometry, and the map conditioned on that trajectory is a Cartesian grid of elevation variances. In comparison with traditional occupancy or elevation grid maps, the grid elevation variance

  6. Visualization of neural networks using saliency maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Niels J.S.; Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1995-01-01

    The saliency map is proposed as a new method for understanding and visualizing the nonlinearities embedded in feedforward neural networks, with emphasis on the ill-posed case, where the dimensionality of the input-field by far exceeds the number of examples. Several levels of approximations...

  7. Declarative and Scalable Selection for Map Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kefaloukos, Pimin Konstantin Balic

    and is itself a source and cause of prolific data creation. This calls for scalable map processing techniques that can handle the data volume and which play well with the predominant data models on the Web. (4) Maps are now consumed around the clock by a global audience. While historical maps were singleuser......-defined constraints as well as custom objectives. The purpose of the language is to derive a target multi-scale database from a source database according to holistic specifications. (b) The Glossy SQL compiler allows Glossy SQL to be scalably executed in a spatial analytics system, such as a spatial relational......, there are indications that the method is scalable for databases that contain millions of records, especially if the target language of the compiler is substituted by a cluster-ready variant of SQL. While several realistic use cases for maps have been implemented in CVL, additional non-geographic data visualization uses...

  8. SLAMM: Visual monocular SLAM with continuous mapping using multiple maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayyan Afeef Daoud

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of Simultaneous Localization and Multi-Mapping (SLAMM. It is a system that ensures continuous mapping and information preservation despite failures in tracking due to corrupted frames or sensor's malfunction; making it suitable for real-world applications. It works with single or multiple robots. In a single robot scenario the algorithm generates a new map at the time of tracking failure, and later it merges maps at the event of loop closure. Similarly, maps generated from multiple robots are merged without prior knowledge of their relative poses; which makes this algorithm flexible. The system works in real time at frame-rate speed. The proposed approach was tested on the KITTI and TUM RGB-D public datasets and it showed superior results compared to the state-of-the-arts in calibrated visual monocular keyframe-based SLAM. The mean tracking time is around 22 milliseconds. The initialization is twice as fast as it is in ORB-SLAM, and the retrieved map can reach up to 90 percent more in terms of information preservation depending on tracking loss and loop closure events. For the benefit of the community, the source code along with a framework to be run with Bebop drone are made available at https://github.com/hdaoud/ORBSLAMM.

  9. The visual attention saliency map for movie retrospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Anna; Napieralski, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The visual saliency map is becoming important and challenging for many scientific disciplines (robotic systems, psychophysics, cognitive neuroscience and computer science). Map created by the model indicates possible salient regions by taking into consideration face presence and motion which is essential in motion pictures. By combining we can obtain credible saliency map with a low computational cost.

  10. The visual attention saliency map for movie retrospection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalska Anna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The visual saliency map is becoming important and challenging for many scientific disciplines (robotic systems, psychophysics, cognitive neuroscience and computer science. Map created by the model indicates possible salient regions by taking into consideration face presence and motion which is essential in motion pictures. By combining we can obtain credible saliency map with a low computational cost.

  11. Mapping as a visual health communication tool: promises and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Hopfer, Suellen; Ghetian, Christie; Lengerich, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based public health promotion and planning, the use of maps as a form of evidence to communicate about the multiple determinants of cancer is on the rise. Geographic information systems and mapping technologies make future proliferation of this strategy likely. Yet disease maps as a communication form remain largely unexamined. This content analysis considers the presence of multivariate information, credibility cues, and the communication function of publicly accessible maps for cancer control activities. Thirty-six state comprehensive cancer control plans were publicly available in July 2005 and were reviewed for the presence of maps. Fourteen of the 36 state cancer plans (39%) contained map images (N = 59 static maps). A continuum of map inter activity was observed, with 10 states having interactive mapping tools available to query and map cancer information. Four states had both cancer plans with map images and interactive mapping tools available to the public on their Web sites. Of the 14 state cancer plans that depicted map images, two displayed multivariate data in a single map. Nine of the 10 states with interactive mapping capability offered the option to display multivariate health risk messages. The most frequent content category mapped was cancer incidence and mortality, with stage at diagnosis infrequently available. The most frequent communication function served by the maps reviewed was redundancy, as maps repeated information contained in textual forms. The social and ethical implications for communicating about cancer through the use of visual geographic representations are discussed.

  12. Multi-Layer Visualization of Mobile Mapping Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Eggert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available application various different visualization schemes are conceivable. This paper presents a multi-layer based visualization method, enabling fast data browsing of mobile mapping data. In contrast to systems like Google Street View the proposed visualization does not base on 360° panoramas, but on colored point clouds projected on partially translucent images. Those images are rendered as overlapping textures, preserving the depth of the recorded data and still enabling fast rendering on any kind of platform. Furthermore the proposed visualization allows the user to inspect the mobile mapping data in a panoramic fashion with an immersive depth illusion using the parallax scrolling technic.

  13. Backtracking Method of Coloring Administrative Maps Considering Visual Perception Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Color design in administrative maps should incorporate and balance area configuration, color harmony, and users' purposes. Based on visual perceptual rules, this paper quantifies color harmony, color contrast and perceptual balance in coloring administrative maps, and a model is suggested to evaluate the coloring quality after color template is selected. Then a backtracking method based on area balance is proposed to compute colored areas. Experiments show that this method can well meet visual perceptual rules while coloring administrative maps, and can be used for later map design.

  14. Sensory experience modifies feature map relationships in visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloherty, Shaun L; Hughes, Nicholas J; Hietanen, Markus A; Bhagavatula, Partha S

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which brain structure is influenced by sensory input during development is a critical but controversial question. A paradigmatic system for studying this is the mammalian visual cortex. Maps of orientation preference (OP) and ocular dominance (OD) in the primary visual cortex of ferrets, cats and monkeys can be individually changed by altered visual input. However, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps has appeared immutable. Using a computational model we predicted that biasing the visual input to orthogonal orientation in the two eyes should cause a shift of OP pinwheels towards the border of OD columns. We then confirmed this prediction by rearing cats wearing orthogonally oriented cylindrical lenses over each eye. Thus, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps can be modified by visual experience, revealing a previously unknown degree of brain plasticity in response to sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13911.001 PMID:27310531

  15. Visualizing the Logistic Map with a Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    The logistic map is one of the simplest nonlinear dynamical systems that clearly exhibits the route to chaos. In this paper, we explore the evolution of the logistic map using an open-source microcontroller connected to an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We divide the one-dimensional domain interval [0,1] into ten equal parts, an associate…

  16. Visualization of disciplinary profiles: Enhanced science overlay maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carley, S.; Porter, A.L.; Rafols, I.; Leydesdorff, L.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to modernize previous work on science overlay maps by updating the underlying citation matrix, generating new clusters of scientific disciplines, enhancing visualizations, and providing more accessible means for analysts to generate their own maps.

  17. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  18. An Integrated Tone Mapping for High Dynamic Range Image Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Zhuang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    There are two type tone mapping operators for high dynamic range (HDR) image visualization. HDR image mapped by perceptual operators have strong sense of reality, but will lose local details. Empirical operators can maximize local detail information of HDR image, but realism is not strong. A common tone mapping operator suitable for all applications is not available. This paper proposes a novel integrated tone mapping framework which can achieve conversion between empirical operators and perceptual operators. In this framework, the empirical operator is rendered based on improved saliency map, which simulates the visual attention mechanism of the human eye to the natural scene. The results of objective evaluation prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  19. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  20. Fermi surface mapping: Techniques and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.D.; Kevan, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission (ARP) of valence bands is a mature technique that has achieved spectacular success in band-mapping metals, semiconductors, and insulators. The purpose of the present study was the development of experimental and analytical techniques in ARP which take advantage of third generation light sources. Here the authors studied the relatively simple Cu surface in preparation for other metals. Copper and related metals themselves are of current interest, especially due to its role as an interlayer in spin valves and other magnetic heterostructures. A major goal of this study was the development of a systematic technique to quickly (i.e. in a few hours of synchrotron beamtime) measure the FS and separate it into bulk and surface FS's. Often, one needs to avoid bulk features altogether, which one can achieve by carefully mapping their locations in k-space. The authors will also show how they systematically map Fermi surfaces throughout large volumes of k-space, and, by processing the resulting volume data sets, provide intuitive pictures of FS's, both bulk and surface

  1. Mapping Design Students' Aesthetic and Visual Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie; Ohrt, Ann Merete

    2016-01-01

    2014). The students were asked to create a “Wunderkammer” of personal collected images and things from their local cultural and physical environment. The focus of the workshops is collecting and organizing objects from the studens visual explorations within the following topics: body, home, urban space......, identity, and cultural codes. The workshops are documented, analysed and compared in order to get a better understanding of how, and if, different universities’ learning methods and cultural backgrounds influence the students’ design approaches, practices and conceptions. In this way we hope to broaden...

  2. Visualization of Disciplinary Profiles: Enhanced Science Overlay Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carley

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to modernize previous work on science overlay maps by updating the underlying citation matrix, generating new clusters of scientific disciplines, enhancing visualizations, and providing more accessible means for analysts to generate their own maps. Design/methodology/approach: We use the combined set of 2015 Journal Citation Reports for the Science Citation Index (n of journals = 8,778 and the Social Sciences Citation Index (n = 3,212 for a total of 11,365 journals. The set of Web of Science Categories in the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index increased from 224 in 2010 to 227 in 2015. Using dedicated software, a matrix of 227 × 227 cells is generated on the basis of whole-number citation counting. We normalize this matrix using the cosine function. We first develop the citing-side, cosine-normalized map using 2015 data and VOSviewer visualization with default parameter values. A routine for making overlays on the basis of the map (“wc15.exe” is available at http://www.leydesdorff.net/wc15/index.htm. Findings: Findings appear in the form of visuals throughout the manuscript. In Figures 1–9 we provide basemaps of science and science overlay maps for a number of companies, universities, and technologies. Research limitations: As Web of Science Categories change and/or are updated so is the need to update the routine we provide. Also, to apply the routine we provide users need access to the Web of Science. Practical implications: Visualization of science overlay maps is now more accurate and true to the 2015 Journal Citation Reports than was the case with the previous version of the routine advanced in our paper. Originality/value: The routine we advance allows users to visualize science overlay maps in VOSviewer using data from more recent Journal Citation Reports.

  3. System and method for image mapping and visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for mapping dense sensory data to a Sensory Ego Sphere (SES). Methods are also described for finding and ranking areas of interest in the images that form a complete visual scene on an SES. Further, attentional processing of image data is best done by performing attentional processing on individual full-size images from the image sequence, mapping each attentional location to the nearest node, and then summing all attentional locations at each node.

  4. Map Archive Mining: Visual-Analytical Approaches to Explore Large Historical Map Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Uhl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical maps are unique sources of retrospective geographical information. Recently, several map archives containing map series covering large spatial and temporal extents have been systematically scanned and made available to the public. The geographical information contained in such data archives makes it possible to extend geospatial analysis retrospectively beyond the era of digital cartography. However, given the large data volumes of such archives (e.g., more than 200,000 map sheets in the United States Geological Survey topographic map archive and the low graphical quality of older, manually-produced map sheets, the process to extract geographical information from these map archives needs to be automated to the highest degree possible. To understand the potential challenges (e.g., salient map characteristics and data quality variations in automating large-scale information extraction tasks for map archives, it is useful to efficiently assess spatio-temporal coverage, approximate map content, and spatial accuracy of georeferenced map sheets at different map scales. Such preliminary analytical steps are often neglected or ignored in the map processing literature but represent critical phases that lay the foundation for any subsequent computational processes including recognition. Exemplified for the United States Geological Survey topographic map and the Sanborn fire insurance map archives, we demonstrate how such preliminary analyses can be systematically conducted using traditional analytical and cartographic techniques, as well as visual-analytical data mining tools originating from machine learning and data science.

  5. Uvmas: Venus Ultraviolet-visual Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, G.; Zasova, L.; Altieri, F.; Formisano, V.; Ignatiev, N.; Moroz, V.

    We present the concept of an instrument for remote sensing of Venus from a planetary orbiter. The main characteristics of the instrument are the following: A~é· Spectral range: 0.190 A~é­ 0.490 A~éµm A~é· Spectral resolution: 0.4 nm (/= 500 at 0.2 A~éµ m) A~é· Angular resolution: 0.4 mrad at max A~é· Spatial resolution: 200 meters at 500 Km A~é· Field of view = 5.7A~é° A~é· S/N: 70 at 0.2 A~éµ m at 1 sec exp time given albedo = 0.03. The scientific objectives are the following: Dynamic investigation (0.2 5 µm). Mapping facility will allow the tracking of the UV features and will define the velocities in the atmosphere near the cloud top level. Detailed mapping of velocities of UV features at high spatial resolution, their variation with latitude, altitude and local time will advance our knowledge in understanding the puzzles of Venus dynamics like how and what mechanism drives the Venus atmospheric mass from equator to pole against temperature gradient and what is the mechanism supporting the zonal superrotation. What is the polar vortex organization, at what latitudes there is the descending branch of the Hadley cell. SO2 and SO in the range 0.232 µm. In this spectral range the SO2 and SO bands are observed. They present unresolved features with 10 Å width. Vertical profiles of these components may be obtained above the cloud and below the upper cloud boundary. Vertical, horizontal, local time and temporal variation will be obtained. This allows to create a photochemical model of the atmosphere above the clouds, and to understand a mechanism of cloud aerosol formation. "Unknown" UV- absorber, in the range 0.3 5 µm. It absorbs 50 % of the solar energy deposited on Venus. It exists only in the upper clouds. It is not known if it is in gaseous phase or included in the aerosol particles. This absorber is not homogeneously distributed and is responsible for the UV atmospheric contrast from 0.32­0.5 µm; it correlates

  6. Geoscience data visualization and analysis using GeoMapApp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Vicki; Carbotte, Suzanne; Ryan, William; Chan, Samantha

    2013-04-01

    Increased availability of geoscience data resources has resulted in new opportunities for developing visualization and analysis tools that not only promote data integration and synthesis, but also facilitate quantitative cross-disciplinary access to data. Interdisciplinary investigations, in particular, frequently require visualizations and quantitative access to specialized data resources across disciplines, which has historically required specialist knowledge of data formats and software tools. GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) is a free online data visualization and analysis tool that provides direct quantitative access to a wide variety of geoscience data for a broad international interdisciplinary user community. While GeoMapApp provides access to online data resources, it can also be packaged to work offline through the deployment of a small portable hard drive. This mode of operation can be particularly useful during field programs to provide functionality and direct access to data when a network connection is not possible. Hundreds of data sets from a variety of repositories are directly accessible in GeoMapApp, without the need for the user to understand the specifics of file formats or data reduction procedures. Available data include global and regional gridded data, images, as well as tabular and vector datasets. In addition to basic visualization and data discovery functionality, users are provided with simple tools for creating customized maps and visualizations and to quantitatively interrogate data. Specialized data portals with advanced functionality are also provided for power users to further analyze data resources and access underlying component datasets. Users may import and analyze their own geospatial datasets by loading local versions of geospatial data and can access content made available through Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Map Services (WMS). Once data are loaded in GeoMapApp, a variety options are provided to export data and/or 2D/3D

  7. A new method for mapping perceptual biases across visual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Papageorgiou, Andriani; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel

    2017-08-01

    How we perceive the environment is not stable and seamless. Recent studies found that how a person qualitatively experiences even simple visual stimuli varies dramatically across different locations in the visual field. Here we use a method we developed recently that we call multiple alternatives perceptual search (MAPS) for efficiently mapping such perceptual biases across several locations. This procedure reliably quantifies the spatial pattern of perceptual biases and also of uncertainty and choice. We show that these measurements are strongly correlated with those from traditional psychophysical methods and that exogenous attention can skew biases without affecting overall task performance. Taken together, MAPS is an efficient method to measure how an individual's perceptual experience varies across space.

  8. Synergy Maps: exploring compound combinations using network-based visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard; Guha, Rajarshi; Korcsmaros, Tamás; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of super-additivity of biological response to compounds applied jointly, termed synergy, has the potential to provide many therapeutic benefits. Therefore, high throughput screening of compound combinations has recently received a great deal of attention. Large compound libraries and the feasibility of all-pairs screening can easily generate large, information-rich datasets. Previously, these datasets have been visualized using either a heat-map or a network approach-however these visualizations only partially represent the information encoded in the dataset. A new visualization technique for pairwise combination screening data, termed "Synergy Maps", is presented. In a Synergy Map, information about the synergistic interactions of compounds is integrated with information about their properties (chemical structure, physicochemical properties, bioactivity profiles) to produce a single visualization. As a result the relationships between compound and combination properties may be investigated simultaneously, and thus may afford insight into the synergy observed in the screen. An interactive web app implementation, available at http://richlewis42.github.io/synergy-maps, has been developed for public use, which may find use in navigating and filtering larger scale combination datasets. This tool is applied to a recent all-pairs dataset of anti-malarials, tested against Plasmodium falciparum, and a preliminary analysis is given as an example, illustrating the disproportionate synergism of histone deacetylase inhibitors previously described in literature, as well as suggesting new hypotheses for future investigation. Synergy Maps improve the state of the art in compound combination visualization, by simultaneously representing individual compound properties and their interactions. The web-based tool allows straightforward exploration of combination data, and easier identification of correlations between compound properties and interactions.

  9. Hierarchical tone mapping for high dynamic range image visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guoping; Duan, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient, practically easy to use tone mapping techniques for the visualization of high dynamic range (HDR) images in low dynamic range (LDR) reproduction devices. The new method, termed hierarchical nonlinear linear (HNL) tone-mapping operator maps the pixels in two hierarchical steps. The first step allocates appropriate numbers of LDR display levels to different HDR intensity intervals according to the pixel densities of the intervals. The second step linearly maps the HDR intensity intervals to theirs allocated LDR display levels. In the developed HNL scheme, the assignment of LDR display levels to HDR intensity intervals is controlled by a very simple and flexible formula with a single adjustable parameter. We also show that our new operators can be used for the effective enhancement of ordinary images.

  10. Probing the Feature Map for Faces in Visual Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.

  11. LOD map--A visual interface for navigating multiresolution volume visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoli; Shen, Han-Wei

    2006-01-01

    In multiresolution volume visualization, a visual representation of level-of-detail (LOD) quality is important for us to examine, compare, and validate different LOD selection algorithms. While traditional methods rely on ultimate images for quality measurement, we introduce the LOD map--an alternative representation of LOD quality and a visual interface for navigating multiresolution data exploration. Our measure for LOD quality is based on the formulation of entropy from information theory. The measure takes into account the distortion and contribution of multiresolution data blocks. A LOD map is generated through the mapping of key LOD ingredients to a treemap representation. The ordered treemap layout is used for relative stable update of the LOD map when the view or LOD changes. This visual interface not only indicates the quality of LODs in an intuitive way, but also provides immediate suggestions for possible LOD improvement through visually-striking features. It also allows us to compare different views and perform rendering budget control. A set of interactive techniques is proposed to make the LOD adjustment a simple and easy task. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach on large scientific and medical data sets.

  12. EdgeMaps: visualizing explicit and implicit relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörk, Marian; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Williamson, Carey

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we introduce EdgeMaps as a new method for integrating the visualization of explicit and implicit data relations. Explicit relations are specific connections between entities already present in a given dataset, while implicit relations are derived from multidimensional data based on shared properties and similarity measures. Many datasets include both types of relations, which are often difficult to represent together in information visualizations. Node-link diagrams typically focus on explicit data connections, while not incorporating implicit similarities between entities. Multi-dimensional scaling considers similarities between items, however, explicit links between nodes are not displayed. In contrast, EdgeMaps visualize both implicit and explicit relations by combining and complementing spatialization and graph drawing techniques. As a case study for this approach we chose a dataset of philosophers, their interests, influences, and birthdates. By introducing the limitation of activating only one node at a time, interesting visual patterns emerge that resemble the aesthetics of fireworks and waves. We argue that the interactive exploration of these patterns may allow the viewer to grasp the structure of a graph better than complex node-link visualizations.

  13. JVM: Java Visual Mapping tool for next generation sequencing read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Liu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We developed a program JVM (Java Visual Mapping) for mapping next generation sequencing read to reference sequence. The program is implemented in Java and is designed to deal with millions of short read generated by sequence alignment using the Illumina sequencing technology. It employs seed index strategy and octal encoding operations for sequence alignments. JVM is useful for DNA-Seq, RNA-Seq when dealing with single-end resequencing. JVM is a desktop application, which supports reads capacity from 1 MB to 10 GB.

  14. Mapping scientific frontiers : the quest for knowledge visualization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-08-01

    Visualization of scientific frontiers is a relatively new field, yet it has a long history and many predecessors. The application of science to science itself has been undertaken for decades with notable early contributions by Derek Price, Thomas Kuhn, Diana Crane, Eugene Garfield, and many others. What is new is the field of information visualization and application of its techniques to help us understand the process of science in the making. In his new book, Chaomei Chen takes us on a journey through this history, touching on predecessors, and then leading us firmly into the new world of Mapping Scientific Frontiers. Building on the foundation of his earlier book, Information Visualization and Virtual Environments, Chen's new offering is much less a tutorial in how to do information visualization, and much more a conceptual exploration of why and how the visualization of science can change the way we do science, amplified by real examples. Chen's stated intents for the book are: (1) to focus on principles of visual thinking that enable the identification of scientific frontiers; (2) to introduce a way to systematize the identification of scientific frontiers (or paradigms) through visualization techniques; and (3) to stimulate interdisciplinary research between information visualization and information science researchers. On all these counts, he succeeds. Chen's book can be broken into two parts which focus on the first two purposes stated above. The first, consisting of the initial four chapters, covers history and predecessors. Kuhn's theory of normal science punctuated by periods of revolution, now commonly known as paradigm shifts, motivates the work. Relevant predecessors outside the traditional field of information science such as cartography (both terrestrial and celestial), mapping the mind, and principles of visual association and communication, are given ample coverage. Chen also describes enabling techniques known to information

  15. Effect of tone mapping operators on visual attention deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Manish; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick; Pepion, Romuald

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) images/videos require the use of a tone mapping operator (TMO) when visualized on Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. From an artistic intention point of view, TMOs are not necessarily transparent and might induce different behavior to view the content. In this paper, we investigate and quantify how TMOs modify visual attention (VA). To that end both objective and subjective tests in the form of eye-tracking experiments have been conducted on several still image content that have been processed by 11 different TMOs. Our studies confirm that TMOs can indeed modify human attention and fixation behavior significantly. Therefore our studies suggest that VA needs consideration for evaluating the overall perceptual impact of TMOs on HDR content. Since the existing studies so far have only considered the quality or aesthetic appeal angle, this study brings in a new perspective regarding the importance of VA in HDR content processing for visualization on LDR displays.

  16. Choropleth map legend design for visualizing community health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromley Ellen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health outcomes across communities are a central concern in public health and epidemiology. Health disparities research often links differences in health outcomes to other social factors like income. Choropleth maps of health outcome rates show the geographical distribution of health outcomes. This paper illustrates the use of cumulative frequency map legends for visualizing how the health events are distributed in relation to social characteristics of community populations. The approach uses two graphs in the cumulative frequency legend to highlight the difference between the raw count of the health events and the raw count of the social characteristic like low income in the geographical areas of the map. The approach is applied to mapping publicly available data on low birth weight by town in Connecticut and Lyme disease incidence by town in Connecticut in relation to income. The steps involved in creating these legends are described in detail so that health analysts can adopt this approach. Results The different health problems, low birth weight and Lyme disease, have different cumulative frequency signatures. Graphing poverty population on the cumulative frequency legends revealed that the poverty population is distributed differently with respect to the two different health problems mapped here. Conclusion Cumulative frequency legends can be useful supplements for choropleth maps. These legends can be constructed using readily available software. They contain all of the information found in standard choropleth map legends, and they can be used with any choropleth map classification scheme. Cumulative frequency legends effectively communicate the proportion of areas, the proportion of health events, and/or the proportion of the denominator population in which the health events occurred that falls within each class interval. They illuminate the context of disease through graphing associations with other

  17. Visual Fast Mapping in School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…

  18. Communicating and visualizing data quality through Web Map Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Charles; Blower, Jon; Maso, Joan; Diaz, Daniel; Griffiths, Guy; Lewis, Jane

    2014-05-01

    The sharing and visualization of environmental data through OGC Web Map Services is becoming increasingly common. However, information about the quality of data is rarely presented. (In this presentation we consider mostly data uncertainty as a measure of quality, although we acknowledge that many other quality measures are relevant to the geoscience community.) In the context of the GeoViQua project (http://www.geoviqua.org) we have developed conventions and tools for using WMS to deliver data quality information. The "WMS-Q" convention describes how the WMS specification can be used to publish quality information at the level of datasets, variables and individual pixels (samples). WMS-Q requires no extensions to the WMS 1.3.0 specification, being entirely backward-compatible. (An earlier version of WMS-Q was published as OGC Engineering Report 12-160.) To complement the WMS-Q convention, we have also developed extensions to the OGC Symbology Encoding (SE) specification, enabling uncertain geoscience data to be portrayed using a variety of visualization techniques. These include contours, stippling, blackening, whitening, opacity, bivariate colour maps, confidence interval triangles and glyphs. There may also be more extensive applications of these methods beyond the visual representation of uncertainty. In this presentation we will briefly describe the scope of the WMS-Q and "extended SE" specifications and then demonstrate the innovations using open-source software based upon ncWMS (http://ncwms.sf.net). We apply the tools to a variety of datasets including Earth Observation data from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative. The software allows uncertain raster data to be shared through Web Map Services, giving the user fine control over data visualization.

  19. A Visual-Aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three-dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  20. The T?lz Temporal Topography Study: Mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: Cognitive factors shaping visual field maps

    OpenAIRE

    Poggel, Dorothe A.; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, an...

  1. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...... direction the individual locations influence the classification. We illustrate the visualization procedure on a real data from a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment....

  2. Testing geoscience data visualization systems for geological mapping and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Huffman, J. N.; Forsberg, A. S.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, M. A.; Dickson, J. L.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Traditional methods of planetary geological mapping have relied on photographic hard copy and light-table tracing and mapping. In the last several decades this has given way to the availability and analysis of multiple digital data sets, and programs and platforms that permit the viewing and manipulation of multiple annotated layers of relevant information. This has revolutionized the ability to incorporate important new data into the planetary mapping process at all scales. Information on these developments and approaches can be obtained at http://astrogeology.usgs. gov/ Technology/. The processes is aided by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (see http://astrogeology. usgs.gov/Technology/) and excellent analysis packages (such as ArcGIS) that permit co-registration, rapid viewing, and analysis of multiple data sets on desktop displays (see http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/ webgis/). We are currently investigating new technological developments in computer visualization and analysis in order to assess their importance and utility in planetary geological analysis and mapping. Last year we reported on the range of technologies available and on our application of these to various problems in planetary mapping. In this contribution we focus on the application of these techniques and tools to Venus geological mapping at the 1:5M quadrangle scale. In our current Venus mapping projects we have utilized and tested the various platforms to understand their capabilities and assess their usefulness in defining units, establishing stratigraphic relationships, mapping structures, reaching consensus on interpretations and producing map products. We are specifically assessing how computer visualization display qualities (e.g., level of immersion, stereoscopic vs. monoscopic viewing, field of view, large vs. small display size, etc.) influence performance on scientific analysis and geological mapping. We have been exploring four different environments: 1) conventional

  3. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

  4. Multiple Concurrent Visual-Motor Mappings: Implications for Models of Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H. A.; Welch, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Previous research on adaptation to visual-motor rearrangement suggests that the central nervous system represents accurately only 1 visual-motor mapping at a time. This idea was examined in 3 experiments where subjects tracked a moving target under repeated alternations between 2 initially interfering mappings (the 'normal' mapping characteristic of computer input devices and a 108' rotation of the normal mapping). Alternation between the 2 mappings led to significant reduction in error under the rotated mapping and significant reduction in the adaptation aftereffect ordinarily caused by switching between mappings. Color as a discriminative cue, interference versus decay in adaptation aftereffect, and intermanual transfer were also examined. The results reveal a capacity for multiple concurrent visual-motor mappings, possibly controlled by a parametric process near the motor output stage of processing.

  5. Mapping chromatic pathways in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yang; Luo, Jiangnan; Shinomiya, Kazunori; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, color vision and wavelength-selective behaviors are mediated by the compound eye's narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R7 and R8 and their downstream medulla projection (Tm) neurons Tm5a, Tm5b, Tm5c, and Tm20 in the second optic neuropil or medulla. These chromatic Tm neurons project axons to a deeper optic neuropil, the lobula, which in insects has been implicated in processing and relaying color information to the central brain. The synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons in the lobula are not known, however. Using a modified GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) method to probe connections between the chromatic Tm neurons and 28 known and novel types of lobula neurons, we identify anatomically the visual projection neurons LT11 and LC14 and the lobula intrinsic neurons Li3 and Li4 as synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons. Single-cell GRASP analyses reveal that Li4 receives synaptic contacts from over 90% of all four types of chromatic Tm neurons, whereas LT11 is postsynaptic to the chromatic Tm neurons, with only modest selectivity and at a lower frequency and density. To visualize synaptic contacts at the ultrastructural level, we develop and apply a "two-tag" double-labeling method to label LT11's dendrites and the mitochondria in Tm5c's presynaptic terminals. Serial electron microscopic reconstruction confirms that LT11 receives direct contacts from Tm5c. This method would be generally applicable to map the connections of large complex neurons in Drosophila and other animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mapping a Difference: The Power of Geospatial Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvoord, B.

    2015-12-01

    Geospatial Technologies (GST), such as GIS, GPS and remote sensing, offer students and teachers the opportunity to study the "why" of where. By making maps and collecting location-based data, students can pursue authentic problems using sophisticated tools. The proliferation of web- and cloud-based tools has made these technologies broadly accessible to schools. In addition, strong spatial thinking skills have been shown to be a key factor in supporting students that want to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (Wai, Lubinski and Benbow) and pursue STEM careers. Geospatial technologies strongly scaffold the development of these spatial thinking skills. For the last ten years, the Geospatial Semester, a unique dual-enrollment partnership between James Madison University and Virginia high schools, has provided students with the opportunity to use GST's to hone their spatial thinking skills and to do extended projects of local interest, including environmental, geological and ecological studies. Along with strong spatial thinking skills, these students have also shown strong problem solving skills, often beyond those of fellow students in AP classes. Programs like the Geospatial Semester are scalable and within the reach of many college and university departments, allowing strong engagement with K-12 schools. In this presentation, we'll share details of the Geospatial Semester and research results on the impact of the use of these technologies on students' spatial thinking skills, and discuss the success and challenges of developing K-12 partnerships centered on geospatial visualization.

  7. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  8. Synthesis maps: visual knowledge translation for the CanIMPACT clinical system and patient cancer journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, P.H.; Shakdher, S.; Singh, P.

    2017-01-01

    Salient findings and interpretations from the canimpact clinical cancer research study are visually represented in two synthesis maps for the purpose of communicating an integrated presentation of the study to clinical cancer researchers and policymakers. Synthesis maps integrate evidence and expertise into a visual narrative for knowledge translation and communication. A clinical system synthesis map represents the current Canadian primary care and cancer practice systems, proposed as a visu...

  9. Mapping scientific frontiers the quest for knowledge visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chaomei

    2013-01-01

    In its revised edition, this book examines the history and current developments in knowledge visualization from an interdisciplinary perspective, from theories of invisible colleges and competing paradigms to practical applications of visualization techniques.

  10. Mapping visual cortex in monkeys and humans using surface-based atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Lewis, J. W.; Drury, H. A.; Hadjikhani, N.; Tootell, R. B.; Bakircioglu, M.; Miller, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used surface-based atlases of the cerebral cortex to analyze the functional organization of visual cortex in humans and macaque monkeys. The macaque atlas contains multiple partitioning schemes for visual cortex, including a probabilistic atlas of visual areas derived from a recent architectonic study, plus summary schemes that reflect a combination of physiological and anatomical evidence. The human atlas includes a probabilistic map of eight topographically organized visual areas recently mapped using functional MRI. To facilitate comparisons between species, we used surface-based warping to bring functional and geographic landmarks on the macaque map into register with corresponding landmarks on the human map. The results suggest that extrastriate visual cortex outside the known topographically organized areas is dramatically expanded in human compared to macaque cortex, particularly in the parietal lobe.

  11. Synthesis maps: visual knowledge translation for the CanIMPACT clinical system and patient cancer journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P H; Shakdher, S; Singh, P

    2017-04-01

    Salient findings and interpretations from the canimpact clinical cancer research study are visually represented in two synthesis maps for the purpose of communicating an integrated presentation of the study to clinical cancer researchers and policymakers. Synthesis maps integrate evidence and expertise into a visual narrative for knowledge translation and communication. A clinical system synthesis map represents the current Canadian primary care and cancer practice systems, proposed as a visual knowledge translation from the mixed-methods canimpact study to inform Canadian clinical research, policy, and practice discourses. Two synthesis maps, drawn together from multiple canimpact investigations and sources, were required to articulate critical differences between the clinical system and patient perspectives. The synthesis map of Canada-wide clinical cancer systems illustrates the relationships between primary care and the full cancer continuum. A patient-centred map was developed to represent the cancer (and primary care) journeys as experienced by breast and colorectal cancer patients.

  12. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: cognitive factors shaping visual field maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, and the size of the attention focus. Correlations with the attentional variables were substantial, particularly for variables of temporal processing. DPR thresholds depended on the size of the attention focus. The extraction of cognitive variables from the correlations between topographical variables and participant age substantially reduced those correlations. There is a systematic top-down influence on the aging of visual functions, particularly of temporal variables, that largely explains performance decline and the change of the topography over the life span.

  13. Mapping innovation processes: Visual techniques for opening and presenting the black box of service innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Rørbæk

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues for the usefulness of visual mapping techniques for performing qualitative analysis of complex service innovation processes. Different mapping formats are presented, namely, matrices, networks, process maps, situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps....... For the purpose of researching service innovation processes, the three latter formats are argued to be particularly interesting. Process maps can give an overview of different periods and milestones in a process in one carefully organized location. Situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps...... can open up complexities of service innovation processes, as well as close them down for presentational purposes. The mapping formats presented are illustrated by displaying maps from an exemplary research project, and the chapter is concluded with a brief discussion of the limitations and pitfalls...

  14. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Batesole; Kokulapalan Wimalanathan; Lin Liu; Fan Zhang; Craig S. Echt; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are...

