WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemotherapy improves survival

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadaban, Leigh; Rauscher, Garth; Aklilu, Mebea; Villenes, Dana; Freels, Sally; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-11-15

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer remains to be elucidated and its use varies between patients and institutions. Currently, clinical guidelines suggest discussing adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk stage II disease in the absence of conclusive randomized controlled trial data. To further investigate this relationship, the objective of the current study was to determine whether an association exists between overall survival (OS) and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients stratified by age and pathological risk features. Data from the National Cancer Data Base were analyzed for demographics, tumor characteristics, management, and survival of patients with stage II colon cancer who were diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with survival information through 2011. Pearson Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to analyze disease and demographic data. Survival analysis was performed with the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Propensity score weighting was used to match cohorts. Among 153,110 patients with stage II colon cancer, predictors of receiving chemotherapy included age clinically relevant OS was associated with the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy in all patient subgroups regardless of high-risk tumor pathologic features (poor or undifferentiated histology, colon cancer evaluated to date, improved OS was found to be associated with adjuvant chemotherapy regardless of treatment regimen, patient age, or high-risk pathologic risk features. Cancer 2016;122:3277-3287. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael G.; Rischin, Danny; Porter, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m 2 i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For

  3. Chemotherapy increases long-term survival in patients with adult medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocakaya, Selin; Beier, Christoph Patrick; Beier, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    chemotherapy first-line survived significantly longer (mOS: 108 mo, 95% CI: 68.6-148.4) than patients treated with radiation alone (mOS: 57 mo, 95% CI: 39.6-74.4) or patients who received chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This effect was not biased by tumor stage or decade of treatment. Importantly, (neo...... parts of treatment regimes; however, established prognostic factors and data clarifying the role of chemotherapy are missing. METHODS: We investigated 227 publications from 1969-2013, with 907 identifiable, individual patients being available for meta-analysis. Demographic data, risk stratification......)adjuvant chemotherapy also significantly increased the chance for long-term survival (>5 y) compared with radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis clarifies relevant prognostic factors and suggests that chemotherapy as part of first-line therapy improves overall survival...

  4. Augmented therapy of extensive Hodgkin's disease: radiation to bulk disease or prolongation of induction chemotherapy did not improve survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafla, S.; Coleman, M.; Propert, K.; Glicksman, A.; Peterson, B.; Nissen, N.; Brunner, K.; Kaufmann, T.; Holland, J.; Anderson, J.; Gottlieb, A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective, randomized trial in extensive, untreated Hodgkin's disease was undertaken to assess the potential benefit of augmented therapy (12 months chemotherapy or radiation to 'bulk' disease) compared to standard, six months chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred fifty-eight patients, mostly stage IV, were randomized to four treatment regimens consisting of 6 cycles of CCNU, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP); 12 cycles of CVPP; 6 cycles of CVPP followed by 25 Gray (Gy) radiotherapy; or 3 cycles CVPP, 25 Gy radiotherapy, and 3 cycles CVPP. Results: Complete remissions were achieved in 65% of all patients. A 58% overall 5 year survival was obtained. Relapses in irradiated areas of bulk disease occurred in only 6% of responding patients. There was, however, no statistical difference in response frequency, disease free survival or overall survival amongst the four regimens. Elderly patients responded less frequently. Conclusion: While radiotherapy provided control of local (bulk) disease, no impact on overall survival was apparent. Likewise doubling the duration of chemotherapy did not improve response or survival. Augmentation of therapy with either radiotherapy or more chemotherapy in this study was of no benefit when compared to the standard six months of treatment

  5. Geographic Variation in Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy and Survival in Patients With Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Janki M; Lairson, David R; Chan, Wenyaw; Du, Xianglin L

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity in colon cancer survival has received less attention, despite the fact that health care delivery varied across regions. To examine geographic variation in colon cancer survival and explore factors affecting this variation, including the use of oxaliplatin chemotherapy, we studied cases with resected stage-III colon cancer in 2004-2009, identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effect of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy on survival across regions. Propensity score adjustments were made to control for potential selection bias and confounding. Rural regions showed lowest 3-year survival, whereas big metro regions showed better 3-year survival rate than any other region (67.3% in rural regions vs. 69.5% in big metro regions). Hazard ratio for patients residing in metro region was comparable with those residing in big metro region (1.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.90-1.80). However, patients residing in urban area were exhibiting lower mortality than those in other regions, although not statistically significant. Patients who received oxaliplatin chemotherapy were 23% significantly less likely to die of cancer than those received 5-fluorouracil only chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95). In conclusion, there were some differences in survival across geographic regions, which were not statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic, tumor, chemotherapy, and other treatment characteristics. Oxaliplatin chemotherapy was associated with improved survival outcomes compared with 5-fluorouracil only chemotherapy across regions. Further studies may evaluate other factors and newer chemotherapy regimens on mortality/survival of older patients.

  6. Chemotherapy Regimen Extends Survival in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.

  7. Retrospective Analysis of the Survival Benefit of Induction Chemotherapy in Stage IVa-b Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiao-Wen; Zou, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Yao; Tang, Jie; OuYang, Pu-Yun; Su, Zhen; Xie, Fang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The value of adding induction chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) remains controversial, yet high-risk patients with LA-NPC have poor outcomes after chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to assess the survival benefits of induction chemotherapy in stage IVa-b NPC. A total of 602 patients with stage IVa-b NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Overall survival (OS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. In univariate analysis, 5-year OS was 83.2% for induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy and 74.8% for concurrent chemotherapy alone, corresponding to an absolute risk reduction of 8.4% (P = 0.022). Compared to concurrent chemotherapy alone, addition of induction chemotherapy improved 5-year DMFS (83.2% vs. 74.4%, P = 0.018) but not 5-year LRFS (83.7% vs. 83.0%, P = 0.848) or PFS (71.9% vs. 66.0%, P = 0.12). Age, T category, N category, chemotherapy strategy and clinical stage were associated with 5-year OS (P = 0.017, P = 0.031, P = 0.007, P = 0.022, P = 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy was an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90, P = 0.012) and DMFS (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83, P = 0.004). In subgroup analysis, induction chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year DMFS in stage IVa (86.8% vs. 77.3%, P = 0.008), but provided no significant benefit in stage IVb. In patients with stage IVa-b NPC treated with IMRT, addition of induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year OS and 5-year DMFS. This study provides a basis for selection of high risk patients in future clinical therapeutic

  8. Adoptive cell transfer after chemotherapy enhances survival in patients with resectable HNSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pan; Zhang, Yan; J Archibald, Steve; Wang, Hua

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and to determine the immune factors for treatment success in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer (ACT). A total of 43 HNSCC patients who received radical resection and chemotherapy were analysed in this study. Twenty-one of the patients were repeatedly treated with ACT after chemotherapy (ACT group), and the other twenty-two patients without ACT treatment were included as part of the control group. To investigate the immunological differences underlying these observations, we expanded and profiled improving cytokine-induced killer cells (iCIK) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the timed addition of RetroNectin, OKT3 mAb, IFN γ and IL-2. The median of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the ACT group were significantly higher as compared to the control group (56 vs. 40; 58 vs. 45 months). In iCIK culture, there was a significant reduction in CD3+CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokines (IL-2, TNF) production from patients who received chemotherapy compared to patients without chemotherapy. Intra-arterial infusion of iCIK, in coordination with chemotherapy, considerably rescued iCIK culture from the suppression of systemic immunity induced by chemotherapy and induced tumour regression. Altogether, these findings suggest that ACT is an effective neo-adjuvant therapy for rescuing systemic immune suppression and improving survival time in patients with HNSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ immune response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer predicts survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoire, Sylvain; Mignot, Grégoire; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Arnould, Laurent; Apetoh, Lionel; Rébé, Cedric; Coudert, Bruno; Martin, Francois; Bizollon, Marie Hélène; Vanoli, André; Coutant, Charles; Fumoleau, Pierre; Bonnetain, Franck; Ghiringhelli, François

    2011-07-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests that anticancer immune responses contribute to the success of chemotherapy. However, the predictive value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer remains unknown. We hypothesized that the nature of the immune infiltrate following neoadjuvant chemotherapy would predict patient survival. In a series of 111 consecutive HER2- and a series of 51 non-HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we studied by immunohistochemistry tumour infiltration by FOXP3 and CD8 T lymphocytes before and after chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox modelling were used to assess relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). A predictive scoring system using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological staging and immunological markers was created. Association of high CD8 and low FOXP3 cell infiltrates after chemotherapy was significantly associated with improved RFS (p = 0.02) and OS (p = 0.002), and outperformed classical predictive factors in multivariate analysis. A combined score associating CD8/FOXP3 ratio and pathological AJCC staging isolated a subgroup of patients with a long-term overall survival of 100%. Importantly, this score also identified patients with a favourable prognosis in an independent cohort of HER2-negative breast cancer patients. These results suggest that immunological CD8 and FOXP3 cell infiltrate after treatment is an independent predictive factor of survival in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and provides new insights into the role of the immune milieu and cancer. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Increased tumour ADC value during chemotherapy predicts improved survival in unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology and IVR Center, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan); Marugami, Nagaaki [Nara Medical University, Department of Endoscopy and Ultrasound, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan); Sho, Masayuki; Akahori, Takahiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate whether changes to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of primary tumour in the early period after starting chemotherapy can predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Subjects comprised 43 patients with histologically confirmed unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy. Minimum ADC values in primary tumour were measured using the selected area ADC (sADC), which excluded cystic and necrotic areas and vessels, and the whole tumour ADC (wADC), which included whole tumour components. Relative changes in ADC were calculated from baseline to 4 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Relationships between ADC and both PFS and OS were modelled by Cox proportional hazards regression. Median PFS and OS were 6.1 and 11.0 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, sADC change was the strongest predictor of PFS (hazard ratio (HR), 4.5; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.7-11.9; p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for OS revealed sADC change and CRP as independent predictive markers, with sADC change as the strongest predictive biomarker (HR, 6.7; 95 % CI, 2.7-16.6; p = 0.001). Relative changes in sADC could provide a useful imaging biomarker to predict PFS and OS with chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.)

  11. Removal of Endobronchial Malignant Mass by Cryotherapy Improved Performance Status to Receive Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Heng; Wang, Tsai-Yu; Yu, Chih-Teng; Chou, Chun-Liang; Lin, Shu-Min; Kuo, Chih-Hsi; Chung, Fu-Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Although malignant endobronchial mass (MEM) has poor prognosis, cryotherapy is reportedly a palliative treatment. Clinical data on postcryotherapy MEM patients in a university-affiliated hospital between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Survival curve with or without postcryotherapy chemotherapy and performance status (PS) improvement of these subjects were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were 59 patients (42 males), with median age of 64 years (range, 51–76, and median performance status of 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-3). Postcryotherapy complications included minor bleeding (n = 12) and need for multiple procedures (n = 10), while outcomes were relief of symptoms (n = 51), improved PS (n = 45), and ability to receive chemotherapy (n = 40). The survival of patients with chemotherapy postcryotherapy was longer than that of patients without such chemotherapy (median, 534 versus 106 days; log-rank test, P = 0.007; hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.69). The survival of patients with PS improvement postcryotherapy was longer than that of patients without PS improvement (median, 406 versus 106 days; log-rank test, P = 0.02; hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.81). Cryotherapy is a feasible treatment for MEM. With better PS after cryotherapy, further chemotherapy becomes possible for patients to improve survival when MEM caused dyspnea and poor PS. PMID:25383370

  12. Malignant melanoma in 63 dogs (2001-2011): the effect of carboplatin chemotherapy on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockley, L K; Cooper, M A; Bennett, P F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of carboplatin chemotherapy on the survival of canine patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma after loco-regional control or as a sole therapy. A retrospective study of 63 dogs with oral, digital or cutaneous malignant melanoma treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy was undertaken. Dogs were grouped based on the anatomical site of melanoma development. For oral melanoma, dogs were subclassified into two groups: loco-regional control and gross disease. All patients in the digital and cutaneous groups had achieved loco-regional control with surgery. Comparisons between survival data for each group at each anatomical site were then made. Within the loco-regional control groups survival time was compared between those treated with and without chemotherapy post surgery. For the oral melanoma patients with gross disease survival was compared between those treated with chemotherapy and palliative therapy. The toxicity of carboplatin chemotherapy was evaluated overall. The overall median survival times for patients with oral, digital and cutaneous melanoma were 389, 1,350 days and not reached (with a median follow-up of 776 days) respectively. Median survival time was defined as "not reached" when less than 50% of the subjects died of the disease at the end of the follow-up period, or at the time they were lost to follow-up. The addition of chemotherapy to surgery did not confer a survival benefit in the loco-regional control setting when assessing survival for each anatomical site. For oral melanoma patients with gross disease there was no difference between survival of patients treated with chemotherapy and palliative intent therapy. There was however an improvement in survival in the three dogs that responded to chemotherapy (978 days; p=0.039) compared to the eight non-responders (147 days). On univariate and multivariate analysis, anatomic location was the only variable that was significantly related to survival (p=0

  13. Primary Tumour Resection Could Improve the Survival of Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Bevacizumab-Containing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of primary tumour resection (PTR among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC patients remains controversial. Combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab could improve the clinical outcomes of these patients, which might change the importance of PTR in the multi-disciplinary treatment pattern. Methods: We performed a non-randomized prospective controlled study of mCRC pts whose performance status (PS scored ≤2 and who received bevacizumab combination chemotherapy (FOLFOX/XELOX/FOLFIRI as a first-line therapy. These patients were classified into the PTR group and the IPT (intact primary tumour group according to whether they underwent PTR before receiving the systemic therapy. The progression free survival (PFS time and overall survival (OS time, which were recorded from the start of the primary diagnosis until disease progression and death or last follow-up, were analysed. We also compared severe clinical events (such as emergency surgery, radiation therapy, and stent plantation between the two groups. Results: One hundred and nighty-one mCRC pts (108 male patients and 93 female patients were entered in this prospective observational study. The median age was 57.5 years old. The clinical characteristics (age, gender, performance status, primary tumour site, RAS status, and the number of metastatic organs did not significantly differ between the two groups. The median PFS and OS times of the PTR group were superior than those of the IPT group (10.0 vs 7.8 months, p Conclusions: The mCRC patients who received PTR and bevacizumab combination chemotherapy had better clinical outcomes than patients who did not receive PTR. PTR also decreased the incidence of severe clinical events and improved quality of life.

  14. The impact of chemotherapy and its timing on survival in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated with complete debulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouje, Samer A; Tulla, Kiara A; Salti, George I

    2018-04-12

    The current standard of treatment for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is cytoreductive surgery when the disease distribution is favorable. The role of chemotherapy, as an adjunct to surgery, remains unclear. The national database of mesothelioma was used to identify MPM patients who were treated with curative intent. Patients were divided into treatment groups: (1) chemotherapy only, (2) surgery only, (3) neoadjuvant chemotherapy + surgery, and (4) surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy. A negative control group of patients who did not receive any treatment was added (group 0). Totally, 1740 patients were included. Mean age was 63.04 ± 14.58 and 60.7% were males. The patients' distribution into the treatment groups was 604, 684, 169, 55, and 228 patients in groups 0-4, respectively, with a median survival of 3.61 ± 0.37, 11.10 ± 0.73, 57.41 ± 11.91, 52.30 ± 7.20, and 55.00 ± 9.19 months. The addition of chemotherapy, in any setting, to surgery provided an improved survival at 1 year (p = 0.006). This survival benefit ceased at the 2-, 3-, and 5-year checkpoints. The multivariate analysis identified age, sarcomatoid/biphasic histologies, nodal and distant metastasis, and offering no treatment or chemotherapy only as poor prognostic factors for overall survival. No difference in overall survival was noted with the addition of chemotherapy to complete debulking regardless of the timing. Complete debulking remains the standard treatment for MPM. The addition of systemic chemotherapy provides a short-term survival improvement at 1 year only and was similar whether given in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. Nevertheless, it did not add a survival benefit beyond the 1-year time point.

  15. High-risk bladder cancer: improving outcomes with perioperative chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite treatment with radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, muscle invasive bladder cancer has a relapse rate of 50%. Patients can develop regionally advanced or metastatic disease that ultimately leads to death. The addition of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the risk of relapse and death has been extensively studied over the past two decades. Two contemporary trials coupled with a recent meta-analysis evaluating neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a modest but real improvement in overall survival. This has made neoadjuvant chemotherapy a standard of care. Clinical trials evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk disease have been plagued with statistical flaws and have, therefore, been unable to define the survival impact of this approach. It is hoped that ongoing adjuvant trials that are powered to detect small but meaningful clinical differences will clarify the benefit of chemotherapy after cystectomy. Since there are theoretical advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, both are widely used in North America. The evidence behind each approach and potential future developments in this field will be described.

  16. Survival benefit needed to undergo chemotherapy: Patient and physician preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Luis, Ines; O'Neill, Anne; Sepucha, Karen; Miller, Kathy D; Baker, Emily; Dang, Chau T; Northfelt, Donald W; Winer, Eric P; Sledge, George W; Schneider, Bryan; Partridge, Ann H

    2017-08-01

    Published studies have suggested that most patients with early stage breast cancer are willing, for modest survival benefits, to receive 6 months of adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, an older regimen that is used infrequently today. We examined preferences regarding the survival benefit needed to justify 6 months of a contemporary chemotherapy regimen. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol 5103 was a phase 3 trial that randomized breast cancer patients to receive standard adjuvant doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel with either bevacizumab or placebo. Serial surveys to assess quality of life were administered to patients enrolled between January 1, 2010, and June 8, 2010. Survival benefit needed to justify 6 months of chemotherapy by patients was collected at the 18-month assessment. A parallel survey was sent to physicians who had enrolled patients in the study. Of 519 patients who had not withdrawn at a time point earlier than 18 months, 87.8% responded to this survey. A total of 175 physicians participated. We found considerable variation in patient preferences, particularly for modest survival benefits: for 2 months of benefit, 57% would consider 6 months of chemotherapy, whereas 96% of patients would consider 6 months of chemotherapy for 24 months. Race and education were associated with the choices. Physicians who responded were less likely to accept chemotherapy for modest benefit. Among patients who received contemporary adjuvant chemotherapy in a randomized controlled trial, we found substantial variation in preferences regarding benefits that justified undergoing chemotherapy. Differences between patients' and physicians' choices were also apparent. Eliciting preferences regarding risks and benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy is critical. Cancer 2017;123:2821-28. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Augmented therapy of extensive Hodgkin's disease: radiation to known disease or prolongation of induction chemotherapy did not improve survival--results of a cancer and leukemia group B study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Morton; Rafla, Sameer; Propert, Kathleen J.; Glicksman, Arvin; Peterson, Bruce; Nissen, Nis; Brunner, Kurt; Holland, James F.; Anderson, James R.; Gottlieb, Arlan; Kaufman, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective randomized trial in extensive untreated Hodgkin's disease was undertaken to assess the potential benefit of augmented therapy (12 months chemotherapy or radiation to known disease) compared to standard 6 months chemotherapy. Patient and Methods: A total of 258 patients, mostly Stage IV, were randomized to four treatment regimens consisting of six cycles of CCNU, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP); 12 cycles of CVPP; six cycles of CVPP followed by 25 Gy radiotherapy; or three cycles CVPP, 25 Gy radiotherapy, and three cycles CVPP. Results: Complete remissions were achieved in 65% of all patients. A 58% overall 5-year survival rate was obtained. Relapses in irradiated areas of known disease occurred in only 6% of responding patients. There was, however, no statistical difference in response frequency, disease-free survival, or overall survival among the four regimens. Elderly patients responded less frequently. Conclusion: While radiotherapy provided control of local (known) disease, no impact on overall survival was apparent. Likewise, doubling the duration of chemotherapy did not improve response or survival. Augmentation of therapy with either radiotherapy or more chemotherapy in this study was of no benefit compared to the standard 6 months of treatment

  18. Chemotherapy increases long-term survival in patients with adult medulloblastoma--a literature-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocakaya, Selin; Beier, Christoph Patrick; Beier, Dagmar

    2016-03-01

    Adult medulloblastoma is a potentially curable malignant entity with an incidence of 0.5-1 per million. Valid data on prognosis, treatment, and demographics are lacking, as most current knowledge stems from retrospective studies. Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy are accepted parts of treatment regimes; however, established prognostic factors and data clarifying the role of chemotherapy are missing. We investigated 227 publications from 1969-2013, with 907 identifiable, individual patients being available for meta-analysis. Demographic data, risk stratification, and treatment of these patients were similar to previous cohorts. The median overall survival (mOS) was 65 months (95% CI: 54.6-75.3) , the 5-year overall survival was 50.9% with 16% of the patients dying more than 5 years after diagnosis. Incomplete resection, clinical and radiological signs for brainstem infiltration, and abstinence from radiotherapy were predictive of worse outcome. Metastatic disease at tumor recurrence was identified as a new prognostic factor, while neither metastasis at initial diagnosis nor desmoplastic/classic histology was correlated with survival. Patients receiving chemotherapy first-line survived significantly longer (mOS: 108 mo, 95% CI: 68.6-148.4) than patients treated with radiation alone (mOS: 57 mo, 95% CI: 39.6-74.4) or patients who received chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This effect was not biased by tumor stage or decade of treatment. Importantly, (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy also significantly increased the chance for long-term survival (>5 y) compared with radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This meta-analysis clarifies relevant prognostic factors and suggests that chemotherapy as part of first-line therapy improves overall survival and increases the proportion of patients with long-term survival. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  19. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (GO Inclusion to Induction Chemotherapy Eliminates Leukemic Initiating Cells and Significantly Improves Survival in Mouse Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO is an anti-CD33 antibody-drug conjugate for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Although GO shows a narrow therapeutic window in early clinical studies, recent reports detailing a modified dosing regimen of GO can be safely combined with induction chemotherapy, and the combination provides significant survival benefits in AML patients. Here we tested whether the survival benefits seen with the combination arise from the enhanced reduction of chemoresidual disease and leukemic initiating cells (LICs. Herein, we use cell line and patient-derived xenograft (PDX AML models to evaluate the combination of GO with daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA induction chemotherapy on AML blast growth and animal survival. DA chemotherapy and GO as separate treatments reduced AML burden but left significant chemoresidual disease in multiple AML models. The combination of GO and DA chemotherapy eliminated nearly all AML burden and extended overall survival. In two small subsets of AML models, chemoresidual disease following DA chemotherapy displayed hallmark markers of leukemic LICs (CLL1 and CD34. In vivo, the two chemoresistant subpopulations (CLL1+/CD117− and CD34+/CD38+ showed higher ability to self-renewal than their counterpart subpopulations, respectively. CD33 was coexpressed in these functional LIC subpopulations. We demonstrate that the GO and DA induction chemotherapy combination more effectively eliminates LICs in AML PDX models than either single agent alone. These data suggest that the survival benefit seen by the combination of GO and induction chemotherapy, nonclinically and clinically, may be attributed to the enhanced reduction of LICs.

  20. SNRFCB: sub-network based random forest classifier for predicting chemotherapy benefit on survival for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingguang; He, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) should be individualized to provide potential survival benefit and avoid potential harm to cancer patients. Our goal was to establish a computational approach for making personalized estimates of the survival benefit from adjuvant CTX. We developed Sub-Network based Random Forest classifier for predicting Chemotherapy Benefit (SNRFCB) based gene expression datasets of lung cancer. The SNRFCB approach was then validated in independent test cohorts for identifying chemotherapy responder cohorts and chemotherapy non-responder cohorts. SNRFCB involved the pre-selection of gene sub-network signatures based on the mutations and on protein-protein interaction data as well as the application of the random forest algorithm to gene expression datasets. Adjuvant CTX was significantly associated with the prolonged overall survival of lung cancer patients in the chemotherapy responder group (P = 0.008), but it was not beneficial to patients in the chemotherapy non-responder group (P = 0.657). Adjuvant CTX was significantly associated with the prolonged overall survival of lung cancer squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) subtype patients in the chemotherapy responder cohorts (P = 0.024), but it was not beneficial to patients in the chemotherapy non-responder cohorts (P = 0.383). SNRFCB improved prediction performance as compared to the machine learning method, support vector machine (SVM). To test the general applicability of the predictive model, we further applied the SNRFCB approach to human breast cancer datasets and also observed superior performance. SNRFCB could provide recurrent probability for individual patients and identify which patients may benefit from adjuvant CTX in clinical trials.

  1. Survival data for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy comprising cisplatin plus vinorelbine after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Wakuda, Kazushige; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Omori, Shota; Ono, Akira; Naito, Tateaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Kojima, Hideaki; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-09-01

    Despite the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy for patients who have undergone surgical resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), few reports have presented survival data for Asian patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy involving a combination of CDDP and vinorelbine (VNR). This study was performed to evaluate the survival of patients with NSCLC who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy comprising CDDP + VNR. We retrospectively evaluated patients with NSCLC who received adjuvant chemotherapy comprising CDDP + VNR at the Shizuoka Cancer Center between February 2006 and October 2011. One hundred patients who underwent surgical resection of NSCLC were included in this study. The patients' characteristics were as follows: median age 63 years (range 36-74 years), female 34%, never-smokers 20%, and non-squamous NSCLC 73%. Pathological stages IIA, IIB, and IIIA were observed in 31, 22, and 47% of patients, respectively. The 5- and 2-year overall survival rates were 73 and 93%, respectively. The 5- and 2-year relapse-free survival rates were 53 and 62%, respectively. Univariate analysis of prognostic factors showed that patient characteristics (sex, histology, and pathological stage) and CDDP dose intensity were not significantly associated with survival. In 48 patients who developed NSCLC recurrence, the 5-year survival rate after recurrence was 29%, and the median survival time after recurrence was 37 months. Our results suggest that the prognosis after surgical resection of NSCLC and adjuvant chemotherapy comprising CDDP + VNR might be improving compared with previous survival data of adjuvant chemotherapy for NSCLC.

  2. Survival predictors for second-line chemotherapy in Caucasian patients with metastatic gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bohanes, Pierre; Courvoisier, Delphine; Perneger, Thomas; Morel, Philippe; Huber, Olivier; Roth, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    There are very limited data suggesting a benefit for second-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, the number of patients who receive further treatment after failure of first-line chemotherapy varies considerably, ranging from 14% to 75%. In the absence of a demonstrated survival benefit of second-line chemotherapy, appropriate selection of patients based on survival predictors is essential. However, no clinico-pathologic parameters are currently widely adopted in clinical p...

  3. Time-related improvement of survival in resectable gastric cancer: the role of Japanese-style gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Oscar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the change of prognosis in resected gastric cancer (RGC patients and the role of radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods We retrospectively analyze the outcome of 426 consecutive patients from 1975 to 2002, divided into 2 time-periods (TP cohort: Before 1990 (TP1, n = 207 and 1990 or after (TP2; n= 219. Partial gastrectomy and D1-lymphadenetomy was predominant in TP1 and total gastrectomy with D2-lymphadenectomy it was in TP2. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of mitomycin C (MMC, 10–20 mg/m2 iv 4 courses or MMC plus Tegafur 500 mg/m2 for 6 months. Results Positive nodes were similar in TP2/TP1 patients with 56%/59% respectively. Total gastrectomy was done in 56%/45% of TP2/TP1 respectively. Two-drug adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 65%/18% of TP2/TP1 respectively. Survival at 5 years was 66% for TP2 versus 42% for TP1 patients (p Conclusion The global prognosis and that of some stages have improved in recent years with case RGC patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Sunil, E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chadha, Awalpreet S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Hsiang-Chun [Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results: Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P=.03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P=.05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS.

  5. Survival outcome of women with stage IV uterine carcinosarcoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Johnson, Marian S; Im, Dwight D; Ross, Malcolm S; Bush, Stephen H; Yunokawa, Mayu; Blake, Erin A; Takano, Tadao; Klobocista, Merieme M; Hasegawa, Kosei; Ueda, Yutaka; Shida, Masako; Baba, Tsukasa; Satoh, Shinya; Yokoyama, Takuhei; Machida, Hiroko; Ikeda, Yuji; Adachi, Sosuke; Miyake, Takahito M; Iwasaki, Keita; Yanai, Shiori; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masato; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Takekuma, Munetaka; Shahzad, Mian M K; Pejovic, Tanja; Omatsu, Kohei; Kelley, Joseph L; Ueland, Frederick R; Roman, Lynda D

    2018-03-01

    To examine survival of women with stage IV uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by hysterectomy. This is a nested case-control study within a retrospective cohort of 1192 UCS cases. Women who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by hysterectomy based-surgery for stage IV UCS (n = 26) were compared to those who had primary hysterectomy-based surgery without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage IV UCS (n = 120). Progression-free survival (PFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were examined. The most common regimen for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was carboplatin/paclitaxel (53.8%). Median number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles was 4. PFS was similar between the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and the primary surgery group (unadjusted-hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.89, P = 0.45). Similarly, CSS was comparable between the two groups (unadjusted-HR 1.13, 95%CI 0.68-1.90, P = 0.64). When the types of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens were compared, women who received a carboplatin/paclitaxel regimen had better survival outcomes compared to those who received other regimens: PFS, unadjusted-HR 0.38, 95%CI 0.15-0.93, P = 0.027; and CSS, unadjusted-HR 0.21, 95%CI 0.07-0.61, P = 0.002. Our study found that there is no statistically significant difference in survival between women with stage IV UCS who are tolerated neoadjuvant chemotherapy and those who undergo primary surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Analysis of Perioperative Chemotherapy in Resected Pancreatic Cancer: Identifying the Number and Sequence of Chemotherapy Cycles Needed to Optimize Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboym, Irene; Zenati, Mazen S; Hamad, Ahmad; Steve, Jennifer; Lee, Kenneth K; Bahary, Nathan; Hogg, Melissa E; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H

    2017-09-01

    Receipt of 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is standard of care in pancreatic cancer (PC). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is increasingly utilized; however, optimal number of cycles needed alone or in combination with AC remains unknown. We sought to determine the optimal number and sequence of perioperative chemotherapy cycles in PC. Single institutional review of all resected PCs from 2008 to 2015. The impact of cumulative number of chemotherapy cycles received (0, 1-5, and ≥6 cycles) and their sequence (NAC, AC, or NAC + AC) on overall survival was evaluated Cox-proportional hazard modeling, using 6 cycles of AC as reference. A total of 522 patients were analyzed. Based on sample size distribution, four combinations were evaluated: 0 cycles = 12.1%, 1-5 cycles of combined NAC + AC = 29%, 6 cycles of AC = 25%, and ≥6 cycles of combined NAC + AC = 34%, with corresponding survival. 13.1, 18.5, 37, and 36.8 months. On MVA (P cycles AC, receipt of 0 cycles [HR 3.57, confidence interval (CI) 2.47-5.18] or 1-5 cycles in any combination (HR 2.37, CI 1.73-3.23) was associated with increased hazard of death, whereas receipt of ≥6 cycles in any sequence was associated with optimal and comparable survival (HR 1.07, CI 0.78-1.47). Receipt of 6 or more perioperative cycles of chemotherapy either as combined neoadjuvant and adjuvant or adjuvant alone may be associated with optimal and comparable survival in resected PC.