  15. Iapetus: First data from the Cassini Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Clark, R.; Brown, R. H.; Bauer, J. M.; Simonelli, D. P.; Jaumann, R.; Hibbitts, K.; McCord, T. B.; Soderlund, K.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J. P.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D. L.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

    2004-11-01

    Iapetus is perhaps the most enigmatic body in the solar system: One hemisphere is as dark as lampblack, and the other is almost as bright as snow. The models that have been offered to explain this dichotomy range from endogenously placed material (Smith et al., 1982, Science 215, 504), to material exogenously placed from Phoebe (Soter, 1974, IAU Colloq. 28), or other bodies (Owen et al., 2001, Icarus 149, 160; Buratti et al., 2002, Icarus 155, 375; Buratti et al., 2003, B.A.A.S, 915). No mechanism for the darkening process or purported source for the exogenic particles is entirely satisfactory. One key question is whether the process that led to the formation of the low-albedo hemisphere of Iapetus is unique, or whether the satellite has been subjected to a satellite alteration process in a more extreme form. Both Callisto and the outer satellites of Uranus show evidence for exogenic accretion of particles onto their leading sides. A targeted flyby of Iapetus by Cassini, during which the spacecraft will approach the satellite to within 1000 km, is scheduled to occur in September 2007. An untargeted approach of 65,000 km to the satellite will occur on New Year's day 2005, and observations are planned for the period around closest approach. However, a "sneak peak" of the satellite was afforded by Cassini on July 19, 2004, during which the spacecraft approached to less than three million miles (the Voyager closest approach was 909,070 km). The first disk resolved spectra of Iapetus in the 0.4 to 5 micron region were obtained by the Cassini Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). We report the tentative identification of carbon dioxide on the low-albedo portion of the surface. A comparison of the spectrum of Iapetus to that obtained by VIMS during its flyby of Phoebe on June 11, 2004 will be made. Mixing models incorporating water ice, minerals, and organics can replicate the spectrum of the dark hemisphere. Work performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  16. Visualizing the semantic content of large text databases using text maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for generating text map representations of the semantic content of text databases is presented. Text maps provide a graphical metaphor for conceptualizing and visualizing the contents and data interrelationships of large text databases. Described are a set of experiments conducted against the TIPSTER corpora of Wall Street Journal articles. These experiments provide an introduction to current work in the representation and visualization of documents by way of their semantic content.

  17. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. EEG Topographic Mapping of Visual and Kinesthetic Imagery in Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V E; Dikman, Z; Bird, E I; Williams, J M; Harmison, R; Shaw-Thornton, L; Schwartz, G E

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated differences in QEEG measures between kinesthetic and visual imagery of a 100-m swim in 36 elite competitive swimmers. Background information and post-trial checks controlled for the modality of imagery, swimming skill level, preferred imagery style, intensity of image and task equality. Measures of EEG relative magnitude in theta, low (7-9 Hz) and high alpha (8-10 Hz), and low and high beta were taken from 19 scalp sites during baseline, visual, and kinesthetic imagery. QEEG magnitudes in the low alpha band during the visual and kinesthetic conditions were attenuated from baseline in low band alpha but no changes were seen in any other bands. Swimmers produced more low alpha EEG magnitude during visual versus kinesthetic imagery. This was interpreted as the swimmers having a greater efficiency at producing visual imagery. Participants who reported a strong intensity versus a weaker feeling of the image (kinesthetic) had less low alpha magnitude, i.e., there was use of more cortical resources, but not for the visual condition. These data suggest that low band (7-9 Hz) alpha distinguishes imagery modalities from baseline, visual imagery requires less cortical resources than kinesthetic imagery, and that intense feelings of swimming requires more brain activity than less intense feelings.

  19. Constellation Map: Downstream visualization and interpretation of gene set enrichment results [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA approaches are widely used to identify coordinately regulated genes associated with phenotypes of interest. Here, we present Constellation Map, a tool to visualize and interpret the results when enrichment analyses yield a long list of significantly enriched gene sets. Constellation Map identifies commonalities that explain the enrichment of multiple top-scoring gene sets and maps the relationships between them. Constellation Map can help investigators take full advantage of GSEA and facilitates the biological interpretation of enrichment results. Availability: Constellation Map is freely available as a GenePattern module at http://www.genepattern.org.

  20. Large Scale Topographic Maps Generalisation and Visualization Based on New Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar, Ilma; Ključanin, Slobodanka; Poslončec-Petrić, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Integrating spatial data from different sources results in visualization which is the last step in the process of digital basic topographic maps creation. Sources used for visualization are existing real estate cadastre database orthophoto plans and digital terrain models. Analogue cadastre plans were scanned and georeferenced according to existing regulations and used for toponyms. Visualization of topologically inspected geometric primitives was performed based on the ''Collection of cartog...

  1. A Visual Framework for Digital Reconstruction of Topographic Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem; Smith, Neil; Wittmann, Roland; Schneider, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , this method has broad applicability for digitization and reconstruction of the world's old topographic maps that are often the only record of past landscapess and cultural heritage before their destruction under modern development.

  2. A Visual Framework for Digital Reconstruction of Topographic Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-09-30

    We present a framework for reconstructing Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) from scanned topographic maps. We first rectify the images to ensure that maps fit together without distortion. To segment iso-contours, we have developed a novel semi-automated method based on mean-shifts that requires only minimal user interaction. Contour labels are automatically read using an OCR module. To reconstruct the output DEM from scattered data, we generalize natural neighbor interpolation to handle the transfinite case (contours and points). To this end, we use parallel vector propagation to compute a discrete Voronoi diagram of the constraints, and a modified floodfill to compute virtual Voronoi tiles. Our framework is able to handle tens of thousands of contours and points and can generate DEMs comprising more than 100 million samples. We provide quantitative comparison to commercial software and show the benefits of our approach. We furthermore show the robustness of our method on a massive set of old maps predating satellite acquisition. Compared to other methods, our framework is able to accurately and efficiently generate a final DEM despite inconsistencies, sparse or missing contours even for highly complex and cluttered maps. Therefore, this method has broad applicability for digitization and reconstruction of the world\\'s old topographic maps that are often the only record of past landscapess and cultural heritage before their destruction under modern development.

  3. Functional MRI mapping of visual function and selective attention for performance assessment and presurgical planning using conjunctive visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jason G; Zalusky, Eric J; Kirbas, Cemil

    2014-03-01

    Accurate mapping of visual function and selective attention using fMRI is important in the study of human performance as well as in presurgical treatment planning of lesions in or near visual centers of the brain. Conjunctive visual search (CVS) is a useful tool for mapping visual function during fMRI because of its greater activation extent compared with high-capacity parallel search processes. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a CVS that was capable of generating consistent activation in the basic and higher level visual areas of the brain by using a high number of distractors as well as an optimized contrast condition. Images from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed and brain regions of greatest activation and deactivation were determined using a nonbiased decomposition of the results at the hemisphere, lobe, and gyrus levels. The results were quantified in terms of activation and deactivation extent and mean z-statistic. The proposed CVS was found to generate robust activation of the occipital lobe, as well as regions in the middle frontal gyrus associated with coordinating eye movements and in regions of the insula associated with task-level control and focal attention. As expected, the task demonstrated deactivation patterns commonly implicated in the default-mode network. Further deactivation was noted in the posterior region of the cerebellum, most likely associated with the formation of optimal search strategy. We believe the task will be useful in studies of visual and selective attention in the neuroscience community as well as in mapping visual function in clinical fMRI.

  4. Visual cortex in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: Changes in visual field maps and population receptive fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa A. Brewer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1 during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM organization and population receptive fields (pRFs between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD.

  5. Wearable Gaze Trackers: Mapping Visual Attention in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Suurmets, Seidi

    2017-01-01

    gaze trackers allows respondents to move freely in any real world 3D environment, removing the previous restrictions. In this paper we propose a novel approach for processing visual attention of respondents using mobile wearable gaze trackers in a 3D environment. The pipeline consists of 3 steps...

  6. ORGANIZATION AND VISUALIZATION TO OBSERVATIONAL DATA USING WEB MAPPING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in the field of nature protection are monitoring environmental pollution resulting from human impact on nature, and as a result of natural processes. Monitoring the state of the environment in the area of the various industries can reduce costs to eliminate the impact of industrial accidents, which in turn reduces the possibility of contamination soil, surface water, loss of vegetation and wildlife. Consider the problem of creation of information-analytical systems for environmental monitoring of the natural environment and resources, built on the basis of GIS technologies, Internet, remote sensing data processing and data from monitoring stations. Considerable attention is given to web services, software interfaces and generally accepted standards. The author were directly involved in the development and implementation of projects of ecological orientation. In developing the software many different software libraries and components were used. Web mapping user interface was created using a number of open source libraries. To create a server-side web application author used GIS platforms MapGuide Open Source and Minnesota MapServer. GeoWebCache was another essential component of distributed web mapping environmental monitoring applications.

  7. Maps of intersections in visual education: artistic event as pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belidson Dias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the artistic event as pedagogical in Visual Education. It lies in the encounter between the Pictorial Turn in education and the pedagogical turn in art. Drawing from Cultural Pedagogy it seeks to cover how and under what conditions an event can be both an educational and artistic event at the same and how are instituted the spaces that promote educational events as aesthetic experiences. In this article it was pointed out conceptual and methodological bases for distinguishing the space of intersection between art and Visual Education and its political and cultural implications: Participant Art, Cultural Pedagogy and their relationships among politics and aesthetics. In this sense it analyzes the crossings of frontiers both in art and education and creates possibilities for an understanding of pedagogy of dissent.

  8. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  9. Visual map and instruction-based bicycle navigation: a comparison of effects on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Joling, Danielle; Weiland, Stella; Stadtbäumer, Ronja; Kaltofen, Leonie

    2017-09-01

    Cycling with a classic paper map was compared with navigating with a moving map displayed on a smartphone, and with auditory, and visual turn-by-turn route guidance. Spatial skills were found to be related to navigation performance, however only when navigating from a paper or electronic map, not with turn-by-turn (instruction based) navigation. While navigating, 25% of the time cyclists fixated at the devices that present visual information. Navigating from a paper map required most mental effort and both young and older cyclists preferred electronic over paper map navigation. In particular a turn-by-turn dedicated guidance device was favoured. Visual maps are in particular useful for cyclists with higher spatial skills. Turn-by-turn information is used by all cyclists, and it is useful to make these directions available in all devices. Practitioner Summary: Electronic navigation devices are preferred over a paper map. People with lower spatial skills benefit most from turn-by-turn guidance information, presented either auditory or on a dedicated device. People with higher spatial skills perform well with all devices. It is advised to keep in mind that all users benefit from turn-by-turn information when developing a navigation device for cyclists.

  10. The Effects of Knowledge Maps on Acquisition and Retention of Visual Arts Concepts in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Vitulli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the use of knowledge maps as a tool for teacher education students to increase knowledge acquisition and retention of concepts related to the visual arts design elements: line, color, and shape. Participants were randomly assigned to either the no map or knowledge map group. Three instruments—Student Autobiography, Elements of Design Tests (EDT, and Knowledge Map Questionnaire—were used to collect data. Results revealed significantly higher means on the immediately administered posttest for the elements line and color and the delayed posttest for line map group. Questionnaire responses indicated positive attitudes toward knowledge map use as a study strategy. Specifically, endorsement was reported toward maps’ clarity, effectiveness for learning concepts, and enjoyment of use.

  11. Visualizing Article Similarities via Sparsified Article Network and Map Projection for Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) of biomedical literature summarize evidence from high-quality studies to inform clinical decisions, but are time and labor intensive due to the large number of article collections. Article similarities established from textual features have been shown to assist in the identification of relevant articles, thus facilitating the article screening process efficiently. In this study, we visualized article similarities to extend its utilization in practical settings for SR researchers, aiming to promote human comprehension of article distributions and hidden patterns. To prompt an effective visualization in an interpretable, intuitive, and scalable way, we implemented a graph-based network visualization with three network sparsification approaches and a distance-based map projection via dimensionality reduction. We evaluated and compared three network sparsification approaches and the visualization types (article network vs. article map). We demonstrated the effectiveness in revealing article distribution and exhibiting clustering patterns of relevant articles with practical meanings for SRs.

  12. Visualizing the Quality of Vectur Features - a Proposal for Cadastral Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, G.; Leopoldseder, V.

    2017-09-01

    A well-known problem of geographical information is the communication of the quality level. It can be either done verbally / numerically or it can be done graphically. The graphical form is especially useful if the quality has a spatial variation because the spatial distribution is visualized as well. The problem of spatial variation of quality is an issue for cadastral maps. Non-experts cannot determine the quality at a specific location. Therefore a visual representation was tested for the Austrian cadastre. A map sheet was redesigned to give some indication of cadastral quality and presented to both experts and non-experts. The paper presents the result of the interviews.

  13. A Multi-Objective Approach to Visualize Proportions and Similarities Between Individuals by Rectangular Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing the proportions and the similarities attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one individual...... area and adjacency requirements, this visualization problem is formulated as a three-objective Mixed Integer Nonlinear Problem. The first objective seeks to maximize the number of true adjacencies that the rectangular map is able to reproduce, the second one is to minimize the number of false...

  14. Choosing colors for map display icons using models of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Joshua; Francis, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    We show how to choose colors for icons on maps to minimize search time using predictions of a model of visual search. The model analyzes digital images of a search target (an icon on a map) and a search display (the map containing the icon) and predicts search time as a function of target-distractor color distinctiveness and target eccentricity. We parameterized the model using data from a visual search task and performed a series of optimization tasks to test the model's ability to choose colors for icons to minimize search time across icons. Map display designs made by this procedure were tested experimentally. In a follow-up experiment, we examined the model's flexibility to assign colors in novel search situations. The model fits human performance, performs well on the optimization tasks, and can choose colors for icons on maps with novel stimuli to minimize search time without requiring additional model parameter fitting. Models of visual search can suggest color choices that produce search time reductions for display icons. Designers should consider constructing visual search models as a low-cost method of evaluating color assignments.

  15. Flow Visualization with Quantified Spatial and Temporal Errors Using Edge Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, H.

    2012-09-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Traditional analysis and visualization techniques rely primarily on computing streamlines through numerical integration. The inherent numerical errors of such approaches are usually ignored, leading to inconsistencies that cause unreliable visualizations and can ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with maps from the triangle boundaries to themselves. This representation, called edge maps, permits a concise description of flow behaviors and is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. Independent of this error streamlines computed using edge maps are guaranteed to be consistent up to floating point precision, enabling the stable extraction of features such as the topological skeleton. Furthermore, our representation explicitly stores spatial and temporal errors which we use to produce more informative visualizations. This work describes the construction of edge maps, the error quantification, and a refinement procedure to adhere to a user defined error bound. Finally, we introduce new visualizations using the additional information provided by edge maps to indicate the uncertainty involved in computing streamlines and topological structures. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Flow Visualization with Quantified Spatial and Temporal Errors Using Edge Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, H.; Jadhav, S.; Bremer, P.; Guoning Chen,; Levine, J. A.; Nonato, L. G.; Pascucci, V.

    2012-01-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Traditional analysis and visualization techniques rely primarily on computing streamlines through numerical integration. The inherent numerical errors of such approaches are usually ignored, leading to inconsistencies that cause unreliable visualizations and can ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with maps from the triangle boundaries to themselves. This representation, called edge maps, permits a concise description of flow behaviors and is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. Independent of this error streamlines computed using edge maps are guaranteed to be consistent up to floating point precision, enabling the stable extraction of features such as the topological skeleton. Furthermore, our representation explicitly stores spatial and temporal errors which we use to produce more informative visualizations. This work describes the construction of edge maps, the error quantification, and a refinement procedure to adhere to a user defined error bound. Finally, we introduce new visualizations using the additional information provided by edge maps to indicate the uncertainty involved in computing streamlines and topological structures. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  18. VISUAL UAV TRAJECTORY PLAN SYSTEM BASED ON NETWORK MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  19. Probability Maps for the Visualization of Assimilation Ensemble Flow Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2015-05-25

    Ocean forecasts nowadays are created by running ensemble simulations in combination with data assimilation techniques. Most of these techniques resample the ensemble members after each assimilation cycle. This means that in a time series, after resampling, every member can follow up on any of the members before resampling. Tracking behavior over time, such as all possible paths of a particle in an ensemble vector field, becomes very difficult, as the number of combinations rises exponentially with the number of assimilation cycles. In general a single possible path is not of interest but only the probabilities that any point in space might be reached by a particle at some point in time. In this work we present an approach using probability-weighted piecewise particle trajectories to allow such a mapping interactively, instead of tracing quadrillions of individual particles. We achieve interactive rates by binning the domain and splitting up the tracing process into the individual assimilation cycles, so that particles that fall into the same bin after a cycle can be treated as a single particle with a larger probability as input for the next time step. As a result we loose the possibility to track individual particles, but can create probability maps for any desired seed at interactive rates.

  20. Visual Uav Trajectory Plan System Based on Network Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; Lin, Z. J.; Su, G. Z.; Wu, B. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  1. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent...... the proportions and the distances between them represent the dissimilarities. To enhance the interpretability of the representation, the regions are required to satisfy two properties. First, they must form a partition of the unit square, namely, the portions in which it is divided must cover its area without...... is solved heuristically by using the Large Neighborhood Search technique. The methodology proposed in this paper is applied to three real-world datasets: the first one concerning financial markets in Europe and Asia, the second one about the letters in the English alphabet, and finally the provinces...

  2. A Visual Interface Diagram For Mapping Functions In Integrated Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Mattias; Oliver Jespersen, Mikkel; Göhler, Simon Moritz

    2015-01-01

    In product development there is a recognized tendency towards increased functionality for each new product generation. This leads to more integrated and complex products, with the risk of development delays and quality issues as a consequence of lacking overview and transparency. The work described...... of visualizing relations between parts and functions in highly integrated mechanical products. The result is an interface diagram that supports design teams in communication, decision making and design management. The diagram gives the designer an overview of the couplings and dependencies within a product...... in this article has been conducted in collaboration with Novo Nordisk on the insulin injection device FlexTouch® as case product. The FlexTouch® reflects the characteristics of an integrated product with several functions shared between a relatively low number of parts. In this article we present a novel way...

  3. Discussion on the 3D visualizing of 1:200 000 geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng

    2018-01-01

    Using United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) terrain data as digital elevation model (DEM), overlap scanned 1:200 000 scale geological map, program using Direct 3D of Microsoft with C# computer language, the author realized the three-dimensional visualization of the standard division geological map. User can inspect the regional geology content with arbitrary angle, rotating, roaming, and can examining the strata synthetical histogram, map section and legend at any moment. This will provide an intuitionistic analyzing tool for the geological practitioner to do structural analysis with the assistant of landform, dispose field exploration route etc.

  4. Visualizing the topical structure of the medical sciences: a self-organizing map approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Skupin

    Full Text Available We implement a high-resolution visualization of the medical knowledge domain using the self-organizing map (SOM method, based on a corpus of over two million publications. While self-organizing maps have been used for document visualization for some time, (1 little is known about how to deal with truly large document collections in conjunction with a large number of SOM neurons, (2 post-training geometric and semiotic transformations of the SOM tend to be limited, and (3 no user studies have been conducted with domain experts to validate the utility and readability of the resulting visualizations. Our study makes key contributions to all of these issues.Documents extracted from Medline and Scopus are analyzed on the basis of indexer-assigned MeSH terms. Initial dimensionality is reduced to include only the top 10% most frequent terms and the resulting document vectors are then used to train a large SOM consisting of over 75,000 neurons. The resulting two-dimensional model of the high-dimensional input space is then transformed into a large-format map by using geographic information system (GIS techniques and cartographic design principles. This map is then annotated and evaluated by ten experts stemming from the biomedical and other domains.Study results demonstrate that it is possible to transform a very large document corpus into a map that is visually engaging and conceptually stimulating to subject experts from both inside and outside of the particular knowledge domain. The challenges of dealing with a truly large corpus come to the fore and require embracing parallelization and use of supercomputing resources to solve otherwise intractable computational tasks. Among the envisaged future efforts are the creation of a highly interactive interface and the elaboration of the notion of this map of medicine acting as a base map, onto which other knowledge artifacts could be overlaid.

  5. Spatio-temporal flow maps for visualizing movement and contact patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Ni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The advanced telecom technologies and massive volumes of intelligent mobile phone users have yielded a huge amount of real-time data of people’s all-in-one telecommunication records, which we call telco big data. With telco data and the domain knowledge of an urban city, we are now able to analyze the movement and contact patterns of humans in an unprecedented scale. Flow map is widely used to display the movements of humans from one single source to multiple destinations by representing locations as nodes and movements as edges. However, it fails the task of visualizing both movement and contact data. In addition, analysts often need to compare and examine the patterns side by side, and do various quantitative analysis. In this work, we propose a novel spatio-temporal flow map layout to visualize when and where people from different locations move into the same places and make contact. We also propose integrating the spatiotemporal flow maps into existing spatiotemporal visualization techniques to form a suite of techniques for visualizing the movement and contact patterns. We report a potential application the proposed techniques can be applied to. The results show that our design and techniques properly unveil hidden information, while analysis can be achieved efficiently. Keywords: Spatio-temporal data, Flow map, Urban mobility

  6. Visualizing the Past: The Design of a Temporally Enabled Map for Presentation (TEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Prestopnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a design case for a prototype visualization tool called the Temporally Enabled Map for Presentation (TEMPO. Designed for use in the lecture classroom, TEMPO is an interactive animated map that addressed a common problem in military history: the shortcomings of traditional static (non-interactive, non-animated maps. Static maps show spatial elements well, but cannot do more than approximate temporal events using multiple views, movement arrows, and the like. TEMPO provides a more complete view of past historical events by showing them from start to finish. In our design case we describe our development process, which included consultation with military history domain experts, classroom observations, application of techniques derived from visualization and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI literature and theory. Our design case shows how the design of an educational tool can motivate scholarly evaluation, and we describe how some theories were first embraced and then rejected as design circumstances required. Finally, we explore a future direction for TEMPO, tools to support creative interactions with visualizations where students or instructors can learn by visualizing historical events for themselves. A working version of the finished TEMPO artifact is included as an interactive element in this document.

  7. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Anderson, O. Roger

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample…

  8. Estimation of visual maps with a robot network equipped with vision sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Arturo; Reinoso, Óscar; Ballesta, Mónica; Juliá, Miguel; Payá, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem using a team of autonomous vehicles equipped with vision sensors. The SLAM problem considers the case in which a mobile robot is equipped with a particular sensor, moves along the environment, obtains measurements with its sensors and uses them to construct a model of the space where it evolves. In this paper we focus on the case where several robots, each equipped with its own sensor, are distributed in a network and view the space from different vantage points. In particular, each robot is equipped with a stereo camera that allow the robots to extract visual landmarks and obtain relative measurements to them. We propose an algorithm that uses the measurements obtained by the robots to build a single accurate map of the environment. The map is represented by the three-dimensional position of the visual landmarks. In addition, we consider that each landmark is accompanied by a visual descriptor that encodes its visual appearance. The solution is based on a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter that estimates the paths of the robots and the position of the visual landmarks. The validity of our proposal is demonstrated by means of experiments with a team of real robots in a office-like indoor environment.

  9. Estimation of Visual Maps with a Robot Network Equipped with Vision Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Gil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM problem using a team of autonomous vehicles equipped with vision sensors. The SLAM problem considers the case in which a mobile robot is equipped with a particular sensor, moves along the environment, obtains measurements with its sensors and uses them to construct a model of the space where it evolves. In this paper we focus on the case where several robots, each equipped with its own sensor, are distributed in a network and view the space from different vantage points. In particular, each robot is equipped with a stereo camera that allow the robots to extract visual landmarks and obtain relative measurements to them. We propose an algorithm that uses the measurements obtained by the robots to build a single accurate map of the environment. The map is represented by the three-dimensional position of the visual landmarks. In addition, we consider that each landmark is accompanied by a visual descriptor that encodes its visual appearance. The solution is based on a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter that estimates the paths of the robots and the position of the visual landmarks. The validity of our proposal is demonstrated by means of experiments with a team of real robots in a office-like indoor environment.

  10. CellMap visualizes protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallago, Christian; Goldberg, Tatyana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio; Rost, Burkhard

    2018-01-01

    Many tools visualize protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. The tool introduced here, CellMap, adds one crucial novelty by visualizing PPI networks in the context of subcellular localization, i.e. the location in the cell or cellular component in which a PPI happens. Users can upload images of cells and define areas of interest against which PPIs for selected proteins are displayed (by default on a cartoon of a cell). Annotations of localization are provided by the user or through our in-house database. The visualizer and server are written in JavaScript, making CellMap easy to customize and to extend by researchers and developers. PMID:29497493

  11. Automatic transfer function design for medical visualization using visibility distributions and projective color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lile; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chui, Chee-Kong; Ong, Sim-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Transfer functions play a key role in volume rendering of medical data, but transfer function manipulation is unintuitive and can be time-consuming; achieving an optimal visualization of patient anatomy or pathology is difficult. To overcome this problem, we present a system for automatic transfer function design based on visibility distribution and projective color mapping. Instead of assigning opacity directly based on voxel intensity and gradient magnitude, the opacity transfer function is automatically derived by matching the observed visibility distribution to a target visibility distribution. An automatic color assignment scheme based on projective mapping is proposed to assign colors that allow for the visual discrimination of different structures, while also reflecting the degree of similarity between them. When our method was tested on several medical volumetric datasets, the key structures within the volume were clearly visualized with minimal user intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ResistoMap-online visualization of human gut microbiota antibiotic resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarygin, Konstantin S; Kovarsky, Boris A; Bibikova, Tatyana S; Melnikov, Damir S; Tyakht, Alexander V; Alexeev, Dmitry G

    2017-07-15

    We created ResistoMap—a Web-based interactive visualization of the presence of genetic determinants conferring resistance to antibiotics, biocides and heavy metals in human gut microbiota. ResistoMap displays the data on more than 1500 published gut metagenomes of world populations including both healthy subjects and patients. Multiparameter display filters allow visual assessment of the associations between the meta-data and proportions of resistome. The geographic map navigation layer allows to state hypotheses regarding the global trends of antibiotic resistance and correlates the gut resistome variations with the national clinical guidelines on antibiotics application. ResistoMap was implemented using AngularJS, CoffeeScript, D3.js and TopoJSON. The tool is publicly available at http://resistomap.rcpcm.org. yarygin@phystech.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Modeling of the positioning system and visual mark-up of historical cadastral maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jakopec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present of the possibilities of positioning and visual markup of historical cadastral maps onto Google maps using open source software. The corpus is stored in the Croatian State Archives in Zagreb, in the Maps Archive for Croatia and Slavonia. It is part of cadastral documentation that consists of cadastral material from the period of first cadastral survey conducted in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia from 1847 to 1877, and which is used extensively according to the data provided by the customer service of the Croatian State Archives. User needs on the one side and the possibilities of innovative implementation of ICT on the other have motivated the development of the system which would use digital copies of original cadastral maps and connect them with systems like Google maps, and thus both protect the original materials and open up new avenues of research related to the use of originals. With this aim in mind, two cadastral map presentation models have been created. Firstly, there is a detailed display of the original, which enables its viewing using dynamic zooming. Secondly, the interactive display is facilitated through blending the cadastral maps with Google maps, which resulted in establishing links between the coordinates of the digital and original plans through transformation. The transparency of the original can be changed, and the user can intensify the visibility of the underlying layer (Google map or the top layer (cadastral map, which enables direct insight into parcel dynamics over a longer time-span. The system also allows for the mark-up of cadastral maps, which can lead to the development of the cumulative index of all terms found on cadastral maps. The paper is an example of the implementation of ICT for providing new services, strengthening cooperation with the interested public and related institutions, familiarizing the public with the archival material, and offering new possibilities for

  14. AERYN: A simple standalone application for visualizing and enhancing elemental maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchi, Vincent; Crowley, Quentin G.; Ubide, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of high spatial resolution elemental mineral maps can be hindered by high frequency fluctuations, as well as by strong naturally-occurring or analytically-induced variations. We have developed a new standalone program named AERYN (Aspect Enhancement by Removing Yielded Noise) to produce more reliable element distribution maps from previously reduced geochemical data. The program is Matlab-based, designed with a graphic user interface and is capable of rapidly generating elemental maps from data acquired by a range of analytical techniques. A visual interface aids selection of appropriate outlier rejection and drift-correction parameters, thereby facilitating recognition of subtle elemental fluctuations which may otherwise be obscured. Examples of use are provided for quantitative trace element maps acquired using both laser ablation (LA-) ICP-MS and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. We demonstrate how AERYN allows recognition of high frequency elemental fluctuations, including those which occur perpendicular to the maximum concentration gradient. Such data treatment compliments commonly used processing methods to provide greater flexibility and control in producing elemental maps from micro-analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Matlab-based application to improve visualization of elemental maps. • Capable of detrending when data set shows drift. • Compatible with processed data text files from LA-ICP-MS, EDS and EPMA. • Option to filter geochemical trends to observe high-frequency fluctuations.

  15. Selective loss of orientation column maps in visual cortex during brief elevation of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Sun, Chao; Huang, Luoxiu; Shou, Tiande

    2003-01-01

    To compare the orientation column maps elicited by different spatial frequency gratings in cortical area 17 of cats before and during brief elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP was elevated by injecting saline into the anterior chamber of a cat's eye through a syringe needle. The IOP was elevated enough to cause a retinal perfusion pressure (arterial pressure minus IOP) of approximately 30 mm Hg during a brief elevation of IOP. The visual stimulus gratings were varied in spatial frequency, whereas other parameters were kept constant. The orientation column maps of the cortical area 17 were monocularly elicited by drifting gratings of different spatial frequencies and revealed by a brain intrinsic signal optical imaging system. These maps were compared before and during short-term elevation of IOP. The response amplitude of the orientation maps in area 17 decreased during a brief elevation of IOP. This decrease was dependent on the retinal perfusion pressure but not on the absolute IOP. The location of the most visible maps was spatial-frequency dependent. The blurring or loss of the pattern of the orientation maps was most severe when high-spatial-frequency gratings were used and appeared most significantly on the posterior part of the exposed cortex while IOP was elevated. However, the basic patterns of the maps remained unchanged. Changes in cortical signal were not due to changes in the optics of the eye with elevation of IOP. A stable normal IOP is essential for maintaining normal visual cortical functions. During a brief and high elevation of IOP, the cortical processing of high-spatial-frequency visual information was diminished because of a selectively functional decline of the retinogeniculocortical X pathway by a mechanism of retinal circulation origin.

  16. On Mathematical Optimization for the Visualization of Frequencies and Adjacencies as Rectangular Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2018-01-01

    individuals as adjacent rectangular portions as possible and adding as few false adjacencies, i.e., adjacencies between rectangular portions corresponding to non-adjacent individuals, as possible. We formulate this visualization problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. We propose......In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a frequency distribution and an adjacency relation attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one...

  17. Visual acuity and microperimetric mapping of lesion area in eyes with inflammatory cystoid macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Marion R; Kiss, Christopher G; Huf, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE:   To evaluate the effect of fluid accumulation on local visual function in inflammatory cystoid-macular-edema (ICME). METHODS:   This cross-sectional study applied optical-coherence-tomography over a 12×12 fovea-centered field in 50 patients with ICME and mapped the extent of fluid-fille...... retinal layers also had major impact on both of these two functional parameters. Visual-impairment seems to differ depending on the layers involved, thus different types of fluid accumulation may potentially be given varying treatment priorities....

  18. Personal sleep pattern visualization using sequence-based kernel self-organizing map on sound data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongle; Kato, Takafumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Numao, Masayuki; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method to discover sleep patterns via clustering of sound events recorded during sleep. The proposed method extends the conventional self-organizing map algorithm by kernelization and sequence-based technologies to obtain a fine-grained map that visualizes the distribution and changes of sleep-related events. We introduced features widely applied in sound processing and popular kernel functions to the proposed method to evaluate and compare performance. The proposed method provides a new aspect of sleep monitoring because the results demonstrate that sound events can be directly correlated to an individual's sleep patterns. In addition, by visualizing the transition of cluster dynamics, sleep-related sound events were found to relate to the various stages of sleep. Therefore, these results empirically warrant future study into the assessment of personal sleep quality using sound data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiscale visual quality assessment for cluster analysis with self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jürgen; von Landesberger, Tatiana; Bremm, Sebastian; Schreck, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is an important data mining technique for analyzing large amounts of data, reducing many objects to a limited number of clusters. Cluster visualization techniques aim at supporting the user in better understanding the characteristics and relationships among the found clusters. While promising approaches to visual cluster analysis already exist, these usually fall short of incorporating the quality of the obtained clustering results. However, due to the nature of the clustering process, quality plays an important aspect, as for most practical data sets, typically many different clusterings are possible. Being aware of clustering quality is important to judge the expressiveness of a given cluster visualization, or to adjust the clustering process with refined parameters, among others. In this work, we present an encompassing suite of visual tools for quality assessment of an important visual cluster algorithm, namely, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique. We define, measure, and visualize the notion of SOM cluster quality along a hierarchy of cluster abstractions. The quality abstractions range from simple scalar-valued quality scores up to the structural comparison of a given SOM clustering with output of additional supportive clustering methods. The suite of methods allows the user to assess the SOM quality on the appropriate abstraction level, and arrive at improved clustering results. We implement our tools in an integrated system, apply it on experimental data sets, and show its applicability.

  20. Mapping language to visual referents: Does the degree of image realism matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryazdi, Raheleh; Chambers, Craig G

    2018-01-01

    Studies of real-time spoken language comprehension have shown that listeners rapidly map unfolding speech to available referents in the immediate visual environment. This has been explored using various kinds of 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, with convenience or availability typically motivating the choice of a particular image type. However, work in other areas has suggested that certain cognitive processes are sensitive to the level of realism in 2D representations. The present study examined the process of mapping language to depictions of objects that are more or less realistic, namely photographs versus clipart images. A custom stimulus set was first created by generating clipart images directly from photographs of real objects. Two visual world experiments were then conducted, varying whether referent identification was driven by noun or verb information. A modest benefit for clipart stimuli was observed during real-time processing, but only for noun-driving mappings. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for studies of visually situated language processing. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global Appearance Applied to Visual Map Building and Path Estimation Using Multiscale Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amorós

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a topological map building and localization system for mobile robots based on global appearance of visual information. We include a comparison and analysis of global-appearance techniques applied to wide-angle scenes in retrieval tasks. Next, we define multiscale analysis, which permits improving the association between images and extracting topological distances. Then, a topological map-building algorithm is proposed. At first, the algorithm has information only of some isolated positions of the navigation area in the form of nodes. Each node is composed of a collection of images that covers the complete field of view from a certain position. The algorithm solves the node retrieval and estimates their spatial arrangement. With these aims, it uses the visual information captured along some routes that cover the navigation area. As a result, the algorithm builds a graph that reflects the distribution and adjacency relations between nodes (map. After the map building, we also propose a route path estimation system. This algorithm takes advantage of the multiscale analysis. The accuracy in the pose estimation is not reduced to the nodes locations but also to intermediate positions between them. The algorithms have been tested using two different databases captured in real indoor environments under dynamic conditions.