  7. GENOMIC PREDICTOR OF RESPONSE AND SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TAXANE-ANTHRACYCLINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR INVASIVE BREAST CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzis, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; Valero, Vicente; Booser, Daniel J.; Esserman, Laura; Lluch, Ana; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Holmes, Frankie; Souchon, Eduardo; Martin, Miguel; Cotrina, José; Gomez, Henry; Hubbard, Rebekah; Chacón, J. Ignacio; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Dyer, Richard; Buxton, Meredith; Gong, Yun; Wu, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Ueno, Naoto T.; Hunt, Kelly; Yang, Wei; Nazario, Arlene; DeMichele, Angela; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Symmans, W. Fraser

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Accurate prediction of who will (or won’t) have high probability of survival benefit from standard treatments is fundamental for individualized cancer treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE To develop a predictor of response and survival from chemotherapy for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. DESIGN Development of different predictive signatures for resistance and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (stratified according to estrogen receptor (ER) status) from gene expression microarrays of newly diagnosed breast cancer (310 patients). Then prediction of breast cancer treatment-sensitivity using the combination of signatures for: 1) sensitivity to endocrine therapy, 2) chemo-resistance, and 3) chemo-sensitivity. Independent validation (198 patients) and comparison with other reported genomic predictors of chemotherapy response. SETTING Prospective multicenter study to develop and test genomic predictors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS Newly diagnosed HER2-negative breast cancer treated with chemotherapy containing sequential taxane and anthracycline-based regimens then endocrine therapy (if hormone receptor-positive). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) if predicted treatment-sensitive and absolute risk reduction (ARR, difference in DRFS of the two predicted groups) at median follow-up (3 years), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS Patients in the independent validation cohort (99% clinical Stage II–III) who were predicted to be treatment-sensitive (28% of total) had DRFS of 92% (CI 85–100) and survival benefit compared to others (absolute risk reduction (ARR) 18%; CI 6–28). Predictions were accurate if breast cancer was ER-positive (30% predicted sensitive, DRFS 97%, CI 91–100; ARR 11%, CI 0.1–21) or ER-negative (26% predicted sensitive, DRFS 83%, CI 68–100; ARR 26%, CI 4–28), and were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant clinical-pathologic characteristics. Other

  8. Effect of Tailored Dose-Dense Chemotherapy vs Standard 3-Weekly Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Recurrence-Free Survival Among Women With High-Risk Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukakis, Theodoros; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Bengtsson, Nils-Olof; Brandberg, Yvonne; Wallberg, Birgitta; Fornander, Tommy; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Schmatloch, Sabine; Singer, Christian F; Steger, Günther; Egle, Daniel; Karlsson, Eva; Carlsson, Lena; Loibl, Sibylle; Untch, Michael; Hellström, Mats; Johansson, Hemming; Anderson, Harald; Malmström, Per; Gnant, Michael; Greil, Richard; Möbus, Volker; Bergh, Jonas

    2016-11-08

    Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy. To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule. A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial of women aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011. Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks. The primary end point was breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects. Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97% with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (≥1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P = .06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7% vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0

  9. Chemotherapy response as a prognosticator for survival in patients with limited squamous cell lung cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagan, R.T.; Fleming, T.R.; Lee, R.E.; Ingle, J.N.; Frytak, S.; Creagan, E.T.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with limited unresectable squamous cell lung cancer were treated with 6 courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin, and bleomycin (CAP-Bleo) and short-course thoracic irradiation started after the first 4 weeks of chemotherapy. Of 20 patients with visible tumor who were treated with 4 weeks of chemotherapy alone, 10 (50%) had a tumor regression in that 4 week period and 10 did not. Those patients with tumor regression had significantly better progression free and overall survivals than did patients with no chemotherapy regressions (medians of 258 days vs. 136 days and 356 days vs. 150 days respectively). The original bleomycin dose had to be reduced by 50% primarily because of excessive radiation esophagitis that has not been reported with use of either the CAP regimen or bleomycin along in conjunction with thoracic irradiation. An initial chemotherapy regression seems to be a good prognosticator for progression-free and overall survival in patients with limited squamous cell lung cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy

  10. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scher, H.I.; Fizazi, K.; Saad, F.; Taplin, M.E.; Sternberg, C.N.; Miller, K.; de Wit, R.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chi, K.N.; Shore, N.D.; Armstrong, A.J.; Flaig, T.W.; Flechon, A.; Mainwaring, P.; Fleming, M.; Hainsworth, J.D.; Hirmand, M.; Selby, B.; Seely, L.; Bono, J. De; Investigators, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. METHODS:

  11. Long-Term Survival According to Histology and Radiologic Response to Preoperative Chemotherapy in 126 Patients Undergoing Resection of Non-GIST Sarcoma Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumard, Claire; Marcal, Leonardo P; Wang, Wei-Lien; Somaiah, Neeta; Okuno, Masayuki; Roland, Christina L; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Chun, Yun Shin; Feig, Barry W; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Conrad, Claudius

    2018-01-01

    Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas (NGSs) have heterogeneous histology, and this heterogeneity may lead to uncertainty regarding the prognosis of patients with liver metastases from NGS (NGSLM) and decision regarding their surgical management. Furthermore, the role of preoperative chemotherapy in treatment of NGSLM remains poorly defined. We investigated long-term survival and its correlation to response to preoperative chemotherapy in patients with NGSLM. Patients who underwent liver resection for NGSLM during 1998-2015 were identified. Clinical, histopathologic, and survival data were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. 126 patients [62 (49%) with leiomyosarcoma] were included. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 49.3 and 14.9%, respectively. Survival did not differ by histologic subtype, primary tumor location, or use of preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy. NGSLM ≥ 10 cm and extrahepatic metastases at NGSLM diagnosis were the only independent risk factors for OS. In the 83 (66%) patients with metachronous NSGLM, disease-free interval > 6 months was associated with improved OS and RFS. Among the 65 patients (52%) who received preoperative chemotherapy, radiologic response according to Choi criteria specifically was associated with improved OS (p = 0.04), but radiologic response according to RECIST 1.1 criteria was not. Resection of NGSLM led to a 5-year OS rate of 49%, independent of histologic subtype and primary tumor location. Choi criteria (which take into account tumor density) are superior to RECIST 1.1 in assessing radiologic response and should be used to assess response to preoperative chemotherapy.

  12. Survival benefit of adding chemotherapy to intensity modulated radiation in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the contribution of chemotherapy for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and to identify the optimal combination treatment strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, 276 patients with stage II-IVb NPC were treated by IMRT alone or IMRT plus chemotherapy. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy included neoadjuvant or concurrent, or neoadjuvant plus concurrent protocols. The IMRT alone and chemoradiotherapy groups were well-matched for prognostic factors, except N stage, with more advanced NPC in the chemoradiotherapy arm. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 33.8 months, the 3-year actuarial rates of overall survival (OS, metastasis-free survival (MFS, relapse-free survival (RFS, and disease-free survival (DFS were 90.3%, 84.2%, 80.3%, and 69.2% for all of the patients, respectively. Compared with the IMRT alone arm, patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy had a significantly better DFS (HR = 2.64; 95% CI, 1.12-6.22; P = 0.03, patients with neoadjuvant-concurrent chemoradiotherapy had a significant improvement in RFS and DFS (HR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.35-12.05; P = 0.01 and HR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.09-5.44; P = 0.03, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy provided no significant benefit in OS, MFS, RFS, and DFS. Stage group and alcohol consumption were prognostic factors for OS and N stage was a significant predictor for DFS. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of concurrent or neoadjuvant-concurrent chemotherapy to IMRT is available to prolong RFS or DFS for locoregionally advanced NPC. Such work could be helpful to guide effective individualized therapy.

  13. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival

  14. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Zhou, Li-Qiang [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  15. Combined CT-guided radiofrequency ablation with systemic chemotherapy improves the survival for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with oligometastasis in liver: Propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Bai, Yutong; Wu, Ming; Shen, Lujun; Shi, Feng; Sun, Xuqi; Lin, Caijin; Chang, Boyang; Pan, Changchuan; Li, Zhiwen; Wu, Peihong

    2017-08-08

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the treatment efficacy of systemic chemotherapy combined with sequential CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (Chemo-RFA) to chemotherapy alone (Chemo-only) in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with liver metastasis. Between 2003 and 2011, 328 NPC patients diagnosed with liver metastasis at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were enrolled. One-to-one matched pairs between Chemo-RFA group with the Chemo-only group were generated using propensity score matching. The associations of treatment modality with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were determined by Cox regression. Of the patients enrolled, 37 patients (11.8 %) received combined treatment, 291 (82.2) received chemotherapy alone. The patients in Chemo-RFA group were more frequently classified as lower number (≤3) of liver metastatic lesions (Poligometastasis in liver, and should be considered if the ablation is technically feasible.

  16. Timing of chemotherapy and survival in patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Amanda K; Nelson, Rebecca; Patel, Supriya S; Luu, Carrie; Ko, Michelle; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kim, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the timing of chemotherapy in gastric cancer by comparing survival outcomes in treatment groups. METHODS: Patients with surgically resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2006 were identified from the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. To evaluate the population most likely to receive and/or benefit from adjunct chemotherapy, inclusion criteria consisted of Stage II or III gastric cancer patients > 18 years of age who underwent curative-intent surgical resection. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the receipt of chemotherapy: (1) no chemotherapy; (2) preoperative chemotherapy; or (3) postoperative chemotherapy. Clinical and pathologic characteristics were compared across the different treatment arms. RESULTS: Of 1518 patients with surgically resected gastric cancer, 327 (21.5%) received perioperative chemotherapy. The majority of these 327 patients were male (68%) with a mean age of 61.5 years; and they were significantly younger than non-chemotherapy patients (mean age, 70.7; P advanced gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: This study supports the implementation of a randomized trial comparing the timing of perioperative therapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. PMID:24392183

  17. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paximadis, Peter, E-mail: ppaximad@med.wayne.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Yoo, George; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Jacobs, John [Department of Otolaryngology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Sukari, Ammar [Department of Medical Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Dyson, Greg [Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Christensen, Michael; Kim, Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  18. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy and overall survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Olga; Pesce, Catherine; Singh, Puneet; Miller, Megan; Tseng, Jennifer; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Winchester, David J; Yao, Katharine

    2017-05-01

    The role of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and mastectomy is unclear, especially in patients that have post-treatment tumor negative axillary nodes (ypN0). The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify women that had PMRT after NAC and mastectomy for clinically node positive (cN1-2) disease from 2004 to 2008. Median follow-up time was 69 months. 8,321 patients were included for analysis, and 6140 (65.6%) had cN1 disease and 2181 (23.3%) had cN2 disease. On adjusted survival analysis, PMRT was associated with an overall survival (OS) benefit in both patients with cN1 (5-yr OS 75.8% vs. 71.9%, P  0.11) for PMRT compared to those patients who were not ypN0, except for patients with hormone-receptor negative tumors, who had improved OS with PMRT (HR 0.65, P < 0.01). PMRT is associated with improved OS in patients with cN1 and cN2 disease after NAC and mastectomy. However, in the subgroup of patients that were ypN0 after NAC, PMRT improved OS for hormone-receptor negative patients but not hormone-receptor positive patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Percentage tumor necrosis following chemotherapy in neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN status but not survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomken, Simon; Davies, Beverley; Chong, Leeai; Cole, Michael; Wood, Katrina M; McDermott, Michael; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2011-03-01

    The percentage of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in primary tumors corresponds with outcome in several childhood malignancies, including high-risk metastatic diseases. In this retrospective pilot study, the authors assessed the importance of postchemotherapy necrosis in high-risk neuroblastoma with a histological and case notes review of surgically resected specimens. The authors reviewed all available histology of 31 high-risk neuroblastoma cases treated with COJEC (dose intensive etoposide and vincristine with either cyclophosphamide, cisplatin or carboplatin) or OPEC/OJEC (etoposide, vincristine and cyclophosphamide with alternating cisplatin [OPEC] or carboplatin [OJEC]) induction chemotherapy in 2 Children's Cancer & Leukaemia Group (CCLG) pediatric oncology centers. The percentage of postchemotherapy necrosis was assessed and compared with MYCN amplification status and overall survival. The median percentage of postchemotherapy tumor necrosis was 60%. MYCN status was available for 28 cases, of which 12 were amplified (43%). Survival in cases with ≥ 60% necrosis or ≥ 90% necrosis was not better than those with less necrosis, nor was percentage necrosis associated with survival using Cox regression. However, MYCN-amplified tumors showed a higher percentage of necrosis than non-MYCN-amplified tumors, 71.3% versus 37.2% (P = .006). This effect was not related to prechemotherapy necrosis and did not confer improved overall survival. Postchemotherapy tumor necrosis is higher in patients with MYCN amplification. In this study, postchemotherapy necrosis did not correlate with overall survival and should not lead to modification of postoperative treatment. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study of children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  20. Effect of a Shortened Duration of FOLFOX Chemotherapy on the Survival Rate of Patients with Stage II and III Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Woong Bae; Hong, Kwang Dae; Kim, Jung-Sik; Joung, Sung-Yup; Um, Jun Won; Min, Byung-Wook

    2018-01-01

    FOLFOX chemotherapy is widely used as an adjuvant treatment for advanced colon cancer. The duration of adjuvant chemotherapy is usually set to 6 months, which is based on a former study of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin chemotherapy. However, the FOLFOX regimen is known to have complications, such as peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to compare the survival rates and complications experienced by patients receiving either 4 or 6 months of FOLFOX chemotherapy. Retrospective data analysis was performed for stage II and III patients who underwent radical resection of colon cancer. We compared the 5-year survival rates and the occurrence of complications in patients who completed only 8 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy with patients who completed 12 cycles of chemotherapy. Among 188 patients who underwent adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy for stage II or III colon cancer, 83 (44.1%) completed 6 months of FOLFOX chemotherapy and 64 (34.0%) patients discontinued after 4 months of chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates did not show a significant difference. Patients in the 6-month group had peripheral neuropathy more frequently (p = 0.028). Five-year overall and disease-free survival were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Large-scale prospective studies are necessary for the analysis of complications and survival rates. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The Influence of Cyst Emptying, Lymph Node Resection and Chemotherapy on Survival in Stage IA and IC1 Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Mosgaard, Berit Jul; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if survival in stage I ovarian cancer is influenced by cyst emptying, lymph node resection and chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A survival analysis of 607 patients with ovarian cancer in stage IA, IA with cyst emptying (IAempty) and IC1 was performed. RESULTS......: There was no difference in five-year survival between IA (87%) and IC1 (87%) (p=0.899), between IA and IAempty (86%) (p=0.500) nor between IA+IAempty (87%) and IC1 without IAempty (84%) (p=0.527). Five-year survival rate (5YSR) was significantly higher after lymph node resection in stage IA (94% vs. 85%; p=0.01) and IA......+IC1 (93% vs. 85%; p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, lymph node resection improved prognosis significantly for all sub-stages, whereas stage and chemotherapy did not affect survival. CONCLUSION: In stage IA ovarian cancer, controlled cyst emptying without spill does not worsen prognosis. Lymph node...

  2. Opioid growth factor improves clinical benefit and survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jill P Smith1, Sandra I Bingaman1, David T Mauger2, Harold H Harvey1, Laurence M Demers3, Ian S Zagon41Departments of Medicine, 2Public Health Sciences, 3Pathology, and 4Neurosciences and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USABackground: Advanced pancreatic cancer carries the poorest prognosis of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Once the tumor has spread beyond the margins of the pancreas, chemotherapy is the major treatment modality offered to patients; however, chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival.Objective: Opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin is a natural peptide that has been shown to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer in cell culture and in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of OGF biotherapy on subjects with advanced pancreatic cancer who failed chemotherapy.Methods: In a prospective phase II open-labeled clinical trial, 24 subjects who failed standard chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer were treated weekly with OGF 250 μg/kg intravenously. Outcomes measured included clinical benefit, tumor response by radiographic imaging, quality of life, and survival.Results: Clinical benefit response was experienced by 53% of OGF-treated patients compared to historical controls of 23.8% and 4.8% for gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, respectively. Of the subjects surviving more than eight weeks, 62% showed either a decrease or stabilization in tumor size by computed tomography. The median survival time for OGF-treated patients was three times that of untreated patients (65.5 versus 21 days, p < 0.001. No adverse effects on hematologic or chemistry parameters were noted, and quality of life surveys suggested improvement with OGF. Limitations: Measurements other than survival were not allowed in control patients, and clinical benefit comparisons were made to historical controls.Conclusion: OGF biotherapy improves the

  3. p53/Surviving Ratio as a Parameter for Chemotherapy Induction Response in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Lenggana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a malignancy that is often found in children. Many studies into the failure of apoptosis function, or programmed cell death, is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms of cellular hemostasis which is closely linked to the development of cancer, are important. Also, regulation of the apoptotic (p53 and anti-apoptotic (surviving proteins influence treatment outcome. One role of p53 is to monitor cellular stress necessary to induce apoptosis. Surviving (BIRC5 is a group of proteins in the apoptosis inhibitor which works by inhibiting caspase-3. The role of surviving is considered very important in oncogenesis proliferation and cell growth regulation. Chemotherapy in childhood AML can inhibit cell growth and induce slowing as well as stopping the cell cycle. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare p53 and surviving before and after receiving induction chemotherapy in children with AML and also to determine the p53/surviving ratio. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from AML children before treatment and three months after starting their induction therapy. p53 and surviving were measured by flowcytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Data were analyzed by t-test for comparison between groups and Spearman’s test to find out the correlation between variables with a significant value of p < 0.05. A total of 8 children were evaluated. The intensity of p53 expression was not significantly increased after induction phase chemotherapy (p = 0.224, but surviving expression and the ratio of p53/surviving were significantly increased in the treatment group compared with the levels prior to chemotherapy (p = 0.002, p = 0.034, and there was a strong negative correlation between p53 and surviving after chemotherapy (r = −0.63, p = 0.049.

  4. A priori Prediction of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients using Quantitative Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Gangeh, Mehrdad J; Kim, Christina; Ghandi, Sonal; Trudeau, Maureen; Pritchard, Kathleen; Tran, William T; Slodkowska, Elzbieta; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2017-04-12

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can probe tissue structure and analyze tumour characteristics. Using a 6-MHz ultrasound system, radiofrequency data were acquired from 56 locally advanced breast cancer patients prior to their neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and QUS texture features were computed from regions of interest in tumour cores and their margins as potential predictive and prognostic indicators. Breast tumour molecular features were also collected and used for analysis. A multiparametric QUS model was constructed, which demonstrated a response prediction accuracy of 88% and ability to predict patient 5-year survival rates (p = 0.01). QUS features demonstrated superior performance in comparison to molecular markers and the combination of QUS and molecular markers did not improve response prediction. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that non-invasive QUS features in the core and margin of breast tumours can indicate breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and predict five-year recurrence-free survival.

  5. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and its relation to survival among patients with stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, A C R K; van Erning, F N; van Gestel, Y R B M; Creemers, G J M; Punt, C J A; van Oijen, M G H; Lemmens, V E P P

    2015-11-01

    Currently available data suggest that delaying the start of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients has a detrimental effect on survival. We analysed which factors impact on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and evaluated the influence on overall survival (OS). Stage III colon cancer patients who underwent resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2008 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy was subdivided into: ⩽ 4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13-16 weeks post-surgery. Multivariable regressions were performed to assess the influence of several factors on the probability of starting treatment within 8 weeks post-surgery and to evaluate the association of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-year OS. 6620 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, 14% commenced after 8 weeks. Factors associated with starting treatment after 8 weeks were older age (Odds ratio (OR) 65-74 versus colon cancer patients within 8 weeks post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor RNA disruption predicts survival benefit from breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parissenti, Amadeo M; Guo, Baoqing; Pritzker, Laura B; Pritzker, Kenneth P H; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Mu; Shepherd, Lois E; Trudeau, Maureen E

    2015-08-01

    In a prior substudy of the CAN-NCIC-MA.22 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00066443), we observed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduced tumor RNA integrity in breast cancer patients, a phenomenon we term "RNA disruption." The purpose of the current study was to assess in the full patient cohort the relationship between mid-treatment tumor RNA disruption and both pCR post-treatment and, subsequently, disease-free survival (DFS) up to 108 months post-treatment. To meet these objectives, we developed the RNA disruption assay (RDA) to quantify RNA disruption and stratify it into 3 response zones of clinical importance. Zone 1 is a level of RNA disruption inadequate for pathologic complete response (pCR); Zone 2 is an intermediate level, while Zone 3 has high RNA disruption. The same RNA disruption cut points developed for pCR response were then utilized for DFS. Tumor RDA identified >fourfold more chemotherapy non-responders than did clinical response by calipers. pCR responders were clustered in RDA Zone 3, irrespective of tumor subtype. DFS was about 2-fold greater for patients with tumors in Zone 3 compared to Zone 1 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves corroborated these findings that high tumor RNA disruption was associated with increased DFS. DFS values for patients in zone 3 that did not achieve a pCR were similar to that of pCR recipients across tumor subtypes, including patients with hormone receptor positive tumors that seldom achieve a pCR. RDA appears superior to pCR as a chemotherapy response biomarker, supporting the prospect of its use in response-guided chemotherapy.

  7. Deformable image registration as a tool to improve survival prediction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: results from the ACRIN 6657/I-SPY-1 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Weinstein, Susan P.; Pantalone, Lauren; Davatzikos, Christos; Kontos, Despina

    2018-02-01

    We examined the ability of DCE-MRI longitudinal features to give early prediction of recurrence-free survival (RFS) in women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, in a retrospective analysis of 106 women from the ISPY 1 cohort. These features were based on the voxel-wise changes seen in registered images taken before treatment and after the first round of chemotherapy. We computed the transformation field using a robust deformable image registration technique to match breast images from these two visits. Using the deformation field, parametric response maps (PRM) — a voxel-based feature analysis of longitudinal changes in images between visits — was computed for maps of four kinetic features (signal enhancement ratio, peak enhancement, and wash-in/wash-out slopes). A two-level discrete wavelet transform was applied to these PRMs to extract heterogeneity information about tumor change between visits. To estimate survival, a Cox proportional hazard model was applied with the C statistic as the measure of success in predicting RFS. The best PRM feature (as determined by C statistic in univariable analysis) was determined for each of the four kinetic features. The baseline model, incorporating functional tumor volume, age, race, and hormone response status, had a C statistic of 0.70 in predicting RFS. The model augmented with the four PRM features had a C statistic of 0.76. Thus, our results suggest that adding information on the texture of voxel-level changes in tumor kinetic response between registered images of first and second visits could improve early RFS prediction in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  8. Hope, optimism and survival in a randomised trial of chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Penelope E; Stockler, M R; Zannino, D; Tebbutt, N C; Price, T J; Simes, R J; Wong, N; Pavlakis, N; Ransom, D; Moylan, E; Underhill, C; Wyld, D; Burns, I; Ward, R; Wilcken, N; Jefford, M

    2016-01-01

    Psychological responses to cancer are widely believed to affect survival. We investigated associations between hope, optimism, anxiety, depression, health utility and survival in patients starting first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Four hundred twenty-nine subjects with metastatic colorectal cancer in a randomised controlled trial of chemotherapy completed baseline questionnaires assessing the following: hopefulness, optimism, anxiety and depression and health utility. Hazard ratios (HRs) and P values were calculated with Cox models for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in univariable and multivariable analyses. Median follow-up was 31 months. Univariable analyses showed that OS was associated negatively with depression (HR 2.04, P optimism, anxiety or hopefulness. PFS was not associated with hope, optimism, anxiety or depression in any analyses. Depression and health utility, but not optimism, hope or anxiety, were associated with survival after controlling for known prognostic factors in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is required to understand the nature of the relationship between depression and survival. If a causal mechanism is identified, this may lead to interventional possibilities.

  9. Emmprin Expression Predicts Response and Survival following Cisplatin Containing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, Tammer; Malmström, Per-Uno; Jahnson, Staffan; Segersten, Ulrika

    2015-12-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy is recommended. To our knowledge the subset of patients likely to benefit has not been identified. We validate emmprin and survivin as markers of chemotherapy response. Tumor specimens were obtained before therapy from a total of 250 patients with T1-T4 bladder cancer enrolled in 2 randomized trials comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy with a surgery only arm. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Expression was categorized according to predefined cutoffs reported in the literature. Data were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox models. Patients in the chemotherapy cohort with negative emmprin expression had significantly higher down staging overall survival than those with positive expression (71% vs 38%, pemmprin expression was not associated with overall survival (46% vs 35%, p=0.23) or cancer specific survival (55% vs 51%, p=0.64). Emmprin negative patients had an absolute risk reduction of 25% in overall survival (95% CI 11-40) and a number needed to treat of 4 (95% CI 2.5-9.3). Survivin expression was not useful as a biomarker in this study. Limitations were the retrospective design and heterogeneity coupled with the time difference between the trials. Patients with emmprin negative tumors have a better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy than those with positive expression. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoking may modify the association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival from ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Warren, Graham W; Koziak, Jennifer M; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased mortality. Less is known of the impact of smoking on recurrence risk and interaction with chemotherapy treatment. We examined these associations in ovarian cancer. Patients were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2010 and were oversampled for less-common histologic ovarian tumor types. Medical records were abstracted for 678 eligible patients on lifestyle, medical and cancer treatment, and review of pathology slides was performed for 605 patients. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age at diagnosis, race, stage and residual disease. Among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (N=432), current smoking was significantly associated with shorter duration of overall (OS; HR, 8.56; 95% CI, 1.50-48.7) and progression-free (PFS; HR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.05-31.4) survival from mucinous ovarian cancer only. There was no significant association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. However, among patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=44), current smokers had shorter PFS (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.36-13.8; N=32 progressed/9 censored events) compared to never smokers, but the HRs were not statistically different across smoking categories (P interaction=0.87). Adverse associations were observed between smoking status and OS or PFS among patients with mucinous ovarian cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant effect was found from neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PFS overall; however, smoking may modify this association. Although needing replication, these findings suggest that patients may benefit from smoking cessation interventions prior to treatment with chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uptake and Tolerance of Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer and Impact on Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.; Winget, M.; Gao, H.; Al Fayea, T. M.; Winget, M.; Butts, C.; Fisher, S.; Winget, M.; Butts, C.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of elderly cancer patients is complicated by many factors. We sought to assess the uptake and tolerance of chemotherapy among patients 75 years and older diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in years 2004-2008 in Alberta, Canada, and assess their survival. All patients who met the above criteria and had an oncologist-consult were included. Data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry and chart review. A total of 171 patients were included in the study, 117 (68%) of whom began chemotherapy. Of those, 52% completed all cycles, 66% did not have any dose reductions, and 31% completed all cycles at the recommended dose. The risk of death for patients who did not complete all cycles of chemotherapy was 2.72 (95% CI: 1.52-4.87) and for those who completed all cycles but with a reduced dose was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.57-1.82) relative to those who completed chemotherapy at full dose after adjusting for several demographic/clinical factors. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of elderly patients are able to tolerate chemotherapy and receive a survival benefit from it while those who experience toxicity may receive a survival benefit from a reduction in chemotherapy dose as opposed to stopping treatment.

  12. Radio-chemotherapy in advanced tumors of the oral cavity, oro- and hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, G.; Schnabel, T.

    1992-01-01

    Among combined radio-chemotherapy regimens of advanced head and neck tumors four modalities can be discriminated: 1. Induction chemotherapy, 2. simultaneous radio-chemotherapy, 3. adjuvant chemotherapy, 4. accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The results of the presently available randomized trials are as follows: 1. Induction chemotherapy has no influence on long-term recurrence-free survival. 2. With respect to simultaneous radio-chemotherapy, recurrence-free survival has been unproved with 5-FU and Mitomycin C. 3. There is evidence that adjuvant cis-platin therapy improves recurrence-free survival. 4. No results are available to date using hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy regimens in combination with chemotherapy. (orig.) [de

  13. Addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin to induction chemotherapy improves survival in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, Alan K; Russell, Nigel H; Hills, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE There has been little survival improvement in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the last two decades. Improving induction treatment may improve the rate and quality of remission and consequently survival. In our previous trial, in younger patients, we showed improved...

  14. The effectiveness of RECIST on survival in patients with NSCLC receiving chemotherapy with or without target agents as first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Zheng, Lie; Hu, Zhihuang; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Ge, Jieying; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-08

    We analyzed the correlation between survival and antitumor effect evaluated by RECIST in advanced NSCLC patients with chemotherapy plus target therapy or not as first-line treatment, to examine the applicability of RECIST in this population. The patients were screened from 4 clinical trials (12621, 12006, FASTACT-I, and FASTACT-II), and those who received chemotherapy plus target therapy or chemotherapy alone were eligible. Among the 59 enrolled patients, 29 received combination therapy, while the other 30 received chemotherapy only. In the combination therapy group, patients with PR or SD had longer overall survival (OS) than those with PD (P chemotherapy alone group, compared with PD patients, either PR or SD group had no significant overall survival benefit (P = 0.690 and P = 0.528, respectively). In summary, for advanced NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy plus target therapy as first-line treatment and evaluated by RECIST criteria, SD has the same overall survival benefit as PR, suggesting that antitumor effective evaluation by RECIST criteria cannot be translated to overall survival benefit especially for this kind of patients. Therefore, developing a more comprehensive evaluation method to perfect RECIST criteria is thus warranted for patients received target therapy in NSCLC.

  15. CA19-9 or CEA Decline after the First Cycle of Treatment Predicts Survival in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer Patients Treated with S-1 and Cisplatin Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Won; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Yu Jung; Yang, Yaewon; Rhee, Jiyoung; Na, Im Il; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong; Han, Sae-Won; Choi, In Sil; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-07-01

    While tumor markers (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 [CA 19-9] and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) can aid in the diagnosis of biliary tract cancer, their prognostic role has not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic role of tumor markers and tumor marker change in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer. Patients with pathologically proven metastatic or relapsed biliary tract cancer who were treated in a phase II trial of first-line S-1 and cisplatin chemotherapy were enrolled. Serum tumor markers were measured at baseline and after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Among a total of 104 patients, 80 (77%) had elevated baseline tumor markers (69 with CA 19-9 elevation and 40 with CEA). A decline ≥ 30% of the elevated tumor marker level after the first cycle of chemotherapy conferred an improved time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and better chemotherapy response. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor marker decline as an independent positive prognostic factor of TTP (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; p=0.003) and OS (adjusted HR, 0.37; p CEA elevation. In addition, elevated baseline CEA was associated with poor survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Tumor marker decline was associated with improved survival in biliary tract cancer. Measuring tumor marker after the first cycle of chemotherapy can be used as an early assessment of treatment outcome.

  16. Liver resection for colorectal metastases after chemotherapy: impact of chemotherapy-related liver injuries, pathological tumor response, and micrometastases on long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Luca; Capussotti, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Giovanni; De Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Mentha, Gilles; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the impact of chemotherapy-related liver injuries (CALI), pathological tumor regression grade (TRG), and micrometastases on long-term prognosis in patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal metastases after preoperative chemotherapy. CALI worsen the short-term outcomes of liver resection, but their impact on long-term prognosis is unknown. Recently, a prognostic role of TRG has been suggested. Micrometastases (microscopic vascular or biliary invasion) are reduced by preoperative chemotherapy, but their impact on survival is unclear. Patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal metastases between 1998 and 2011 and treated with oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan-based preoperative chemotherapy were eligible for the study. Patients with operative mortality or incomplete resection (R2) were excluded. All specimens were reviewed to assess CALI, TRG, and micrometastases. A total of 323 patients were included. Grade 2-3 sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was present in 124 patients (38.4%), grade 2-3 steatosis in 73 (22.6%), and steatohepatitis in 30 (9.3%). Among all patients, 22.9% had TRG 1-2 (major response), whereas 55.7% had TRG 4-5 (no response). Microvascular invasion was detected in 37.8% of patients and microscopic biliary infiltration in 5.6%.The higher the SOS grade the lower the pathological response: TRG 1-2 occurred in 16.9% of patients with grade 2-3 SOS versus 26.6% of patients with grade 0-1 SOS (P = 0.032).After a median follow-up of 36.9 months, 5-year survival was 38.6%. CALI did not negatively impact survival. Multivariate analysis showed that grade 2-3 steatosis was associated with better survival than grade 0-1 steatosis (5-year survival rate of 52.5% vs 35.2%, P = 0.002). TRG better than the percentage of viable cells stratified patient prognosis: 5-year survival rate of 60.4% in TRG 1-2, 40.2% in TRG 3, and 29.8% in TRG 4-5 (P = 0.0001). Microscopic vascular and biliary invasion negatively impacted outcome (5-year survival

  17. Long-term survival benefit of upfront chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikram; Sun, Yifei; Faisal, Farzana; Kim, Victoria; Soares, Kevin; Blair, Alex; Herman, Joseph M; Narang, Amol; Dholakia, Avani S; Rosati, Lauren; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Chen, Linda; Laheru, Daniel A; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana; Le, Dung T; Donehower, Ross; Azad, Nilofar; Diaz, Luis A; Murphy, Adrian; Lee, Valerie; Fishman, Elliot K; Hruban, Ralph H; Liang, Tingbo; Cameron, John L; Makary, Martin; Weiss, Matthew J; Ahuja, Nita; He, Jin; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Zheng, Lei