  2. Visual Analysis Based on the Data of Chinese Surveying and Mapping Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Haiyan; Guo, Wenyue; Yu, Anzhu

    2016-06-01

    Taking four influential Chinese surveying and mapping journals as the data source, 5863 papers published during the period of 2003-2013 were obtained. Using the method of bibliometrics and visual analysis, summarizing the surveying and mapping papers in the past ten years (2003-2013), research themes, authors, and geographical distribution were analyzed. In the study, the papers of geodesy, cartography and GIS are 59.9%, more than half of all the papers. We also determine that the core author group has 131 authors, mainly of whom are from big cities. 90% of top ten cities on the number of publishing papers are capital cities or municipalities directly under the central government.In conclusion, we found that the research focus was different every year, and the research content was richness, the content of geodesy, cartography and GIS were widely researched, and the development of surveying and mapping is imbalanced in China.

  3. An Information-Theoretic-Cluster Visualization for Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Leonardo Enzo; Wunsch, Donald C

    2018-06-01

    Improved data visualization will be a significant tool to enhance cluster analysis. In this paper, an information-theoretic-based method for cluster visualization using self-organizing maps (SOMs) is presented. The information-theoretic visualization (IT-vis) has the same structure as the unified distance matrix, but instead of depicting Euclidean distances between adjacent neurons, it displays the similarity between the distributions associated with adjacent neurons. Each SOM neuron has an associated subset of the data set whose cardinality controls the granularity of the IT-vis and with which the first- and second-order statistics are computed and used to estimate their probability density functions. These are used to calculate the similarity measure, based on Renyi's quadratic cross entropy and cross information potential (CIP). The introduced visualizations combine the low computational cost and kernel estimation properties of the representative CIP and the data structure representation of a single-linkage-based grouping algorithm to generate an enhanced SOM-based visualization. The visual quality of the IT-vis is assessed by comparing it with other visualization methods for several real-world and synthetic benchmark data sets. Thus, this paper also contains a significant literature survey. The experiments demonstrate the IT-vis cluster revealing capabilities, in which cluster boundaries are sharply captured. Additionally, the information-theoretic visualizations are used to perform clustering of the SOM. Compared with other methods, IT-vis of large SOMs yielded the best results in this paper, for which the quality of the final partitions was evaluated using external validity indices.

  4. [Retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging - basic principles, current developments and ophthalmological perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M B; Kaule, F; Grzeschik, R; Behrens-Baumann, W; Wolynski, B

    2011-07-01

    Since its initial introduction in the mid-1990 s, retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has contributed greatly to our understanding of the human visual system. Multiple cortical visual field representations have been demonstrated and thus numerous visual areas identified. The organisation of specific areas has been detailed and the impact of pathophysiologies of the visual system on the cortical organisation uncovered. These results are based on investigations at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla or less. In a field-strength comparison between 3 and 7 Tesla, it was demonstrated that retinotopic mapping benefits from a magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla. Specifically, the visual areas can be mapped with high spatial resolution for a detailed analysis of the visual field maps. Applications of fMRI-based retinotopic mapping in ophthalmological research hold promise to further our understanding of plasticity in the human visual cortex. This is highlighted by pioneering studies in patients with macular dysfunction or misrouted optic nerves. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Adaptive Kalman filtering for real-time mapping of the visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. Douglas; Janik, John; Mazaheri, Yousef; Ma, Yan; DeYoe, Edgar A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of real-time mapping of the visual field for clinical applications. Specifically, three aspects of this problem were considered: (1) experimental design, (2) statistical analysis, and (3) display of results. Proper experimental design is essential to achieving a successful outcome, particularly for real-time applications. A random-block experimental design was shown to have less sensitivity to measurement noise, as well as greater robustness to error in modeling of the hemodynamic impulse response function (IRF) and greater flexibility than common alternatives. In addition, random encoding of the visual field allows for the detection of voxels that are responsive to multiple, not necessarily contiguous, regions of the visual field. Due to its recursive nature, the Kalman filter is ideally suited for real-time statistical analysis of visual field mapping data. An important feature of the Kalman filter is that it can be used for nonstationary time series analysis. The capability of the Kalman filter to adapt, in real time, to abrupt changes in the baseline arising from subject motion inside the scanner and other external system disturbances is important for the success of clinical applications. The clinician needs real-time information to evaluate the success or failure of the imaging run and to decide whether to extend, modify, or terminate the run. Accordingly, the analytical software provides real-time displays of (1) brain activation maps for each stimulus segment, (2) voxel-wise spatial tuning profiles, (3) time plots of the variability of response parameters, and (4) time plots of activated volume. PMID:22100663

  6. Preclinical medical students’ understandings of academic and medical professionalism: visual analysis of mind maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have begun to explore medical students’ understandings of professionalism generally and medical professionalism specifically. Despite espoused relationships between academic (AP) and medical professionalism (MP), previous research has not yet investigated students’ conceptualisations of AP and MP and the relationships between the two. Objectives The current study, based on innovative visual analysis of mind maps, therefore aims to contribute to the developing literature on how professionalism is understood. Methods We performed a multilayered analysis of 98 mind maps from 262 first-year medical students, including analysing textual and graphical elements of AP, MP and the relationships between AP and MP. Results The most common textual attributes of AP were learning, lifestyle and personality, while attributes of MP were knowledge, ethics and patient-doctor relations. Images of books, academic caps and teachers were used most often to represent AP, while images of the stethoscope, doctor and red cross were used to symbolise MP. While AP-MP relations were sometimes indicated through co-occurring text, visual connections and higher-order visual metaphors, many students struggled to articulate the relationships between AP and MP. Conclusions While the mind maps’ textual attributes shared similarities with those found in previous research, suggesting the universality of some professionalism attributes, our study provides new insights into students’ conceptualisations of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships. We encourage medical educators to help students develop their understandings of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships, plus consider the feasibility and value of mind maps as a source of visual data for medical education research. PMID:28821520

  7. Plasticity of orientation preference maps in the visual cortex of adult cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Ben; Leonhardt, Ralph; Cords, Sven M.; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the high degree of experience-dependent plasticity usually exhibited by cortical representational maps, a number of experiments performed in visual cortex suggest that the basic layout of orientation preference maps is only barely susceptible to activity-dependent modifications. In fact, most of what we know about activity-dependent plasticity in adults comes from experiments in somatosensory, auditory, or motor cortex. Applying a stimulation protocol that has been proven highly effective in other cortical areas, we demonstrate here that enforced synchronous cortical activity induces major changes of orientation preference maps (OPMs) in adult cats. Combining optical imaging of intrinsic signals and electrophysiological single-cell recordings, we show that a few hours of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) lead to an enlargement of the cortical representational zone at the ICMS site and an extensive restructuring of the entire OPM layout up to several millimeters away, paralleled by dramatic changes of pinwheel numbers and locations. At the single-cell level, we found that the preferred orientation was shifted toward the orientation of the ICMS site over a region of up to 4 mm. Our results show that manipulating the synchronicity of cortical activity locally without invoking training, attention, or reinforcement, OPMs undergo large-scale reorganization reminiscent of plastic changes observed for nonvisual cortical maps. However, changes were much more widespread and enduring. Such large-scale restructuring of the visual cortical networks indicates a substantial capability for activity-dependent plasticity of adult visual cortex and may provide the basis for cognitive learning processes. PMID:11959906

  8. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John, E-mail: adam.shaw@npl.co.u [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-07

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45{sup 0} to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 {sup 0}C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  9. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John

    2010-01-01

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45 0 to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 0 C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  10. Digital administrative maps – A tool for visualization of epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to present the methods for visualization of epidemiological data using digital contour maps that take into account administrative division of Poland. Materials and Methods: The possibility of epidemiological data visualization in a geographical order, limited to the administrative level of the country, voivodeships and poviats (counties, are presented. They are crucial for the process of identifying and undertaking adequate prophylactic activities directed towards decreasing the risk and improving the population's health. This paper presents tools and techniques available in Geographic Information System ArcGIS and statistical software package R. Results: The work includes our own data reflecting: 1 the values of specific mortality rates due to respiratory diseases, Poland, 2010, based on the Central Statistical Office data, using the R statistical software package; 2 the averaged registered incidence rates of sarcoidosis in 2006-2010 for the population aged 19+ in the Silesian voivodeship, using Geographic Information System ArcGIS; and 3 the number of children with diagnosed respiratory diseases in the city of Legnica in 2009, taking into account their place of residence, using layered maps in Geographic Information System ArcGIS. Conclusions: The tools presented and described in this paper make it possible to visualize the results of research, to increase attractiveness of courses for students, as well as to enhance the skills and competence of students and participants of courses. Med Pr 2013;64(4:533–539

  11. Mapping and Visualization of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Pichardo, E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellites are man-made objects hovering around the Earth's orbit and are essential for Earth observation, i.e. the monitoring and gathering of data about the Earth's vital systems. Environmental Satellites are used for atmospheric research, weather forecasting, and warning as well as monitoring extreme weather events. These satellites are categorized into Geosynchronous and Low Earth (Polar) orbiting satellites. Visualizing satellite data is critical to understand the Earth's systems and changes to our environment. The objective of this research is to examine satellite-based remotely sensed data that needs to be processed and rendered in the form of maps or other forms of visualization to understand and interpret the satellites' observations to monitor the status, changes and evolution of the mega-disaster Deepwater Horizon Spill that occurred on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. In this project, we will use an array of tools and programs such as Python, CSPP and Linux. Also, we will use data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Polar-Orbiting Satellites Terra Earth Observing System AM-1 (EOS AM-1), and Aqua EOS PM-1 to investigate the mega-disaster. Each of these satellites carry a variety of instruments, and we will use the data obtained from the remote sensor Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Ultimately, this study shows the importance of mapping and visualizing data such as satellite data (MODIS) to understand the extents of environmental impacts disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil spill.

  12. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  13. SBGNViz: A Tool for Visualization and Complexity Management of SBGN Process Description Maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecit Sari

    Full Text Available Information about cellular processes and pathways is becoming increasingly available in detailed, computable standard formats such as BioPAX and SBGN. Effective visualization of this information is a key recurring requirement for biological data analysis, especially for -omic data. Biological data analysis is rapidly migrating to web based platforms; thus there is a substantial need for sophisticated web based pathway viewers that support these platforms and other use cases.Towards this goal, we developed a web based viewer named SBGNViz for process description maps in SBGN (SBGN-PD. SBGNViz can visualize both BioPAX and SBGN formats. Unique features of SBGNViz include the ability to nest nodes to arbitrary depths to represent molecular complexes and cellular locations, automatic pathway layout, editing and highlighting facilities to enable focus on sub-maps, and the ability to inspect pathway members for detailed information from EntrezGene. SBGNViz can be used within a web browser without any installation and can be readily embedded into web pages. SBGNViz has two editions built with ActionScript and JavaScript. The JavaScript edition, which also works on touch enabled devices, introduces novel methods for managing and reducing complexity of large SBGN-PD maps for more effective analysis.SBGNViz fills an important gap by making the large and fast-growing corpus of rich pathway information accessible to web based platforms. SBGNViz can be used in a variety of contexts and in multiple scenarios ranging from visualization of the results of a single study in a web page to building data analysis platforms.

  14. Mapping the Words: Experimental visualizations of translation structures between Ancient Greek and Classical Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Roeder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with presentation forms of linguistic transformation processes from ancient Greek sources that were translated into classical Arabic from the 9th to 11th century AD. Various examples demonstrate how visualizations support the interpretation of corpus structures, lexical differentiation, grammatical transformation and translation processes for single lexemes in the database project Glossarium Graeco-Arabicum. The database contains about 100,000 manually collected word pairs (still growing from 76 texts and their translations. The article discusses how the project utilizes Sankey diagrams, tree maps, balloon charts, data grids and classical coordinate systems to point out specific aspects of the data. Visualizations not only help beginners to understand the corpus structure, they also help editors and specialized users to identify specific phenomena. A well-documented interface design is crucial both for usability and interpretative work.

  15. High-resolution Self-Organizing Maps for advanced visualization and dimension reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Ayu; Nguyen, Van Tuc; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Tsoi, Ah Chung

    2018-05-04

    Kohonen's Self Organizing feature Map (SOM) provides an effective way to project high dimensional input features onto a low dimensional display space while preserving the topological relationships among the input features. Recent advances in algorithms that take advantages of modern computing hardware introduced the concept of high resolution SOMs (HRSOMs). This paper investigates the capabilities and applicability of the HRSOM as a visualization tool for cluster analysis and its suitabilities to serve as a pre-processor in ensemble learning models. The evaluation is conducted on a number of established benchmarks and real-world learning problems, namely, the policeman benchmark, two web spam detection problems, a network intrusion detection problem, and a malware detection problem. It is found that the visualization resulted from an HRSOM provides new insights concerning these learning problems. It is furthermore shown empirically that broad benefits from the use of HRSOMs in both clustering and classification problems can be expected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vector model for mapping of visual space to subjective 4-D sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuzevicius, Dalius; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a mathematical model of binocular vision that maps a visible physical world to a subjective perception of it. The subjective space is a set of 4-D vectors whose components are outputs of four monocular neurons from each of the two eyes. Monocular neurons have one of the four types of concentric receptive fields with Gabor-like weighting coefficients. Next this vector representation of binocular vision is implemented as a pool of neurons where each of them is selective to the object's particular location in a 3-D visual space. Formally each point of the visual space is being projected onto a 4-D sphere. Proposed model allows determination of subjective distances in depth and direction, provides computational means for determination of Panum's area and explains diplopia and allelotropia

  17. Visual assessment of BIPV retrofit design proposals for selected historical buildings using the saliency map method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of energy efficiency, many old buildings have to undergo a massive facade energy retrofit. How to predict the visual impact which solar installations on the aesthetic cultural value of these buildings has been a heated debate in Switzerland (and throughout the world. The usual evaluation method to describe the visual impact of BIPV is based on semantic and qualitative descriptors, and strongly dependent on personal preferences. The evaluation scale is therefore relative, flexible and imprecise. This paper proposes a new method to accurately measure the visual impact which BIPV installations have on a historical building by using the saliency map method. By imitating working principles of the human eye, it is measured how much the BIPV design proposals differ from the original building facade in the aspect of attracting human visual attention. The result is directly presented in a quantitative manner, and can be used to compare the fitness of different BIPV design proposals. The measuring process is numeric, objective and more precise.  

  18. Retinotopic maps and foveal suppression in the visual cortex of amblyopic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Ian P; Odom, J Vernon; Schwartz, Terry L; Mendola, Janine D

    2007-08-15

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder associated with loss of monocular acuity and sensitivity as well as profound alterations in binocular integration. Abnormal connections in visual cortex are known to underlie this loss, but the extent to which these abnormalities are regionally or retinotopically specific has not been fully determined. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared the retinotopic maps in visual cortex produced by each individual eye in 19 adults (7 esotropic strabismics, 6 anisometropes and 6 controls). In our standard viewing condition, the non-tested eye viewed a dichoptic homogeneous mid-level grey stimulus, thereby permitting some degree of binocular interaction. Regions-of-interest analysis was performed for extrafoveal V1, extrafoveal V2 and the foveal representation at the occipital pole. In general, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was reduced for the amblyopic eye. At the occipital pole, population receptive fields were shifted to represent more parafoveal locations for the amblyopic eye, compared with the fellow eye, in some subjects. Interestingly, occluding the fellow eye caused an expanded foveal representation for the amblyopic eye in one early-onset strabismic subject with binocular suppression, indicating real-time cortical remapping. In addition, a few subjects actually showed increased activity in parietal and temporal cortex when viewing with the amblyopic eye. We conclude that, even in a heterogeneous population, abnormal early visual experience commonly leads to regionally specific cortical adaptations.

  19. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali K.

    2014-12-31

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  20. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Strobelt, Hendrik; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  1. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awami, Ali K; Beyer, Johanna; Strobelt, Hendrik; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  2. High impact data visualization with Power View, Power Map, and Power BI

    CERN Document Server

    Aspin, Adam

    2014-01-01

    High Impact Data Visualization with Power View, Power Map, and Power BI helps you take business intelligence delivery to a new level that is interactive, engaging, even fun, all while driving commercial success through sound decision-making. Learn to harness the power of Microsoft's flagship, self-service business intelligence suite to deliver compelling and interactive insight with remarkable ease. Learn the essential techniques needed to enhance the look and feel of reports and dashboards so that you can seize your audience's attention and provide them with clear and accurate information. Al

  3. Fast and robust generation of feature maps for region-based visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Zaheer; Mertsching, Bärbel

    2008-05-01

    Visual attention is one of the important phenomena in biological vision which can be followed to achieve more efficiency, intelligence, and robustness in artificial vision systems. This paper investigates a region-based approach that performs pixel clustering prior to the processes of attention in contrast to late clustering as done by contemporary methods. The foundation steps of feature map construction for the region-based attention model are proposed here. The color contrast map is generated based upon the extended findings from the color theory, the symmetry map is constructed using a novel scanning-based method, and a new algorithm is proposed to compute a size contrast map as a formal feature channel. Eccentricity and orientation are computed using the moments of obtained regions and then saliency is evaluated using the rarity criteria. The efficient design of the proposed algorithms allows incorporating five feature channels while maintaining a processing rate of multiple frames per second. Another salient advantage over the existing techniques is the reusability of the salient regions in the high-level machine vision procedures due to preservation of their shapes and precise locations. The results indicate that the proposed model has the potential to efficiently integrate the phenomenon of attention into the main stream of machine vision and systems with restricted computing resources such as mobile robots can benefit from its advantages.

  4. Model Interpretation of Topological Spatial Analysis for the Visually Impaired (Blind Implemented in Google Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Franco Porto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological innovations promote the availability of geographic information on the Internet through Web GIS such as Google Earth and Google Maps. These systems contribute to the teaching and diffusion of geographical knowledge that instigates the recognition of the space we live in, leading to the creation of a spatial identity. In these products available on the Web, the interpretation and analysis of spatial information gives priority to one of the human senses: vision. Due to the fact that this representation of information is transmitted visually (image and vectors, a portion of the population is excluded from part of this knowledge because categories of analysis of geographic data such as borders, territory, and space can only be understood by people who can see. This paper deals with the development of a model of interpretation of topological spatial analysis based on the synthesis of voice and sounds that can be used by the visually impaired (blind.The implementation of a prototype in Google Maps and the usability tests performed are also examined. For the development work it was necessary to define the model of topological spatial analysis, focusing on computational implementation, which allows users to interpret the spatial relationships of regions (countries, states and municipalities, recognizing its limits, neighborhoods and extension beyond their own spatial relationships . With this goal in mind, several interface and usability guidelines were drawn up to be used by the visually impaired (blind. We conducted a detailed study of the Google Maps API (Application Programming Interface, which was the environment selected for prototype development, and studied the information available for the users of that system. The prototype was developed based on the synthesis of voice and sounds that implement the proposed model in C # language and in .NET environment. To measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the prototype, usability

  5. Visualization maps for the evolution of research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zheng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Ailian; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Haiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks (RHINs) and use visualization techniques to explore their evolution over time and differences between countries. We conducted a literature review for a 50-year period and compared the prevalence of certain index terms during the periods 1963-1993 and 1994-2014 and in six countries. We applied keyword frequency analysis, keyword co-occurrence analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis, and network visualization technology. The total number of keywords was found to increase with time. From 1994 to 2014, the research priorities shifted from hospital planning to community health planning. The number of keywords reflecting information-based research increased. The density of the knowledge network increased significantly, and partial keywords condensed into knowledge groups. All six countries focus on keywords including Information Systems; Telemedicine; Information Service; Medical Records Systems, Computerized; Internet; etc.; however, the level of development and some research priorities are different. RHIN research has generally increased in popularity over the past 50 years. The research hotspots are evolving and are at different levels of development in different countries. Knowledge network mapping and perceptual maps provide useful information for scholars, managers, and policy-makers.

  6. Velocity Mapping Toolbox (VMT): a processing and visualization suite for moving-vessel ADCP measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D.R.; Jackson, P.R.; Czuba, J.A.; Engel, F.L.; Rhoads, B.L.; Oberg, K.A.; Best, J.L.; Mueller, D.S.; Johnson, K.K.; Riley, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) for discharge measurements and three-dimensional flow mapping has increased rapidly in recent years and has been primarily driven by advances in acoustic technology and signal processing. Recent research has developed a variety of methods for processing data obtained from a range of ADCP deployments and this paper builds on this progress by describing new software for processing and visualizing ADCP data collected along transects in rivers or other bodies of water. The new utility, the Velocity Mapping Toolbox (VMT), allows rapid processing (vector rotation, projection, averaging and smoothing), visualization (planform and cross-section vector and contouring), and analysis of a range of ADCP-derived datasets. The paper documents the data processing routines in the toolbox and presents a set of diverse examples that demonstrate its capabilities. The toolbox is applicable to the analysis of ADCP data collected in a wide range of aquatic environments and is made available as open-source code along with this publication.

  7. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Environmental geospatial datasets (meteorological observations, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are used in numerous research applications. Due to a number of objective reasons such as inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets, big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences that complicate creation and use of unified terminology, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services as well as client applications turns out to be quite a sophisticated task. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization geoportal web applications have to provide such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map legends and corresponding metadata information. It should be noted that modern web mapping systems as integrated geoportal applications are developed based on the SOA and might be considered as complexes of interconnected software tools for working with geospatial data. In the report a complex web mapping system including GIS web client and corresponding OGC services for working with geospatial (NetCDF, PostGIS) dataset archive is presented. There are three basic tiers of the GIS web client in it: 1. Tier of geospatial metadata retrieved from central MySQL repository and represented in JSON format 2. Tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods handling: --- NetCDF metadata --- Task XML object for configuring user calculations, input and output formats --- OGC WMS/WFS cartographical services 3. Graphical user interface (GUI) tier representing JavaScript objects realizing web application business logic Metadata tier consists of a number of JSON objects containing technical information describing geospatial datasets (such as spatio-temporal resolution, meteorological parameters, valid processing methods, etc). The middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods for handling geospatial

  8. INTEGRATION ASPECTS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE MAP IN THE VISUALIZATION OF INFORMATION IN THE INTERNET ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Suvorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new principles of the language maps associated with the use of the Internet, computers and mobile devices. It is shown that the mapping in the modern society with the use of the Internet is based on ready-made visual images of reality, realization of creative opportunities of people by manipulating these images, posting on the Internet of personal information, implementation of project, mapping and other works on the remote services using Web connection. Describes the developed by the author hermeneutic principles of mapping.

  9. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  10. Impact of visual impairment on the lives of young adults in the Netherlands: a concept-mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen Bernadette Maria; van Rens, Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus; van Nispen, Ruth Marie Antoinette

    2017-12-01

    While the impact of visual impairments on specific aspects of young adults' lives is well recognised, a systematic understanding of its impact on all life aspects is lacking. This study aims to provide an overview of life aspects affected by visual impairment in young adults (aged 18-25 years) using a concept-mapping approach. Visually impaired young adults (n = 22) and rehabilitation professionals (n = 16) participated in online concept-mapping workshops (brainstorm procedure), to explore how having a visual impairment influences the lives of young adults. Statements were categorised based on similarity and importance. Using multidimensional scaling, concept maps were produced and interpreted. A total of 59 and 260 statements were generated by young adults and professionals, respectively, resulting in 99 individual statements after checking and deduplication. The combined concept map revealed 11 clusters: work, study, information and regulations, social skills, living independently, computer, social relationships, sport and activities, mobility, leisure time, and hobby. The concept maps provided useful insight into activities influenced by visual impairments in young adults, which can be used by rehabilitation centres to improve their services. This might help in goal setting, rehabilitation referral and successful transition to adult life, ultimately increasing participation and quality of life. Implications for rehabilitation Having a visual impairment affects various life-aspects related to participation, including activities related to work, study, social skills and relationships, activities of daily living, leisure time and mobility. Concept-mapping helped to identify the life aspects affected by low vision, and quantify these aspects in terms of importance according to young adults and low vision rehabilitation professionals. Low vision rehabilitation centres should focus on all life aspects found in this study when identifying the needs of young

  11. PhyloGeoViz: a web-based program that visualizes genetic data on maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Hsin E

    2011-05-01

    The first step of many population genetic studies is the simple visualization of allele frequencies on a landscape. This basic data exploration can be challenging without proprietary software, and the manual plotting of data is cumbersome and unfeasible at large sample sizes. I present an open source, web-based program that plots any kind of frequency or count data as pie charts in Google Maps (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA). Pie polygons are then exportable to Google Earth (Google Inc.), a free Geographic Information Systems platform. Import of genetic data into Google Earth allows phylogeographers access to a wealth of spatial information layers integral to forming hypotheses and understanding patterns in the data. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Cardiac-driven Pulsatile Motion of Intracranial Cerebrospinal Fluid Visualized Based on a Correlation Mapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Sunohara, Saeko; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Atsumi, Hideki; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2018-04-10

    A correlation mapping technique delineating delay time and maximum correlation for characterizing pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) propagation was proposed. After proofing its technical concept, this technique was applied to healthy volunteers and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients. A time-resolved three dimensional-phase contrast (3D-PC) sampled the cardiac-driven CSF velocity at 32 temporal points per cardiac period at each spatial location using retrospective cardiac gating. The proposed technique visualized distributions of propagation delay and correlation coefficient of the PC-based CSF velocity waveform with reference to a waveform at a particular point in the CSF space. The delay time was obtained as the amount of time-shift, giving the maximum correlation for the velocity waveform at an arbitrary location with that at the reference location. The validity and accuracy of the technique were confirmed in a flow phantom equipped with a cardiovascular pump. The technique was then applied to evaluate the intracranial CSF motions in young, healthy (N = 13), and elderly, healthy (N = 13) volunteers and iNPH patients (N = 13). The phantom study demonstrated that root mean square error of the delay time was 2.27%, which was less than the temporal resolution of PC measurement used in this study (3.13% of a cardiac cycle). The human studies showed a significant difference (P correlation coefficient between the young, healthy group and the other two groups. A significant difference (P correlation coefficients in intracranial CSF space among all groups. The result suggests that the CSF space compliance of iNPH patients was lower than that of healthy volunteers. The correlation mapping technique allowed us to visualize pulsatile CSF velocity wave propagations as still images. The technique may help to classify diseases related to CSF dynamics, such as iNPH.

  13. Mapping visual stimuli to perceptual decisions via sparse decoding of mesoscopic neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajda, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this talk I will describe our work investigating sparse decoding of neural activity, given a realistic mapping of the visual scene to neuronal spike trains generated by a model of primary visual cortex (V1). We use a linear decoder which imposes sparsity via an L1 norm. The decoder can be viewed as a decoding neuron (linear summation followed by a sigmoidal nonlinearity) in which there are relatively few non-zero synaptic weights. We find: (1) the best decoding performance is for a representation that is sparse in both space and time, (2) decoding of a temporal code results in better performance than a rate code and is also a better fit to the psychophysical data, (3) the number of neurons required for decoding increases monotonically as signal-to-noise in the stimulus decreases, with as little as 1% of the neurons required for decoding at the highest signal-to-noise levels, and (4) sparse decoding results in a more accurate decoding of the stimulus and is a better fit to psychophysical performance than a distributed decoding, for example one imposed by an L2 norm. We conclude that sparse coding is well-justified from a decoding perspective in that it results in a minimum number of neurons and maximum accuracy when sparse representations can be decoded from the neural dynamics.

  14. Visual data mining with self-organising maps for ventricular fibrillation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Muñoz, Alfredo; Martínez-Martínez, José M; Escandell-Montero, Pablo; Soria-Olivas, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    Detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) at an early stage is being deeply studied in order to lower the risk of sudden death and allows the specialist to have greater reaction time to give the patient a good recovering therapy. Some works are focusing on detecting VF based on numerical analysis of time-frequency distributions, but in general the methods used do not provide insight into the problem. However, this study proposes a new methodology in order to obtain information about this problem. This work uses a supervised self-organising map (SOM) to obtain visually information among four important groups of patients: VF (ventricular fibrillation), VT (ventricular tachycardia), HP (healthy patients) and AHR (other anomalous heart rates and noise). A total number of 27 variables were obtained from continuous surface ECG recordings in standard databases (MIT and AHA), providing information in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains. self-organising maps (SOMs), trained with 11 of the 27 variables, were used to extract knowledge about the variable values for each group of patients. Results show that the SOM technique allows to determine the profile of each group of patients, assisting in gaining a deeper understanding of this clinical problem. Additionally, information about the most relevant variables is given by the SOM analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Roger Anderson, O.

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample of the study consisted of six classes (140 Form 3 students of 13-15 years old) selected from a typical coeducational school in Brunei. Three classes (40 boys and 30 girls) were taught using the TTA while three other classes (41 boys and 29 girls) used the CMA, enriched with PowerPoint presentations. After the interventions (lessons on magnetism), the students in both groups were asked to describe in writing their understanding of magnetism accrued from the lessons. Their written descriptions were analyzed using flow map analyses to assess their content knowledge and its organisation in memory as evidence of cognitive structure. The extent of CLE was measured using a published CLE survey. The results showed that the cognitive structures of the CMA students were more extensive, thematically organised and richer in interconnectedness of thoughts than those of TTA students. Moreover, CMA students also perceived their classroom learning environment to be more constructivist than their counterparts. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers consider using the CMA teaching technique to help students enrich their understanding, especially for more complex or abstract scientific content.

  16. Quantification and visualization of carotid segmentation accuracy and precision using a 2D standardized carotid map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Ukwatta, Eranga; Shavakh, Shadi; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for vascular image segmentation evaluation. Since the size of vessel wall and plaque burden is defined by the lumen and wall boundaries in vascular segmentation, these two boundaries should be considered as a pair in statistical evaluation of a segmentation algorithm. This work proposed statistical metrics to evaluate the difference of local vessel wall thickness (VWT) produced by manual and algorithm-based semi-automatic segmentation methods (ΔT) with the local segmentation standard deviation of the wall and lumen boundaries considered. ΔT was further approximately decomposed into the local wall and lumen boundary differences (ΔW and ΔL respectively) in order to provide information regarding which of the wall and lumen segmentation errors contribute more to the VWT difference. In this study, the lumen and wall boundaries in 3D carotid ultrasound images acquired for 21 subjects were each segmented five times manually and by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The (absolute) difference measures (i.e., ΔT, ΔW, ΔL and their absolute values) and the pooled local standard deviation of manually and algorithmically segmented wall and lumen boundaries were computed for each subject and represented in a 2D standardized map. The local accuracy and variability of the segmentation algorithm at each point can be quantified by the average of these metrics for the whole group of subjects and visualized on the 2D standardized map. Based on the results shown on the 2D standardized map, a variety of strategies, such as adding anchor points and adjusting weights of different forces in the algorithm, can be introduced to improve the accuracy and variability of the algorithm. (paper)

  17. Assessment and visualization of uncertainty for countrywide soil organic matter map of Hungary using local entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is a general term expressing our imperfect knowledge in describing an environmental process and we are aware of it (Bárdossy and Fodor, 2004). Sampling, laboratory measurements, models and so on are subject to uncertainty. Effective quantification and visualization of uncertainty would be indispensable to stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, society). Soil related features and their spatial models should be stressfully targeted to uncertainty assessment because their inferences are further used in modelling and decision making process. The aim of our present study was to assess and effectively visualize the local uncertainty of the countrywide soil organic matter (SOM) spatial distribution model of Hungary using geostatistical tools and concepts. The Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's SOM data (approximately 1,200 observations) and environmental related, spatially exhaustive secondary information (i.e. digital elevation model, climatic maps, MODIS satellite images and geological map) were used to model the countrywide SOM spatial distribution by regression kriging. It would be common to use the calculated estimation (or kriging) variance as a measure of uncertainty, however the normality and homoscedasticity hypotheses have to be refused according to our preliminary analysis on the data. Therefore, a normal score transformation and a sequential stochastic simulation approach was introduced to be able to model and assess the local uncertainty. Five hundred equally probable realizations (i.e. stochastic images) were generated. The number of the stochastic images is fairly enough to provide a model of uncertainty at each location, which is a complete description of uncertainty in geostatistics (Deutsch and Journel, 1998). Furthermore, these models can be applied e.g. to contour the probability of any events, which can be regarded as goal oriented digital soil maps and are of interest for agricultural management and decision making as well. A

  18. Mapping the world: cartographic and geographic visualization by the United Nations Geospatial Information Section (formerly Cartographic Section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Ayako; Le Sourd, Guillaume

    2018-05-01

    United Nations Secretariat activities, mapping began in 1946, and by 1951, the need for maps increased and an office with a team of cartographers was established. Since then, with the development of technologies including internet, remote sensing, unmanned aerial systems, relationship database management and information systems, geospatial information provides an ever-increasing variation of support to the work of the Organization for planning of operations, decision-making and monitoring of crises. However, the need for maps has remained intact. This presentation aims to highlight some of the cartographic representation styles over the decades by reviewing the evolution of selected maps by the office, and noting the changing cognitive and semiotic aspects of cartographic and geographic visualization required by the United Nations. Through presentation and analysis of these maps, the changing dynamics of the Organization in information management can be reflected, with a reminder of the continuing and expanding deconstructionist role of a cartographer, now geospatial information management experts.

  19. MOST-visualization: software for producing automated textbook-style maps of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, James J; Maor, Shay; Kim, Min Kyung; Lane, Anatoliy; Lun, Desmond S

    2017-08-15

    Visualization of metabolites, reactions and pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) can assist in understanding cellular metabolism. Three attributes are desirable in software used for visualizing GEMs: (i) automation, since GEMs can be quite large; (ii) production of understandable maps that provide ease in identification of pathways, reactions and metabolites; and (iii) visualization of the entire network to show how pathways are interconnected. No software currently exists for visualizing GEMs that satisfies all three characteristics, but MOST-Visualization, an extension of the software package MOST (Metabolic Optimization and Simulation Tool), satisfies (i), and by using a pre-drawn overview map of metabolism based on the Roche map satisfies (ii) and comes close to satisfying (iii). MOST is distributed for free on the GNU General Public License. The software and full documentation are available at http://most.ccib.rutgers.edu/. dslun@rutgers.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Immune mapping of the peripheral part of the visual analyzer and optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform immune mapping of the peripheral part of visual analyzer and optic nerve in order to identify potential antigenic targets of autoimmune attack. Methods. Eyes enucleated for terminal painful glaucoma (n = 30 were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of isolated retina and optic nerve using a broad panel of antibodies, i.e., monoclonal murine anti-MBP (myelin basic protein antibodies, polyclonal rabbit anti-alpha fodrin antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-NSE2 (neuron-specific enolase antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and polyclonal rabbit anti-S100 antibodies. IHC reaction was visualized using Mouse and Rabbit Specific HRP / AEC Detection IHC Kit. IHC reaction without primary antibodies included was a negative control. IHC reaction was considered as follows: negative — no specific cellular staining or less than 10 % of cells are stained; mild — 10‑30 % of cells are stained (+; moderate — 30‑75 % of cells are stained (++; marked — more than 75 % of cells are stained (+++; overexpression — 100 % of cells intensively express markers. Additionally, staining intensity was considered as mild (+1, moderate (+2, strong (+3 and intense (+4.Results. Immune mapping with a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies identified ocular structures which were stained with IHC markers. Retina was stained with almost all markers of neural differentiation (i.e., antibodies against NSE, GFAP, S100, and α-fodrin excepting anti-MBP autoantibodies. IHC reaction intensity in retinal layers and structures varied and depended on markers. Moderate (2+ staining with antibodies against MBP, NSE, GFAP, and S100 and marked (3+ staining with antibodies against alpha-fodrin was detected in the cytoplasm of optic nerve glia.Conclusion. Complete labelling of retina structures was performed. As a result, IHC profiles of retinal neurons, optic nerve axons

  1. Immune mapping of the peripheral part of the visual analyzer and optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform immune mapping of the peripheral part of visual analyzer and optic nerve in order to identify potential antigenic targets of autoimmune attack. Methods. Eyes enucleated for terminal painful glaucoma (n = 30 were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of isolated retina and optic nerve using a broad panel of antibodies, i.e., monoclonal murine anti-MBP (myelin basic protein antibodies, polyclonal rabbit anti-alpha fodrin antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-NSE2 (neuron-specific enolase antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and polyclonal rabbit anti-S100 antibodies. IHC reaction was visualized using Mouse and Rabbit Specific HRP / AEC Detection IHC Kit. IHC reaction without primary antibodies included was a negative control. IHC reaction was considered as follows: negative — no specific cellular staining or less than 10 % of cells are stained; mild — 10‑30 % of cells are stained (+; moderate — 30‑75 % of cells are stained (++; marked — more than 75 % of cells are stained (+++; overexpression — 100 % of cells intensively express markers. Additionally, staining intensity was considered as mild (+1, moderate (+2, strong (+3 and intense (+4.Results. Immune mapping with a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies identified ocular structures which were stained with IHC markers. Retina was stained with almost all markers of neural differentiation (i.e., antibodies against NSE, GFAP, S100, and α-fodrin excepting anti-MBP autoantibodies. IHC reaction intensity in retinal layers and structures varied and depended on markers. Moderate (2+ staining with antibodies against MBP, NSE, GFAP, and S100 and marked (3+ staining with antibodies against alpha-fodrin was detected in the cytoplasm of optic nerve glia.Conclusion. Complete labelling of retina structures was performed. As a result, IHC profiles of retinal neurons, optic nerve axons

  2. Mapping and Visualization of Storm-Surge Dynamics for Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The damages caused by the storm surges from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita were significant and occurred over broad areas. Storm-surge maps are among the most useful geospatial datasets for hurricane recovery, impact assessments, and mitigation planning for future storms. Surveyed high-water marks were used to generate a maximum storm-surge surface for Hurricane Katrina extending from eastern Louisiana to Mobile Bay, Alabama. The interpolated surface was intersected with high-resolution lidar elevation data covering the study area to produce a highly detailed digital storm-surge inundation map. The storm-surge dataset and related data are available for display and query in a Web-based viewer application. A unique water-level dataset from a network of portable pressure sensors deployed in the days just prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall captured the hurricane's storm surge. The recorded sensor data provided water-level measurements with a very high temporal resolution at surveyed point locations. The resulting dataset was used to generate a time series of storm-surge surfaces that documents the surge dynamics in a new, spatially explicit way. The temporal information contained in the multiple storm-surge surfaces can be visualized in a number of ways to portray how the surge interacted with and was affected by land surface features. Spatially explicit storm-surge products can be useful for a variety of hurricane impact assessments, especially studies of wetland and land changes where knowledge of the extent and magnitude of storm-surge flooding is critical.

  3. Integrating Spherical Panoramas and Maps for Visualization of Cultural Heritage Objects Using Virtual Reality Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeva, Mila; Luleva, Mila; Maldjanski, Plamen

    2017-04-11

    Development and virtual representation of 3D models of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects has triggered great interest over the past decade. The main reason for this is the rapid development in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing, laser scanning, and computer vision. The advantages of using 3D models for restoration, preservation, and documentation of valuable historical and architectural objects have been numerously demonstrated by scientists in the field. Moreover, 3D model visualization in virtual reality has been recognized as an efficient, fast, and easy way of representing a variety of objects worldwide for present-day users, who have stringent requirements and high expectations. However, the main focus of recent research is the visual, geometric, and textural characteristics of a single concrete object, while integration of large numbers of models with additional information-such as historical overview, detailed description, and location-are missing. Such integrated information can be beneficial, not only for tourism but also for accurate documentation. For that reason, we demonstrate in this paper an integration of high-resolution spherical panoramas, a variety of maps, GNSS, sound, video, and text information for representation of numerous cultural heritage objects. These are then displayed in a web-based portal with an intuitive interface. The users have the opportunity to choose freely from the provided information, and decide for themselves what is interesting to visit. Based on the created web application, we provide suggestions and guidelines for similar studies. We selected objects, which are located in Bulgaria-a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. The methods used in this research are applicable for any type of spherical or cylindrical images and can be easily followed and applied in various domains. After a visual and metric assessment of the panoramas and the evaluation of

  4. Distributed XQuery-Based Integration and Visualization of Multimodality Brain Mapping Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detwiler, Landon T; Suciu, Dan; Franklin, Joshua D; Moore, Eider B; Poliakov, Andrew V; Lee, Eunjung S; Corina, David P; Ojemann, George A; Brinkley, James F

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for relatively small groups of collaborating investigators to integrate distributed and heterogeneous data about the brain. Although various national efforts facilitate large-scale data sharing, these approaches are generally too "heavyweight" for individual or small groups of investigators, with the result that most data sharing among collaborators continues to be ad hoc. Our approach to this problem is to create a "lightweight" distributed query architecture, in which data sources are accessible via web services that accept arbitrary query languages but return XML results. A Distributed XQuery Processor (DXQP) accepts distributed XQueries in which subqueries are shipped to the remote data sources to be executed, with the resulting XML integrated by DXQP. A web-based application called DXBrain accesses DXQP, allowing a user to create, save and execute distributed XQueries, and to view the results in various formats including a 3-D brain visualization. Example results are presented using distributed brain mapping data sources obtained in studies of language organization in the brain, but any other XML source could be included. The advantage of this approach is that it is very easy to add and query a new source, the tradeoff being that the user needs to understand XQuery and the schemata of the underlying sources. For small numbers of known sources this burden is not onerous for a knowledgeable user, leading to the conclusion that the system helps to fill the gap between ad hoc local methods and large scale but complex national data sharing efforts.

  5. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Modeling eye movements in visual agnosia with a saliency map approach: bottom-up guidance or top-down strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan; Dewhurst, Richard; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2011-08-01

    Two recent papers (Foulsham, Barton, Kingstone, Dewhurst, & Underwood, 2009; Mannan, Kennard, & Husain, 2009) report that neuropsychological patients with a profound object recognition problem (visual agnosic subjects) show differences from healthy observers in the way their eye movements are controlled when looking at images. The interpretation of these papers is that eye movements can be modeled as the selection of points on a saliency map, and that agnosic subjects show an increased reliance on visual saliency, i.e., brightness and contrast in low-level stimulus features. Here we review this approach and present new data from our own experiments with an agnosic patient that quantifies the relationship between saliency and fixation location. In addition, we consider whether the perceptual difficulties of individual patients might be modeled by selectively weighting the different features involved in a saliency map. Our data indicate that saliency is not always a good predictor of fixation in agnosia: even for our agnosic subject, as for normal observers, the saliency-fixation relationship varied as a function of the task. This means that top-down processes still have a significant effect on the earliest stages of scanning in the setting of visual agnosia, indicating severe limitations for the saliency map model. Top-down, active strategies-which are the hallmark of our human visual system-play a vital role in eye movement control, whether we know what we are looking at or not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. COMPARING IMAGE-BASED METHODS FOR ASSESSING VISUAL CLUTTER IN GENERALIZED MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Touya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization abstracts and simplifies geographic information to derive maps at smaller scales. The automation of map generalization requires techniques to evaluate the global quality of a generalized map. The quality and legibility of a generalized map is related to the complexity of the map, or the amount of clutter in the map, i.e. the excessive amount of information and its disorganization. Computer vision research is highly interested in measuring clutter in images, and this paper proposes to compare some of the existing techniques from computer vision, applied to generalized maps evaluation. Four techniques from the literature are described and tested on a large set of maps, generalized at different scales: edge density, subband entropy, quad tree complexity, and segmentation clutter. The results are analyzed against several criteria related to generalized maps, the identification of cluttered areas, the preservation of the global amount of information, the handling of occlusions and overlaps, foreground vs background, and blank space reduction.

  9. Open Knowledge Maps: Creating a Visual Interface to the World’s Scientific Knowledge Based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Open Knowledge Maps is to create a visual interface to the world’s scientific knowledge. The base for this visual interface consists of so-called knowledge maps, which enable the exploration of existing knowledge and the discovery of new knowledge. Our open source knowledge mapping software applies a mixture of summarization techniques and similarity measures on article metadata, which are iteratively chained together. After processing, the representation is saved in a database for use in a web visualization. In the future, we want to create a space for collective knowledge mapping that brings together individuals and communities involved in exploration and discovery. We want to enable people to guide each other in their discovery by collaboratively annotating and modifying the automatically created maps. Das Ziel von Open Knowledge Map ist es, ein visuelles Interface zum wissenschaftlichen Wissen der Welt bereitzustellen. Die Basis für die dieses Interface sind sogenannte “knowledge maps”, zu deutsch Wissenslandkarten. Wissenslandkarten ermöglichen die Exploration bestehenden Wissens und die Entdeckung neuen Wissens. Unsere Open Source Software wendet für die Erstellung der Wissenslandkarten eine Reihe von Text Mining Verfahren iterativ auf die Metadaten wissenschaftlicher Artikel an. Die daraus resultierende Repräsentation wird in einer Datenbank für die Anzeige in einer Web-Visualisierung abgespeichert. In Zukunft wollen wir einen Raum für das kollektive Erstellen von Wissenslandkarten schaffen, der die Personen und Communities, welche sich mit der Exploration und Entdeckung wissenschaftlichen Wissens beschäftigen, zusammenbringt. Wir wollen es den NutzerInnen ermöglichen, einander in der Literatursuche durch kollaboratives Annotieren und Modifizieren von automatisch erstellten Wissenslandkarten zu unterstützen.

  10. TheCellMap.org: A Web-Accessible Database for Visualizing and Mining the Global Yeast Genetic Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaj, Matej; Tan, Yizhao; Wang, Wen; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Zou, Albert; Myers, Chad L; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2017-05-05

    Providing access to quantitative genomic data is key to ensure large-scale data validation and promote new discoveries. TheCellMap.org serves as a central repository for storing and analyzing quantitative genetic interaction data produced by genome-scale Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) experiments with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae In particular, TheCellMap.org allows users to easily access, visualize, explore, and functionally annotate genetic interactions, or to extract and reorganize subnetworks, using data-driven network layouts in an intuitive and interactive manner. Copyright © 2017 Usaj et al.

  11. Visualizing the mapped ion pathway through the Na,K-ATPase pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Reyes, Nicolás; Artigas, Pablo; Gadsby, David C

    2009-11-01

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pump achieves thermodynamically uphill exchange of cytoplasmic Na(+) ions for extracellular K(+) ions by using ATP-mediated phosphorylation, followed by autodephosphorylation, to power conformational changes that allow ion access to the pump's binding sites from only one side of the membrane at a time. Formally, the pump behaves like an ion channel with two tightly coupled gates that are constrained to open and close alternately. The marine agent palytoxin disrupts this coupling, allowing both gates to sometimes be open, so temporarily transforming a pump into an ion channel. We made a cysteine scan of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase transmembrane (TM) segments TM1 to TM6, and used recordings of Na(+) current flow through palytoxin-bound pump-channels to monitor accessibility of introduced cysteine residues via their reaction with hydrophilic methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents. To visualize the open-channel pathway, the reactive positions were mapped onto a homology model of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase based on the structure of the related sarcoplasmicand endoplasmic-reticulum (SERCA) Ca(2+)-ATPase in a BeF(3)(-)-trapped state,(1,2) in which the extra-cytoplasmic gate is wide open (although the cytoplasmic access pathway is firmly shut). The results revealed a single unbroken chain of reactive positions that traverses the pump from the extracellular surface to the cytoplasm, comprises residues from TM1, TM2, TM4 and TM6, and passes through the equivalent of cation binding site II in SERCA, but not through site I. Cavity search analysis of the homology model validated its use for mapping the data by yielding a calculated extra-cytoplasmic pathway surrounded by MTS-reactive residues. As predicted by previous experimental results, that calculated extra-cytoplasmic pathway abruptly broadens above residue T806, at the outermost end of TM6 that forms the floor of the extracellular-facing vestibule. These findings provide a structural basis for further understanding cation

  12. Visualizing the mapped ion pathway through the Na,K-ATPase pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Reyes, Nicolás; Artigas, Pablo; Gadsby, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase pump achieves thermodynamically uphill exchange of cytoplasmic Na+ ions for extracellular K+ ions by using ATP-mediated phosphorylation, followed by autodephosphorylation, to power conformational changes that allow ion access to the pump's binding sites from only one side of the membrane at a time. Formally, the pump behaves like an ion channel with two tightly coupled gates that are constrained to open and close alternately. The marine agent palytoxin disrupts this coupling, allowing both gates to sometimes be open, so temporarily transforming a pump into an ion channel. We made a cysteine scan of Na+,K+-ATPase transmembrane (TM) segments TM1 to TM6, and used recordings of Na+ current flow through palytoxin-bound pump-channels to monitor accessibility of introduced cysteine residues via their reaction with hydrophilic methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents. To visualize the open-channel pathway, the reactive positions were mapped onto a homology model of Na+,K+-ATPase based on the structure of the related sarcoplasmic- and endoplasmic-reticulum (SERCA) Ca2+-ATPase in a BeF3−-trapped state1,2, in which the extra-cytoplasmic gate is wide open (although the cytoplasmic access pathway is firmly shut). The results revealed a single unbroken chain of reactive positions that traverses the pump from the extracellular surface to the cytoplasm, comprises residues from TM1, TM2, TM4, and TM6, and passes through the equivalent of cation binding site II in SERCA, but not through site I. Cavity search analysis of the homology model validated its use for mapping the data by yielding a calculated extra-cytoplasmic pathway surrounded by MTS-reactive residues. As predicted by previous experimental results, that calculated extra-cytoplasmic pathway abruptly broadens above residue T806, at the outermost end of TM6 which forms the floor of the extracellular-facing vestibule. These findings provide a structural basis for further understanding cation translocation by

  13. Image Mapping and Visual Attention on the Sensory Ego-Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Katherine Achim; Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2012-01-01

    The Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) is a short-term memory for a robot in the form of an egocentric, tessellated, spherical, sensory-motor map of the robot s locale. Visual attention enables fast alignment of overlapping images without warping or position optimization, since an attentional point (AP) on the composite typically corresponds to one on each of the collocated regions in the images. Such alignment speeds analysis of the multiple images of the area. Compositing and attention were performed two ways and compared: (1) APs were computed directly on the composite and not on the full-resolution images until the time of retrieval; and (2) the attentional operator was applied to all incoming imagery. It was found that although the second method was slower, it produced consistent and, thereby, more useful APs. The SES is an integral part of a control system that will enable a robot to learn new behaviors based on its previous experiences, and that will enable it to recombine its known behaviors in such a way as to solve related, but novel, task problems with apparent creativity. The approach is to combine sensory-motor data association and dimensionality reduction to learn navigation and manipulation tasks as sequences of basic behaviors that can be implemented with a small set of closed-loop controllers. Over time, the aggregate of behaviors and their transition probabilities form a stochastic network. Then given a task, the robot finds a path in the network that leads from its current state to the goal. The SES provides a short-term memory for the cognitive functions of the robot, association of sensory and motor data via spatio-temporal coincidence, direction of the attention of the robot, navigation through spatial localization with respect to known or discovered landmarks, and structured data sharing between the robot and human team members, the individuals in multi-robot teams, or with a C3 center.

  14. Distributed XQuery-based integration and visualization of multimodality brain mapping data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon T Detwiler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for relatively small groups of collaborating investigators to integrate distributed and heterogeneous data about the brain. Although various national efforts facilitate large-scale data sharing, these approaches are generally too “heavyweight” for individual or small groups of investigators, with the result that most data sharing among collaborators continues to be ad hoc. Our approach to this problem is to create a “lightweight” distributed query architecture, in which data sources are accessible via web services that accept arbitrary query languages but return XML results. A Distributed XQuery Processor (DXQP accepts distributed XQueries in which subqueries are shipped to the remote data sources to be executed, with the resulting XML integrated by DXQP. A web-based application called DXBrain accesses DXQP, allowing a user to create, save and execute distributed XQueries, and to view the results in various formats including a 3-D brain visualization. Example results are presented using distributed brain mapping data sources obtained in studies of language organization in the brain, but any other XML source could be included. The advantage of this approach is that it is very easy to add and query a new source, the tradeoff being that the user needs to understand XQuery and the schemata of the underlying sources. For small numbers of known sources this burden is not onerous for a knowledgeable user, leading to the conclusion that the system helps to fill the gap between ad hoc local methods and large scale but complex national data sharing efforts.

  15. Combined visualization for noise mapping of industrial facilities based on ray-tracing and thin plate splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, Mikhail; Ovsiannikov, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the combined approach to noise mapping and visualizing of industrial facilities sound pollution using forward ray tracing method and thin-plate spline interpolation. It is suggested to cauterize industrial area in separate zones with similar sound levels. Equivalent local source is defined for range computation of sanitary zones based on ray tracing algorithm. Computation of sound pressure levels within clustered zones are based on two-dimension spline interpolation of measured data on perimeter and inside the zone.

  16. Can Probability Maps of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Predict Visual Field Changes in Preperimetric Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won June; Kim, Young Kook; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) probability maps in detecting locations with significant reduction in visual field (VF) sensitivity or predicting future VF changes, in patients with classically defined preperimetric glaucoma (PPG). Of 43 PPG patients, 43 eyes were followed-up on every 6 months for at least 2 years were analyzed in this longitudinal study. The patients underwent wide-field SS-OCT scanning and standard automated perimetry (SAP) at the time of enrollment. With this wide-scan protocol, probability maps originating from the corresponding thickness map and overlapped with SAP VF test points could be generated. We evaluated the vulnerable VF points with SS-OCT probability maps as well as the prevalence of locations with significant VF reduction or subsequent VF changes observed in the corresponding damaged areas of the probability maps. The vulnerable VF points were shown in superior and inferior arcuate patterns near the central fixation. In 19 of 43 PPG eyes (44.2%), significant reduction in baseline VF was detected within the areas of structural change on the SS-OCT probability maps. In 16 of 43 PPG eyes (37.2%), subsequent VF changes within the areas of SS-OCT probability map change were observed over the course of the follow-up. Structural changes on SS-OCT probability maps could detect or predict VF changes using SAP, in a considerable number of PPG eyes. Careful comparison of probability maps with SAP results could be useful in diagnosing and monitoring PPG patients in the clinical setting.

  17. SNPexp - A web tool for calculating and visualizing correlation between HapMap genotypes and gene expression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke Andre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels for 47294 transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines from all 270 HapMap phase II individuals, and genotypes (both HapMap phase II and III of 3.96 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the same individuals are publicly available. We aimed to generate a user-friendly web based tool for visualization of the correlation between SNP genotypes within a specified genomic region and a gene of interest, which is also well-known as an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analysis. Results SNPexp is implemented as a server-side script, and publicly available on this website: http://tinyurl.com/snpexp. Correlation between genotype and transcript expression levels are calculated by performing linear regression and the Wald test as implemented in PLINK and visualized using the UCSC Genome Browser. Validation of SNPexp using previously published eQTLs yielded comparable results. Conclusions SNPexp provides a convenient and platform-independent way to calculate and visualize the correlation between HapMap genotypes within a specified genetic region anywhere in the genome and gene expression levels. This allows for investigation of both cis and trans effects. The web interface and utilization of publicly available and widely used software resources makes it an attractive supplement to more advanced bioinformatic tools. For the advanced user the program can be used on a local computer on custom datasets.

  18. The Power of Visual Approaches in Qualitative Inquiry: The Use of Collage Making and Concept Mapping in Experiential Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Butler-Kisber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning interest in arts-informed research and the increasing variety of visual possibilities as a result of new technologies have paved the way for researchers to explore and use visual forms of inquiry. This article investigates how collage making and concept mapping are useful visual approaches that can inform qualitative research. They are experiential ways of doing/knowing that help to get at tacit aspects of both understanding and process and to make these more explicit to the researcher and more accessible to audiences. It outlines specific ways that each approach can be used with examples to illustrate how the approach informs the researcher's experience and that of the audience. The two approaches are compared and contrasted and issues that can arise in the work are discussed.

  19. The structure of pairwise correlation in mouse primary visual cortex reveals functional organization in the absence of an orientation map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Daniel J; Contreras, Diego

    2014-10-01

    Neural responses to sensory stimuli are not independent. Pairwise correlation can reduce coding efficiency, occur independent of stimulus representation, or serve as an additional channel of information, depending on the timescale of correlation and the method of decoding. Any role for correlation depends on its magnitude and structure. In sensory areas with maps, like the orientation map in primary visual cortex (V1), correlation is strongly related to the underlying functional architecture, but it is unclear whether this correlation structure is an essential feature of the system or arises from the arrangement of cells in the map. We assessed the relationship between functional architecture and pairwise correlation by measuring both synchrony and correlated spike count variability in mouse V1, which lacks an orientation map. We observed significant pairwise synchrony, which was organized by distance and relative orientation preference between cells. We also observed nonzero correlated variability in both the anesthetized (0.16) and awake states (0.18). Our results indicate that the structure of pairwise correlation is maintained in the absence of an underlying anatomical organization and may be an organizing principle of the mammalian visual system preserved by nonrandom connectivity within local networks. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. MARs Tools for Interactive ANalysis (MARTIAN): Google Maps Tools for Visual Exploration of Geophysical Modeling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Haines, M.; Holt, W. E.; Schultz, R. A.; Richard, G.; Haines, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Interactive maps of surface-breaking faults and stress models on Mars provide important tools to engage undergraduate students, educators, and scientists with current geological and geophysical research. We have developed a map based on the Google Maps API -- an Internet based tool combining DHTML and AJAX, -- which allows very large maps to be viewed over the World Wide Web. Typically, small portions of the maps are downloaded as needed, rather than the entire image at once. This set-up enables relatively fast access for users with low bandwidth. Furthermore, Google Maps provides an extensible interactive interface making it ideal for visualizing multiple data sets at the user's choice. The Google Maps API works primarily with data referenced to latitudes and longitudes, which is then mapped in Mercator projection only. We have developed utilities for general cylindrical coordinate systems by converting these coordinates into equivalent Mercator projection before including them on the map. The MARTIAN project is available at http://rock.geo.sunysb.edu/~holt/Mars/MARTIAN/. We begin with an introduction to the Martian surface using a topography model. Faults from several datasets are classified by type (extension vs. compression) and by time epoch. Deviatoric stresses due to gravitational potential energy differences, calculated from the topography and crustal thickness, can be overlain. Several quantitative measures for the fit of the stress field to the faults are also included. We provide introductory text and exercises spanning a range of topics: how are faults identified, what stress is and how it relates to faults, what gravitational potential energy is and how variations in it produce stress, how the models are created, and how these models can be evaluated and interpreted. The MARTIAN tool is used at Stony Brook University in GEO 310: Introduction to Geophysics, a class geared towards junior and senior geosciences majors. Although this project is in its

  1. A web-mapping system for real-time visualization of the global terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Chongjun; Liu, Donglin; Ren, Yingchao; Rui, Xiaoping

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we mainly present a web-based 3D global terrain visualization application that provides more powerful transmission and visualization of global multiresolution data sets across networks. A client/server architecture is put forward. The paper also reports various relevant research work, such as efficient data compression methods to reduce the physical size of these data sets and accelerate network delivery, streaming transmission for progressively downloading data, and real-time multiresolution terrain surface visualization with a high visual quality by M-band wavelet transforms and a hierarchical triangulation technique. Finally, an experiment is performed using different levels of detailed data to verify that the system works appropriately.

  2. Metabolic mapping of the brain's response to visual stimulation: studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    These studies demonstrated increasing glucose metabolic rates in the human primary (PVC) and associative (AVC) visual cortex as the complexity of visual scenes increased. The metabolic response of the AVC increased more rapidly with scene complexity than that of the PVC, indicating the greater involvement of the higher order AVC for complex visual interpretations. Increases in local metabolic activity by as much as a factor of 2 above that of control subjects with eyes closed indicate the wide range and metabolic reserve of the visual cortex

  3. Mapping Disciplinary Values and Rhetorical Concerns through Language: Writing Instruction in the Performing and Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anicca

    2015-01-01

    Via interview data focused on instructor practices and values, this study sought to describe some of what performing and visual arts instructors do at the university level to effectively teach disciplinary values through writing. The study's research goals explored how relationships to writing process in visual and performing arts support…

  4. What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…

  5. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  6. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  7. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): visualize project-level information for U.S. funded research in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Score, R.; Dover, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Habermann, T.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; http://armap.org/) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information. The mapping application includes new reference data layers and an updated ship tracks layer. Visual enhancements are achieved by redeveloping the front-end from FLEX to HTML5 and JavaScript, which now provide access to mobile users utilizing tablets and cell phone devices. New tools have been added that allow users to navigate, select, draw, measure, print, use a time slider, and more. Other module additions include a back-end Apache SOLR search platform that provides users with the capability to perform advance searches throughout the ARMAP database. Furthermore, a new query builder interface has been developed in order to provide more intuitive controls to generate complex queries. These improvements have been made to increase awareness of projects funded by numerous entities in the Arctic, enhance coordination for logistics support, help identify geographic gaps in research efforts and potentially foster more collaboration amongst researchers working in the region. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research efforts supported by the U.S. Government.

  8. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (VSLAM) methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautot, F.; Dubart, P.; Chagneau, B.; Bacri, C.O.; Abou-Khalil, R.

    2017-01-01

    New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enable to merge sensors to allow fast real-time localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near real-time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarios and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations. This paper will present new progresses in merging RGB-D camera based on SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) systems and nuclear measurement in motion methods in order to detect, locate, and evaluate the activity of radioactive sources in 3-dimensions

  10. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-01-01

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510–1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  12. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.fr [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Chimie ParisTech, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Calligaro, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Chimie ParisTech, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Chimie ParisTech, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510–1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  13. Basic mapping principles for visualizing cancer data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Cynthia A

    2006-02-01

    Maps and other data graphics may play a role in generating ideas and hypotheses at the beginning of a project. They are useful as part of analyses for evaluating model results and then at the end of a project when researchers present their results and conclusions to varied audiences, such as their local research group, decision makers, or a concerned public. Cancer researchers are gaining skill with geographic information system (GIS) mapping as one of their many tools and are broadening the symbolization approaches they use for investigating and illustrating their data. A single map is one of many possible representations of the data, so making multiple maps is often part of a complete mapping effort. Symbol types, color choices, and data classing each affect the information revealed by a map and are best tailored to the specific characteristics of data. Related data can be examined in series with coordinated classing and can also be compared using multivariate symbols that build on the basic rules of symbol design. Informative legend wording and setting suitable map projections are also basic to skilled mapmaking.

  14. InterMap3D: predicting and visualizing co-evolving protein residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Roque, francisco jose sousa simôes almeida; Wernersson, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    InterMap3D predicts co-evolving protein residues and plots them on the 3D protein structure. Starting with a single protein sequence, InterMap3D automatically finds a set of homologous sequences, generates an alignment and fetches the most similar 3D structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB......). It can also accept a user-generated alignment. Based on the alignment, co-evolving residues are then predicted using three different methods: Row and Column Weighing of Mutual Information, Mutual Information/Entropy and Dependency. Finally, InterMap3D generates high-quality images of the protein...

  15. Diffusion-Based Density-Equalizing Maps: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Visualizing Homicide Rates and Other Georeferenced Statistical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián

    2012-12-01

    In every country, public and private agencies allocate extensive funding to collect large-scale statistical data, which in turn are studied and analyzed in order to determine local, regional, national, and international policies regarding all aspects relevant to the welfare of society. One important aspect of that process is the visualization of statistical data with embedded geographical information, which most often relies on archaic methods such as maps colored according to graded scales. In this work, we apply nonstandard visualization techniques based on physical principles. We illustrate the method with recent statistics on homicide rates in Brazil and their correlation to other publicly available data. This physics-based approach provides a novel tool that can be used by interdisciplinary teams investigating statistics and model projections in a variety of fields such as economics and gross domestic product research, public health and epidemiology, sociodemographics, political science, business and marketing, and many others.

  16. Improvement in Visual Search with Practice : Mapping Learning-Related Changes in Neurocognitive Stages of Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Kait; Appelbaum, L. Gregory; van den Berg, Berry; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    Practice can improve performance on visual search tasks; the neural mechanisms underlying such improvements, however, are not clear. Response time typically shortens with practice, but which components of the stimulus-response processing chain facilitate this behavioral change? Improved search

  17. Visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping and global positioning system correction for geo-localization of a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrabah, Sid Ahmed; Baudoin, Yvan; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach combining visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) and global positioning system (GPS) correction for accurate multi-sensor localization of an outdoor mobile robot in geo-referenced maps. The proposed framework combines two extended Kalman filters (EKF); the first one, referred to as the integration filter, is dedicated to the improvement of the GPS localization based on data from an inertial navigation system and wheels' encoders. The second EKF implements the V-SLAM process. The linear and angular velocities in the dynamic model of the V-SLAM EKF filter are given by the GPS/INS/Encoders integration filter. On the other hand, the output of the V-SLAM EKF filter is used to update the dynamics estimation in the integration filter and therefore the geo-referenced localization. This solution increases the accuracy and the robustness of the positioning during GPS outage and allows SLAM in less featured environments

  18. Pulmonary nodule characterization: A comparison of conventional with quantitative and visual semi-quantitative analyses using contrast enhancement maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovska, Iva; Shah, Sumit K.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Brown, Kathleen; Aberle, Denise R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether conventional nodule densitometry or analysis based on contrast enhancement maps of indeterminate lung nodules imaged with contrast-enhanced CT can distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules. Materials and method: Thin section, contrast-enhanced CT (baseline, and post-contrast series acquired at 45, 90,180, and 360 s) was performed on 29 patients with indeterminate lung nodules (14 benign, 15 malignant). A thoracic radiologist identified the boundary of each nodule using semi-automated contouring to form a 3D region-of-interest (ROI) on each image series. The post-contrast series having the maximum mean enhancement was then volumetrically registered to the baseline series. The two series were subtracted volumetrically and the subtracted voxels were quantized into seven color-coded bins, forming a contrast enhancement map (CEM). Conventional nodule densitometry was performed to obtain the maximum difference in mean enhancement values for each nodule from a circular ROI. Three thoracic radiologists performed visual semi-quantitative analysis of each nodule, scoring each map for: (a) magnitude and (b) heterogeneity of enhancement throughout the entire volume of the nodule on a five-point scale. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted on these features to evaluate their diagnostic efficacy. Finally, 14 quantitative texture features were calculated for each map. A statistical analysis was performed to combine the 14 texture features to a single factor. ROC analysis of the derived aggregate factor was done as an indicator of malignancy. All features were analyzed for differences between benign and malignant nodules. Results: Using 15 HU as a threshold, 93% (14/15) of malignant and 79% (11/14) of benign nodules demonstrated enhancement. The ROC curve when higher values of enhancement indicate malignancy was generated and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.76. The visually scored magnitude of enhancement was found to be

  19. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  20. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  1. Method for the visualization of landform by mapping using low altitude UAV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan Kumar, N.; Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Cheang, William

    2018-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Digital Photogrammetry are evolving drastically in mapping technology. The significance and necessity for digital landform mapping are developing with years. In this study, a mapping workflow is applied to obtain two different input data sets which are the orthophoto and DSM. A fine flying technology is used to capture Low Altitude Aerial Photography (LAAP). Low altitude UAV (Drone) with the fixed advanced camera was utilized for imagery while computerized photogrammetry handling using Photo Scan was applied for cartographic information accumulation. The data processing through photogrammetry and orthomosaic processes is the main applications. High imagery quality is essential for the effectiveness and nature of normal mapping output such as 3D model, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Ortho Images. The exactitude of Ground Control Points (GCP), flight altitude and the resolution of the camera are essential for good quality DEM and Orthophoto.

  2. Visualizing fossilization using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry maps of trace elements in Late Cretaceous bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A.E.; Rogers, R.R.; Trueman, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental maps generated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide a previously unavailable high-resolution visualization of the complex physicochemical conditions operating within individual bones during the early stages of diagenesis and fossilization. A selection of LA-ICP-MS maps of bones collected from the Late Cretaceous of Montana (United States) and Madagascar graphically illustrate diverse paths to recrystallization, and reveal unique insights into geochemical aspects of taphonomic history. Some bones show distinct gradients in concentrations of rare earth elements and uranium, with highest concentrations at external bone margins. Others exhibit more intricate patterns of trace element uptake related to bone histology and its control on the flow paths of pore waters. Patterns of element uptake as revealed by LA-ICP-MS maps can be used to guide sampling strategies, and call into question previous studies that hinge upon localized bulk samples of fossilized bone tissue. LA-ICP-MS maps also allow for comparison of recrystallization rates among fossil bones, and afford a novel approach to identifying bones or regions of bones potentially suitable for extracting intact biogeochemical signals. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  3. Pattern recognition neural-net by spatial mapping of biology visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Mori, Masahiko

    2000-05-01

    The method of spatial mapping in biology vision field is applied to artificial neural networks for pattern recognition. By the coordinate transform that is called the complex-logarithm mapping and Fourier transform, the input images are transformed into scale- rotation- and shift- invariant patterns, and then fed into a multilayer neural network for learning and recognition. The results of computer simulation and an optical experimental system are described.