    2017-07-01

    The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation for borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BL-PDAC) is increasing. However, the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy on the outcome of BL-PDAC remains to be elucidated. We performed a retrospective analysis of 93 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with BL-PDAC and primarily followed at Johns Hopkins Hospital between February 2007 and December 2012. Among 93 patients, 62% received upfront neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation, whereas 20% received neoadjuvant chemoradiation alone and 15% neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. Resectability following all neoadjuvant therapy was 44%. Patients who underwent resection with a curative intent had a median overall survival (mOS) of 25.8 months, whereas those who did not undergo surgery had a mOS of 11.9 months. However, resectability and overall survival were not significantly different between the three types of neoadjuvant therapy. Nevertheless, 22% (95% CI, 0.13-0.36) of the 58 patients who received upfront chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation remained alive for a minimum of 48 months compared to none of the 19 patients who received upfront chemoradiation. Among patients who underwent curative surgical resection, 32% (95% CI, 0.19-0.55) of those who received upfront chemotherapy remained disease free at least 48 months following surgical resection, whereas none of the eight patients who received upfront chemoradiation remained disease free beyond 24 months following surgical resection. Neoadjuvant therapy with upfront chemotherapy may result in long-term survival in a subpopulation of patients with BL-PDAC. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Medulloblastoma: improved survival in recent decades. Unicentric experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual Estellés, Lucía; Berlanga Charriel, Pablo; Cañete Nieto, Adela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse variations in the treatment of medulloblastoma, the most common childhood brain tumour, and its impact on survival over the past two decades, as well as its clinical and pathological features. Survival analysis of all patients under 14 years old diagnosed with medulloblastoma between January 1990 and December 2013 in a Paediatric Oncology Unit. Sixty-three patients were diagnosed and treated for medulloblastoma, with a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 0.65-21.7 years). The overall survival (OS) at 3 and 5 years was 66±13% and 55±14%, respectively. The OS at 5 years was 44%±25% in patients diagnosed in the 1990's, showing an increase to 70%±23% (p=0.032) since 2000. Clinical prognosis factors were included in the logistic regression model: age (p=0.008), presence of metastases and/or residual tumour (p=0.007), and receiving chemotherapy with radiotherapy after surgery (p=0.008). Statistically significant differences were observed for all of them. In our institution there has been a significant increase in medulloblastoma survival in the last decades. Multivariate analysis showed that this improvement was not related to the date of diagnosis, but with the introduction of chemotherapy in adjuvant treatment. This study confirmed that clinical factors significantly associated with worse outcome were age and presence of metastases at diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of sequential versus concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy on survival and toxicity in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence; Grossman, Stuart A.; Piantadosi, Steven; Zeltzman, Michel; Wharam, Moody

    1999-01-01

    circulating stem cells. Conclusion: Concurrent radiotherapy with this regimen of cisplatin and BCNU chemotherapy did not improve survival, but did increase hematologic toxicity. Therefore, we do not recommend further testing of the concurrent regimen, whereas the sequential regimen is currently under evaluation in a Phase III trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and the Southwest Oncology Group. In addition, these studies demonstrate that relatively small radiotherapy fields can deliver a dose to circulating stem cells sufficient to worsen the hematologic toxicity of concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, a phenomena which should be considered in the design of combined modality protocols for other body sites

  20. Bevacizumab with or after chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamias, A; Gibbs, E; Khoon Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the open-label randomized phase III AURELIA trial, adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) significantly improved progression-free survival and response rate versus chemotherapy alone, but not overall survival (OS). We explored the effect of ...

  1. Consolidation chemotherapy improves progression-free survival in stage III small-cell lung cancer following concurrent chemoradiotherapy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen XR

    2016-09-01

    for PFS. Multivariate analysis for OS also showed that having undergone PCI (P<0.001 and having received CCT (P=0.006 were independent significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: CCT can improve PFS for patients with stage IIIA and IIIB SCLC following CCRT without significantly increasing treatment-related toxicities. Keywords: stage III, small-cell lung cancer, consolidation chemotherapy, survival analysis, prognosis, toxicities 

  2. Metronomic Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Treatment Outcome in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients With Postradiation Persistently Detectable Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twu, Chih-Wen [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wen-Yi [Section of Basic Medicine, Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Chih [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital–Chiayi Branch, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Martin De Porres Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Po-Ju; Liu, Yi-Chun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jin-Ching, E-mail: jclin@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 625 NPC patients with available pEBV DNA levels before and after treatment. Eighty-five patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after 1 week of completing radiation therapy were eligible for this retrospective study. Of the 85 patients, 33 were administered adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oral tegafur-uracil (2 capsules twice daily) for 12 months with (n=4) or without (n=29) preceding intravenous chemotherapy of mitomycin-C, epirubicin, and cisplatin. The remaining 52 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy served as the control group. Results: Baseline patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, pathologic type, performance status, T classification, N classification, and overall stage), as well as previous treatment modality, were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 70 months for surviving patients, 45.5% (15 of 33 patients) with adjuvant chemotherapy and 71.2% (37 of 52 patients) without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced tumor relapses (P=.0323). There were a significant reduction in distant failure (P=.0034) but not in local or regional recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.6% for patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 28.7% for patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.55; P<.0001). Conclusions: Our retrospective data showed that adjuvant chemotherapy can reduce distant failure and improve overall survival in NPC patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy.

  3. Metronomic Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Treatment Outcome in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients With Postradiation Persistently Detectable Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twu, Chih-Wen; Wang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San; Wu, Ching-Te; Shih, Yi-Ting; Lin, Po-Ju; Liu, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 625 NPC patients with available pEBV DNA levels before and after treatment. Eighty-five patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after 1 week of completing radiation therapy were eligible for this retrospective study. Of the 85 patients, 33 were administered adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oral tegafur-uracil (2 capsules twice daily) for 12 months with (n=4) or without (n=29) preceding intravenous chemotherapy of mitomycin-C, epirubicin, and cisplatin. The remaining 52 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy served as the control group. Results: Baseline patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, pathologic type, performance status, T classification, N classification, and overall stage), as well as previous treatment modality, were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 70 months for surviving patients, 45.5% (15 of 33 patients) with adjuvant chemotherapy and 71.2% (37 of 52 patients) without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced tumor relapses (P=.0323). There were a significant reduction in distant failure (P=.0034) but not in local or regional recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.6% for patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 28.7% for patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.55; P<.0001). Conclusions: Our retrospective data showed that adjuvant chemotherapy can reduce distant failure and improve overall survival in NPC patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy

  4. End-of-life chemotherapy is associated with poor survival and aggressive care in patients with small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingming; Tang, Ke; Zhao, Fen; Zang, Yuanwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Zhenxiang; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming

    2018-05-29

    Concerns regarding end-of-life (EOL) chemotherapy are being increasingly raised. Tumor chemosensitivity may influence the decision for aggressive chemotherapy near the EOL. Data on EOL chemotherapy in highly chemosensitive tumors, such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are scarce. A total of 143 SCLC decedents were consecutively included. Data about clinical factors and treatment modalities were obtained from the electronic medical records. The relationships among EOL chemotherapy, clinical features, overall survival (OS), and aggressive care were investigated. About 64% of patients had chemosensitive disease. In total, 30.8 and 16.1% of patients received EOL chemotherapy within the last 1 and 2 months of life, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher rate of EOL chemotherapy. We determined that EOL chemotherapy was related to inferior OS not only in the entire group, but also in the chemosensitive subgroup. Furthermore, more intensive care was observed among patients who underwent EOL chemotherapy compared with those who did not. EOL chemotherapy was correlated with shorter survival and more aggressive care in patients with SCLC. More research is needed to develop indications for terminating palliative chemotherapy, to help physicians and patients with their difficult choices.

  5. Improved local control with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma: Long-term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakfoor, Bruce M.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kaufman, S. Donald; Shellito, Paul C.; Daly, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Since 1979, our institution has treated locally advanced rectal cancer with preoperative irradiation followed by resection with or without intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). In 1986, our preoperative treatment policy was changed to include bolus 5-FU chemotherapy concurrent with irradiation in hopes of improving resectability, downstaging and/or local control rates. We report the long-term results with the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy to preoperative irradiation. Materials and Methods: From 1979 - 1994, 200 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma (primary or recurrent) received preoperative irradiation, resection and IORT if indicated. Bolus 5-FU (500mg/m 2 /day) chemotherapy was administered for three days during weeks one and five of irradiation. The change in treatment policy was limited to the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy: the radiation techniques (four-field), doses (50.4 Gy), and indications for intraoperative radiation (microscopic residual, gross residual, tumor adherence) remained constant. The median follow-up for the entire group of patients was 33 months (.95 months - 199 months), and the minimum follow-up was 1.5 years. Tabular results are 5-year actuarial calculations. Results: One hundred and five patients received preoperative 5-FU chemotherapy and irradiation whereas 95 patients underwent preoperative irradiation alone. Sixty-five percent of the patients were able to undergo complete resections, and 53% had transmural disease upon pathologic examination. The addition of chemotherapy did not affect the rates of resectability or tumor downstaging. However, the 10-year local control rate was significantly improved for those patients who received preoperative chemotherapy: 77% vs. 44% (p<0.01) (see figure). When stratified by extent of resection and stage, those patients who underwent complete resections or had transmural disease had significantly improved local control rates when compared to the non-chemotherapy group: No

  6. Survival benefit from chemotherapy with mitomycin-c vinblastine and cisplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joaquin, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    Between January 1989 and May 1991 a prospective trial was conducted among the patients in the Lung Center of the Philippines who were diagnosed to have unresectable and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There were two groups of patients: those who consented to chemotherapy with the mitomycin, vinblastine and cisplatin regimen (n=31) and those who refused any form of chemotherapy or radiation (n=15). These groups were followed up and compared as to patient characteristics and duration of survival. The results show no identifiable features in the responders and non-responders to chemotherapy which could predict tumor response. The median survival of the untreated group was 15 weeks and that of the treated group was 34 weeks. This was statistically significant. No significant difference in survival between the responders and the non-responders was observed. The objective tumor response rate to the MVP regimen was 25.8%. The most common toxic effects were emesis and hematologic abnormalities. The study recommends the option of chemotherapy with the MVP regimen rather than no treatment at all after considering the risks and benefits for the patient with advanced stage NSCLC. (auth.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Circulating tumor cells predict survival benefit from chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuo-Xuan; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, Han-Ling; Pan, Hong-Ming; Han, Wei-Dong

    2016-10-11

    This meta-analysis was to explore the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in predicting the tumor response to chemotherapy and prognosis of patients with lung cancer. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database, Web of Science and reference lists of relevant articles. Our meta-analysis was performed by Stata software, version 12.0, with a random effects model. Risk ratio (RR), hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as effect measures. 8 studies, including 453 patients, were eligible for analyses. We showed that the disease control rate (DCR) in CTCs-negative patients was significantly higher than CTCs-positive patients at baseline (RR = 2.56, 95%CI [1.36, 4.82], p chemotherapy (RR = 9.08, CI [3.44, 23.98], p chemotherapy had a worse disease progression than those with CTC-positive to negative or persistently negative (RR = 8.52, CI [1.66, 43.83], p chemotherapy also indicated poor overall survival (OS) (baseline: HR = 3.43, CI [2.21, 5.33], pchemotherapy: HR = 3.16, CI [2.23, 4.48], p chemotherapy: HR = 3.78, CI [2.33, 6.13], p chemotherapy and poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

  8. Long term survival with the combination of interferon and chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagoz, B.; Bilgi, O.; Ozgun, A.; Emirzeoglu, L.; Celika, S.; Ozet, A.

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of metastatic melanoma is poor. Pre-targeted treatment era, the combination of interferon-α (IF-α) plus chemotherapy had been used and have generally short response duration. Herein, we present a metastatic melanoma case that achieved long-term durable complete response (CR) IF-α plus chemotherapy and IF-α maintenance therapy and had lower Regulatory T (Treg) cells. A fifty-year old woman was admitted to the hospital with metastatic melanoma. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was 660 U/L. The percentage of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells was 2.4% in CD4+ lymphocytes. The IF-α plus chemotherapy and IF-α maintenance were administered. After six courses of chemotherapy, CR was achieved. Vitiligo and hypothyroidism occurred. The patient has remained in CR for approximately 7 years until second pleural metastases were detected and death. The patient has positive prognostic factors such as induction of auto immunity, small tumor volume, mild elevated LDH level, and lower Treg cell percentage. She survived long term with CR after IF-α treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and maintenance. IF-α plus chemotherapy may be a treatment option for metastatic melanoma in selected cases who cannot reach new targeted drugs

  9. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  10. Influence of complete administration of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles on overall and disease-free survival in locally advanced rectal cancer: post hoc analysis of a randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra-Petrescu, Flavius; Herrle, Florian; Burkholder, Iris; Kienle, Peter; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2018-04-03

    A randomized trial demonstrated that capecitabine is at least as effective as fluorouracil in the adjuvant treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, not all patients receive all planned cycles of chemotherapy. Therefore it is of interest how complete or partial administration of chemotherapy influences oncological outcome. A post hoc analysis of a trial with 401 randomized patients, nine being excluded because of missing data, was performed. 392 patients (197 - capecitabine, 195 - fluorouracil) could be analyzed regarding the number of administered adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. In the subgroup of 361 patients with an overall survival of at least six months, five-year overall and disease-free survival were analyzed in respect to completion (complete vs. incomplete) of chemotherapy cycles. Survival rates and curves were calculated and compared using the log-rank test. The effect of completion of chemotherapy was adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Two hundred fifty-one (64.0%) of analyzed patients received all postoperative scheduled cycles. Five-year overall survival was significantly better in these patients compared to the incomplete group (76.0 vs. 60.6%, p cycles. Five-year overall survival was also significantly better than in the incomplete group (76.0 vs. 66.4%, p = 0.0073). Five-year disease free survival was numerically better (64.9 vs. 58.7%, p = 0.0646; HR [not all cycles vs. all cycles] = 1.42 95% CI: [0.98, 2.07]). Cox regression models show a non-significant better OS (p = 0.061) and DFS (p = 0.083), if chemotherapy cycles were administered completely. Complete administration of chemotherapy cycles was associated with improved five-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  12. Serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 are associated with event-free survival in adult Ewing sarcoma patients treated with chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie de Groot,1 Hans Gelderblom,1 Marta Fiocco,2,3 Judith VMG Bovée,4 Jacobus JM van der Hoeven,1 Hanno Pijl,5 Judith R Kroep1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 3Mathematical Department, Leiden University, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands Background: Activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 pathway is involved in cell growth and proliferation and is associated with tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and therapy resistance in solid tumors. We examined whether variability in serum levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3 can predict event-free survival (EFS and overall survival (OS in Ewing sarcoma patients treated with chemotherapy.Patients and methods: Serum levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF-BP3 of 22 patients with localized or metastasized Ewing sarcoma treated with six cycles of vincristine/ifosfamide/doxorubicin/etoposide (VIDE chemotherapy were recorded. Baseline levels were compared with presixth cycle levels using paired t-tests and were tested for associations with EFS and OS. Continuous variables were dichotomized according to the Contal and O’Quigley procedure. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression analysis.Results: High baseline IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 serum levels were associated with EFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.009–0.602 and HR 0.090, 95% CI 0.011–0.712, respectively in univariate and multivariate analyses (HR 0.063, 95% CI 0.007–0.590 and HR 0.057, 95% CI 0.005–0.585, respectively. OS was improved, but this was not statistically significant. IGF-BP3 and IGF-2 serum levels increased during treatment with VIDE chemotherapy (P=0.055 and P=0.023, respectively.Conclusion: High circulating serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 and the molar ratio of IGF-1:IGF-BP3 serum levels were associated

  13. Late Release of Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells after Chemotherapy Predicts Response and Survival in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine M. Roodhart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We and others have previously demonstrated that the acute release of progenitor cells in response to chemotherapy actually reduces the efficacy of the chemotherapy. Here, we take these data further and investigate the clinical relevance of circulating endothelial (progenitor cells (CE(PCs and modulatory cytokines in patients after chemotherapy with relation to progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS. Patients treated with various chemotherapeutics were included. Blood sampling was performed at baseline, 4 hours, and 7 and 21 days after chemotherapy. The mononuclear cell fraction was analyzed for CE(PC by FACS analysis. Plasma was analyzed for cytokines by ELISA or Luminex technique. CE(PCs were correlated with response and PFS/OS using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. We measured CE(PCs and cytokines in 71 patients. Only patients treated with paclitaxel showed an immediate increase in endothelial progenitor cell 4 hours after start of treatment. These immediate changes did not correlate with response or survival. After 7 and 21 days of chemotherapy, a large and consistent increase in CE(PC was found (P < .01, independent of the type of chemotherapy. Changes in CE(PC levels at day 7 correlated with an increase in tumor volume after three cycles of chemotherapy and predicted PFS/OS, regardless of the tumor type or chemotherapy. These findings indicate that the late release of CE(PC is a common phenomenon after chemotherapeutic treatment. The correlation with a clinical response and survival provides further support for the biologic relevance of these cells in patients' prognosis and stresses their possible use as a therapeutic target.