  4. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui Nassreddine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

  5. a Study on Mental Representations for Realistic Visualization the Particular Case of Ski Trail Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Dalmasso, A.; Murat, M.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making) and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  6. A STUDY ON MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS FOR REALISTIC VISUALIZATION THE PARTICULAR CASE OF SKI TRAIL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  7. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  8. Visual Methods and Quality in Information Behaviour Research: The Cases of Photovoice and Mental Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Andrew; Benson, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the paper is to explore the ways in which visual methods can increase the quality of qualitative information behaviour research. Methods: The paper examines Tracy's framework of eight criteria for research quality: worthy topic, rich rigour, sincerity, credibility, resonance, significant contribution, ethical issues…

  9. Visualizing acoustic similarities between emotions in speech: an acoustic map of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, K.P.; Leeuwen, D.A. van

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis method to assess the discriminability and confusiability between emotions according to automatic emotion classifiers. The degree of acoustic similarities between emotions can be defined in terms of distances that are based on pair-wise emotion

  10. Visual sensory processing deficits in patients with bipolar disorder revealed through high-density electrical mapping.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yeap, Sherlyn

    2009-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Etiological commonalities are apparent between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. For example, it is becoming clear that both populations show similar electrophysiological deficits in the auditory domain. Recent studies have also shown robust visual sensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia using the event-related potential technique, but this has not been formally tested in those with bipolar disorder. Our goal here was to assess whether early visual sensory processing in patients with bipolar disorder, as indexed by decreased amplitude of the P1 component of the visual evoked potential (VEP), would show a similar deficit to that seen in those with schizophrenia. Since the P1 deficit has already been established as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, a finding of commonality between disorders would raise the possibility that it represents a measure of common genetic liability. METHODS: We visually presented isolated-check stimuli to euthymic patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and age-matched healthy controls within a simple go\\/no-go task and recorded VEPs using high-density (72-channel) electroencephalography. RESULTS: The P1 VEP amplitude was substantially reduced in patients with bipolar disorder, with an effect size of f = 0.56 (large according to Cohen\\'s criteria). LIMITATIONS: Our sample size was relatively small and as such, did not allow for an examination of potential relations between the physiologic measures and clinical measures. CONCLUSION: This reduction in P1 amplitude among patients with bipolar disorder represents a dysfunction in early visual processing that is highly similar to that found repeatedly in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives. Since the P1 deficit has been related to susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, our results raise the possibility that the deficit may in fact be more broadly related to the development of psychosis and that it merits further

  11. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  12. Images Are Not the (Only) Truth: Brain Mapping, Visual Knowledge, and Iconoclasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Debates the paradoxical nature of claims about the emerging contributions of functional brain mapping. Examines the various ways that images are deployed and rejected and highlights an approach that provides insight into the current demarcation of imaging. (Contains 68 references.) (DDR)

  13. Visual analysis of geocoded twin data puts nature and nurture on the map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O S P; Haworth, C M A; Lewis, C M; Plomin, R

    2012-09-01

    Twin studies allow us to estimate the relative contributions of nature and nurture to human phenotypes by comparing the resemblance of identical and fraternal twins. Variation in complex traits is a balance of genetic and environmental influences; these influences are typically estimated at a population level. However, what if the balance of nature and nurture varies depending on where we grow up? Here we use statistical and visual analysis of geocoded data from over 6700 families to show that genetic and environmental contributions to 45 childhood cognitive and behavioral phenotypes vary geographically in the United Kingdom. This has implications for detecting environmental exposures that may interact with the genetic influences on complex traits, and for the statistical power of samples recruited for genetic association studies. More broadly, our experience demonstrates the potential for collaborative exploratory visualization to act as a lingua franca for large-scale interdisciplinary research.

  14. Visual data mining with self-organizing maps for ''self-monitoring'' data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Gasch, Elia; Vallés Pérez, Iván; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Soria Olivas, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Data collected in psychological studies are mainly characterized by containing a large number of variables (multidimensional data sets). Analyzing multidimensional data can be a difficult task, especially if only classical approaches are used (hypothesis tests, analyses of variance, linear models, etc.). Regarding multidimensional models, visual techniques play an important role because they can show the relationships among variables in a data set. Parallel coordinates and Chernoff faces are ...

  15. Virtual brain mapping: Meta-analysis and visualization in functional neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Results from functional neuroimaging such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance are often reported as sets of 3-dimensional coordinates in Talairach stereotactic space. By utilizing data collected in the BrainMap database and from our own small XML database we can...... data matrix. By conditioning on elements in the databases other than the coordinate data, e.g., anatomical labels associated with many coordinates we can make conditional novelty detection identifying outliers in the database that might be errorneous entries or seldom occuring patterns. In the Brain......Map database we found errors, e.g., stemming from confusion of centimeters and millimeters during entering and errors in the original article. Conditional probability density modeling also enables generation of probabilistic atlases and automatic probabilistic anatomical labeling of new coordinates...

  16. Mapping accuracy via spectrally and structurally based filtering techniques: comparisons through visual observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Letchumanan

    2005-01-01

    The data of Gunung Ledang region of Malaysia acquired through LANDSAT are considered to map certain hydrogeolocial features. To map these significant features, image-processing tools such as contrast enhancement, edge detection techniques are employed. The advantages of these techniques over the other methods are evaluated from the point of their validity in properly isolating features of hydrogeolocial interest are discussed. As these techniques take the advantage of spectral aspects of the images, these techniques have several limitations to meet the objectives. To discuss these limitations, a morphological transformation, which generally considers the structural aspects rather than spectral aspects from the image, are applied to provide comparisons between the results derived from spectral based and the structural based filtering techniques.

  17. The mapping of the visual field onto the dorso-lateral tectum of the pigeon (Columba livia) and its relations with retinal specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, Juan-Carlos; Marin, Gonzalo; Sentis, Elisa; Tenreiro, Andrea; Fredes, Felipe; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2004-01-30

    Most of the physiological studies of the pigeon retino-tectal visual pathway have investigated the accessible tectum, a small dorso-lateral tectal section that can be easily accessed by a simple craniotomy. However, at present we lack a detailed study of the topographical arrangement between the visual field, the retina and the accessible tectum. In particular, it is not known which section of the visual field is mapped onto the accessible tectum, and which of the specialized retinal areas mediates this projection. Here we determined, using local field potential (LFP) recordings and reverse retinoscopy, the shape, size and position in the visual space of the portion of the visual field mapped onto the accessible tectum (called here the accessible visual field, or AVF). Using this data and the mapping of Nalbach et al. [Vis. Res. 30 (4) (1990) 529], the retinal area corresponding to the AVF was determined. Such retinal area was also directly delimited by means of retrograde transport of DiI. The results indicate that the AVF is a triangular perifoveal zone encompassing only 15% of total visual field. The retinal region corresponding to the AVF has the shape of an elongated triangle that runs parallel to the visual equator and contains the fovea, the tip of the pecten, a perifoveal region of the yellow field and a small crescent of the red field. In agreement with this anatomical heterogeneity, visual evoked potentials measured in different parts of the accessible tectum present steep variations in shape and size. These results are helpful to better design and interpret anatomical and physiological experiments involving the pigeon's visual system.

  18. Different Stimuli, Different Spatial Codes: A Visual Map and an Auditory Rate Code for Oculomotor Space in the Primate Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungah; Groh, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Maps are a mainstay of visual, somatosensory, and motor coding in many species. However, auditory maps of space have not been reported in the primate brain. Instead, recent studies have suggested that sound location may be encoded via broadly responsive neurons whose firing rates vary roughly proportionately with sound azimuth. Within frontal space, maps and such rate codes involve different response patterns at the level of individual neurons. Maps consist of neurons exhibiting circumscribed receptive fields, whereas rate codes involve open-ended response patterns that peak in the periphery. This coding format discrepancy therefore poses a potential problem for brain regions responsible for representing both visual and auditory information. Here, we investigated the coding of auditory space in the primate superior colliculus(SC), a structure known to contain visual and oculomotor maps for guiding saccades. We report that, for visual stimuli, neurons showed circumscribed receptive fields consistent with a map, but for auditory stimuli, they had open-ended response patterns consistent with a rate or level-of-activity code for location. The discrepant response patterns were not segregated into different neural populations but occurred in the same neurons. We show that a read-out algorithm in which the site and level of SC activity both contribute to the computation of stimulus location is successful at evaluating the discrepant visual and auditory codes, and can account for subtle but systematic differences in the accuracy of auditory compared to visual saccades. This suggests that a given population of neurons can use different codes to support appropriate multimodal behavior. PMID:24454779

  19. Interactive map communication: pilot study of the visual perceptions and preferences of public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A; Samarasundera, E; Cheng, T

    2011-08-01

    To conduct a pilot study into the comprehension and visualisation preferences of geographic information by public health practitioners (PHPs), particularly in the context of interactive, Internet-based atlases. Structured human-computer interaction interviews. Seven academia-based PHPs were interviewed as information service users based on a structured questionnaire to assess their understanding of geographic representations of morbidity data, and identify their visualisation preferences in a geographic information systems environment. Awareness of area-based deprivation indices and the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 health and disability domain was near-universal. However, novice users of disease maps had difficulties in interpreting data classifications, in understanding supplementary information in the form of box plots and histograms, and in making use of links between interactive tabular and cartographic information. Choices for colour plans when viewing maps showed little agreement between users, although pre-viewing comments showed preferences for red-blue diverging schema. PHPs new to geographic information would benefit from enhanced interpretive support documentation to meet their needs when using Internet-based, interactive public health atlases, which are rarely provided at such sites. Technical, software-related support alone is insufficient. Increased interaction between PHPs and mapmakers would be beneficial to maximise the potential of the current growth in interactive, electronic atlases, and improve geographic information support for public health decision-making and informing the wider public. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Position Based Visual Servoing control of a Wheelchair Mounter Robotic Arm using Parallel Tracking and Mapping of task objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Palla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years power wheelchairs have been becoming the only device able to provide autonomy and independence to people with motor skill impairments. In particular, many power wheelchairs feature robotic arms for gesture emulation, like the interaction with objects. However, complex robotic arms often require a joystic to be controlled; this feature make the arm hard to be controlled by impaired users. Paradoxically, if the user were able to proficiently control such devices, he would not need them. For that reason, this paper presents a highly autonomous robotic arm, designed in order to minimize the effort necessary for the control of the arm. In order to do that, the arm feature an easy to use human - machine interface and is controlled by Computer Vison algorithm, implementing a Position Based Visual Servoing (PBVS control. It was realized by extracting features by the camera and fusing them with the distance from the target, obtained by a proximity sensor. The Parallel Tracking and Mapping (PTAM algorithm was used to find the 3D position of the task object in the camera reference system. The visual servoing algorithm was implemented in an embedded platform, in real time. Each part of the control loop was developed in Robotic Operative System (ROS Environment, which allows to implement the previous algorithms as different nodes. Theoretical analysis, simulations and in system measurements proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  1. Assessment of the visual landscape impact and dominance of wind tubines in Austria using weighted viewshed maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauppenlehner, Thomas; Salak, Boris; Scherhaufer, Patrick; Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Due to efficiency reasons and broadly availability of wind, wind energy is in focus of strategies regarding the expansion of renewable energy and energy transition policies. Nevertheless, the dimensions of the wind turbines and rotating dynamics have a significant impact on the landscape scenery and recreation as well as tourism activities. This often leads to local opposition against wind energy projects and is a major criterion regarding the acceptance of wind energy. In the project TransWind, the social acceptance of wind energy is surveyed on the basis of different development scenarios for Austria. Therefore, a GIS-based viewshed indicator was developed to assess the visual impact of different development scenarios as well as the current situation using weighted - regarding distance, amount and masking - viewshed analysis. This weighted viewshed maps for Austria allows a comprehensive evaluation of existing and potential wind energy sites regarding dominance and visual impact and can contribute to the spatial development process of wind energy site. Different regions can be compared and repowering strategies can be evaluated. Due to the large project area, data resolutions, generalized assumptions (e.g. tree heights) and missing data (e.g. solitary trees, small hedges) at local level further analysis are necessary but it supports the assessment of large-scale development scenarios can be identified.

  2. Visualizing the interior architecture of focal adhesions with high-resolution traction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Mekhdjian, Armen H; Chang, Alice C; Tan, Steven J; Dunn, Alexander R

    2015-04-08

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are micron-sized protein assemblies that coordinate cell adhesion, migration, and mechanotransduction. How the many proteins within FAs are organized into force sensing and transmitting structures is poorly understood. We combined fluorescent molecular tension sensors with super-resolution light microscopy to visualize traction forces within FAs with <100 nm spatial resolution. We find that αvβ3 integrin selectively localizes to high force regions. Paxillin, which is not generally considered to play a direct role in force transmission, shows a higher degree of spatial correlation with force than vinculin, talin, or α-actinin, proteins with hypothesized roles as force transducers. These observations suggest that αvβ3 integrin and paxillin may play important roles in mechanotransduction.

  3. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.

    2017-12-01

    21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

  4. TIES that BIND: an introduction to domain mapping as a visualization tool for virtual rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Kedar, Rochelle; Shahar, Meir

    2006-04-01

    The application of virtual reality (VR) to rehabilitation is a young, interdisciplinary field where clinical implementation very rapidly follows scientific discovery and technological advancement. Implementation is often so rapid that demonstration of intervention efficacy by investigators, and establishment of research and development priorities by funding bodies tend to be more reactive than proactive. An examination of the dynamic unfolding of the history of our young discipline may help us recognize the facilitators of current practice and identify the barriers that limit greater progress. This paper presents a first step towards the examination of the past and future growth of VR-based rehabilitation by presenting the use of concept maps to explore the publication history of application of VR to rehabilitation.

  5. SMALL URBAN GREENERY: MAPPING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN KYŌJIMA-SANCHŌME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Almazán

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the practice of maintaining small greenery in a typical high-density, low-rise district in Tokyo through extensive mapping and systematic photographic analysis of vertical green coverage. Overlooked by statistics based on aerial photography, this paper describes small greenery and the way in which it improves urban scenery. As more cities are planning to increase their green surface, this paper aims to bring attention to the potential role of environmental and social sustainability played by small-scale vegetation. Such greenery, spontaneously cultivated by residents, not only contributes to embellishing the streets, but also serves as a social device to personalize and subtly characterize territories, while expressing the creativity and cohesion of the community.

  6. Entrainment and high-density three-dimensional mapping in right atrial macroreentry provide critical complementary information: Entrainment may unmask "visual reentry" as passive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Lee, Geoffrey; Nalliah, Chrishan; Joseph, Stephen; Morton, Joseph B; Sparks, Paul B; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2017-10-01

    With the recent advent of high-density (HD) 3-dimensional (3D) mapping, the utility of entrainment is uncertain. However, the limitations of visual representation and interpretation of these high-resolution 3D maps are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths and limitations of both HD 3D mapping and entrainment mapping during mapping of right atrial macroreentry. Fifteen patients were studied. The number and type of circuits accounting for ≥90% of the tachycardia cycle length using HD 3D mapping were verified using systematic entrainment mapping. Entrainment sites with an unexpectedly long postpacing interval despite proximity to the active circuit were evaluated. Based on HD 3D mapping, 27 circuits were observed: 12 peritricuspid, 2 upper loop reentry, 10 lower loop reentry, and 3 lateral wall circuits. With entrainment, 17 of the 27 circuits were active: all 12 peritricuspid and 2 upper loop reentry. However, lower loop reentry was confirmed in only 3 of 10, and none of the 3 lateral wall circuits were present. Mean percentage of tachycardia cycle length covered by active circuits was 98% ± 1% vs 97% ± 2% for passive circuits (P = .09). None of the 345 entrainment runs terminated tachycardia or changed tachycardia mechanism. In 8 of 15 patients, 13 examples of unexpectedly long postpacing interval were observed at entrainment sites located distal to localized zones of slow conduction seen on HD 3D mapping. Using HD 3D mapping, "visual reentry" may be due to passive circuitous propagation rather than a critical reentrant circuit. HD 3D mapping provides new insights into regional conduction and helps explain unusual entrainment phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE USER STRATEGY ON 2D AND 3D CITY MAPS BASED ON NOVEL SCANPATH COMPARISON METHOD AND GRAPH VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dolezalova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents’ task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc. or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map.

  8. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  9. A Preliminary Study on the Use of Mind Mapping as a Visual-Learning Strategy in General Education Science Classes for Arabic Speakers in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenesha; Copeland-Solas, Eddia; Guthrie-Dixon, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Mind mapping was introduced as a culturally relevant pedagogy aimed at enhancing the teaching and learning experience in a general education, Environmental Science class for mostly Emirati English Language Learners (ELL). Anecdotal evidence suggests that the students are very artistic and visual and enjoy group-based activities. It was decided to…

  10. Cardiac MRI. T2-mapping versus T2-weighted dark-blood TSE imaging for myocardial edema visualization in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, K.; Nensa, F.; Schlosser, T.; Umutlu, L.; Lauenstein, T.; Bruder, O.; Maderwald, S.; Ladd, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of T2 mapping for the detection of myocardial edema in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to compare this diagnostic accuracy with that of the current standard for myocardial edema imaging, which is T2w dark-blood TSE imaging. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with AMI were examined at 1.5 T. For the visualization of myocardial edema, T2 maps, calculated from three T2w SSFP images, and T2w dark-blood TSE images were acquired in standard short- and long-axis views. Cine SSFP images were acquired for the analysis of left ventricular (LV) function and late gadolinium enhancement images (LGE) for the visualization of myocardial necrosis. The T2 maps as well as the T2w dark-blood TSE images were evaluated twice independently from the cine SSFP and LGE images. The presence or absence of myocardial edema was rated visually for each LV segment. As the standard of reference, the infarct zone was defined based on the cine SSFP and the LGE images. Results: In this segment-based analysis, T2 mapping showed a sensitivity of 82 % and a specificity of 94 % for the detection of edema in the infarct zone. T2w dark-blood TSE imaging revealed a sensitivity of 50 % and a specificity of 98 %. T2 mapping showed a higher intra-rater agreement compared to T2w dark-blood TSE imaging (κ: 0.87 vs. 0.76). Conclusions: T2 mapping allows for the visualization of myocardial edema in AMI with a high sensitivity and specificity, and features better diagnostic accuracy in terms of a higher sensitivity compared to T2w dark-blood TSE imaging. (orig.)

  11. Map making and map use in a multi-actor context : Spatial visualizations and frame conflicts in regional policymaking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the practice of map-making and map use is studied among actors involved in spatial planning and water management. The socio-technical mechanisms between knowlegde production and policymaking in Dutch regional planning make up the central object of study, with map images as observable

  12. A shared, flexible neural map architecture reflects capacity limits in both visual short-term memory and enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, André; Piazza, Manuela; Sengupta, Rakesh; Eger, Evelyn; Melcher, David

    2014-07-23

    Human cognition is characterized by severe capacity limits: we can accurately track, enumerate, or hold in mind only a small number of items at a time. It remains debated whether capacity limitations across tasks are determined by a common system. Here we measure brain activation of adult subjects performing either a visual short-term memory (vSTM) task consisting of holding in mind precise information about the orientation and position of a variable number of items, or an enumeration task consisting of assessing the number of items in those sets. We show that task-specific capacity limits (three to four items in enumeration and two to three in vSTM) are neurally reflected in the activity of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC): an identical set of voxels in this region, commonly activated during the two tasks, changed its overall response profile reflecting task-specific capacity limitations. These results, replicated in a second experiment, were further supported by multivariate pattern analysis in which we could decode the number of items presented over a larger range during enumeration than during vSTM. Finally, we simulated our results with a computational model of PPC using a saliency map architecture in which the level of mutual inhibition between nodes gives rise to capacity limitations and reflects the task-dependent precision with which objects need to be encoded (high precision for vSTM, lower precision for enumeration). Together, our work supports the existence of a common, flexible system underlying capacity limits across tasks in PPC that may take the form of a saliency map. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349857-10$15.00/0.

  13. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part I: the topography of light detection and temporal-information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Temporal performance parameters vary across the visual field. Their topographical distributions relative to each other and relative to basic visual performance measures and their relative change over the life span are unknown. Our goal was to characterize the topography and age-related change of temporal performance. We acquired visual field maps in 95 healthy participants (age: 10-90 years): perimetric thresholds, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times (RTs), and letter contrast thresholds. DPR and perimetric thresholds increased with eccentricity and age; the periphery showed a more pronounced age-related increase than the center. RT increased only slightly and uniformly with eccentricity. It remained almost constant up to the age of 60, a marked change occurring only above 80. Overall, age was a poor predictor of functionality. Performance decline could be explained only in part by the aging of the retina and optic media. In Part II, we therefore examine higher visual and cognitive functions.

  14. CGI: Java software for mapping and visualizing data from array-based comparative genomic hybridization and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Joyce Xiuweu-Xu; Wei, Michael Yang; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Lau, Ching C; Behl, Sanjiv; Man, Tsz-Kwong

    2007-10-06

    With the increasing application of various genomic technologies in biomedical research, there is a need to integrate these data to correlate candidate genes/regions that are identified by different genomic platforms. Although there are tools that can analyze data from individual platforms, essential software for integration of genomic data is still lacking. Here, we present a novel Java-based program called CGI (Cytogenetics-Genomics Integrator) that matches the BAC clones from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to genes from RNA expression profiling datasets. The matching is computed via a fast, backend MySQL database containing UCSC Genome Browser annotations. This program also provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for visualizing and summarizing the correlation of DNA copy number changes and RNA expression patterns from a set of experiments. In addition, CGI uses a Java applet to display the copy number values of a specific BAC clone in aCGH experiments side by side with the expression levels of genes that are mapped back to that BAC clone from the microarray experiments. The CGI program is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for biologists. It is cross-platform compatible and the source code is freely available under the General Public License.

  15. CGI: Java Software for Mapping and Visualizing Data from Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Xiuweu-Xu Gu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing application of various genomic technologies in biomedical research, there is a need to integrate these data to correlate candidate genes/regions that are identified by different genomic platforms. Although there are tools that can analyze data from individual platforms, essential software for integration of genomic data is still lacking. Here, we present a novel Java-based program called CGI (Cytogenetics-Genomics Integrator that matches the BAC clones from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to genes from RNA expression profiling datasets. The matching is computed via a fast, backend MySQL database containing UCSC Genome Browser annotations. This program also provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for visualizing and summarizing the correlation of DNA copy number changes and RNA expression patterns from a set of experiments. In addition, CGI uses a Java applet to display the copy number values of a specifi c BAC clone in aCGH experiments side by side with the expression levels of genes that are mapped back to that BAC clone from the microarray experiments. The CGI program is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for biologists. It is cross-platform compatible and the source code is freely available under the General Public License.

  16. Location priority for non-formal early childhood education school based on promethee method and map visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Nurul Handayani, Hemas; Waspada, Indra

    2018-05-01

    Non-formal Early Childhood Education (non-formal ECE) is an education that is held for children under 4 years old. The implementation in District of Banyumas, Non-formal ECE is monitored by The District Government of Banyumas and helped by Sanggar Kegiatan Belajar (SKB) Purwokerto as one of the organizer of Non-formal Education. The government itself has a program for distributing ECE to all villages in Indonesia. However, The location to construct the ECE school in several years ahead is not arranged yet. Therefore, for supporting that program, a decision support system is made to give some recommendation villages for constructing The ECE building. The data are projected based on Brown’s Double Exponential Smoothing Method and utilizing Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (Promethee) to generate priority order. As the recommendations system, it generates map visualization which is colored according to the priority level of sub-district and village area. The system was tested with black box testing, Promethee testing, and usability testing. The results showed that the system functionality and Promethee algorithm were working properly, and the user was satisfied.

  17. Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species by self-organizing feature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the dominant organic components of processed animal proteins, however there has been limited investigation of differences in their composition between various protein sources. Information on these differences will not only be helpful for their further utilization but also provide fundamental information for developing species-specific identification methods. In this study, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM were used to visualize amino acid composition of fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM produced from poultry, ruminants and swine. SOFM display the similarities and differences in amino acid composition between protein sources and effectively improve data transparency. Amino acid composition was shown to be useful for distinguishing fish meal from MBM due to their large concentration differences between glycine, lysine and proline. However, the amino acid composition of the three MBMs was quite similar. The SOFM results were consistent with those obtained by analysis of variance and principal component analysis but more straightforward. SOFM was shown to have a robust sample linkage capacity and to be able to act as a powerful means to link different sample for further data mining.

  18. A technique for visualization and mapping of local cartilage thickness changes in MR images of osteoarthritic knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Quanxu, E-mail: gequanxu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Cheng, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yzcheng@hitwh.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bi, Kesen, E-mail: whbks@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Guo, Changyong, E-mail: hit_gcy@163.com [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bai, Jing, E-mail: deabj@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, China B209, Medical School Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tamura, Shinichi, E-mail: tamuras@nblmt.jp [Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, D11, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to describe a technique for the visualization and mapping of focal, local cartilage thickness changes over time in magnetic resonance images of osteoarthritic knee. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 fresh frozen pig knee joints and 15 knees of patients with borderline to mild osteoarthritis (51.2 {+-} 6.3 years). Cartilage and corresponding bone structures were extracted by semi-automatic segmentation. Each point in the bone surface which was part of the bone-cartilage interface was assigned a cartilage thickness value. Cartilage thicknesses were computed for each point in the bone-cartilage interfaces and transferred to the bone surfaces. Moreover, we developed a three dimensional registration method for the identification of anatomically corresponding points of the bone surface to quantify local cartilage thickness changes. One of the main advantages of our method compared to other studies in the field of registration is a global optimization algorithm that does not require any initialization. Results and conclusion: The registration accuracy was 0.93 {+-} 0.05 mm (less than a voxel of magnetic resonance data). Local cartilage thickness changes were seen as having follow-up clinical study for detecting local changes in cartilage thickness. Experiment results suggest that our method was sufficiently accurate and effective for monitoring knee joint diseases.

  19. Visualizing the Geography of the Diseases of China: Western Disease Maps from Analytical Tools to Tools of Empire, Sovereignty, and Public Health Propaganda, 1878-1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marta

    2017-09-01

    Argument This article analyzes for the first time the earliest western maps of diseases in China spanning fifty years from the late 1870s to the end of the 1920s. The 24 featured disease maps present a visual history of the major transformations in modern medicine from medical geography to laboratory medicine wrought on Chinese soil. These medical transformations occurred within new political formations from the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) to colonialism in East Asia (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea) and hypercolonialism within China (Tianjin, Shanghai, Amoy) as well as the new Republican Chinese nation state (1912-49). As a subgenre of persuasive graphics, physicians marshaled disease maps for various rhetorical functions within these different political contexts. Disease maps in China changed from being mostly analytical tools to functioning as tools of empire, national sovereignty, and public health propaganda legitimating new medical concepts, public health interventions, and political structures governing over human and non-human populations.

  20. Spatial frequency-dependent feedback of visual cortical area 21a modulating functional orientation column maps in areas 17 and 18 of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luoxiu; Chen, Xin; Shou, Tiande

    2004-02-20

    The feedback effect of activity of area 21a on orientation maps of areas 17 and 18 was investigated in cats using intrinsic signal optical imaging. A spatial frequency-dependent decrease in response amplitude of orientation maps to grating stimuli was observed in areas 17 and 18 when area 21a was inactivated by local injection of GABA, or by a lesion induced by liquid nitrogen freezing. The decrease in response amplitude of orientation maps of areas 17 and 18 after the area 21a inactivation paralleled the normal response without the inactivation. Application in area 21a of bicuculline, a GABAa receptor antagonist caused an increase in response amplitude of orientation maps of area 17. The results indicate a positive feedback from high-order visual cortical area 21a to lower-order areas underlying a spatial frequency-dependent mechanism.

  1. Radiation visualization in virtual reality: A comparison of flat and topographic map types, presented on four different display technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, Espen; Sebok, Angelia

    2005-08-01

    HWR-734 describes an experiment performed to compare different types of VR display technologies and their effects on learning. In the study, two different ways of presenting radiation information were compared. One was a flat radiation map with different colours for different levels of radiation. The other was a topographic map, where radiation levels were distinguished both by colour and by the elevation of the map. The efficiency of the maps for learning radiation information, and subjective preferences was assessed. The results indicated that the maps were each suited for different kinds of use. It is recommended to follow up this study with further investigation of radiation map efficiency. (Author)

  2. PAVA: Physiological and Anatomical Visual Analytics for Mapping of Tissue-Specific Concentration and Time-Course Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the development and implementation of a Physiological and Anatomical Visual Analytics tool (PAVA), a web browser-based application, used to visualize experimental/simulated chemical time-course data (dosimetry), epidemiological data and Physiologically-Annotated Data ...

  3. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  4. Map Learning with a 3D Printed Interactive Small-Scale Model: Improvement of Space and Text Memorization in Visually Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giraud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students’ autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.

  5. Map Learning with a 3D Printed Interactive Small-Scale Model: Improvement of Space and Text Memorization in Visually Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Stéphanie; Brock, Anke M; Macé, Marc J-M; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs) to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students' autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs) which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers. However, no study has previously been conducted to evaluate non-visual learning using interactive SSMs. In collaboration with a specialized teacher, we designed a SSM and a RLM representing the evolution of the geography and history of a fictitious kingdom. The two conditions were compared in a study with 24 visually impaired students regarding the memorization of the spatial layout and historical contents. The study showed that the interactive SSM improved both space and text memorization as compared to the RLM with braille legend. In conclusion, we argue that affordable home-made interactive small scale models can improve learning for visually impaired students. Interestingly, they are adaptable to any teaching situation including students with specific needs.

  6. The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): a Geoportal for Visualizing Project-level Information About U.S. Funded Research in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Score, R.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; http://armap.org/) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information, including links to data where possible. The latest ARMAP iteration has i) reworked the search user interface (UI) to enable multiple filters to be applied in user-driven queries and ii) implemented ArcGIS Javascript API 4.0 to allow for deployment of 3D maps directly into a users web-browser and enhanced customization of popups. Module additions include i) a dashboard UI powered by a back-end Apache SOLR engine to visualize data in intuitive and interactive charts; and ii) a printing module that allows users to customize maps and export these to different formats (pdf, ppt, gif and jpg). New reference layers and an updated ship tracks layer have also been added. These improvements have been made to improve discoverability, enhance logistics coordination, identify geographic gaps in research/observation effort, and foster enhanced collaboration among the research community. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research effort supported by the U.S. Government.

  7. Measures and visualization methods of map projection distortions with the use of “python matplotlib library” as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the author of this article is to show the users of Geographical Information Systems how to present the distortions in a simple way. The intention of the author is also to popularize the knowledge in the scope of map projections and to inform the users of the maps that, despite all the advanced modern tools, an elimination of the problem, connected with the map projections and cartographical distortions occurring in them, has failed so far.

  8. Brain F-18 FDG PET for localization of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy: visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis for the localization of the epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy. Twenty-four patients with frontal lobe epilepsy were examined. All patients exhibited improvements after surgical resection (Engel class I or II). Upon pathological examination, 18 patients revealed cortical dysplasia, 4 patients revealed tumor, and 2 patients revealed cortical scar. The hypometabolic lesions were found in F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and SPM analysis. On SPM analysis, cutoff threshold was changed. MRI showed structural lesions in 12 patients and normal results in the remaining 12. F-18 FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones in 13 patients (54%) by visual assessment. Sensitivity of F-18 FDG PET in MR-negative patients (50%) was similar to that in MR-positive patients (67%). On SPM analysis, sensitivity deceased according to the decrease of p value. Using uncorrected p value of 0.05 as threshold, sensitivity of SPM analysis was 63%, which was not statistically different from that of visual assessment. F-18 FDG PET was sensitive in finding epileptogenic zones by revealing hypometabolic areas even in MR-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy as well as in MR-positive patients. SPM analysis showed comparable sensitivity to visual assessment and could be used as an aid in the diagnosis of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy

  9. Rapid and low-invasive functional brain mapping by realtime visualization of high gamma activity for awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, K; Ogawa, H; Kapeller, C; Prueckl, R; Guger, C

    2014-01-01

    For neurosurgery with an awake craniotomy, the critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by electrocortical stimulation (ECS). High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram (ECoG) is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used realtime HGA mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Three patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. After the craniotomy, we recorded ECoG activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated realtime HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared to ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. The investigation times of HGA mapping was significantly shorter than that of ECS mapping. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI, however, did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate functional mapping.

  10. A visualization and data-sharing tool for ecosystem service maps : Lessons learnt, challenges and the way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakou, E. G.; Crossman, N.D.; Willemen, L.; Burkhard, B.; Palomo, I.; Maes, J.; Peedell, S.

    2015-01-01

    A plurality in methods, models, terminologies is used to assess, quantify, map and communicate ecosystem services (ES). The Thematic Working Groups on Mapping (TWG4) and Modeling ES (TWG5) of the Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP), recent literature and expert workshops, have highlighted the need

  11. Benthic Habitat Type Maps of Lanai 2000 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — FIve habitat and zone maps. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal...

  12. Benthic Habitat Type Maps of the Maui Island 2000 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Thirteen habitat and zone maps. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for...

  13. Benthic Habitat Type Maps of Kauai Island 2000 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eleven habitat and zone maps. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal...

  14. Benthic Habitat Type Maps of Hawaii Island 2000 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twenty-one Habitat and Zome Maps. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for...

  15. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  17. Detection of myocardial ischemia by automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded perfusion maps compared with visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Michaely, Henrik J; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Glielmi, Christopher; Süselbeck, Tim; Fink, Christian; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded (AMC) perfusion maps with qualitative visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for detection of flow-limiting stenoses. Myocardial perfusion measurements applying the standard adenosine stress imaging protocol and a saturation-recovery temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (t-GRAPPA) turbo fast low angle shot (Turbo FLASH) magnetic resonance imaging sequence were performed in 25 patients using a 3.0-T MAGNETOM Skyra (Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany). Perfusion studies were analyzed using AMC perfusion maps and qualitative visual analysis. Angiographically detected coronary artery (CA) stenoses greater than 75% or 50% or more with a myocardial perfusion reserve index less than 1.5 were considered as hemodynamically relevant. Diagnostic performance and time requirement for both methods were compared. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were also assessed. A total of 29 CA stenoses were included in the analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for detection of ischemia on a per-patient basis were comparable using the AMC perfusion maps compared to visual analysis. On a per-CA territory basis, the attribution of an ischemia to the respective vessel was facilitated using the AMC perfusion maps. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were better for the AMC perfusion maps (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.94 and 0.93, respectively) compared to visual analysis (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.73 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, in comparison to visual analysis, the AMC perfusion maps were able to significantly reduce analysis time from 7.7 (3.1) to 3.2 (1.9) minutes (P < 0.0001). The AMC perfusion maps yielded a diagnostic performance on a per-patient and on a per-CA territory basis comparable with the visual analysis

  18. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal-scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns.

  19. Star Maps, Planispheres, and Celestial Calendars : Engaging Students, Educators, and Communities with Multicultural STEM/STEAM Visual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette S.; Wilson, William; Tibbetts, Jeffrey; Gawboy, Carl

    2017-06-01

    Aim:Designed by A. Lee, the Native Skywatchers initiative seeks to remember and revitalize indigenous star and earth knowledge, promoting the native voice as the lead voice. The overarching goal of Native Skywatchers is to communicate the knowledge that indigenous people practiced a sustainable way of living and sustainable engineering through a living and participatory relationship with the above and below, sky and earth. We aim to improve current inequities in education for native young people, to inspire increased cultural pride, and promote community wellness. We hope to inspire all participants towards a rekindling of the excitement and curiosity that causes us to look up at the sky in wonder generation after generation.Results:Presented here are several Native Skywatchers initiatives under the broad categories of: 1.) star maps, 2.) planispheres, and 3.) celestial calendars. In 2012 two indigenous star maps were created: the Ojibwe Giizhig Anung Masinaaigan-Ojibwe Sky Star Map (A. Lee, W. Wilson, C. Gawboy), and the D(L)akota star map, Makoce Wicanhpi Wowapi (A. Lee, J. Rock). More recently, a collaboration with W. Buck, science educator, at the Manitoba First Nations Resource Centre (MFNRC), in Winnipeg, Manitoba produced a third indigenous star map: Ininew Achakos Masinikan-Cree Star Map Book. Having star maps that are rooted in astronomical knowledge and cultural wisdoms has allowed communities multiple and ongoing opportunities for inclusive culture-based STEM learning. Next, planispheres were created based on the indigenous star maps. A learning and teaching hands-on tool, the planispheres, help partakers understand the patterns of motion in the night sky in addition to simply identifying the constellations. Most recently, calendar-paintings of the yearly motion of the Sun, the phases of the Moon, and the Venus-year have all been added to the growing list of Native Skywatchers resources. Working collaboratively with regional schools, educators, museums

  20. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui NASSREDDINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

  1. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  2. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  3. Ontology-aided annotation, visualization and generalization of geological time-scale information from online geological map services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der

    2012-01-01

    Geological maps are increasingly published and shared online, whereas tools and services supporting information retrieval and knowledge discovery are underdeveloped. In this study, we developed an ontology of geological time scale by using a RDF (Resource Description Framework) model to represent

  4. Ontology-aided annotation, visualization and generalization of geological time scale information from online geological map services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Marshal; Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M; Wu, C.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2012-01-01

    Geological maps are increasingly published and shared online, whereas tools and services supporting information retrieval and knowledge discovery are underdeveloped. In this study, we developed an ontology of geological time scale by using a Resource Description Framework model to represent the

  5. Synchronized 2D/3D optical mapping for interactive exploration and real-time visualization of multi-function neurological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Efficient software with the ability to display multiple neurological image datasets simultaneously with full real-time interactivity is critical for brain disease diagnosis and image-guided planning. In this paper, we describe the creation and function of a new comprehensive software platform that integrates novel algorithms and functions for multiple medical image visualization, processing, and manipulation. We implement an opacity-adjustment algorithm to build 2D lookup tables for multiple slice image display and fusion, which achieves a better visual result than those of using VTK-based methods. We also develop a new real-time 2D and 3D data synchronization scheme for multi-function MR volume and slice image optical mapping and rendering simultaneously through using the same adjustment operation. All these methodologies are integrated into our software framework to provide users with an efficient tool for flexibly, intuitively, and rapidly exploring and analyzing the functional and anatomical MR neurological data. Finally, we validate our new techniques and software platform with visual analysis and task-specific user studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Visualizing Research Lines in Public Health: An analysis Based on Bibliometric Maps Applied to the Revista Española de Salud Pública (2006-2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying research lines is essential to understand the knowledge structure of a scientific domain. The aim of this study was to identify the main research topics of within the domain of public health, in the Revista Española de Saslud Pública during 2006-2015. Original articles included in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database, available online through the Web of Science (WoS), were selected. The analysis units used were the keywords, KeyWords Plus (KW+), extracted automatically by SSCI. With KW+ obtained bibliometric, maps were created using a methodology based on the combination of co-word analysis, co-word analysis, clustering techniques and visualization techniques. We analyzed 512 documents, of which 176 KW+ were obtained with a frequency greater than or equal to 3. The results were bidimensional bibliometric maps with thematic groupings of KW+, representing the main research fronts: i) epidemiology, risk control programs disease and, in general, service organization and health policies; ii) infectious diseases, principally HIV; iii) a progressive increase in several lines interrelated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD); iv) a line multidimensional dedicated to different aspects associated to the quality of life related to health (HRQoL); and v) an emerging line linked to binge drinking. For the multidisciplinary and multidimensional nature of public health, the construction of bibliometric maps is an appropriate methodology to understand the knowledge structure of this scientific domain.

  7. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualization of dielectric constant-electric field-temperature phase maps for imprinted relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, J. C.; Kim, T. H.; Maeng, W.; Brewer, A. A.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Saenrang, W.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Schlom, D. G.; Li, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric phase transition behavior of imprinted lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric thin films was mapped as a function of temperature and dc bias. To compensate for the presence of internal fields, an external electric bias was applied while measuring dielectric responses. The constructed three-dimensional dielectric maps provide insight into the dielectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric films as well as the temperature stability of the imprint. The transition temperature and diffuseness of the dielectric response correlate with crystallographic disorder resulting from strain and defects in the films grown on strontium titanate and silicon substrates; the latter was shown to induce a greater degree of disorder in the film as well as a dielectric response lower in magnitude and more diffuse in nature over the same temperature region. Strong and stable imprint was exhibited in both films and can be utilized to enhance the operational stability of piezoelectric devices through domain self-poling.

  9. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  10. Visualizing and communicating climate change using the ClimateWizard: decision support and education through web-based analysis and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvetz, E. H.; Zganjar, C.; Raber, G. T.; Maurer, E. P.; Duffy, P.

    2009-12-01

    Virtually all fields of study and parts of society—from ecological science and nature conservation, to global development, multinational corporations, and government bodies—need to know how climate change has and may impact specific locations of interest. Our ability to respond to climate change depends on having convenient tools that make past and projected climate trends available to planners, managers, scientists and the general public, at scales ranging from global to local scales. Web-mapping applications provide an effective platform for communicating climate change impacts in specific geographic areas of interest to the public. Here, we present one such application, the ClimateWizard, that allows users to analyze, visualize and explore climate change maps for specific geographic areas of interest throughout the world (http://ClimateWizard.org). Built on Web 2.0 web-services (SOAP), Google Maps mash-up, and cloud computing technologies, the ClimateWizard analyzes large databases of climate information located on remote servers to create synthesized information and useful products tailored to geographic areas of interest (e.g. maps, graphs, tables, GIS layers). We demonstrate how the ClimateWizard can be used to assess projected changes to temperature and precipitation across all states in the contiguous United States and all countries of the world using statistically downscaled general circulation models from the CMIP3 dataset. We then go on to show how ClimateWizard can be used to analyze changes to other climate related variables, such as moisture stress and water production. Finally, we discuss how this tool can be adapted to develop a wide range of web-based tools that are targeted at informing specific audiences—from scientific research and natural resource management, to K-12 and higher education—about how climate change may affect different aspects of human and natural systems.

  11. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  12. Visually directed vs. software-based targeted biopsy compared to transperineal template mapping biopsy in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Massimo; McCartan, Neil; Freeman, Alex; Punwani, Shonit; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2015-10-01

    Targeted biopsy based on cognitive or software magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to transrectal ultrasound registration seems to increase the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer as compared with standard biopsy. However, these strategies have not been directly compared against an accurate test yet. The aim of this study was to obtain pilot data on the diagnostic ability of visually directed targeted biopsy vs. software-based targeted biopsy, considering transperineal template mapping (TPM) biopsy as the reference test. Prospective paired cohort study included 50 consecutive men undergoing TPM with one or more visible targets detected on preoperative multiparametric MRI. Targets were contoured on the Biojet software. Patients initially underwent software-based targeted biopsies, then visually directed targeted biopsies, and finally systematic TPM. The detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason score ≥3+4 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥4mm) of one strategy against another was compared by 3×3 contingency tables. Secondary analyses were performed using a less stringent threshold of significance (Gleason score ≥4+3 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥6mm). Median age was 68 (interquartile range: 63-73); median prostate-specific antigen level was 7.9ng/mL (6.4-10.2). A total of 79 targets were detected with a mean of 1.6 targets per patient. Of these, 27 (34%), 28 (35%), and 24 (31%) were scored 3, 4, and 5, respectively. At a patient level, the detection rate was 32 (64%), 34 (68%), and 38 (76%) for visually directed targeted, software-based biopsy, and TPM, respectively. Combining the 2 targeted strategies would have led to detection rate of 39 (78%). At a patient level and at a target level, software-based targeted biopsy found more clinically significant diseases than did visually directed targeted biopsy, although this was not statistically significant (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.48; 51.9% vs. 44.3%, P = 0.24). Secondary

  13. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  14. Visualizing the Crowd Web-based Participatory Practices as Innovative Tools in drawing and mapping Milano Città Metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Villa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many new questions arise with regard to Web3.0- based technologies, which are more and more frequently used by non-experts to generate and share geographic information, new collective urban visions and place-based knowledge. This paper discusses the role of participatory planning and mapping practices in the context of Milan metropolitan region. In particular taking into account the collaborative use of new technologies (such as the use of microblogging and geo-social networks within the processes of social sharing of the great urban transformations. Specific attention is given to the problems of perception and definition of shared landscape quality. In this context, the role of expert knowledge in the analysis and definition of the social perception of the urban landscape is now changing rapidly and radically.

  15. GLAM: Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map for visual analysis of dense and sparse surface reconstructions of rodent brain structures on desktop systems and virtual environments

    KAUST Repository

    Agus, Marco; Boges, Daniya; Gagnon, Nicolas; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Hadwiger, Markus; Cali, Corrado

    2018-01-01

    Human brain accounts for about one hundred billion neurons, but they cannot work properly without ultrastructural and metabolic support. For this reason, mammalian brains host another type of cells called “glial cells”, whose role is to maintain proper conditions for efficient neuronal function. One type of glial cell, astrocytes, are involved in particular in the metabolic support of neurons, by feeding them with lactate, one byproduct of glucose metabolism that they can take up from blood vessels, and store it under another form, glycogen granules. These energy-storage molecules, whose morphology resembles to spheres with a diameter ranging 10–80 nanometers roughly, can be easily recognized using electron microscopy, the only technique whose resolution is high enough to resolve them. Understanding and quantifying their distribution is of particular relevance for neuroscientists, in order to understand where and when neurons use energy under this form. To answer this question, we developed a visualization technique, dubbed GLAM (Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map), and customized for the analysis of the interaction of astrocytic glycogen on surrounding neurites in order to formulate hypotheses on the energy absorption mechanisms. The method integrates high-resolution surface reconstruction of neurites, astrocytes, and the energy sources in form of glycogen granules from different automated serial electron microscopy methods, like focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) or serial block face electron microscopy (SBEM), together with an absorption map computed as a radiance transfer mechanism. The resulting visual representation provides an immediate and comprehensible illustration of the areas in which the probability of lactate shuttling is higher. The computed dataset can be then explored and quantified in a 3D space, either using 3D modeling software or virtual reality environments. Domain scientists have evaluated the technique by

  16. GLAM: Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map for visual analysis of dense and sparse surface reconstructions of rodent brain structures on desktop systems and virtual environments

    KAUST Repository

    Agus, Marco

    2018-05-21

    Human brain accounts for about one hundred billion neurons, but they cannot work properly without ultrastructural and metabolic support. For this reason, mammalian brains host another type of cells called “glial cells”, whose role is to maintain proper conditions for efficient neuronal function. One type of glial cell, astrocytes, are involved in particular in the metabolic support of neurons, by feeding them with lactate, one byproduct of glucose metabolism that they can take up from blood vessels, and store it under another form, glycogen granules. These energy-storage molecules, whose morphology resembles to spheres with a diameter ranging 10–80 nanometers roughly, can be easily recognized using electron microscopy, the only technique whose resolution is high enough to resolve them. Understanding and quantifying their distribution is of particular relevance for neuroscientists, in order to understand where and when neurons use energy under this form. To answer this question, we developed a visualization technique, dubbed GLAM (Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map), and customized for the analysis of the interaction of astrocytic glycogen on surrounding neurites in order to formulate hypotheses on the energy absorption mechanisms. The method integrates high-resolution surface reconstruction of neurites, astrocytes, and the energy sources in form of glycogen granules from different automated serial electron microscopy methods, like focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) or serial block face electron microscopy (SBEM), together with an absorption map computed as a radiance transfer mechanism. The resulting visual representation provides an immediate and comprehensible illustration of the areas in which the probability of lactate shuttling is higher. The computed dataset can be then explored and quantified in a 3D space, either using 3D modeling software or virtual reality environments. Domain scientists have evaluated the technique by

  17. Diagnosis of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities using SPECT: agreement between individualized statistical parametric maps and visual inspection by nuclear medicine physicians with different levels of expertise in nuclear neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da, E-mail: euclidestimoteo@uol.com.b [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Nitrini, Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Tazima, Sergio [Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz (HAOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Peres, Stela Verzinhase [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Busatto Filho, Geraldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. Objectives: to compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. Methods: using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. Results: of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). Conclusion: statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice. (author)

  18. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  19. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  20. Somatotopic mapping of piano fingering errors in sensorimotor experts: TMS studies in pianists and visually trained musically naives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Mega, Ilaria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-02-01

    Virtuosic musical performance requires fine sensorimotor skills and high predictive control of the fast finger movements that produce the intended sounds, and cannot be corrected once the notes have been played. The anticipatory nature of motor control in experts explains why musical performance is barely affected by auditory feedback. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we provide evidence that, in expert pianists (Experiment 1), the observation of a mute piano fingering error induces 1) a time-locked facilitation of hand corticospinal representation which occurred 300 and 700 ms but not 100 ms after error onset, and 2) a somatotopic corticospinal facilitation of the very same finger that commits the error. In a second experiment, we show that no corticospinal modulation is found in non-pianist naïve individuals who were experimentally trained to visually detect the observed fingering errors (Experiment 2). This is the first evidence showing that the refined somatosensory and motor skills of musicians exceed the domain of individual motor control and may provide the brain with fine anticipatory, simulative error monitoring systems for the evaluation of others' movements.

  1. Live fate-mapping of joint-associated fibroblasts visualizes expansion of cell contributions during zebrafish fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornini, Valerie A; Thompson, John D; Allen, Raymond L; Poss, Kenneth D

    2017-08-15

    The blastema is a mass of progenitor cells responsible for regeneration of amputated salamander limbs and fish fins. Previous studies have indicated that resident cell sources producing the blastema contribute lineage-restricted progeny to regenerating tissue. However, these studies have labeled general cell types rather than granular cell subpopulations, and they do not explain the developmental transitions that must occur for distal structures to arise from cells with proximal identities in the appendage stump. Here, we find that regulatory sequences of tph1b , which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes serotonin, mark a subpopulation of fibroblast-like cells restricted to the joints of uninjured adult zebrafish fins. Amputation stimulates serotonin production in regenerating fin fibroblasts, yet targeted tph1b mutations abrogating this response do not disrupt fin regeneration. In uninjured animals, tph1b -expressing cells contribute fibroblast progeny that remain restricted to joints throughout life. By contrast, upon amputation, tph1b + joint cells give rise to fibroblasts that distribute across the entire lengths of regenerating fin rays. Our experiments visualize and quantify how incorporation into an appendage blastema broadens the progeny contributions of a cellular subpopulation that normally has proximodistal restrictions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  3. Perceptual Dependencies in Information Visualization Assessed by Complex Visual Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Ronald van den; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    A common approach for visualizing data sets is to map them to images in which distinct data dimensions are mapped to distinct visual features, such as color, size and orientation. Here, we consider visualizations in which different data dimensions should receive equal weight and attention. Many of

  4. A pathway in the brainstem for roll-tilt of the subjective visual vertical: evidence from a lesion-behavior mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Thömke, Frank; Wilting, Janine; Heinze, Caroline; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne

    2012-10-24

    The perceived subjective visual vertical (SVV) is an important sign of a vestibular otolith tone imbalance in the roll plane. Previous studies suggested that unilateral pontomedullary brainstem lesions cause ipsiversive roll-tilt of SVV, whereas pontomesencephalic lesions cause contraversive roll-tilts of SVV. However, previous data were of limited quality and lacked a statistical approach. We therefore tested roll-tilt of the SVV in 79 human patients with acute unilateral brainstem lesions due to stroke by applying modern statistical lesion-behavior mapping analysis. Roll-tilt of the SVV was verified to be a brainstem sign, and for the first time it was confirmed statistically that lesions of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and the medial vestibular nucleus are associated with ipsiversive tilt of the SVV, whereas contraversive tilts are associated with lesions affecting the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF, the superior cerebellar peduncle, the oculomotor nucleus, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Thus, these structures constitute the anatomical pathway in the brainstem for verticality perception. Present data indicate that graviceptive otolith signals present a predominant role in the multisensory system of verticality perception.

  5. Mapping, Learning, Visualization, Classification, and Understanding of fMRI Data in the NeuCube Evolving Spatiotemporal Data Machine of Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabov, Nikola K; Doborjeh, Maryam Gholami; Doborjeh, Zohreh Gholami

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology for dynamic learning, visualization, and classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as spatiotemporal brain data. The method is based on an evolving spatiotemporal data machine of evolving spiking neural networks (SNNs) exemplified by the NeuCube architecture [1]. The method consists of several steps: mapping spatial coordinates of fMRI data into a 3-D SNN cube (SNNc) that represents a brain template; input data transformation into trains of spikes; deep, unsupervised learning in the 3-D SNNc of spatiotemporal patterns from data; supervised learning in an evolving SNN classifier; parameter optimization; and 3-D visualization and model interpretation. Two benchmark case study problems and data are used to illustrate the proposed methodology-fMRI data collected from subjects when reading affirmative or negative sentences and another one-on reading a sentence or seeing a picture. The learned connections in the SNNc represent dynamic spatiotemporal relationships derived from the fMRI data. They can reveal new information about the brain functions under different conditions. The proposed methodology allows for the first time to analyze dynamic functional and structural connectivity of a learned SNN model from fMRI data. This can be used for a better understanding of brain activities and also for online generation of appropriate neurofeedback to subjects for improved brain functions. For example, in this paper, tracing the 3-D SNN model connectivity enabled us for the first time to capture prominent brain functional pathways evoked in language comprehension. We found stronger spatiotemporal interaction between left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left temporal while reading a negated sentence. This observation is obviously distinguishable from the patterns generated by either reading affirmative sentences or seeing pictures. The proposed NeuCube-based methodology offers also a superior classification accuracy

  6. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  7. Visual Meta-Programming Notation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auguston, Mikhail

    2001-01-01

    ...), encapsulation means for hierarchical rules design, two-dimensional data-flow diagrams for rules, visual control constructs for conditionals and iteration, default mapping results to reduce real...

  8. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  9. Improving Visual Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gary

    2018-01-01

    A tool that creates realtime interactive color maps for scientific visualization helped enhance the dynamics of a major research project for the Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling team at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> The Visual System Listen All ... up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  11. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  12. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  13. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  14. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  15. TOXMAP®: Environmental Health Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TOXMAP® is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States and Canada to help users visually explore data primarily from the EPA's Toxics...

  16. Benthic Habitat and Zone Maps of Puerto Rico 1999 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are 208 habitat and zone maps of Puerto Rico and is major islands. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers...

  17. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  18. Algorithms for necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Necklace maps visualize quantitative data associated with regions by placing scaled symbols, usually disks, without overlap on a closed curve (the necklace) surrounding the map regions. Each region is projected onto an interval on the necklace that contains its symbol. In this paper we address the

  19. A 1.4-Billion Pixel Map of the Seafloor: BOEM's Mission to Visualize Dynamic Geology and Identify Natural Seep Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.; Shedd, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    In May, 2017, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) published a high-resolution seafloor map of the northern Gulf of Mexico region. The new map, derived from 3-D seismic surveys, provides the scientific community with enhanced resolution and reveals previously undiscovered and poorly resolved geologic features of the continental slope, salt minibasin province, abyssal plain, Mississippi Fan, and the Florida Shelf and Escarpment. It becomes an even more powerful scientific tool when paired with BOEM's public database of 35,000 seafloor features, identifying natural hydrocarbon seeps, hard grounds, mud volcanoes, sediment flows, pockmarks, slumps, and many others. BOEM has mapped the Gulf of Mexico seafloor since 1998 in a regulatory mission to identify natural oil and gas seeps and protect the coral and chemosynthetic communities growing at those sites. The nineteen-year mapping effort, still ongoing, resulted in the creation of the 1.4-billion pixel map and the seafloor features database. With these tools and continual collaboration with academia, professional scientific institutions, and the offshore energy industry, BOEM will continue to incorporate new data to update and expand these two resources on a regular basis. They can be downloaded for free from BOEM's website at https://www.boem.gov/Gulf-of-Mexico-Deepwater-Bathymetry/ and https://www.boem.gov/Seismic-Water-Bottom-Anomalies-Map-Gallery/.

  20. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  1. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  2. Proportional Symbol Mapping in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Tanimura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of spatial data on a map aids not only in data exploration but also in communication to impart spatial conception or ideas to others. Although recent carto-graphic functions in R are rapidly becoming richer, proportional symbol mapping, which is one of the common mapping approaches, has not been packaged thus far. Based on the theories of proportional symbol mapping developed in cartography, the authors developed some functions for proportional symbol mapping using R, including mathematical and perceptual scaling. An example of these functions demonstrated the new expressive power and options available in R, particularly for the visualization of conceptual point data.

  3. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. Part 6: A low-cost method for land use mapping using simple visual techniques of interpretation. [Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that color composite transparencies and monocular magnification provided the best base for land use interpretation. New methods for determining optimum sample sizes and analyzing interpretation accuracy levels were developed. All stages of the methodology were assessed, in the operational sense, during the production of a 1:250,000 rural land use map of Murcia Province, Southeast Spain.

  4. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  5. Visual motion transforms visual space representations similarly throughout the human visual hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben M; Dumoulin, Serge O

    2016-02-15

    Several studies demonstrate that visual stimulus motion affects neural receptive fields and fMRI response amplitudes. Here we unite results of these two approaches and extend them by examining the effects of visual motion on neural position preferences throughout the hierarchy of human visual field maps. We measured population receptive field (pRF) properties using high-field fMRI (7T), characterizing position preferences simultaneously over large regions of the visual cortex. We measured pRFs properties using sine wave gratings in stationary apertures, moving at various speeds in either the direction of pRF measurement or the orthogonal direction. We find direction- and speed-dependent changes in pRF preferred position and size in all visual field maps examined, including V1, V3A, and the MT+ map TO1. These effects on pRF properties increase up the hierarchy of visual field maps. However, both within and between visual field maps the extent of pRF changes was approximately proportional to pRF size. This suggests that visual motion transforms the representation of visual space similarly throughout the visual hierarchy. Visual motion can also produce an illusory displacement of perceived stimulus position. We demonstrate perceptual displacements using the same stimulus configuration. In contrast to effects on pRF properties, perceptual displacements show only weak effects of motion speed, with far larger speed-independent effects. We describe a model where low-level mechanisms could underlie the observed effects on neural position preferences. We conclude that visual motion induces similar transformations of visuo-spatial representations throughout the visual hierarchy, which may arise through low-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-06-30

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  7. Visualization of genome signatures of eukaryote genomes by batch-learning self-organizing map with a special emphasis on Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Hamano, Yuta; Ikemura, Toshimichi

    2014-01-01

    A strategy of evolutionary studies that can compare vast numbers of genome sequences is becoming increasingly important with the remarkable progress of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods. We previously established a sequence alignment-free clustering method "BLSOM" for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide compositions in genome sequences, which can characterize sequence characteristics (genome signatures) of a wide range of species. In the present study, we generated BLSOMs for tetra- and pentanucleotide compositions in approximately one million sequence fragments derived from 101 eukaryotes, for which almost complete genome sequences were available. BLSOM recognized phylotype-specific characteristics (e.g., key combinations of oligonucleotide frequencies) in the genome sequences, permitting phylotype-specific clustering of the sequences without any information regarding the species. In our detailed examination of 12 Drosophila species, the correlation between their phylogenetic classification and the classification on the BLSOMs was observed to visualize oligonucleotides diagnostic for species-specific clustering.

  8. Explorative analysis of 2D color maps

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Martin; Bernard, Jürgen; Thum, Simon; Mittelstädt, Sebastian; Hutter, Marco; Keim, Daniel A.; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Color is one of the most important visual variables in information visualization. In many cases, two-dimensional information can be color-coded based on a 2D color map. A variety of color maps as well as a number of quality criteria for the use of color have been presented. The choice of the best color map depends on the analytical task users intend to perform and the design space in choosing an appropriate 2D color map is large. In this paper, we present the ColorMap-Explorer, a visual-inter...

  9. USGS NAIP Imagery Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS NAIP Imagery service from The National Map (TNM) consists of high resolution images that combine the visual attributes of an aerial photograph with the...

  10. Visualization of hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Bijl, P.; Toet, A.

    2007-01-01

    We developed four new techniques to visualize hyper spectral image data for man-in-the-loop target detection. The methods respectively: (1) display the subsequent bands as a movie (“movie”), (2) map the data onto three channels and display these as a colour image (“colour”), (3) display the

  11. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re able to see the world around you. Did You Know? On average, you blink about 15 to 20 times every minute. That’s up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  12. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » The Visual System Listen All ... up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  13. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  14. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  15. Map It Then Write It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Kimberly; Read, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    All writing begins with ideas, but young students often need visual cues to help them organize their thoughts before beginning to write. For this reason, many elementary teachers use graphic organizers or thinking maps to help students visualize patterns and organize their ideas within the different genres of writing. Graphic organizers such as…

  16. Mapping glaucoma patients' 30-2 and 10-2 visual fields reveals clusters of test points damaged in the 10-2 grid that are not sampled in the sparse 30-2 grid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Asaoka

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To cluster test points in glaucoma patients' 30-2 and 10-2 visual field (VF (Humphrey Field Analyzer: HFA, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA in order to map the different regions damaged by the disease. METHOD: This retrospective study included 128 eyes from 128 patients. 142 total deviation (TD values (74 from the 30-2 VF and 68 from the 10-2 VF were clustered using the 'Hierarchical Ordered Partitioning And Collapsing Hybrid-Partitioning Around Medoids' algorithm. The stability of the identified clusters was evaluated using bootstrapping. RESULTS: 65 sectors were identified in total: 38 sectors were located outside the 10-2 VF whereas 29 sectors were located inside the 10-2 VF (two sectors overlap in both grids. The mapping of many sectors appeared to follow the distribution of retinal nerve fiber bundles. The results of bootstrapping suggested clusters were stable whether they were outside or inside the 10-2 VF. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of sectors were identified in the 10-2 VF area, despite the fact that clustering was carried out on all points in both the 30-2 VF and 10-2 VF simultaneously. These findings suggest that glaucomatous central VF deterioration cannot be picked up by the 30-2 test grid alone, because of poor spatial sampling; denser estimation of the central ten degrees, than offered by the 30-2 test grid alone, is needed. It may be beneficial to develop a new VF test grid that combines test points from 30-2 and 10-2 VFs--the results of this study could help to devise this test grid.

  17. Interactive density maps for moving objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepens, R.J.; Willems, C.M.E.; Wetering, van de H.M.M.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Trajectories capture the movements of objects with multiple attributes. A visualization method called density maps shows trends in these trajectories. Density map creation involves aggregating smoothed trajectories in a density field and then visualizing the field. Users can explore attributes along

  18. Distributed Monocular SLAM for Indoor Map Building

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwan Egodagamage; Mihran Tuceryan

    2017-01-01

    Utilization and generation of indoor maps are critical elements in accurate indoor tracking. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is one of the main techniques for such map generation. In SLAM an agent generates a map of an unknown environment while estimating its location in it. Ubiquitous cameras lead to monocular visual SLAM, where a camera is the only sensing device for the SLAM process. In modern applications, multiple mobile agents may be involved in the generation of such maps,...

  19. Math for visualization, visualizing math

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    I present an overview of our work in visualization, and reflect on the role of mathematics therein. First, mathematics can be used as a tool to produce visualizations, which is illustrated with examples from information visualization, flow visualization, and cartography. Second, mathematics itself

  20. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  1. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Groeller, Eduard

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping.

  2. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  3. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  4. Data visualizations and infographics

    CERN Document Server

    Mauldin, Sarah K C

    2015-01-01

    Graphics which visually represent data or complex ideas are oftentimes easier for people to understand and digest than standalone statistics. A map shaded with different colors to represent religious affiliations or income levels enables researchers to quickly identify trends and patterns. New free tools and applications offer librarians the opportunity to organize and manipulate data to quickly create these helpful graphics. Learn how to overlay data sets on maps, create infographics for library services and instruction, use mindmapping for group brainstorming sessions, produce de

  5. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your visual field. How the Test is Performed Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  6. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  7. MAPS of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to produce an interactive visualization from a mathematical model that successfully predicts metastases from head and neck cancer. We met this goal early in the project. The visualization is available for the public to view. Our work appears to fill a need for more information about this deadly disease. The idea of this project was to make an easily interpretable visualization based on what we call "functional maps" of disease. A functional map is a graphic summary of medical data, where distances between parts of the body are determined by the probability of disease, not by anatomical distances. Functional maps often beat little resemblance to anatomical maps, but they can be used to predict the spread of disease. The idea of modeling the spread of disease in an abstract multidimensional space is difficult for many people. Our goal was to make the important predictions easy to see. NASA must face this problem frequently: how to help laypersons and professionals see important trends in abstract, complex data. We took advantage of concepts perfected in NASA's graphics libraries. As an analogy, consider a functional map of early America. Suppose we choose travel times, rather than miles, as our measures of inter-city distances. For Abraham Lincoln, travel times would have been the more meaningful measure of separation between cities. In such a map New Orleans would be close to Memphis because of the Mississippi River. St. Louis would be close to Portland because of the Oregon Trail. Oklahoma City would be far from Little Rock because of the Cheyenne. Such a map would look puzzling to those of us who have always seen physical maps, but the functional map would be more useful in predicting the probabilities of inter-site transit. Continuing the analogy, we could predict the spread of social diseases such as gambling along the rivers and cattle rustling along the trails. We could simply print the functional map of America, but it would be more interesting

  8. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  9. Visual Literacy and Visual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, John A.

    It is proposed that visual literacy be defined as the ability to understand (read) and use (write) images and to think and learn in terms of images. This definition includes three basic principles: (1) visuals are a language and thus analogous to verbal language; (2) a visually literate person should be able to understand (read) images and use…

  10. Visual Literacy and Visual Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Familiarity with specific images or sets of images plays a role in a culture's visual heritage. Two questions can be asked about this type of visual literacy: Is this a type of knowledge that is worth building into the formal educational curriculum of our schools? What are the educational implications of visual literacy? There is a three-part…

  11. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  12. Toward Lifelong Visual Localization and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    lab, Michael Benjamin, Rob Truax, Aisha Walcott, David Rosen, Mark VanMiddlesworth, Ross Finman, Elias Mueggler, and Dehann Fourie. They really made...S. Thrun, M. Beetz, M. Bennewitz, W. Burgard, AB Cremers , F. Dellaert, D. Fox, D. Hahnel, C. Rosenberg, N. Roy, J. Schulte, and D. Schulz. Proba

  13. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  14. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  15. Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    After more than 15 years of development drawing on research in cognitive psychology, statistical graphics, computer science, and cartography, micromap designs are becoming part of mainstream statistical visualizations. Bringing together the research of two leaders in this field, "Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps" presents the many design variations and applications of micromaps, which link statistical information to an organized set of small maps. This full-color book helps readers simultaneously explore the statistical and geographic patterns in their data. After illustratin

  16. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  17. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  18. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  19. NeatMap--non-clustering heat map alternatives in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Satwik; Oono, Yoshi

    2010-01-22

    The clustered heat map is the most popular means of visualizing genomic data. It compactly displays a large amount of data in an intuitive format that facilitates the detection of hidden structures and relations in the data. However, it is hampered by its use of cluster analysis which does not always respect the intrinsic relations in the data, often requiring non-standardized reordering of rows/columns to be performed post-clustering. This sometimes leads to uninformative and/or misleading conclusions. Often it is more informative to use dimension-reduction algorithms (such as Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Dimensional Scaling) which respect the topology inherent in the data. Yet, despite their proven utility in the analysis of biological data, they are not as widely used. This is at least partially due to the lack of user-friendly visualization methods with the visceral impact of the heat map. NeatMap is an R package designed to meet this need. NeatMap offers a variety of novel plots (in 2 and 3 dimensions) to be used in conjunction with these dimension-reduction techniques. Like the heat map, but unlike traditional displays of such results, it allows the entire dataset to be displayed while visualizing relations between elements. It also allows superimposition of cluster analysis results for mutual validation. NeatMap is shown to be more informative than the traditional heat map with the help of two well-known microarray datasets. NeatMap thus preserves many of the strengths of the clustered heat map while addressing some of its deficiencies. It is hoped that NeatMap will spur the adoption of non-clustering dimension-reduction algorithms.