  14. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves survival outcome in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate survival rates and prognostic factors related to treatment outcomes after bladder preserving therapy including transurethral resection of bladder tumor, radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in bladder cancer with a curative intent. We retrospectively studied 50 bladder cancer patients treated with bladder-preserving therapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from January 1999 to December 2010. Age ranged from 46 to 89 years (median, 71.5 years). Bladder cancer was the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II, III, and IV in 9, 27, and 14 patients, respectively. Thirty patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 20 patients with RT alone. Nine patients received chemotherapy prior to CCRT or RT alone. Radiation was delivered with a four-field box technique (median, 63 Gy; range, 48.6 to 70.2 Gy). The follow-up periods ranged from 2 to 169 months (median, 34 months). Thirty patients (60%) showed complete response and 13 (26%) a partial response. All patients could have their own bladder preserved. Five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 37.2%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 30.2%. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade and CCRT were statistically significant in OS. Tumor grade was a significant prognostic factor related to OS. CCRT is also considered to improve survival outcomes. Further multi-institutional studies are needed to elucidate the impact of RT in bladder cancer

  15. Chemotherapy for carcinoma of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2011-01-01

    Of all patients with gastric cancer 80 % to 90 % are either diagnosed at an advanced stage when the tumour is inoperable, or develop a recurrence within five years after surgery. Chemotherapy clearly improves survival in comparison to best supportive care only. No chemotherapy regimen showed a survival benefit better than 5-fluorouracil alone in a phase III trial for advanced gastric cancer in 1990s, and several new cytotoxic agents became available in late 1990s. Thereafter, a couple of phase III trials supported the substitution of infusional 5-fluorouracil by orally administered agents and the replacement of cisplatin by oxaliplatin in early 2000s. Trastuzumab has succeeded in showing a survival benefit for patients with Her-2 positive gastric cancer which accounts for about 10 - 20 % of the cancer. This means that the door is opened to the new era of chemotherapy with molecular target agents and with individualization for advanced gastric cancer. (author)

  16. Impact of Blood Transfusions on Survival of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Radical Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Indini, Alice; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Transfusions represent one of the main progresses of modern medicine. However, accumulating evidence supports that transfusions correlate with worse survival outcomes in patients affected by solid cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of perioperative blood transfusion in locally advanced cervical cancer. Data of consecutive patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer scheduled to undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery were retrospectively searched to test the impact of perioperative transfusions on survival outcomes. Five-year survival outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. The study included 275 patients. Overall, 170 (62%) patients had blood transfusion. Via univariate analysis, we observed that transfusion correlated with an increased risk of developing recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.40; P = 0.02). Other factors associated with 5-year disease-free survival were noncomplete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 0.92-9.63; P = 0.06) and pathological (P = 0.03) response at neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as parametrial (P = 0.004), vaginal (P < 0.001), and lymph node (P = 0.002) involvements. However, via multivariate analysis, only vaginal (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.85; P = 0.01) and lymph node involvements (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.00-6.06; P = 0.05) correlate with worse disease-free survival. No association with worse outcomes was observed for patients undergoing blood transfusion (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.91-8.03; P = 0.07). Looking at factors influencing overall survival, we observed that lymph node status (P = 0.01) and vaginal involvement (P = 0.06) were independently associated with survival. The role of blood transfusions in increasing the risk of developing recurrence in LAAC patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery remains unclear; further prospective studies are warranted.

  17. A prospective study on concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic three-dimensional radiotherapy for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (1) -survival and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Shengfa; Lu Bing; Zhang Bo; Hu Yinyang; Ouyang Weiwei; Li Huiqin; Wang Gang; Long Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the overall survival and safety among patients for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic three-dimensional radiotherapy (CCTTRT). Methods: From Jan. 2003 to July 2010, 201 patients with stage IV NSCLC were included. All patients were treated with CCTTRT. Those patients who received only one cycle chemotherapy were not included in survival analysis,but analysis of toxicity. One hundred and eighty-two patients were eligible for survival analysis. All patients received platinum-based two-drug chemotherapy. The median number of cycles was 4. The median dose to planning target volume of primary tumor (DT PTV ) was 63 Gy. Treatment-related gastrointestinal and hematological toxicity were scored according to WHO criteria. Radiation-related pneumonitis and esophagitis were evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC) version 3.0. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the Logrank. Cox regression model was used to examine the effect of CCTTRT on overall survival. Results: The follow-up rate of 201 patients was 97.5%. with 201, 170 and 134 patients finished 2 =10.10, P =0.001). For patients eligible for survival analysis and received 4 - 5 cycles of systemic chemotherapy, MST of patients treated with DT PTV ≥63 Gy was significantly longer than those treated with DT PTV 2 =20.48, P =0.000) and 16.1 months vs.8.8 months (χ 2 =11.75, P =0.001)]. For patients with single organ metastasis, MST was 16 months for those treated with DT PTV ≥63 Gy and 9 months for those with DT PTV 2 =10.51, P=0.000); for patients with multiple organ metastasis, it was 11 months and 7 months, respectively (χ 2 =7.90, P =0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent 4 - 5 cycles chemotherapy and DTPTV ≥63 Gy (β =0.243, P=0.019) and improved KPS (β =1.268, P=0.000) were independent factors for survival. For the whole

  18. Impact on Medical Cost, Cumulative Survival, and Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Rituximab to First-Line Chemotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma in Elderly Patients: An Observational Cohort Study Based on SEER-Medicare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R. I.; Gleeson, M. L.; Danese, M. D.; Griffiths, R. I.; Mikhael, J.

    2012-01-01

    Rituximab improves survival in follicular lymphoma (FL), but is considerably more expensive than conventional chemotherapy. We estimated the total direct medical costs, cumulative survival, and cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for FL, based on a single source of data representing routine practice in the elderly. Using surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry data plus Medicare claims, we identified 1,117 FL patients who received first-line CHOP (cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin, vincristine (V), and prednisone (P)) or CVP +/− rituximab. Multivariate regression was used to estimate adjusted cumulative cost and survival differences between the two groups over four years after beginning treatment. The median age was 73 years (minimum 66 years), 56% had stage III-IV disease, and 67% received rituximab. Adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy was associated with higher adjusted incremental total cost ($18,695; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) $9,302-$28,643) and longer adjusted cumulative survival (0.18 years; 95% CI 0.10-0.27) over four years of followup. The expected cost-effectiveness was $102,142 (95% CI $34,531-296,337) per life-year gained. In routine clinical practice, adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for elderly patients with FL results in higher direct medical costs to Medicare and longer cumulative survival after four years.

  19. The role of chemotherapy in brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohori, Hisatsugu; Takahashi, Shin; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2007-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors and their incidence is increasing. Untreated brain metastases have a very poor prognosis with a median survival of 1-2 months. Despite the use of surgery and radiotherapy including whole-brain radiation and stereotactic radiosurgery to locally control brain metastases, survival times for those patients has not improved. Although chemotherapy plays a limited role in the treatment of brain metastases, metastases from lung or breast cancer are often well-controlled by chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggest that brain metastases are equally sensitive to chemotherapy as are metastases elsewhere in the body in particular chemotherapy-naive cases. Finally, since nearly a half of patients with brain metastases die from progression of systemic disease, control of systemic disease as well as intracranial disease are both important. (author)

  20. Improvement of a predictive model in ovarian cancer patients submitted to platinum-based chemotherapy: implications of a GST activity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Deolinda; Assis, Joana; Gomes, Mónica; Nogueira, Augusto; Medeiros, Rui

    2016-05-01

    The success of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer (OC) is directly associated with the broad variability in platinum response, with implications in patients survival. This heterogeneous response might result from inter-individual variations in the platinum-detoxification pathway due to the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes. We hypothesized that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms might have an impact as prognostic and predictive determinants for OC. We conducted a hospital-based study in a cohort of OC patients submitted to platinum-based chemotherapy. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. GSTM1-null genotype patients presented a significantly longer 5-year survival and an improved time to progression when compared with GSTM1-wt genotype patients (log-rank test, P = 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicates that the inclusion of genetic information regarding GSTM1 polymorphism increased the predictive ability of risk of death after OC platinum-based chemotherapy (c-index from 0.712 to 0.833). Namely, residual disease (HR, 4.90; P = 0.016) and GSTM1-wt genotype emerged as more important predictors of risk of death (HR, 2.29; P = 0.039; P = 0.036 after bootstrap). No similar effect on survival was observed regarding GSTT1 polymorphism, and there were no statistically significant differences between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and the assessed patients' clinical-pathological characteristics. GSTM1 polymorphism seems to have an impact in OC prognosis as it predicts a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy and hence an improved survival. The characterization of the GSTM1 genetic profile might be a useful molecular tool and a putative genetic marker for OC clinical outcome.

  1. Long term (five-year survival following radical surgical treatment plus adjuvant chemotherapy (FAM in advanced gastric cancer: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs and their associations are being used for adjuvant or complementary chemotherapy with the aim of improving results of gastric cancer treatment. The objective of this study was to verify the impact of these drugs on nutrition and on survival rate after radical treatment of 53 patients with gastric cancer in stage III of the TNM classification. A control group including 28 patients who had only undergone radical resection was compared to a group of 25 patients who underwent the same operative technique followed by adjuvant polychemotherapy with FAM (5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and mitomycin C. In this latter group, chemotherapy toxicity in relation to hepatic, renal, cardiologic, neurological, hematologic, gastrointestinal, and dermatological functions was also studied. There was no significant difference on admission between both groups in relation to gender, race, macroscopic tumoral type of tumor according to the Borrmann classification, location of the tumor in the stomach, length of the gastric resection, or response to cutaneous tests on delayed sensitivity. Chemotherapy was started on average, 2.3 months following surgical treatment. Clinical and laboratory follow-up of all patients continued for 5 years. The following conclusions were reached: 1 The nutritional status and incidence of gastrointestinal manifestation were similar in both groups; 2 There was no occurrence of cardiac, renal, neurological, or hepatic toxicity or death due to the chemotherapeutic method per se; 3 Dermatological alterations and hematological toxicity occurred exclusively in patients who underwent polychemotherapy; 4 There was no significant difference between the rate and site of tumoral recurrence, the disease-free interval, or the survival rate of both study groups; 5 Therefore, we concluded, after a 5-year follow-up, chemotherapy with the FAM regimen did not increase the survival rate.

  2. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Lisa M

    2003-12-01

    The current standard of care for patients with high-grade glioma is resection followed by radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not widely accepted because of the low sensitivity of gliomas to traditional antineoplastic agents, the poor penetration of most drugs across the blood-brain barrier, and the significant systemic toxicity associated with current agents. However, nitrosoureas and, subsequently, temozolomide (Temodar [US], Temodal [international]; Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ), a novel alkylating agent, cross the blood-brain barrier and have activity against gliomas. Nitrosoureas have been studied in phase III trials in the adjuvant setting. In individual trials, chemotherapy did not increase median survival but did increase the proportion of patients surviving >/=18 months by 15%. Only with large meta-analyses did the addition of chemotherapy achieve a statistically significant improvement in median survival. Currently there is no means of identifying which patients will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, but nitrosoureas and temozolomide are well tolerated in most patients, justifying the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy to all newly diagnosed patients with malignant glioma.

  3. PSMA targeted radioligandtherapy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy, abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. A retrospective analysis of overall survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, K.; Schaefers, M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Boegemann, M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Urology, Muenster (Germany); Yordanova, A.; Essler, M.; Ahmadzadehfar, H. [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Eveslage, M. [University Hospital Muenster, Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Muenster (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    Our aim was to evaluate overall survival and parameters prognosticating longer survival in a large and homogeneous group of patients treated with {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy with heavily pretreated advanced metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. A total of 104 patients were treated with 351 cycles of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) changes after the first cycle of therapy were documented prior to a second cycle. Patients were followed-up for overall survival (OS). Any PSA decline, PSA decline ≥50%, initial PSA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), visceral metastases and cumulative injected activity were analyzed and evaluated according to OS. Multivariable analysis with parameters with a p-value ≤0.05 in univariate analysis was performed, additionally adjusting for age and presence of visceral metastases. A total of 51 patients (49%) died during the observation period. The majority of patients (97%) presented with bone metastases, 77% with lymph node metastases and 32% with visceral metastases. All patients were treated with at least one line of chemotherapy. Either abiraterone or enzalutamide had been given in 100% of the patients. Any PSA decline occurred in 70 (67%) and a PSA decline ≥50% in 34 (33%) of patients after the first cycle. The median OS was 56.0 weeks (95%CI: 50.5-61.5). Initial PSA decline ≥50%, initial LDH, visceral metastases, second line chemotherapy or prior radium-223 did not have an effect on survival, whereas any initial PSA decline, initial ALP <220 U/L and cumulative injected activity ≥18.8 GBq were associated with a longer survival. A step-by-step analysis revealed a PSA decline ≥20.87% as the most noticeable cut-off prognosticating longer survival, which remained an independent prognosticator of improved OS in the multivariate analysis. {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 RLT is a new effective therapeutic and seems to prolong survival in patients with advanced m

  4. Role of comorbidity on survival after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for nonsurgically treated lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemgaard, Anders; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Iachina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    and chemoradiation. In contrast, age remained a strong negative prognosticator after multivariate adjustment as did stage and performance status. CONCLUSION: Comorbidity has a limited effect on survival and only for patients treated with chemotherapy. It is rather the performance of the patient at diagnosis than...... treatment was categorized as chemotherapy, chemoradiation, radiotherapy, or no therapy. Data on Charlson comorbidity index, performance status, age, sex, stage, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), histology, and type of initial treatment (if any) were included in univariable...... and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses. RESULTS: Treatment rates for chemotherapy and chemoradiation declined with increasing comorbidity and in particular increasing age. Women received treatment more often than men. In a univariable analysis of all patients combined, stage, performance status, age...

  5. A combined radiation and platinum chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Akio; Saito, Hiroya; Sakurai, Yasuo; Horio, Keiji; Mizoe, Junetsu.

    1993-01-01

    The prognosis of the patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy is still dismal with a reported 5-year survival rate of 5-10% in most series. Since 1986, combined radiotherapy with chemotherapy using platinum analogue was initiated at Asahikawa and Obihiro Kosei Hospitals in order to improve local-regional control and the survival of the patients. From 1980 to 1992, 81 patients with unresectable esophageal carcinoma were treated with radiotherapy. Since April 1986, 37 out of the 81 patients received both radiotherapy and chemotherapy with platinum. Platinum was used during the course of radiotherapy. The method of administration of platinum was as follows; Cisplatin intravenously (50 mg, weekly, total 200 mg) in 9 patients, Carboplatin intravenously (100-150 mg, weekly, total 400-900 mg) in 11 patients and Cisplatin intraarterially (100 mg, at a 3-4 week interval, total 100-300 mg) in 17 patients. These 37 patients (Group A) were compared to 44 patients treated by radiotherapy alone (Group B) with respect to initial response and survival rate. Response was defined according to the guidelines recommended by Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases. Response rates were 59.1% (19 CR and 7 PR) in Group B and 70.3% (7 CR and 19 PR) in Group A. Primary relapse-free rates were 36.4% in Group B and 37.8% in Group A. The cumulative survival at 3 years were 11.7% in Group B and 10.6% in Group A. Enhancement of side effects by chemotherapy was minimal and acceptable. Improvement of local-regional control and survival was not obvious by adding a concomitant platinum-chemotherapy. A definite conclusion, however, could not be drawn because of the retrospective, non-controlled nature of this study. Introduction of more intensive, multiple agents chemotherapy seems necessary if one aims at improving the results. (author)

  6. Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer-Random iced for Adjuvant Chemotherapy vs. Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook; Ahn, Seung Do

    1993-01-01

    chemotherapy group and observation group in distant metastasis rate and survival. Median survival time was 13 months. Actuarial survival rates at 6, 12 and 18 months of 39 patients who completed this study were 84.6%, 53.7% and 40.3%, respectively. The partial and complete responders from induction chemotherapy showed significantly bettor survival than non-responders(p=0.028). Incidence of radiation pneumonitis in this stuffy group was less than that in historical control group in spite of induction chemotherapy. All patients tolerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy without definite increase of acute complications compared with conventional radiotherapy group. The longer fellow up is needed to evaluate the efficacies of induction and maintenance chemotherapy and survival advantage by hypefractionated radiotherapy but authors are encouraged with an excellent tolerance, higher response rate and improvement of one year survival rate in patients of this study

  7. Impact on Medical Cost, Cumulative Survival, and Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Rituximab to First-Line Chemotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma in Elderly Patients: An Observational Cohort Study Based on SEER-Medicare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Griffiths

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab improves survival in follicular lymphoma (FL, but is considerably more expensive than conventional chemotherapy. We estimated the total direct medical costs, cumulative survival, and cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for FL, based on a single source of data representing routine practice in the elderly. Using surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER registry data plus Medicare claims, we identified 1,117 FL patients who received first-line CHOP (cyclophosphamide (C, doxorubicin, vincristine (V, and prednisone (P or CVP +/− rituximab. Multivariate regression was used to estimate adjusted cumulative cost and survival differences between the two groups over four years after beginning treatment. The median age was 73 years (minimum 66 years, 56% had stage III-IV disease, and 67% received rituximab. Adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy was associated with higher adjusted incremental total cost ($18,695; 95% Confidence Interval (CI $9,302–$28,643 and longer adjusted cumulative survival (0.18 years; 95% CI 0.10–0.27 over four years of followup. The expected cost-effectiveness was $102,142 (95% CI $34,531–296,337 per life-year gained. In routine clinical practice, adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for elderly patients with FL results in higher direct medical costs to Medicare and longer cumulative survival after four years.