  20. Clinical evaluation of coronary territory map by using unfolded map of Tl-201 myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Yamagami, Hidetoshi; Kumita, Shinichirou; Hayashida, Kohei; Hayashi, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Coronary territory map was developed on unfolded map of exercise Tl-201 myocardial SPECT. Each coronary territory was determined by summing the each unfolded map of 54 cases of single vessel disease respectively, and standardizing with normal pattern obtained from normal patients. The diagnostic accuracy of coronary territory map to identify the diseased coronary artery was analyzed in 104 clinical cases and was compared with that of planar and SPECT visual diagnosis, simple unfolded map (raw map) and extent and severity map. The results were as follows. (1) Territory map showed excellent diagnostic accuracy in single or double vessel disease, especially in diagnosis of left circumflex coronary artery lesion. (2) In triple vessel disease, the diagnostic accuracy of territory map or other unfolded maps was 30% at best, and was inferior to planar or SPECT visual analysis. The cause of this inferiority seemed that the quantitatively analyzed map had no information about the degree of Tl-uptake into lung or myocardium, which give useful information in visual diagnosis. (3) The diagnostic agreement ratio in two observers was the highest in territory map diagnosis, so that the territory map diagnosis seemed to be the most objective one. (4) The unfolded map diagnosis with apical display obtained from long-axis tomogram was useful to diagnose left anteior descending coronary (LAD) lesion, which improve not only the sensitivity of LAD but also specificity of right coronary artery single vessel disease. (author)

  1. Separate visual representations for perception and for visually guided behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Converging evidence from several sources indicates that two distinct representations of visual space mediate perception and visually guided behavior, respectively. The two maps of visual space follow different rules; spatial values in either one can be biased without affecting the other. Ordinarily the two maps give equivalent responses because both are veridically in register with the world; special techniques are required to pull them apart. One such technique is saccadic suppression: small target displacements during saccadic eye movements are not preceived, though the displacements can change eye movements or pointing to the target. A second way to separate cognitive and motor-oriented maps is with induced motion: a slowly moving frame will make a fixed target appear to drift in the opposite direction, while motor behavior toward the target is unchanged. The same result occurs with stroboscopic induced motion, where the frame jump abruptly and the target seems to jump in the opposite direction. A third method of separating cognitive and motor maps, requiring no motion of target, background or eye, is the Roelofs effect: a target surrounded by an off-center rectangular frame will appear to be off-center in the direction opposite the frame. Again the effect influences perception, but in half of the subjects it does not influence pointing to the target. This experience also reveals more characteristics of the maps and their interactions with one another, the motor map apparently has little or no memory, and must be fed from the biased cognitive map if an enforced delay occurs between stimulus presentation and motor response. In designing spatial displays, the results mean that what you see isn't necessarily what you get. Displays must be designed with either perception or visually guided behavior in mind.

  2. Visualization and Animation in Civil Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Howard

    2002-01-01

    ..., more than $7 million, allowed the curriculum to be modified. A new course CE 420 Digital Mapping was added to the curriculum This new course focuses on 3D data collection, modeling, visualization and animation...

  3. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  4. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  5. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2012-01-01

    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  6. Map-based mobile services design, interaction and usability

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Liqiu; Winter, Stephan; Popovich, Vasily

    2008-01-01

    This book reports the newest research and technical achievements on the following theme blocks: Design of mobile map services and its constraints; Typology and usability of mobile map services; Visualization solutions on small displays for time-critical tasks; Mobile map users; Interaction and adaptation in mobile environments; and Applications of map-based mobile services.

  7. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  8. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  9. Temperature Impacts the Development and Survival of Common Cutworm (Spodoptera litura: Simulation and Visualization of Potential Population Growth in India under Warmer Temperatures through Life Cycle Modelling and Spatial Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babasaheb B Fand

    Full Text Available The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, has become a major pest of soybean (Glycine max throughout its Indian range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this insect to become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions due to increased habitat suitability. To examine this possibility, we developed temperature-based phenology model for S. litura, by constructing thermal reaction norms for cohorts of single life stages, at both constant and fluctuating temperatures within the ecologically relevant range (15-38°C for its development. Life table parameters were estimated stochastically using cohort updating and rate summation approach. The model was implemented in the geographic information system to examine the potential future pest status of S. litura using temperature change projections from SRES A1B climate change scenario for the year 2050. The changes were visualized by means of three spatial indices demonstrating the risks for establishment, number of generations per year and pest abundance according to the temperature conditions. The results revealed that the development rate as a function of temperature increased linearly for all the immature stages of S. litura until approximately 34-36°C, after which it became non-linear. The extreme temperature of 38°C was found lethal to larval and pupal stages of S. litura wherein no development to the next stage occurred. Females could lay no eggs at the extreme low (15°C and high (> 35°C test temperatures, demonstrating the importance of optimum temperature in determining the suitability of climate for the mating and reproduction in S. litura. The risk mapping predicts that due to temperature increase under future climate change, much of the soybean areas in Indian states like Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, will become suitable for S. litura establishment and increased pest activity, indicating the expansion of the suitable and favourable areas over time. This has

  10. Large Scale Landform Mapping Using Lidar DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Gökgöz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, LIDAR DEM data was used to obtain a primary landform map in accordance with a well-known methodology. This primary landform map was generalized using the Focal Statistics tool (Majority, considering the minimum area condition in cartographic generalization in order to obtain landform maps at 1:1000 and 1:5000 scales. Both the primary and the generalized landform maps were verified visually with hillshaded DEM and an orthophoto. As a result, these maps provide satisfactory visuals of the landforms. In order to show the effect of generalization, the area of each landform in both the primary and the generalized maps was computed. Consequently, landform maps at large scales could be obtained with the proposed methodology, including generalization using LIDAR DEM.

  11. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  12. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ViA: a perceptual visualization assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Chris G.; St. Amant, Robert; Elhaddad, Mahmoud S.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes an automated visualized assistant called ViA. ViA is designed to help users construct perceptually optical visualizations to represent, explore, and analyze large, complex, multidimensional datasets. We have approached this problem by studying what is known about the control of human visual attention. By harnessing the low-level human visual system, we can support our dual goals of rapid and accurate visualization. Perceptual guidelines that we have built using psychophysical experiments form the basis for ViA. ViA uses modified mixed-initiative planning algorithms from artificial intelligence to search of perceptually optical data attribute to visual feature mappings. Our perceptual guidelines are integrated into evaluation engines that provide evaluation weights for a given data-feature mapping, and hints on how that mapping might be improved. ViA begins by asking users a set of simple questions about their dataset and the analysis tasks they want to perform. Answers to these questions are used in combination with the evaluation engines to identify and intelligently pursue promising data-feature mappings. The result is an automatically-generated set of mappings that are perceptually salient, but that also respect the context of the dataset and users' preferences about how they want to visualize their data.

  14. Data points visualization that means something

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    A fresh look at visualization from the author of Visualize This Whether it's statistical charts, geographic maps, or the snappy graphical statistics you see on your favorite news sites, the art of data graphics or visualization is fast becoming a movement of its own. In Data Points: Visualization That Means Something, author Nathan Yau presents an intriguing complement to his bestseller Visualize This, this time focusing on the graphics side of data analysis. Using examples from art, design, business, statistics, cartography, and online media, he explores both

  15. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Mapping Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The interactive maps are visual representations of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Data were extracted from the US Census and the American Community Survey.

  16. Visualizing data for environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.

    1997-04-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has over 11,000 sampling locations in a 44 square mile area. The sample analyses contain raw analytical chemistry values for over 2,300 analytes and compounds used to define and remediate contaminated areas at LANL. The data consist of 2.5 million records in an oracle database. Maps are often used to visualize the data. Problems arise when a client specifies a particular kind of map without fully understanding the limitations of the data or the map. The ability of maps to convey information is dependent on many factors, though all maps are data dependent. The quantity, spatial distribution, and numerical range of the data can limit use with certain kinds of maps. To address these issues and educate the clients, several types of statistical maps (e.g., choropleth, isarithm, and graduated symbol such as bubble and spike) used for environmental analysis were chosen to show the advantages, disadvantages, and data limitations of each. By examining both the complexity of the analytical data and the limitations of the map type, it is possible to consider how reality has been transformed through the map, and if that transformation accurately conveys the information present.

  17. Visualizing data for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has over 11,000 sampling locations in a 44 square mile area. The sample analyses contain raw analytical chemistry values for over 2,300 analytes and compounds used to define and remediate contaminated areas at LANL. The data consist of 2.5 million records in an oracle database. Maps are often used to visualize the data. Problems arise when a client specifies a particular kind of map without fully understanding the limitations of the data or the map. The ability of maps to convey information is dependent on many factors, though all maps are data dependent. The quantity, spatial distribution, and numerical range of the data can limit use with certain kinds of maps. To address these issues and educate the clients, several types of statistical maps (e.g., choropleth, isarithm, and graduated symbol such as bubble and spike) used for environmental analysis were chosen to show the advantages, disadvantages, and data limitations of each. By examining both the complexity of the analytical data and the limitations of the map type, it is possible to consider how reality has been transformed through the map, and if that transformation accurately conveys the information present

  18. Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Arisona, Stefan Müller; Erath, Alexander; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

  19. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  20. Visual search, visual streams, and visual architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M

    1991-10-01

    Most psychological, physiological, and computational models of early vision suggest that retinal information is divided into a parallel set of feature modules. The dominant theories of visual search assume that these modules form a "blackboard" architecture: a set of independent representations that communicate only through a central processor. A review of research shows that blackboard-based theories, such as feature-integration theory, cannot easily explain the existing data. The experimental evidence is more consistent with a "network" architecture, which stresses that: (1) feature modules are directly connected to one another, (2) features and their locations are represented together, (3) feature detection and integration are not distinct processing stages, and (4) no executive control process, such as focal attention, is needed to integrate features. Attention is not a spotlight that synthesizes objects from raw features. Instead, it is better to conceptualize attention as an aperture which masks irrelevant visual information.

  1. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  2. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.; Albers, D.; Walker, R.; Jusufi, I.; Hansen, C. D.; Roberts, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  3. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  4. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  5. Methodological Advances in Bibliometric Mapping of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBibliometric mapping of science is concerned with quantitative methods for visually representing scientific literature based on bibliographic data. Since the first pioneering efforts in the 1970s, a large number of methods and techniques for bibliometric mapping have been proposed and

  6. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  7. Automatic Mapping of NES Games with Mappy

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Joseph C.; Summerville, Adam; Mateas, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Game maps are useful for human players, general-game-playing agents, and data-driven procedural content generation. These maps are generally made by hand-assembling manually-created screenshots of game levels. Besides being tedious and error-prone, this approach requires additional effort for each new game and level to be mapped. The results can still be hard for humans or computational systems to make use of, privileging visual appearance over semantic information. We describe a software sys...

  8. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  9. Visualizing Interstellar's Wormhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Oliver; von Tunzelmann, Eugénie; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S.

    2015-06-01

    Christopher Nolan's science fiction movie Interstellar offers a variety of opportunities for students in elementary courses on general relativity theory. This paper describes such opportunities, including: (i) At the motivational level, the manner in which elementary relativity concepts underlie the wormhole visualizations seen in the movie; (ii) At the briefest computational level, instructive calculations with simple but intriguing wormhole metrics, including, e.g., constructing embedding diagrams for the three-parameter wormhole that was used by our visual effects team and Christopher Nolan in scoping out possible wormhole geometries for the movie; (iii) Combining the proper reference frame of a camera with solutions of the geodesic equation, to construct a light-ray-tracing map backward in time from a camera's local sky to a wormhole's two celestial spheres; (iv) Implementing this map, for example, in Mathematica, Maple or Matlab, and using that implementation to construct images of what a camera sees when near or inside a wormhole; (v) With the student's implementation, exploring how the wormhole's three parameters influence what the camera sees—which is precisely how Christopher Nolan, using our implementation, chose the parameters for Interstellar's wormhole; (vi) Using the student's implementation, exploring the wormhole's Einstein ring and particularly the peculiar motions of star images near the ring, and exploring what it looks like to travel through a wormhole.

  10. Visual agnosia and focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, O

    Visual agnosia encompasses all disorders of visual recognition within a selective visual modality not due to an impairment of elementary visual processing or other cognitive deficit. Based on a sequential dichotomy between the perceptual and memory systems, two different categories of visual object agnosia are usually considered: 'apperceptive agnosia' and 'associative agnosia'. Impaired visual recognition within a single category of stimuli is also reported in: (i) visual object agnosia of the ventral pathway, such as prosopagnosia (for faces), pure alexia (for words), or topographagnosia (for landmarks); (ii) visual spatial agnosia of the dorsal pathway, such as cerebral akinetopsia (for movement), or orientation agnosia (for the placement of objects in space). Focal brain injuries provide a unique opportunity to better understand regional brain function, particularly with the use of effective statistical approaches such as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). The aim of the present work was twofold: (i) to review the various agnosia categories according to the traditional visual dual-pathway model; and (ii) to better assess the anatomical network underlying visual recognition through lesion-mapping studies correlating neuroanatomical and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Geoplotlib: a Python Toolbox for Visualizing Geographical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttone, Andrea; Lehmann, Sune; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    We introduce geoplotlib, an open-source python toolbox for visualizing geographical data. geoplotlib supports the development of hardware-accelerated interactive visualizations in pure python, and provides implementations of dot maps, kernel density estimation, spatial graphs, Voronoi tesselation, shapefiles and many more common spatial visualizations. We describe geoplotlib design, functionalities and use cases.

  12. Using Symmetrical Regions of Interest to Improve Visual SLAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Geert; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) based on visual information is a challenging problem. One of the main problems with visual SLAM is to find good quality landmarks, that can be detected despite noise and small changes in viewpoint. Many approaches use SIFT interest points as visual

  13. The Computational Anatomy of Visual Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Thomas; Friston, Karl J

    2018-02-01

    Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and-in cognitive neuroscience-offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside). We then consider 3 distinct ways in which the model could be lesioned to reproduce neuropsychological (visual search) deficits. Crucially, these 3 levels of pathology map nicely onto the neuroanatomy of saccadic eye movements and the systems implicated in visual neglect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  15. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Visualizing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of visualisation and multiple representations in mathematics has been stressed, especially in a context of problem solving. Hanna and Sidoli comment that "Diagrams and other visual representations have long been welcomed as heuristic accompaniments to proof, where they not only facilitate the understanding of theorems and their…

  17. Mapping the backbone of science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (Indiana University, Bloomington, IN); BÞorner, Katy (Strategies for Science & Technology, Incorporation, Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a new map representing the structure of all of science, based on journal articles, including both the natural and social sciences. Similar to cartographic maps of our world, the map of science provides a bird's eye view of today's scientific landscape. It can be used to visually identify major areas of science, their size, similarity, and interconnectedness. In order to be useful, the map needs to be accurate on a local and on a global scale. While our recent work has focused on the former aspect, this paper summarizes results on how to achieve structural accuracy. Eight alternative measures of journal similarity were applied to a data set of 7,121 journals covering over 1 million documents in the combined Science Citation and Social Science Citation Indexes. For each journal similarity measure we generated two-dimensional spatial layouts using the force-directed graph layout tool, VxOrd. Next, mutual information values were calculated for each graph at different clustering levels to give a measure of structural accuracy for each map. The best co-citation and inter-citation maps according to local and structural accuracy were selected and are presented and characterized. These two maps are compared to establish robustness. The inter-citation map is then used to examine linkages between disciplines. Biochemistry appears as the most interdisciplinary discipline in science.

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging by visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yukiko; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hashida, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated functional magnetic resonance images obtained in 8 healthy subjects in response to visual stimulation using a conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging system with multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging. Activation in the visual cortex was clearly demonstrated by the multi-slice experiment with a task-related change in signal intensity. In addition to the primary visual cortex, other areas were also activated by a complicated visual task. Multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging offers high temporal resolution and allows the three-dimensional analysis of brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a useful noninvasive method of mapping brain function. (author)

  19. Perceptual maps: the good, the bad and the ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Gower (John); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); M. van de Velden (Michel); K. Vines (Karen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPerceptual maps are often used in marketing to visually study relations between two or more attributes. However, in many perceptual maps published in the recent literature it remains unclear what is being shown and how the relations between the points in the map can be interpreted or

  20. Care maps for children with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sherri; Nicholas, David; Mahant, Sanjay; Weiser, Natalie; Kanani, Ronik; Boydell, Katherine; Cohen, Eyal

    2017-12-01

    Children with medical complexity require multiple providers and services to keep them well and at home. A care map is a patient/family-created diagram that pictorially maps out this complex web of services. This study explored what care maps mean for families and healthcare providers to inform potential for clinical use. Parents (n=15) created care maps (hand drawn n=10 and computer-generated n=5) and participated in semi-structured interviews about the process of developing care maps and their perceived impact. Healthcare providers (n=30) reviewed the parent-created care maps and participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed for themes and emerging theory using a grounded theory analytical approach. Data analysis revealed 13 overarching themes that were further categorized into three domains: features (characteristics of care maps), functions (what care maps do), and emerging outcomes (benefits of care map use). These domains further informed a definition and a theoretical model of how care maps work. Our findings suggest that care maps may be a way of supporting patient- and family-centred care by graphically identifying and integrating experiences of the family as well as priorities for moving forward. Care maps were endorsed as a useful tool by families and providers. They help healthcare providers better understand parental priorities for care. Parents can create care maps to demonstrate the complex burden of care. They are a unique visual way to incorporate narrative medicine into practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Visual Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Hao; Huang; Ferraro, Francis; Mostafazadeh, Nasrin; Misra, Ishan; Agrawal, Aishwarya; Devlin, Jacob; Girshick, Ross; He, Xiaodong; Kohli, Pushmeet; Batra, Dhruv; Zitnick, C. Lawrence; Parikh, Devi; Vanderwende, Lucy; Galley, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the first dataset for sequential vision-to-language, and explore how this data may be used for the task of visual storytelling. The first release of this dataset, SIND v.1, includes 81,743 unique photos in 20,211 sequences, aligned to both descriptive (caption) and story language. We establish several strong baselines for the storytelling task, and motivate an automatic metric to benchmark progress. Modelling concrete description as well as figurative and social language, as prov...

  2. Flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities. 8 refs

  3. The primary visual cortex in the neural circuit for visual orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoping, Li

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is traditionally viewed as remote from influencing brain's motor outputs. However, V1 provides the most abundant cortical inputs directly to the sensory layers of superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure to command visual orienting such as shifting gaze and turning heads. I will show physiological, anatomical, and behavioral data suggesting that V1 transforms visual input into a saliency map to guide a class of visual orienting that is reflexive or involuntary. In particular, V1 receives a retinotopic map of visual features, such as orientation, color, and motion direction of local visual inputs; local interactions between V1 neurons perform a local-to-global computation to arrive at a saliency map that highlights conspicuous visual locations by higher V1 responses. The conspicuous location are usually, but not always, where visual input statistics changes. The population V1 outputs to SC, which is also retinotopic, enables SC to locate, by lateral inhibition between SC neurons, the most salient location as the saccadic target. Experimental tests of this hypothesis will be shown. Variations of the neural circuit for visual orienting across animal species, with more or less V1 involvement, will be discussed. Supported by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation.

  4. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  5. Differences in Spatial Knowledge of Individuals with Blindness When Using Audiotactile Maps, Using Tactile Maps, and Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Barouti, Marialena; Koustriava, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    To examine how individuals with visual impairments understand space and the way they develop cognitive maps, we studied the differences in cognitive maps resulting from different methods and tools for spatial coding in large geographical spaces. We examined the ability of 21 blind individuals to create cognitive maps of routes in unfamiliar areas…

  6. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  7. An 00 visual language definition approach supporting multiple views

    OpenAIRE

    Akehurst, David H.; I.E.E.E. Computer Society

    2000-01-01

    The formal approach to visual language definition is to use graph grammars and/or graph transformation techniques. These techniques focus on specifying the syntax and manipulation rules of the concrete representation. This paper presents a constraint and object-oriented approach to defining visual languages that uses UML and OCL as a definition language. Visual language definitions specify a mapping between concrete and abstract models of possible visual sentences, which carl subsequently be ...

  8. Which energy mix for the UK (United Kingdom)? An evolutive descriptive mapping with the integrated GAIA (graphical analysis for interactive aid)–AHP (analytic hierarchy process) visualization tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Alessio; Siraj, Sajid; Nemery, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Although Multi-Criteria Decision Making methods have been extensively used in energy planning, their descriptive use has been rarely considered. In this paper, we add an evolutionary description phase as an extension to the AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method that helps policy makers to gain insights into their decision problems. The proposed extension has been implemented in an open-source software that allows the users to visualize the difference of opinions within a decision process, and also the evolution of preferences over time. The method was tested in a two-phase experiment to understand the evolution of opinions on energy sources. Participants were asked to provide their preferences for different energy sources for the next twenty years for the United Kingdom. They were first asked to compare the options intuitively without using any structured approach, and then were given three months to compare the same set of options after collecting detailed information on the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts created by each of the selected energy sources. The proposed visualization method allow us to quickly discover the preference directions, and also the changes in their preferences from first to second phase. The proposed tool can help policy makers in better understanding of the energy planning problems that will lead us towards better planning and decisions in the energy sector. - Highlights: • We introduce a descriptive visual analysis tool for the analytic hierarchy process. • The method has been implemented as an open-source preference elicitation tool. • We analyse user preferences in the energy sector using this method. • The tool also provides a way to visualize temporal preferences changes. • The main negative temporal shift in the ranking was found for the nuclear energy.

  9. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  10. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  11. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  12. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and

  13. Self-Taught Visually-Guided Pointing for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marjanovic, Matthew; Scassellati, Brian; Williamson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    .... This task requires systems for learning saccade to visual targets, generating smooth arm trajectories, locating the arm in the visual field, and learning the map between gaze direction and correct...

  14. Structural and functional changes across the visual cortex of a patient with visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; Thomas, Owen M; Minini, Loredana; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Milner, A David; Parker, Andrew J

    2013-07-31

    Loss of shape recognition in visual-form agnosia occurs without equivalent losses in the use of vision to guide actions, providing support for the hypothesis of two visual systems (for "perception" and "action"). The human individual DF received a toxic exposure to carbon monoxide some years ago, which resulted in a persisting visual-form agnosia that has been extensively characterized at the behavioral level. We conducted a detailed high-resolution MRI study of DF's cortex, combining structural and functional measurements. We present the first accurate quantification of the changes in thickness across DF's occipital cortex, finding the most substantial loss in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC). There are reduced white matter connections between LOC and other areas. Functional measures show pockets of activity that survive within structurally damaged areas. The topographic mapping of visual areas showed that ordered retinotopic maps were evident for DF in the ventral portions of visual cortical areas V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Although V1 shows evidence of topographic order in its dorsal portion, such maps could not be found in the dorsal parts of V2 and V3. We conclude that it is not possible to understand fully the deficits in object perception in visual-form agnosia without the exploitation of both structural and functional measurements. Our results also highlight for DF the cortical routes through which visual information is able to pass to support her well-documented abilities to use visual information to guide actions.

  15. Animation of Mapped Photo Collections for Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideyuki; Arikawa, Masatoshi

    Our research goal is to facilitate the sharing of stories with digital photographs. Some map websites now collect stories associated with peoples' relationships to places. Users map collections of places and include their intangible emotional associations with each location along with photographs, videos, etc. Though this framework of mapping stories is important, it is not sufficiently expressive to communicate stories in a narrative fashion. For example, when the number of the mapped collections of places is particularly large, it is neither easy for viewers to interpret the map nor is it easy for the creator to express a story as a series of events in the real world. This is because each narrative, in the form of a sequence of textual narratives, a sequence of photographs, a movie, or audio is mapped to just one point. As a result, it is up to the viewer to decide which points on the map must be read, and in what order. The conventional framework is fairly suitable for mapping and expressing fragments or snapshots of a whole story and not for conveying the whole story as a narrative using the entire map as the setting. We therefore propose a new framework, Spatial Slideshow, for mapping personal photo collections and representing them as stories such as route guidances, sightseeing guidances, historical topics, fieldwork records, personal diaries, and so on. It is a fusion of personal photo mapping and photo storytelling. Each story is conveyed through a sequence of mapped photographs, presented as a synchronized animation of a map and an enhanced photo slideshow. The main technical novelty of this paper is a method for creating three-dimensional animations of photographs that induce the visual effect of motion from photo to photo. We believe that the proposed framework may have considerable significance in facilitating the grassroots development of spatial content driven by visual communication concerning real-world locations or events.

  16. Extracting Semantic Information from Visual Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional environment maps built by mobile robots include both metric ones and topological ones. These maps are navigation-oriented and not adequate for service robots to interact with or serve human users who normally rely on the conceptual knowledge or semantic contents of the environment. Therefore, the construction of semantic maps becomes necessary for building an effective human-robot interface for service robots. This paper reviews recent research and development in the field of visual-based semantic mapping. The main focus is placed on how to extract semantic information from visual data in terms of feature extraction, object/place recognition and semantic representation methods.

  17. Visualizing the nuclear science and technology knowledge domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Bruno Mattos Souza de Souza; Honaiser, Eduardo H.R. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: brunomelo@ieee.org; ehonaiser@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, a knowledge domain visualization approach is applied to the nuclear science and technology fields. A so-called concept density map based on the abstracts of the papers presented at the ICONE 14 is constructed. The concept map provides an overview of the nuclear science and technology fields by visualizing the associations between their main concepts. To analyze recent developments the concept map is compared with a concept map based on abstracts of earlier ICONE meetings. The analysis presented in the paper provides insight into the structure of the nuclear science and technology fields and into the most significant developments carried out during the last few years. (author)

  18. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  19. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  20. Neural Anatomy of Primary Visual Cortex Limits Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense processing power of the human brain, working memory storage is severely limited, and the neuroanatomical basis of these limitations has remained elusive. Here, we show that the stable storage limits of visual working memory for over 9 s are bound by the precise gray matter volume of primary visual cortex (V1), defined by fMRI retinotopic mapping. Individuals with a bigger V1 tended to have greater visual working memory storage. This relationship was present independently for both surface size and thickness of V1 but absent in V2, V3 and for non-visual working memory measures. Additional whole-brain analyses confirmed the specificity of the relationship to V1. Our findings indicate that the size of primary visual cortex plays a critical role in limiting what we can hold in mind, acting like a gatekeeper in constraining the richness of working mental function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Manchester visual query language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, John P.; Davis, Darryl N.; Shann, Richard T.

    1993-04-01

    We report a database language for visual retrieval which allows queries on image feature information which has been computed and stored along with images. The language is novel in that it provides facilities for dealing with feature data which has actually been obtained from image analysis. Each line in the Manchester Visual Query Language (MVQL) takes a set of objects as input and produces another, usually smaller, set as output. The MVQL constructs are mainly based on proven operators from the field of digital image analysis. An example is the Hough-group operator which takes as input a specification for the objects to be grouped, a specification for the relevant Hough space, and a definition of the voting rule. The output is a ranked list of high scoring bins. The query could be directed towards one particular image or an entire image database, in the latter case the bins in the output list would in general be associated with different images. We have implemented MVQL in two layers. The command interpreter is a Lisp program which maps each MVQL line to a sequence of commands which are used to control a specialized database engine. The latter is a hybrid graph/relational system which provides low-level support for inheritance and schema evolution. In the paper we outline the language and provide examples of useful queries. We also describe our solution to the engineering problems associated with the implementation of MVQL.

  2. Parametric T2 and T2* mapping techniques to visualize intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with low back pain: initial results on the clinical use of 3.0 Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Goetz Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried; Goed, Sabine; Stelzeneder, David; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Bohndorf, Klaus; Mamisch, Tallal Charles

    2011-01-01

    To assess, compare and correlate quantitative T2 and T2* relaxation time measurements of intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients suffering from low back pain, with respect to the IVD degeneration as assessed by the morphological Pfirrmann Score. Special focus was on the spatial variation of T2 and T2* between the annulus fibrosus (AF) and the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thirty patients (mean age: 38.1 ± 9.1 years; 20 female, 10 male) suffering from low back pain were included. Morphological (sagittal T1-FSE, sagittal and axial T2-FSE) and biochemical (sagittal T2- and T2* mapping) MRI was performed at 3 Tesla covering IVDs L1-L2 to L5-S1. All IVDs were morphologically classified using the Pfirrmann score. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on midsagittal T2 and T2* maps at five ROIs from anterior to posterior to obtain information on spatial variation between the AF and the NP. Statistical analysis-of-variance and Pearson correlation was performed. The spatial variation as an increase in T2 and T2* values from the AF to the NP was highest at Pfirmann grade I and declined at higher Pfirmann grades II-IV (p < 0.05). With increased IVD degeneration, T2 and T2* revealed a clear differences in the NP, whereas T2* was additionally able to depict changes in the posterior AF. Correlation between T2 and T2* showed a medium Pearson's correlation (0.210 to 0.356 [p < 0.001]). The clear differentiation of IVD degeneration and the possible quantification by means of T2 and fast T2* mapping may provide a new tool for follow-up therapy protocols in patients with low back pain. (orig.)

  3. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Cortico-Cortical Receptive Field Estimates in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen V Haak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.

  5. Participatory mapping new data, new cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Plantin, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for applications of online digital mapping, called mashups (or composite application), and to analyze the mapping practices in online socio-technical controversies. The hypothesis put forward is that the ability to create an online map accompanies the formation of online audience and provides support for a position in a debate on the Web.The first part provides a study of the map: - a combination of map and statistical reason- crosses between map theories and CIS theories- recent developments in scanning the map, from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Web map.The second part is based on a corpus of twenty "mashup" maps, and offers a techno-semiotic analysis highlighting the "thickness of the mediation" they are in a process of communication on the Web. Map as a device to "make do" is thus replaced through these stages of creation, ranging from digital data in their viewing, before describing the construction of the map as a tool for visual evidence in public debates, and ending wit...

  6. Prediction of the visual impact of motorways using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Like; Kang, Jian; Schroth, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Large scale transportation projects can adversely affect the visual perception of environmental quality and require adequate visual impact assessment. In this study, we investigated the effects of the characteristics of the road project and the character of the existing landscape on the perceived visual impact of motorways, and developed a GIS-based prediction model based on the findings. An online survey using computer-visualised scenes of different motorway and landscape scenarios was carried out to obtain perception-based judgements on the visual impact. Motorway scenarios simulated included the baseline scenario without road, original motorway, motorways with timber noise barriers, transparent noise barriers and tree screen; different landscape scenarios were created by changing land cover of buildings and trees in three distance zones. The landscape content of each scene was measured in GIS. The result shows that presence of a motorway especially with the timber barrier significantly decreases the visual quality of the view. The resulted visual impact tends to be lower where it is less visually pleasant with more buildings in the view, and can be slightly reduced by the visual absorption effect of the scattered trees between the motorway and the viewpoint. Based on the survey result, eleven predictors were identified for the visual impact prediction model which was applied in GIS to generate maps of visual impact of motorways in different scenarios. The proposed prediction model can be used to achieve efficient and reliable assessment of visual impact of motorways. - Highlights: • Motorways induce significant visual impact especially with timber noise barriers. • Visual impact is negatively correlated with amount of buildings in the view. • Visual impact is positively correlated with percentage of trees in the view. • Perception-based motorway visual impact prediction model using mapped predictors • Predicted visual impacts in different scenarios are

  7. Prediction of the visual impact of motorways using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Like [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Kang, Jian, E-mail: j.kang@sheffield.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Schroth, Olaf [Department of Landscape, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Large scale transportation projects can adversely affect the visual perception of environmental quality and require adequate visual impact assessment. In this study, we investigated the effects of the characteristics of the road project and the character of the existing landscape on the perceived visual impact of motorways, and developed a GIS-based prediction model based on the findings. An online survey using computer-visualised scenes of different motorway and landscape scenarios was carried out to obtain perception-based judgements on the visual impact. Motorway scenarios simulated included the baseline scenario without road, original motorway, motorways with timber noise barriers, transparent noise barriers and tree screen; different landscape scenarios were created by changing land cover of buildings and trees in three distance zones. The landscape content of each scene was measured in GIS. The result shows that presence of a motorway especially with the timber barrier significantly decreases the visual quality of the view. The resulted visual impact tends to be lower where it is less visually pleasant with more buildings in the view, and can be slightly reduced by the visual absorption effect of the scattered trees between the motorway and the viewpoint. Based on the survey result, eleven predictors were identified for the visual impact prediction model which was applied in GIS to generate maps of visual impact of motorways in different scenarios. The proposed prediction model can be used to achieve efficient and reliable assessment of visual impact of motorways. - Highlights: • Motorways induce significant visual impact especially with timber noise barriers. • Visual impact is negatively correlated with amount of buildings in the view. • Visual impact is positively correlated with percentage of trees in the view. • Perception-based motorway visual impact prediction model using mapped predictors • Predicted visual impacts in different scenarios are

  8. Practical indoor mobile robot navigation using hybrid maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a practical navigation scheme for indoor mobile robots using hybrid maps. The method makes use of metric maps for local navigation and a topological map for global path planning. Metric maps are generated as 2D occupancy grids by a range sensor to represent local information...... about partial areas. The global topological map is used to indicate the connectivity of the 'places-of-interests' in the environment and the interconnectivity of the local maps. Visual tags on the ceiling to be detected by the robot provide valuable information and contribute to reliable localization...... robot and evaluated in a hospital environment....

  9. Portraits of the earth a mathematician looks at maps

    CERN Document Server

    Feeman, Timothy G

    2002-01-01

    Maps are exciting, visual tools that we encounter on a daily basis: from street maps to maps of the world accompanying news stories to geologic maps depicting the underground structure of the earth. This book explores the mathematical ideas involved in creating and analyzing maps, a topic that is rarely discussed in undergraduate courses. It is the first modern book to present the famous problem of mapping the earth in a style that is highly readable and mathematically accessible to most students. Feeman's writing is inviting to the novice, yet also interesting to readers with more mathematica

  10. Spectral map-analysis: a method to analyze gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Bijnens, Luc J.M.; Lewi, Paul J.; Göhlmann, Hinrich W.; Molenberghs, Geert; Wouters, Luc

    2004-01-01

    bioinformatics; biplot; correspondence factor analysis; data mining; data visualization; gene expression data; microarray data; multivariate exploratory data analysis; principal component analysis; Spectral map analysis

  11. Visual Saliency Models for Text Detection in Real World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwu Gao

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degree of saliency of texts in natural scenes using visual saliency models. A large scale scene image database with pixel level ground truth is created for this purpose. Using this scene image database and five state-of-the-art models, visual saliency maps that represent the degree of saliency of the objects are calculated. The receiver operating characteristic curve is employed in order to evaluate the saliency of scene texts, which is calculated by visual saliency models. A visualization of the distribution of scene texts and non-texts in the space constructed by three kinds of saliency maps, which are calculated using Itti's visual saliency model with intensity, color and orientation features, is given. This visualization of distribution indicates that text characters are more salient than their non-text neighbors, and can be captured from the background. Therefore, scene texts can be extracted from the scene images. With this in mind, a new visual saliency architecture, named hierarchical visual saliency model, is proposed. Hierarchical visual saliency model is based on Itti's model and consists of two stages. In the first stage, Itti's model is used to calculate the saliency map, and Otsu's global thresholding algorithm is applied to extract the salient region that we are interested in. In the second stage, Itti's model is applied to the salient region to calculate the final saliency map. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms Itti's model in terms of captured scene texts.

  12. Mapping the Future of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS fact sheet describes the NREL Geospatial Toolkit (GsT), an open-source, map-based software application that provide an intuitive, user-friendly interface for visualizing data and renewable energy potential. The GsT is a country-specific tool that maps renewable energy resources (e.g., for solar, wind, and biomass) in relation to enabling infrastructure like roads and transmission lines, providing necessary information for deploying new clean energy generation.

  13. ESTIMAP: Ecosystem services mapping at European scale

    OpenAIRE

    ZULIAN GRAZIA; PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa; MAES JOACHIM; LIQUETE GARCIA MARIA DEL CAMINO

    2013-01-01

    Mapping, visualization and the access to suitable data as a means to facilitate the dialogue among scientists, policy makers and the general public are among the most challenging issues within current ecosystem service science and application. Recently the attention on spatially explicit ways to map ecosystem services, at local, regional and global scale is increasing. This report presents ESTIMAP: a suite of models for a spatially explicit assessment of three ecosystem services (recreati...

  14. Filtering Color Mapped Textures and Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Heitz , Eric; Nowrouzezahrai , Derek; Poulin , Pierre; Neyret , Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Color map textures applied directly to surfaces, to geometric microsurface details, or to procedural functions (such as noise), are commonly used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient color map filt...

  15. Learning Building Layouts with Non-geometric Visual Information: The Effects of Visual Impairment and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Giudice, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visual information (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visual information (e.g., doors, signs and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. This study asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visual information for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants—younger (sighted, older (50–70 years) normally sighted, and low vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18–67). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (Sparse VE), a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (Photorealistic VE), a Map, and a Real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally-sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visual information. PMID:19189732

  16. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  17. Comparison of animated jet stream visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocke, Thomas; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D atmospheric phenomena in space and time is still a challenging problem. In particular, multiple solutions of animated jet stream visualizations have been produced in recent years, which were designed to visually analyze and communicate the jet and related impacts on weather circulation patterns and extreme weather events. This PICO integrates popular and new jet animation solutions and inter-compares them. The applied techniques (e.g. stream lines or line integral convolution) and parametrizations (color mapping, line lengths) are discussed with respect to visualization quality criteria and their suitability for certain visualization tasks (e.g. jet patterns and jet anomaly analysis, communicating its relevance for climate change).

  18. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  19. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. MPEG-4 AVC saliency map computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.

    2014-02-01

    A saliency map provides information about the regions inside some visual content (image, video, ...) at which a human observer will spontaneously look at. For saliency maps computation, current research studies consider the uncompressed (pixel) representation of the visual content and extract various types of information (intensity, color, orientation, motion energy) which are then fusioned. This paper goes one step further and computes the saliency map directly from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements with minimal decoding operations. In this respect, an a-priori in-depth study on the MPEG-4 AVC syntax elements is first carried out so as to identify the entities appealing the visual attention. Secondly, the MPEG-4 AVC reference software is completed with software tools allowing the parsing of these elements and their subsequent usage in objective benchmarking experiments. This way, it is demonstrated that an MPEG-4 saliency map can be given by a combination of static saliency and motion maps. This saliency map is experimentally validated under a robust watermarking framework. When included in an m-QIM (multiple symbols Quantization Index Modulation) insertion method, PSNR average gains of 2.43 dB, 2.15dB, and 2.37 dB are obtained for data payload of 10, 20 and 30 watermarked blocks per I frame, i.e. about 30, 60, and 90 bits/second, respectively. These quantitative results are obtained out of processing 2 hours of heterogeneous video content.

  1. Visual literacy in HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overton, K.; Sosa-Tzec, O.; Smith, N.; Blevis, E.; Odom, W.; Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to develop ideas about and expand a research agenda for visual literacy in HCI. By visual literacy, we mean the competency (i) to understand visual materials, (ii) to create visuals materials, and (iii) to think visually [2]. There are three primary motivations for this

  2. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  3. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  4. The visual attention span deficit in dyslexia is visual and not verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-06-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that letter string deficits are a consequence of impaired visual processing. Alternatively, some have interpreted this deficit as resulting from a visual-to-phonology code mapping impairment. This study aims to disambiguate between the two interpretations by investigating performance in a non-verbal character string visual categorization task with verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Results show that VA span ability predicts performance for the non-verbal visual processing task in normal reading children. Furthermore, VA span impaired dyslexic children are also impaired for the categorization task independently of stimuli type. This supports the hypothesis that the underlying impairment responsible for the VA span deficit is visual, not verbal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  5. Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Fourier mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levnajić, Zoran; Mezić, Igor

    2015-05-01

    We present an application and analysis of a visualization method for measure-preserving dynamical systems introduced by I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk [Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], based on frequency analysis and Koopman operator theory. This extends our earlier work on visualization of ergodic partition [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, Chaos 20, 033114 (2010)]. Our method employs the concept of Fourier time average [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets in the phase space. The complement of periodic phase space partition contains chaotic zone, and we show how to identify it. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its potential in illuminating higher-dimensional dynamics is presented by studying the Froeschlé map and the Extended Standard Map.

  6. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  7. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  8. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  9. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, R.; Enckevort, F.H.J. van; Boekhorst, J.; Molenaar, D; Siezen, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY: A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a

  10. The Multiple Faces of Visual Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies recent, mainly Nordic, research approaches to visual arts education. A concept map was developed as a heuristic tool in order to highlight salient traits and blind spots. Contemporary research typically has its origin either in "education" or in "the art world", with an emphasis either on art "as language" or on "art as…

  11. Anosognosia for obvious visual field defects in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wiebke; Müller, Notger; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Patients with anosognosia for visual field defect (AVFD) fail to recognize consciously their visual field defect. There is still unclarity whether specific neural correlates are associated with AVFD. We studied AVFD in 54 patients with acute stroke and a visual field defect. Nineteen percent of this unselected sample showed AVFD. By using modern voxelwise lesion-behaviour mapping techniques we found an association between AVFD and parts of the lingual gyrus, the cuneus as well as the posterior cingulate and corpus callosum. Damage to these regions appears to induce unawareness of visual field defects and thus may play a significant role for conscious visual perception.

  12. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  13. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified.

  14. a Model Study of Small-Scale World Map Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Yin, Y.; Li, C. M.; Wu, W.; Guo, P. P.; Ma, X. L.; Hu, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    With the globalization and rapid development every filed is taking an increasing interest in physical geography and human economics. There is a surging demand for small scale world map in large formats all over the world. Further study of automated mapping technology, especially the realization of small scale production on a large scale global map, is the key of the cartographic field need to solve. In light of this, this paper adopts the improved model (with the map and data separated) in the field of the mapmaking generalization, which can separate geographic data from mapping data from maps, mainly including cross-platform symbols and automatic map-making knowledge engine. With respect to the cross-platform symbol library, the symbol and the physical symbol in the geographic information are configured at all scale levels. With respect to automatic map-making knowledge engine consists 97 types, 1086 subtypes, 21845 basic algorithm and over 2500 relevant functional modules.In order to evaluate the accuracy and visual effect of our model towards topographic maps and thematic maps, we take the world map generalization in small scale as an example. After mapping generalization process, combining and simplifying the scattered islands make the map more explicit at 1 : 2.1 billion scale, and the map features more complete and accurate. Not only it enhance the map generalization of various scales significantly, but achieve the integration among map-makings of various scales, suggesting that this model provide a reference in cartographic generalization for various scales.

  15. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  16. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  17. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  18. Visual Texts and Historical Thinking: Teachers' Conceptions, Uses, and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Daniel Jude

    2012-01-01

    Visual texts, such as photographs, paintings, film, political cartoons, maps, charts, and graphs are important resources used for a variety of purposes in the history classroom. Aligning instructional use of visual texts to key developmental skills within the area of historical thinking should be a central concern to teachers of historical…

  19. On an elementary definition of visual saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based on probabi......Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based...... on probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all...

  20. A novel visual-inertial monocular SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Li; Liu, JiangGuo

    2018-02-01

    With the development of sensors and computer vision research community, cameras, which are accurate, compact, wellunderstood and most importantly cheap and ubiquitous today, have gradually been at the center of robot location. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using visual features, which is a system getting motion information from image acquisition equipment and rebuild the structure in unknown environment. We provide an analysis of bioinspired flights in insects, employing a novel technique based on SLAM. Then combining visual and inertial measurements to get high accuracy and robustness. we present a novel tightly-coupled Visual-Inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping system which get a new attempt to address two challenges which are the initialization problem and the calibration problem. experimental results and analysis show the proposed approach has a more accurate quantitative simulation of insect navigation, which can reach the positioning accuracy of centimeter level.

  1. Creative Organizational Vision Building through Collaborative, Visual-Metaphorical Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    1998-01-01

    Describes use of collaborative metaphorical discussions, mind mapping, and imaginative visual thinking by the faculty of the Rider University School of Education to produce an idealistic vision of the college's future. This vision is expressed as a fanciful metaphorical drawing surrounded by a mind map and accompanied by a story connecting symbols…

  2. Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Roland; Bohk-Ewald, Christina; Muszynska, Magdalena M

    This book visualizes mortality dynamics in the Lexis diagram. While the standard approach of plotting death rates is also covered, the focus in this book is on the depiction of rates of mortality improvement over age and time. This rather novel approach offers a more intuitive understanding...... of the underlying dynamics, enabling readers to better understand whether period- or cohort-effects were instrumental for the development of mortality in a particular country. Besides maps for single countries, the book includes maps on the dynamics of selected causes of death in the United States...... Software to produce these types of surface maps. Readers are encouraged to use the presented tools to visualize other demographic data or any event that can be measured by age and calendar time, allowing them to adapt the methods to their respective research interests. The intended audience is anyone who...

  3. Concept mapping for learners of all ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Gallenstein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept mapping is an inquiry technique that provides students at all ages with opportunities to demonstrate learning through performance. A concept map refers to a graphic/visual representation of concepts with linking connections that show various relationships between concepts (Novak & Gowin, 1984. Assessment is an ongoing process integrated with instruction across subject areas. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM emphasizes that assessment should focus on both the enhancement of student learning as well as serve as a valuable tool for making instructional decisions (NCTM, 2000. Assessment activities can take on a variety of forms, one being performance tasks. In this manuscript, an explanation of concept mapping is provided for learners ages 3 – 12 along with several examples of concept maps for young learners, including examples from an assessment project in the subject area of mathematics. Also presented are the numerous benefits of the concept mapping technique for both students and teachers.

  4. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

  5. Atlas of knowledge anyone can map

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Katy

    2015-01-01

    Maps of physical spaces locate us in the world and help us navigate unfamiliar routes. Maps of topical spaces help us visualize the extent and structure of our collective knowledge; they reveal bursts of activity, pathways of ideas, and borders that beg to be crossed. This book, from the author of Atlas of Science, describes the power of topical maps, providing readers with principles for visualizing knowledge and offering as examples forty large-scale and more than 100 small-scale full-color maps. Today, data literacy is becoming as important as language literacy. Well-designed visualizations can rescue us from a sea of data, helping us to make sense of information, connect ideas, and make better decisions in real time. In Atlas of Knowledge, leading visualization expert Katy Borner makes the case for a systems science approach to science and technology studies and explains different types and levels of analysis. Drawing on fifteen years of teaching and tool development, she introduces a theoretical framewor...

  6. Nature’s Benefit Mapping User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature’s benefit mapping provides a way to quickly get an idea of where the beneficial aspects of ecosystems can be found. When trying to communicate the value of natural areas to policy makers, members of a community, or another group, it can help to provide an intuitive visual....

  7. Comparative study of fixation density maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies

  8. Current trends in geomorphological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological mapping is a world currently in motion, driven by technological advances and the availability of new high resolution data. As a consequence, classic (paper) geomorphological maps which were the standard for more than 50 years are rapidly being replaced by digital geomorphological information layers. This is witnessed by the following developments: 1. the conversion of classic paper maps into digital information layers, mainly performed in a digital mapping environment such as a Geographical Information System, 2. updating the location precision and the content of the converted maps, by adding more geomorphological details, taken from high resolution elevation data and/or high resolution image data, 3. (semi) automated extraction and classification of geomorphological features from digital elevation models, broadly separated into unsupervised and supervised classification techniques and 4. New digital visualization / cartographic techniques and reading interfaces. Newly digital geomorphological information layers can be based on manual digitization of polygons using DEMs and/or aerial photographs, or prepared through (semi) automated extraction and delineation of geomorphological features. DEMs are often used as basis to derive Land Surface Parameter information which is used as input for (un) supervised classification techniques. Especially when using high-res data, object-based classification is used as an alternative to traditional pixel-based classifications, to cluster grid cells into homogeneous objects, which can be classified as geomorphological features. Classic map content can also be used as training material for the supervised classification of geomorphological features. In the classification process, rule-based protocols, including expert-knowledge input, are used to map specific geomorphological features or entire landscapes. Current (semi) automated classification techniques are increasingly able to extract morphometric, hydrological

  9. Levels and properties of map perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyszkowska Wiesława

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement. However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance. Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial

  10. Auditory attention activates peripheral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Cate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that putatively unimodal regions of visual cortex can be activated during auditory tasks in sighted as well as in blind subjects. However, the task determinants and functional significance of auditory occipital activations (AOAs remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined AOAs in an intermodal selective attention task to distinguish whether they were stimulus-bound or recruited by higher-level cognitive operations associated with auditory attention. Cortical surface mapping showed that auditory occipital activations were localized to retinotopic visual cortex subserving the far peripheral visual field. AOAs depended strictly on the sustained engagement of auditory attention and were enhanced in more difficult listening conditions. In contrast, unattended sounds produced no AOAs regardless of their intensity, spatial location, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Auditory attention, but not passive exposure to sounds, routinely activated peripheral regions of visual cortex when subjects attended to sound sources outside the visual field. Functional connections between auditory cortex and visual cortex subserving the peripheral visual field appear to underlie the generation of AOAs, which may reflect the priming of visual regions to process soon-to-appear objects associated with unseen sound sources.

  11. Distributed Monocular SLAM for Indoor Map Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwan Egodagamage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization and generation of indoor maps are critical elements in accurate indoor tracking. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM is one of the main techniques for such map generation. In SLAM an agent generates a map of an unknown environment while estimating its location in it. Ubiquitous cameras lead to monocular visual SLAM, where a camera is the only sensing device for the SLAM process. In modern applications, multiple mobile agents may be involved in the generation of such maps, thus requiring a distributed computational framework. Each agent can generate its own local map, which can then be combined into a map covering a larger area. By doing so, they can cover a given environment faster than a single agent. Furthermore, they can interact with each other in the same environment, making this framework more practical, especially for collaborative applications such as augmented reality. One of the main challenges of distributed SLAM is identifying overlapping maps, especially when relative starting positions of agents are unknown. In this paper, we are proposing a system having multiple monocular agents, with unknown relative starting positions, which generates a semidense global map of the environment.

  12. Visual saliency in MPEG-4 AVC video stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Le Callet, P.

    2015-03-01

    Visual saliency maps already proved their efficiency in a large variety of image/video communication application fields, covering from selective compression and channel coding to watermarking. Such saliency maps are generally based on different visual characteristics (like color, intensity, orientation, motion,…) computed from the pixel representation of the visual content. This paper resumes and extends our previous work devoted to the definition of a saliency map solely extracted from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements. The MPEG-4 AVC saliency map thus defined is a fusion of static and dynamic map. The static saliency map is in its turn a combination of intensity, color and orientation features maps. Despite the particular way in which all these elementary maps are computed, the fusion techniques allowing their combination plays a critical role in the final result and makes the object of the proposed study. A total of 48 fusion formulas (6 for combining static features and, for each of them, 8 to combine static to dynamic features) are investigated. The performances of the obtained maps are evaluated on a public database organized at IRCCyN, by computing two objective metrics: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the area under curve.

  13. Quantitative Architectural Analysis: A New Approach to Cortical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Axel; Morosan, Patricia; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Results from functional imaging studies are often still interpreted using the classical architectonic brain maps of Brodmann and his successors. One obvious weakness in traditional, architectural mapping is the subjective nature of localizing borders between cortical areas by means of a purely visual, microscopical examination of histological…

  14. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  15. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  16. Evaluating an animated and static time series map of District Six: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visualization of spatial information is an important aspect in the representation of map displays. Maps today are visually adapted to a variety of mediums in displaying spatial information temporally and as time series phenomena. GIS technology has incorporated tools for analysing these spatio-temporal trends. However ...

  17. Short-Term Plasticity of the Visuomotor Map during Grasping Movements in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, Daniel; Edin, Benoni B.

    2005-01-01

    During visually guided grasping movements, visual information is transformed into motor commands. This transformation is known as the "visuomotor map." To investigate limitations in the short-term plasticity of the visuomotor map in normal humans, we studied the maximum grip aperture (MGA) during the reaching phase while subjects grasped objects…

  18. Introduction: Critical Visual Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies selected for publication in this special issue on Critical Visual Theory can be divided into three thematic groups: (1 image making as power making, (2 commodification and recanonization, and (3 approaches to critical visual theory. The approaches to critical visual theory adopted by the authors of this issue may be subsumed under the following headings (3.1 critical visual discourse and visual memes in general and Anonymous visual discourse in particular, (3.2 collective memory and gendered gaze, and (3.3 visual capitalism, global north and south.

  19. Knowledge scaffolding visualizations: A guiding framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a guiding framework for understanding and selecting visual representations in the knowledge management (KM practice. We build on an interdisciplinary analogy between two connotations of the notion of “scaffolding”: physical scaffolding from an architectural-engineering perspective and scaffolding of the “everyday knowing in practice” from a KM perspective. We classify visual structures for knowledge communication in teams into four types of scaffolds: grounded (corresponding e.g., to perspectives diagrams or dynamic facilitation diagrams, suspended (e.g., negotiation sketches, argument maps, panel (e.g., roadmaps or timelines and reinforcing (e.g., concept diagrams. The article concludes with a set of recommendations in the form of questions to ask whenever practitioners are choosing visualizations for specific KM needs. Our recommendations aim at providing a framework at a broad-brush level to aid choosing a suitable visualization template depending on the type of KM endeavour.

  20. Modeling Color Difference for Visualization Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafir, Danielle Albers

    2018-01-01

    Color is frequently used to encode values in visualizations. For color encodings to be effective, the mapping between colors and values must preserve important differences in the data. However, most guidelines for effective color choice in visualization are based on either color perceptions measured using large, uniform fields in optimal viewing environments or on qualitative intuitions. These limitations may cause data misinterpretation in visualizations, which frequently use small, elongated marks. Our goal is to develop quantitative metrics to help people use color more effectively in visualizations. We present a series of crowdsourced studies measuring color difference perceptions for three common mark types: points, bars, and lines. Our results indicate that peoples' abilities to perceive color differences varies significantly across mark types. Probabilistic models constructed from the resulting data can provide objective guidance for designers, allowing them to anticipate viewer perceptions in order to inform effective encoding design.

  1. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  2. Relativity of Visual Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-01-01

    Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is conn...

  3. Supporting interactive visual analytics of energy behavior in buildings through affine visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Matthias; Brewer, Robert S.; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    Domain experts dealing with big data are typically not familiar with advanced data mining tools. This especially holds true for domain experts within energy management. In this paper, we introduce a visual analytics approach that empowers such users to visually analyze energy behavior based......Viz, that interactively maps data from real world buildings. It is an overview +detail inter-active visual analytics tool supporting both rapid ad hoc explorations and structured evaluation of hypotheses about patterns and anomalies in resource consumption data mixed with occupant survey data. We have evaluated...... the approach with five domain experts within energy management, and further with 10 data analytics experts and found that it was easily attainable and that it supported visual analysis of mixed consumption and survey data. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of affine visual analytics for mixed...

  4. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  5. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-08

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration.

  6. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  7. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  8. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  9. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calka Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  10. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calka, Beata; Cahan, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  11. Automatically Annotated Mapping for Indoor Mobile Robot Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Howard, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    of 2D visual tags allows encoding information physically at places-of-interest. Moreover, using physical characteristics of the visual tags (i.e. paper size) is exploited to recover relative poses of the tags in the environment using a simple camera. This method extends tag encoding to simultaneous......This paper presents a new and practical method for mapping and annotating indoor environments for mobile robot use. The method makes use of 2D occupancy grid maps for metric representation, and topology maps to indicate the connectivity of the ‘places-of-interests’ in the environment. Novel use...

  12. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    success rate from different public web mapping sites was calculated and compared, and displayed by the means of diagram. And the answers from questionnaires were also classified and organized in this part. Moreover, based on the analysis, this paper expands the discussion about the layout, map visualization, map tools, search logic and etc. Finally, this paper closed with some valuable guidelines and suggestions for the design of public web mapping sites. Also, limitations for this research stated in the end.

  13. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  14. Relativity of Visual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is connected to the compositionality of the (pictorial languages. In the paper Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of signs will be used in characterizing visual languages. This allows us to relate visual languages to natural languages. The foundation of information presentation methods for visual languages is the logic of perception, but only if perception is understood as propositional perception. This allows us to understand better the relativity of information presentation methods, and hence to evaluate the cultural relativity of visual communication.

  15. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  16. Mapping Urban Environmental Noise Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Zuo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise mapping is an effective method of visualizing and accessing noise pollution. In this paper, a noise-mapping method based on smartphones to effectively and easily measure environmental noise is proposed. By using this method, a noise map of an entire area can be created using limited measurement data. To achieve the measurement with certain precision, a set of methods was designed to calibrate the smartphones. Measuring noise with mobile phones is different from the traditional static observations. The users may be moving at any time. Therefore, a method of attaching an additional microphone with a windscreen is proposed to reduce the wind effect. However, covering an entire area is impossible. Therefore, an interpolation method is needed to achieve full coverage of the area. To reduce the influence of spatial heterogeneity and improve the precision of noise mapping, a region-based noise-mapping method is proposed in this paper, which is based on the distribution of noise in different region types tagged by volunteers, to interpolate and combine them to create a noise map. To validate the effect of the method, a comparison of the interpolation results was made to analyse our method and the ordinary Kriging method. The result shows that our method is more accurate in reflecting the local distribution of noise and has better interpolation precision. We believe that the proposed noise-mapping method is a feasible and low-cost noise-mapping solution.

  17. Stereoscopic Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Comparative Survey of Visualization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, O.; Debnam, J.M.; Ketonen, L.; Kumar, A.J.; Schellingerhout, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data has traditionally been displayed as a gray scale functional anisotropy map (GSFM) or color coded orientation map (CCOM). These methods use black and white or color with intensity values to map the complex multidimensional DTI data to a two-dimensional image. Alternative visualization techniques, such as V m ax maps utilize enhanced graphical representation of the principal eigenvector by means of a headless arrow on regular non stereoscopic (VM) or stereoscopic display (VMS). A survey of clinical utility of patients with intracranial neoplasms was carried out by 8 neuro radiologists using traditional and nontraditional methods of DTI display. Pairwise comparison studies of 5 intracranial neoplasms were performed with a structured questionnaire comparing GSFM, CCOM, VM, and VMS. Six of 8 neuro radiologists favored V m ax maps over traditional methods of display (GSFM and CCOM). When comparing the stereoscopic (VMS) and the non-stereoscopic (VM) modes, 4 favored VMS, 2 favored VM, and 2 had no preference. In conclusion, processing and visualizing DTI data stereoscopically is technically feasible. An initial survey of users indicated that V m ax based display methodology with or without stereoscopic visualization seems to be preferred over traditional methods to display DTI data.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Story Mapping Animation Based On Structured Causal Relationships Of Historical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Tsuruoka, K.; Arikawa, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a user interface that displays visual animations on geographic maps and timelines for depicting historical stories by representing causal relationships among events for time series. We have been developing an experimental software system for the spatial-temporal visualization of historical stories for tablet computers. Our proposed system makes people effectively learn historical stories using visual animations based on hierarchical structures of different scale timelines and maps.

  19. Visualizing the Verbal and Verbalizing the Visual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Roberts A.

    This paper explores relationships of visual images to verbal elements, beginning with a discussion of visible language as represented by words printed on the page. The visual flexibility inherent in typography is discussed in terms of the appearance of the letters and the denotative and connotative meanings represented by type, typographical…

  20. A Visual Test for Visual "Literacy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Four different principles of visual manipulation constitute a minimal list of what a visually "literate" viewer should know about, but certain problems exist which are inherent in measuring viewers' awareness of each of them. The four principles are: (1) paraproxemics, or camera work which derives its effectiveness from an analogy to the…

  1. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  2. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  3. Visual memory and visual perception: when memory improves visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Benoit; Lesourd, Mathieu; Brunel, Lionel; Versace, Rémy

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between memory and perception in order to identify the influence of a memory dimension in perceptual processing. Our aim was to determine whether the variation of typical size between items (i.e., the size in real life) affects visual search. In two experiments, the congruency between typical size difference and perceptual size difference was manipulated in a visual search task. We observed that congruency between the typical and perceptual size differences decreased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 1), and noncongruency between these two differences increased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 2). We argue that these results highlight that memory and perception share some resources and reveal the intervention of typical size difference on the computation of the perceptual size difference.

  4. Teach yourself visually OS X Mavericks

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Clear, step-by-step instruction guides you through OS X Mavericks If you want to get quickly up to speed on the newest (and now cat-free) OS X operating system, OS X Mavericks, this easy-to-follow book is just the ticket. Designed for visual learners, Teach Yourself VISUALLY OS X Mavericks uses rich, full-color screenshots and illustrations to show rather than tell you how to use Mavericks. You'll learn how to customize your Mac, enjoy digital media, connect common peripherals, and get the most out of the very latest enhancements, including iBooks, Maps, iCloud, and Calendar. Shows you how t

  5. SEISMIC RISK CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina I. Frolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake loss estimations before future events and following strong earthquakesin emergency mode and their corresponding visualization are extremely important for properdecision on preventive measures and effective response in order to save lives and properties. The paper addresses the methodological issues of seismic risk and vulnerability assessment, mapping with GIS technology application. Requirements for simulation models,databases used at different levels, as well as ways of visualizations oriented for EmergencyManagement Agencies, as well federal and local authorities are discussed. Examples ofmapping at the different levels: global, country, region and urban one are given and theinfluence of input data uncertainties on the reliability of loss computations is analyzed.

  6. Visual Artist or Visual Designer? Visual Communication Design Education

    OpenAIRE

    Arsoy, Aysu

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Design tools and contents have been digitalized, forming the contemporary fields of the visual arts and design. Corporate culture demands techno-social experts who understand the arts, design, culture and society, while also having a high level of technological proficiency. New departments have opened offering alternatives in art and design education such as Visual Communication Design (VCD) and are dedicated to educating students in the practical aspect of using digital technologi...

  7. Individualization of 2D color maps for people with color vision deficiencies

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. People with color vision deficiencies, such as red-green blindness, face difficulties when using conventional color maps. We propose a novel method for adapting a color map to an individual person, by having the user sort lines extracted from a given color map.

  8. Individualization of 2D color maps for people with color vision deficiencies

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-12-13

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. People with color vision deficiencies, such as red-green blindness, face difficulties when using conventional color maps. We propose a novel method for adapting a color map to an individual person, by having the user sort lines extracted from a given color map.

  9. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  10. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  11. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  12. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  13. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  14. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  15. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  16. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  17. Visual Control of Locomotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loomis, Jack M; Beall, Andrew C

    2005-01-01

    The accomplishments were threefold. First, a software tool for rendering virtual environments was developed, a tool useful for other researchers interested in visual perception and visual control of action...

  18. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  19. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  20. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  1. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  2. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Visual stimulation, {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy and fMRI of the human visual pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucard, Christine C.; Cornelissen, Frans W. [University of Groningen, Laboratory for Experimental Ophthalmology, Postbus 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, BCN Neuro-imaging Center, Postbus 196, Groningen (Netherlands); Mostert, Jop P.; Keyser, Jacques De [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E. [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose was to assess changes in lactate content and other brain metabolites under visual stimulation in optical chiasm, optic radiations and occipital cortex using multiple voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS). {sup 1}H chemical shift imaging (CSI) examinations of transverse planes centered to include the above structures were performed in four subjects at an echo time of 135 ms. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to confirm the presence of activity in the visual cortex during the visual stimulation. Spectral maps of optical chiasm were of poor quality due to field disturbances caused by nearby large blood vessels and/or eye movements. The optic radiations and the occipital lobe did not show any significant MR spectral change upon visual stimulation, i.e., the peak areas of inositol, choline, creatine, glutamate and N-acetylaspartate were not affected. Reproducible lactate signals were not observed. fMRI confirmed the presence of strong activations in stimulated visual cortex. Prolonged visual stimulation did not cause significant changes in MR spectra. Any signal observed near the 1.33 ppm resonance frequency of the lactate methyl-group was artifactual, originating from lipid signals from outside the volume of interest (VOI). Previous claims about changes in lactate levels in the visual cortex upon visual stimulation may have been based on such erroneous observations. (orig.)

  4. Distortions in memory for visual displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Systematic errors in perception and memory present a challenge to theories of perception and memory and to applied psychologists interested in overcoming them as well. A number of systematic errors in memory for maps and graphs are reviewed, and they are accounted for by an analysis of the perceptual processing presumed to occur in comprehension of maps and graphs. Visual stimuli, like verbal stimuli, are organized in comprehension and memory. For visual stimuli, the organization is a consequence of perceptual processing, which is bottom-up or data-driven in its earlier stages, but top-down and affected by conceptual knowledge later on. Segregation of figure from ground is an early process, and figure recognition later; for both, symmetry is a rapidly detected and ecologically valid cue. Once isolated, figures are organized relative to one another and relative to a frame of reference. Both perceptual (e.g., salience) and conceptual factors (e.g., significance) seem likely to affect selection of a reference frame. Consistent with the analysis, subjects perceived and remembered curves in graphs and rivers in maps as more symmetric than they actually were. Symmetry, useful for detecting and recognizing figures, distorts map and graph figures alike. Top-down processes also seem to operate in that calling attention to the symmetry vs. asymmetry of a slightly asymmetric curve yielded memory errors in the direction of the description. Conceptual frame of reference effects were demonstrated in memory for lines embedded in graphs. In earlier work, the orientation of map figures was distorted in memory toward horizontal or vertical. In recent work, graph lines, but not map lines, were remembered as closer to an imaginary 45 deg line than they had been. Reference frames are determined by both perceptual and conceptual factors, leading to selection of the canonical axes as a reference frame in maps, but selection of the imaginary 45 deg as a reference frame in graphs.

  5. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  6. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Robert; van Enckevort, Frank H J; Boekhorst, Jos; Molenaar, Douwe; Siezen, Roland J

    2004-07-22

    A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a MySQL database. The generated images are in scalable vector graphics (SVG) format, which is suitable for creating high-quality scalable images and dynamic Web representations. Gene-related data such as transcriptome and time-course microarray experiments can be superimposed on the maps for visual inspection. The Microbial Genome Viewer 1.0 is freely available at http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/MGV

  7. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  8. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  9. Big Data Visualization Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Bikakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Data visualization is the presentation of data in a pictorial or graphical format, and a data visualization tool is the software that generates this presentation. Data visualization provides users with intuitive means to interactively explore and analyze data, enabling them to effectively identify interesting patterns, infer correlations and causalities, and supports sense-making activities.

  10. Improving the visual realism of virtual surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Lim, Yi-Je; Xu, Xie George; Singh, Tejinder P; De, Suvranu

    2005-01-01

    In this work we focus our attention on improving the visual realism of virtual surgery. A synthetic solution by innovative use of various image-based rendering methods is presented for realistic rendering of virtual surgery scenes. We have, for the first time, developed a methodology for generating virtual surgery scenes with realistic glistening effects by a combination of various image-based rendering techniques, including image mosaicing and view-dependent texture mapping. Realistic examples are presented to showcase the results.

  11. Analogy Mapping Development for Learning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, R. A.; Prabawa, H. W.; Kurniawati, S.

    2017-02-01

    Programming skill is an important skill for computer science students, whereas nowadays, there many computer science students are lack of skills and information technology knowledges in Indonesia. This is contrary with the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) since the end of 2015 which is the qualified worker needed. This study provided an effort for nailing programming skills by mapping program code to visual analogies as learning media. The developed media was based on state machine and compiler principle and was implemented in C programming language. The state of every basic condition in programming were successful determined as analogy visualization.

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  13. SOA and Web Technology for Building BSE Market Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation as a map of the stock market data can offer access, in a quick and rele-vant manner for human participants, to the overall state of the market at a given point in time. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of our academic research upon building the market map for Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE. We will focus on the algorithm for generat-ing the market map, the system architecture, and web technology employed for capturing the required data and making the map publicly available through the portal www.bursa.ase.ro. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (Distributed Systems

  14. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  17. David Ferrier: brain drawings and brain maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter has two emphases, one is about the men who influenced the visual representations that David Ferrier (1843-1928) used to illustrate his work on localization of brain functions during the years 1873-1875, namely, Alexander Ecker, John C. Galton, and Ernest Waterlow, and the other is about the nature of medical representations and of Ferrier's illustrations in particular. Medical illustrations are characterized either as pictures, line drawings, or brain maps. Ferrier's illustrations will be shown to be increasingly sophisticated brain maps that contrast with early nineteenth-century standards of medical illustrations, as exemplified by John Bell (1763-1829). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  19. Visualization system on ITBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Visualization systems PATRAS/ITBL and AVS/ITBL, which are based on visualization software PATRAS and AVS/Express respectively, have been developed on a global, heterogeneous computing environment, Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL). PATRAS/ITBL allows for real-time visualization of the numerical results acquired from coupled multi-physics numerical simulations, executed on different hosts situated in remote locations. AVS/ITBL allow for post processing visualization. The scientific data located in remote sites may be selected and visualized on a web browser installed in a user terminal. The global structure and main functions of these systems are presented. (author)

  20. Visual Motion Perception and Visual Attentive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    88-0551 Visual Motion Perception and Visual Attentive Processes George Spering , New YorkUnivesity A -cesson For DTIC TAB rant AFOSR 85-0364... Spering . HIPSt: A Unix-based image processing syslem. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 1984,25. 331-347. ’HIPS is the Human Information...Processing Laboratory’s Image Processing System. 1985 van Santen, Jan P. It, and George Spering . Elaborated Reichardt detectors. Journal of the Optical