  8. Improving chemotherapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the third most common mortal disease in industrialised countries and the prognosis has been slow to improve. The largest subgroup has locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, these patients can usually not be cured and the main...... project. The description of the experiences can serve as an example for the improvement of microsystems in settings with similar problems. Finally, in the registry study of Norwegian patients with lung cancer, we found significant geographical and temporal variations of the utilisation of chemotherapy...... that were related to survival. Potential areas of improvement in the system of care for lung cancer are recruitment of patients in clinical studies, standardisation of the processes of care in outpatient clinics, definition of strategic aims of quality, development of balanced quality indicators, as well...

  9. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Squamous Carcinoma of Oral Cavity: a Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanambar Sadighi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy to surgery and radiation therapy for locally advanced resectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, 24 patients with T3 or T4a oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were randomly assigned to surgery alone or Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF induction chemotherapy followed by surgery. All patients were planned to receive chemoradiotherapy after surgery. The primary end-points were organ preservation and progression-free-survival. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis. Median follow-up was 16 months. The median age of the patients was 62 years old (23-75 years. Man/woman ratio was 1.13. The primary site of the tumor was the tongue in most patients (48%. No significant difference was observed between pathologic characteristics of the two groups. Chemotherapy group showed 16% complete pathologic response to TPF. No significant difference in organ preservation surgery or overall survival was detected. However, the patients in the chemotherapy group had longer progression-free-survival (P=0.014. Surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy with or without TPF induction results in similar survival time. However, progression-free-survival improves with the TPF induction chemotherapy. Studies with more patents and new strategies are recommended to evaluate organ preservation improvement and long-term outcomes.

  10. The Effect of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy on Overall Survival in 237 Patients With Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Correa, Candace R.; Zhao Lujun; Hayman, James; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Lyons, Susan; Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean; Kong Fengming

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and their interaction in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 237 consecutive Stage III NSCLC patients were evaluated. Median follow-up was 69.0 months. Patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone (n = 106), sequential chemoradiation (n = 69), or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Radiation dose ranged from 30 to 102.9 Gy (median 60 Gy), corresponding to a bioequivalent dose (BED) of 39 to 124.5 Gy (median 72 Gy). Results: The median OS of the entire cohort was 12.6 months, and 2- and 5-year survival rates were 22.4% and 10.0%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression model demonstrated that Karnofsky performance status (p = 0.020), weight loss < 5% (p = 0.017), chemotherapy (yes vs. no), sequence of chemoradiation (sequential vs. concurrent; p < 0.001), and BED (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of OS. For patients treated with RT alone, sequential chemoradiation, and concurrent chemoradiation, median survival was 7.4, 14.9, and 15.8 months, and 5-year OS was 3.3%, 7.5%, and 19.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). The effect of higher radiation doses on survival was independent of whether chemotherapy was given. Conclusion: Radiation dose and use of chemotherapy are independent predictors of OS in Stage III NSCLC, and concurrent chemoradiation is associated with the best survival. There is no interaction between RT dose and chemotherapy.

  11. Effectiveness of third-generation chemotherapy on the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Strand, T-E; Wentzel-Larsen, T

    2008-01-01

    of chemotherapy. METHODS: All patients with ANSCLC in the Cancer Registry of Norway during 1994-2005 were included. Using sales of vinorelbine as an indicator for chemotherapy, annual county utilisation rates were calculated. Survival before and after the general introduction of vinorelbine and associations...

  12. The role of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in esophagogastric cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John H; Bowman, Christopher R; Reece-Smith, Alex M; Pang, Vincent; Dorrington, Matthew S; Mumtaz, Errum; Soomro, Irshad; Kaye, Philip; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Parsons, Simon L

    2017-06-01

    For patients with operable esophagogastric cancer, peri-operative chemotherapy confers a significant overall survival benefit compared to surgery alone, however only 30-40% of patients demonstrate histopathological response. It is unclear whether those with no neoadjuvant chemotherapy response should go onto receive adjuvant chemotherapy, as no further benefit may be conferred. Esophagogastric cancers were prospectively captured with associated histopathological tumor regression grades following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This cohort was then interrogated for clinico-pathological and survival outcomes. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery, patients with chemotherapy responsive cancers, who were administered adjuvant chemotherapy gained a significant overall survival benefit. Multivariate Cox analysis, demonstrated a final adjusted hazard ratio for adjuvant therapy of 0.509; (95%CI 0.28-0.93); P = 0.028. In contrast, patients with non-responsive tumors, who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, did not show any survival benefit. Chemotherapy toxicity was prevalent and contributed to only half of patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest the benefit of the adjuvant portion of chemotherapy is limited to those who demonstrate a histopathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The administration of the adjuvant portion of chemotherapy to patients without a response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may not provide any survival benefit, while potentially causing increased morbidity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adjuvant IMRT/XELOX radiochemotherapy improves long-term overall- and disease-free survival in advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, J.; Schneider, V.; Weiss, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis, adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with modern chemotherapy improved advanced gastric cancer survival rates compared to a combination of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional chemotherapy. We report on the long-term outcomes of two consecutive patient cohorts that were treated with either IMRT and intensive chemotherapy, or 3D-CRT and conventional chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 65 consecutive gastric cancer patients received either 3D-CRT (n = 27) or IMRT (n = 38) following tumor resection. Chemotherapy comprised predominantly 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) in the earlier cohort and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) in the latter. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Median OS times were 18 and 43 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0602). Actuarial 5-year OS rates were 26 and 47 %, respectively. Within the IMRT group, XELOX gave better results than 5-FU/FA in terms of OS, but this difference was not statistically significant. The primary cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. Median DFS times were 14 and 35 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0693). Actuarial 5-year DFS rates were 22 and 44 %, respectively. Among patients receiving 5-FU/FA, DFS tended to be better in the IMRT group, but this was not statistically significant. A similar analysis for the XELOX group was not possible as 3D-CRT was almost never used to treat these patients. No late toxicity exceeding grade 3 or secondary tumors were observed. Conclusion: After a median follow-up period of over 5 years, OS and DFS were improved in the IMRT/XELOX treated patients compared to the 3D-CRT/5-FU/FA group. Long-term observation revealed no clinical indications of therapy-induced secondary tumors or renal toxicity. (orig.)

  14. Adjuvant IMRT/XELOX radiochemotherapy improves long-term overall- and disease-free survival in advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, J.; Schneider, V. [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Weiss, C. [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Biomathematics and Medical Statistics] [and others

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis, adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with modern chemotherapy improved advanced gastric cancer survival rates compared to a combination of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional chemotherapy. We report on the long-term outcomes of two consecutive patient cohorts that were treated with either IMRT and intensive chemotherapy, or 3D-CRT and conventional chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 65 consecutive gastric cancer patients received either 3D-CRT (n = 27) or IMRT (n = 38) following tumor resection. Chemotherapy comprised predominantly 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) in the earlier cohort and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) in the latter. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Median OS times were 18 and 43 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0602). Actuarial 5-year OS rates were 26 and 47 %, respectively. Within the IMRT group, XELOX gave better results than 5-FU/FA in terms of OS, but this difference was not statistically significant. The primary cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. Median DFS times were 14 and 35 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0693). Actuarial 5-year DFS rates were 22 and 44 %, respectively. Among patients receiving 5-FU/FA, DFS tended to be better in the IMRT group, but this was not statistically significant. A similar analysis for the XELOX group was not possible as 3D-CRT was almost never used to treat these patients. No late toxicity exceeding grade 3 or secondary tumors were observed. Conclusion: After a median follow-up period of over 5 years, OS and DFS were improved in the IMRT/XELOX treated patients compared to the 3D-CRT/5-FU/FA group. Long-term observation revealed no clinical indications of therapy-induced secondary tumors or renal toxicity. (orig.)

  15. The effect of comorbidity on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival from colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdie Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity has a well documented detrimental effect on cancer survival. However it is difficult to disentangle the direct effects of comorbidity on survival from indirect effects via the influence of comorbidity on treatment choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of comorbidity on colon cancer patient survival, the effect of comorbidity on treatment choices for these patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Methods This retrospective cohort study reviewed 589 New Zealanders diagnosed with colon cancer in 1996–2003, followed until the end of 2005. Clinical and outcome data were obtained from clinical records and the national mortality database. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of comorbidity on cancer specific and all-cause survival, the effect of comorbidity on chemotherapy recommendations for stage III patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Results After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, area deprivation, smoking, stage, grade and site of disease, higher Charlson comorbidity score was associated with poorer all-cause survival (HR = 2.63 95%CI:1.82–3.81 for Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0. Comorbidity count and several individual conditions were significantly related to poorer all-cause survival. A similar, but less marked effect was seen for cancer specific survival. Among patients with stage III colon cancer, those with a Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0 were less likely to be offered chemotherapy (19% compared with 84% despite such therapy being associated with around a 60% reduction in excess mortality for both all-cause and cancer specific survival in these patients. Conclusion Comorbidity impacts on colon cancer survival thorough both physiological burden of disease and its impact on treatment choices. Some patients with comorbidity may forego chemotherapy unnecessarily

  16. Survival and neurologic outcome of infants with medulloblastoma treated with surgery and MOPP chemotherapy. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, T Z; van Eys, J; Dowell, R E; Cangir, A; Pack, B; Bruner, J M

    1987-07-15

    The results of treatment of infants with medulloblastoma using surgery and chemotherapy, without the use of radiation therapy, are reported. Both survival and outcome, in terms of growth, neurologic deficit, and intelligence are compared with the same parameters in children treated conventionally. Although preliminary, our results suggest that chemotherapy combined with surgery is a valid option for the treatment of infants with this type of neoplasm.

  17. Improved Metastasis- and Disease-Free Survival With Preoperative Sequential Short-Course Radiation Therapy and FOLFOX Chemotherapy for Rectal Cancer Compared With Neoadjuvant Long-Course Chemoradiotherapy: Results of a Matched Pair Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovina, Stephanie; Youssef, Fady; Roy, Amit; Aggarwal, Sonya; Khwaja, Shariq; DeWees, Todd; Tan, Benjamin; Hunt, Steven; Myerson, Robert J; Chang, Daniel T; Parikh, Parag J; Olsen, Jeffrey R

    2017-10-01

    To compare treatment and toxicity outcomes between a phase 2 institutional trial of near total neoadjuvant therapy (nTNT) for locally advanced rectal cancer and a similar historical control cohort treated at Washington University in St. Louis with the current US standard of care, defined as neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT), total mesorectal excision (TME), and adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy; to expand the comparison to an additional institution, patients treated with similar NCRT at Stanford University were included. Sixty-nine patients with cT3-4N0-2M0 rectal adenocarcinoma enrolled on the Washington University in St. Louis phase 2 study of nTNT were included for analysis. Patients treated at the same institution with conventional NCRT and adjuvant FOLFOX were matched for exact cTNM stage. Forty-one patients treated with NCRT at Stanford University were included in a second analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to compare local control, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Median follow-up was 49 and 54 months for nTNT and NCRT, respectively. Pathologic complete response and T-downstaging rates were 28% versus 16% (P=.21) and 75% versus 41% (P<.001) in the nTNT and NCRT cohorts, respectively. Three-year disease-free survival (85% vs 68%, P=.032) was significantly better in the nTNT group. Actuarial 3-year local control (92% vs 96%, P=.36) and overall survival (96% vs 88%, P=.67) were similar. The Stanford cohort had significantly lower clinical stage. After controlling for clinical stage, age, tumor location, institution, and number of chemotherapy cycles, nTNT treatment remained significantly associated with lower risk of recurrence (P=.006). Patients treated with nTNT had higher T-downstaging and superior distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival compared with conventional NCRT when matched for tumor location and exact cTNM stage. Near total neoadjuvant therapy remained a

  18. Chemotherapy-related leukopenia as a biomarker predicting survival outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Maltese, Giuseppa; Lecce, Francesca; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Indini, Alice; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Borghi, Chiara; Fucà, Giovanni; Ditto, Antonino; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of hematologic toxicity and leukopenia in locally advanced cervical cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Data of consecutive patients undergoing platinum-based NACT followed by surgery were retrospectively searched in order to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy-related toxicity on survival outcomes. Toxicity was graded per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAEv.4.03). Survival outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meir and Cox hazard models. Overall, 126 patients were included. Among those, 94 (74.6%) patients experienced grade2+ hematologic toxicity; while, grade2+ non-hematologic toxicity occurred in 11 (8.7%) patients. After a median follow-up of 37.1 (inter-quartile range, 12-57.5) months, 21 (16.6%) patients experienced recurrence. Via multivariate analysis, no factor was independently associated with disease-free survival; while a trend toward worse prognosis was observed for patients experiencing grade2+ leukopenia at cycle-3 (HR:3.13 (95%CI: 0.94, 10.3); p=0.06). Similarly, grade2+ leukopenia (HR:9.98 (95%CI: 1.14, 86.6); p=0.03), lymph-node positivity (HR:14.6 (95%CI:1.0, 214.4); p=0.05) and vaginal involvement (HR:5.81 (95%CI:1.43, 23.6); p=0.01) impacted on overall survival, at multivariate analysis. Magnitude of leukopenia correlated with survival (p<0.001). Although, our data have to be confirmed by prospective investigations, the present study shows an association between the occurrence of leukopenia and survival outcomes. NACT-related immunosuppression might reduce the response against the tumor, thus promoting cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Outcome of Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Initially Treated with Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Su; Kim, Tae-you; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Ji Yeun; Heo, Dae Seog; Bang, Yung-jue; Kim, Noe Kyeong [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Cancer Research Inst.

    2003-11-01

    The therapeutic outcome of chemotherapy in NK/T cell lymphoma (NTCL) has not been well documented until now. The aims of this study were to investigate the outcome of chemotherapy and to evaluate the clinical factors influencing the responsiveness to chemotherapy. Between 1995 and 2000, 59 patients received anthracycline-based chemotherapy as an initial treatment. Forty-five patients had nasal NTCL, whereas 14 had extranasal NTCL. Forty-one patients had stage I/II and 18 had stage III/IV disease. Epstein-Barr virus status was positive in 67.6% of cases. The results of initial chemotherapy were complete remission in 35.6% of the patients, 2-year disease-free survival in 22.9% and 2-year overall survival in 44.2%. Adjuvant radiotherapy after chemotherapy did not improve outcome in stage I/II nasal NTCL. The International Prognostic Index was a significant prognostic factor of complete remission rate, and stage was also significant for disease-free survival.

  20. Therapeutic Outcome of Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Initially Treated with Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Su; Kim, Tae-you; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Ji Yeun; Heo, Dae Seog; Bang, Yung-jue; Kim, Noe Kyeong

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic outcome of chemotherapy in NK/T cell lymphoma (NTCL) has not been well documented until now. The aims of this study were to investigate the outcome of chemotherapy and to evaluate the clinical factors influencing the responsiveness to chemotherapy. Between 1995 and 2000, 59 patients received anthracycline-based chemotherapy as an initial treatment. Forty-five patients had nasal NTCL, whereas 14 had extranasal NTCL. Forty-one patients had stage I/II and 18 had stage III/IV disease. Epstein-Barr virus status was positive in 67.6% of cases. The results of initial chemotherapy were complete remission in 35.6% of the patients, 2-year disease-free survival in 22.9% and 2-year overall survival in 44.2%. Adjuvant radiotherapy after chemotherapy did not improve outcome in stage I/II nasal NTCL. The International Prognostic Index was a significant prognostic factor of complete remission rate, and stage was also significant for disease-free survival

  1. Effect of integrated surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy treatment on survival status and serum indexes in patients with gallbladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Li Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of integrated surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy treatment on the survival status and serum indexes in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gallbladder carcinoma were divided into observation group (received integrated surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy treatment and control group (received surgery + radiotherapy according to different treatments. Differences in the content of tumor markers, growth factors and adhesion molecules in serum as well as the median survival time and survival rate in 5 years of follow-up were compared between the two groups 1 month after treatment. Results: Tumor markers β2-MG, CA19-9, CA242, CA125, CA724, CEA and AFP content in serum of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group; growth factors VEGF, FGF, EGFR and HER2 content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group while IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 content were significantly higher than those of control group; adhesion molecules E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and sE-Cd content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group; the median survival time of 5-year follow-up as well as 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate were significantly greater than those of control group. Conclusions: Integrated treatment of surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy can optimize the short-term and long-term curative effect in patients with gallbladder carcinoma.

  2. From utopia to reality: increased survival in peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Morales-Soriano, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    We have read with great interest the article by Illán et al.1 entitled "Long survival in a patient with metastatic colorectal carcinoma: reality or utopia?" This article describes the case of a 42 year old patient with mucinous-type colon adenocarcinoma who had tumor recurrence with peritoneal metastases 18 months after resection of the primary tumor and adjuvant chemotherapy. After multiple metastasectomies and several lines of chemotherapy, the patient died 27 months after the recurrence.

  3. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  4. Association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in limited small cell lung cancers: interest of alternating protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Arriagada, R.; Ruffie, P.; Cremoux, H. de; Douillard, J.Y.; Tuchais, C.; Chomy, P.; Riviere, A.; Tarayre, M.

    1992-01-01

    From 1980, alternating protocols of chemotherapy and thorax radiotherapy in limited small cell lung cancers have been elaborated in order to control locally the disease, to improve the total survival and to reduce the toxicity that are bound the simultaneous treatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thanks to these protocols, the two-year survival rate is 27% and the five-year survival rate, 16%

  5. Social influence on 5-year survival in a longitudinal chemotherapy ward co-presence network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Jeffrey; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Finney, John; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Koehly, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy is often administered in openly designed hospital wards, where the possibility of patient-patient social influence on health exists. Previous research found that social relationships influence cancer patient's health; however, we have yet to understand social influence among patients receiving chemotherapy in the hospital. We investigate the influence of co-presence in a chemotherapy ward. We use data on 4,691 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom who average 59.8 years of age, and 44% are Male. We construct a network of patients where edges exist when patients are co-present in the ward, weighted by both patients' time in the ward. Social influence is based on total weighted co-presence with focal patients' immediate neighbors, considering neighbors' 5-year mortality. Generalized estimating equations evaluated the effect of neighbors' 5-year mortality on focal patient's 5-year mortality. Each 1,000-unit increase in weighted co-presence with a patient who dies within 5 years increases a patient's mortality odds by 42% ( β = 0.357, CI:0.204,0.510). Each 1,000-unit increase in co-presence with a patient surviving 5 years reduces a patient's odds of dying by 30% ( β = -0.344, CI:-0.538,0.149). Our results suggest that social influence occurs in chemotherapy wards, and thus may need to be considered in chemotherapy delivery.

  6. Conventional chemotherapy and long-term survival in multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraj, M; Poglod, R.; Sokolowska, U.; Kruk, B.; Maj, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study was especially focused on the estimation of real frequency of long-term survivals in patients with multiple myeloma and finding common clinical and laboratory features present in long-term surviving patients as possible good prognostic factors. Material and methods. The survey was carried out on 600 multiple myeloma patients diagnosed before the year 2000 and treated with conventional chemotherapy in the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine in Warsaw in the years 1962-2009. All patients who had fulfilled the requirement of more than seven years of survival from the diagnosis and beginning of treatment for myeloma were included into the study group. Results. Out of 600 studied patients with multiple myeloma 88 (14.7%) survived over 7 years including 45 (7.5%) over 10 years, 11 (1.8 %) over 15 years and 7 (1.1%) over 20 years from the disease diagnosis and beginning of antitumor treatment. Patients with long survival were younger (median age 55 years) at the time of diagnosis than the whole studied group and had normal serum creatinine, calcium and beta2-microglobulin levels. Sixty eight percent of these patients had stage I or II clinical progression, 60% presented with IgG monoclonal protein and 58% with osteolysis. Treatment with melphalan only was given to 18 patients, 30 were treated with melphalan, followed by vincristine, cyclophosphamide, BCNU, doxorubicin and prednisone or dexamethasone. Polychemotherapy was given from the time of the diagnosis to 16 patients, 15 received radiotherapy or 60C o irradiation besides chemotherapy and 9 received new agents: thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide. In 66% of the evaluated cases response to treatment was good and in another 34% stabilization of the proliferative process was achieved. The mean duration of treatment till the achievement of partial response was 10 months, range: 2 - 89 months. The mean duration of good therapeutic response was 70 months. Twelve patients are alive and

  7. Prognostic value of tumor suppressors in osteosarcoma before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robl, Bernhard; Pauli, Chantal; Botter, Sander Martijn; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Primary bone cancers are among the deadliest cancer types in adolescents, with osteosarcomas being the most prevalent form. Osteosarcomas are commonly treated with multi-drug neoadjuvant chemotherapy and therapy success as well as patient survival is affected by the presence of tumor suppressors. In order to assess the prognostic value of tumor-suppressive biomarkers, primary osteosarcoma tissues were analyzed prior to and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We constructed a tissue microarray from high grade osteosarcoma samples, consisting of 48 chemotherapy naïve biopsies (BXs) and 47 tumor resections (RXs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We performed immunohistochemical stainings of P53, P16, maspin, PTEN, BMI1 and Ki67, characterized the subcellular localization and related staining outcome with chemotherapy response and overall survival. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze chemotherapy response and Kaplan-Meier-analysis as well as the Cox proportional hazards model was applied for analysis of patient survival. No significant associations between biomarker expression in BXs and patient survival or chemotherapy response were detected. In univariate analysis, positive immunohistochemistry of P53 (P = 0.008) and P16 (P16; P = 0.033) in RXs was significantly associated with poor survival prognosis. In addition, presence of P16 in RXs was associated with poor survival in multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.003; HR = 0.067) while absence of P16 was associated with good chemotherapy response (P = 0.004; OR = 74.076). Presence of PTEN on tumor RXs was significantly associated with an improved survival prognosis (P = 0.022). Positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of P16 and P53 in RXs was indicative for poor overall patient survival whereas positive IHC of PTEN was prognostic for good overall patient survival. In addition, we found that P16 might be a marker of osteosarcoma chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, our study supports the use of tumor RXs to

  8. Prognostic value of tumor suppressors in osteosarcoma before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Bernhard; Pauli, Chantal; Botter, Sander Martijn; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-05-09

    Primary bone cancers are among the deadliest cancer types in adolescents, with osteosarcomas being the most prevalent form. Osteosarcomas are commonly treated with multi-drug neoadjuvant chemotherapy and therapy success as well as patient survival is affected by the presence of tumor suppressors. In order to assess the prognostic value of tumor-suppressive biomarkers, primary osteosarcoma tissues were analyzed prior to and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We constructed a tissue microarray from high grade osteosarcoma samples, consisting of 48 chemotherapy naïve biopsies (BXs) and 47 tumor resections (RXs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We performed immunohistochemical stainings of P53, P16, maspin, PTEN, BMI1 and Ki67, characterized the subcellular localization and related staining outcome with chemotherapy response and overall survival. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze chemotherapy response and Kaplan-Meier-analysis as well as the Cox proportional hazards model was applied for analysis of patient survival. No significant associations between biomarker expression in BXs and patient survival or chemotherapy response were detected. In univariate analysis, positive immunohistochemistry of P53 (P = 0.008) and P16 (P16; P = 0.033) in RXs was significantly associated with poor survival prognosis. In addition, presence of P16 in RXs was associated with poor survival in multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.003; HR = 0.067) while absence of P16 was associated with good chemotherapy response (P = 0.004; OR = 74.076). Presence of PTEN on tumor RXs was significantly associated with an improved survival prognosis (P = 0.022). Positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of P16 and P53 in RXs was indicative for poor overall patient survival whereas positive IHC of PTEN was prognostic for good overall patient survival. In addition, we found that P16 might be a marker of osteosarcoma chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, our study supports the use of tumor RXs to

  9. Nutritional support in patients with colorectal cancer during chemotherapy: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrila-Dintinjana, Renata; Trivanovic, Dragan; Zelić, Marko; Radić, Mladen; Dintinjana, Marijan; Petranović, Duška; Toni, Valković; Vukelic, Jelena; Matijasic, Nusa

    2013-05-01

    Early intervention with nutritional supplementation has been shown to halt malnutrition and may improve outcome in some patients with colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary counseling, oral nutrition and megestrol acetate during chemotherapy affected nutritional status and survival in patients with advanced disease. Six hundred and twenty-eight patients with colorectal advanced disease were included in the study from January 2000 through December 2009 and divided into one of two groups. Group I consisted of 315 patients who were monitored prospectively and were given nutritional support. Group II included 313 patients without nutritional counseling and support. After the completion of chemotherapy all patients were evaluated (BMI, NST, Appetite Loss Scale and ECOG). After the completion of chemotherapy, there were lower proportions of patients in Group I with a BMI=5, loss of appetite and decreased weight gain. Nutritional counseling and supplemental feeding temporarily halted weight loss and improved appetite. This improvement may have implications for patient survival. Patients with early nutritional support lived 19.1 months while patients in the control group had a survival of 12.4 months (p=0.022). This study demonstrated that concurrent individualized dietary counseling and nutritional support are effective in improving nutritional status thereby lessening chemotherapy-induced morbidity.

  10. Rituximab is associated with improved survival in Burkitt lymphoma: a retrospective analysis from two US academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Tanya M; Farrington, Laura; Yeung, Cecilia; Harrington, Alexandra M; Foyil, Kelley V; Liu, Jingxia; Kreisel, Friederike; Bartlett, Nancy L; Fenske, Timothy S

    2014-02-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare, highly aggressive B-cell malignancy treated most successfully with brief-duration, high-intensity chemotherapeutic regimens. The benefit of the addition of rituximab to these regimens remains uncertain. We sought to examine the effectiveness of chemotherapy with and without rituximab in patients with BL. This study is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients with BL diagnosed and treated with modern, dose-intense chemotherapeutic regimens from 1998-2008 at two tertiary care institutions. All cases were confirmed by application of WHO 2008 criteria by hematopathologists. Medical records were reviewed for patient-, disease-, and treatment- related factors as well as treatment response and survival. Factors associated with survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. A total of 35 patients were analyzed: 18 patients received rituximab with chemotherapy (R-chemo) and 17 received chemotherapy (chemo) alone. The median age was 42 (range 20-74 years); 57% were male; 71% had Ann Arbor Stage IV disease; 33% had central nervous system involvement; 78% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1. R-chemo was associated with significantly longer overall survival (OS) than chemo alone (5-year OS 70% and 29%, respectively, p = 0.040). On multivariate regression analysis, poor performance status and central nervous system involvement were associated with poorer survival. The addition of rituximab to chemotherapy was associated with improved OS in patients with Burkitt lymphoma. Poor performance status and central nervous system involvement were prognostically significant on multivariate analysis.

  11. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0–2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  12. Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Maaike M.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this

  13. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anna Dorothea; Syn, Nicholas Lx; Moehler, Markus; Grothe, Wilfried; Yong, Wei Peng; Tai, Bee-Choo; Ho, Jingshan; Unverzagt, Susanne

    2017-08-29

    is uncertain. Chemotherapy improves survival (by an additional 6.7 months) in comparison to BSC, and combination chemotherapy improves survival (by an additional month) compared to single-agent 5-FU. Testing all patients for HER-2 status may help to identify patients with HER-2-positive tumours, for whom, in the absence of contraindications, trastuzumab in combination with capecitabine or 5-FU in combination with cisplatin has been shown to be beneficial. For HER-2 negative people, all different two-and three-drug combinations including irinotecan, docetaxel, oxaliplatin or oral 5-FU prodrugs are valid treatment options for advanced gastric cancer, and consideration of the side effects of each regimen is essential in the treatment decision. Irinotecan-containing combinations and docetaxel-containing combinations (in which docetaxel was added to a single-agent or two-drug (platinum/5-FUcombination) show significant survival benefits in the comparisons studied above. Furthermore, docetaxel-containing three-drug regimens have increased response rates, but the advantages of the docetaxel-containing three-drug combinations (DCF, FLO-T) are counterbalanced by increased toxicity. Additionally, oxaliplatin-containing regimens demonstrated a benefit in OS as compared to the same regimen containing cisplatin, and there is a modest survival improvement of S-1 compared to 5-FU-containing regimens.Whether the survival benefit for three-drug combinations including cisplatin, 5-FU, and epirubicin as compared to the same regimen without epirubicin is still valid when second-line therapy is routinely administered and when cisplatin is replaced by oxaliplatin and 5-FU by capecitabine is questionable. Furthermore, the magnitude of the observed survival benefits for the three-drug regimens is not large enough to be clinically meaningful as defined recently by the American Society for Clinical Oncology (Ellis 2014). In contrast to the comparisons in which a survival benefit was observed

  14. How much survival benefit is necessary for breast cancer patients to opt for adjuvant chemotherapy? Results from a Chilean survey

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Francisco; Sanchez, Cesar; Jans, Jaime; Rivera, Solange; Camus, Mauricio; Besa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer death in Chilean women. Adjuvant chemotherapy decreases recurrence and death from BC. The recommendation to indicate chemotherapy is complex. Adjuvant! Online is a valuable computational tool to predict survival benefit obtained with adjuvant systemic therapy. Previous studies in Caucasian patients with BC showed that they are willing to receive chemotherapy for a small benefit. No studies, to our knowledge, have been done in the H...

  15. Survival after failure of first-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer patients: differences between Japan and the rest of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Atsuo; Iizumi, Sakura; Boku, Narikazu

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we focus on post-progression survival after first-line chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer, and particularly the differences between Japan and the rest of the world. We reviewed 15 recent phase III trials of which 4 were solely recruited from Japanese and 11 from rest of the world. The patient characteristics age, performance status, previous gastrectomy and the number of metastatic sites were similar in Japan and rest of the world. However, the diffuse histological type was more common in Japan. While overall survival was longer in Japan (10.5-14.1 vs. 7.9-12.2 months), progression-free survival tended to be shorter in Japan (3.6-6.0 vs. 3.1-7.4 months). Post-progression survival calculated as the difference between median overall survival and progression-free survival was clearly longer in Japan (6.9-8.6 vs. 2.4-6.2 months). The proportion of patients receiving second-line chemotherapy (%2nd-CX) was quite different in Japan and rest of the world (69-85% vs. 11-59%). Correlations between %2nd-CX and post-progression survival were strong (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; ρ = 0.86, P < 0.001). Correlations between %2nd-CX and ratio of post-progression survival to total overall survival were also strong (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001). Because a survival benefit of second-CX was documented in several phase III trials, it can be concluded that higher %2nd-CX partly contributed to extended post-progression survival. However, considering that second-CX increased survival only by ~1.5 months at median, other factors such as third-line chemotherapy may have some influences to prolonged post-progression survival. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Wu, Hong Gyun; Heo, Dae Seog; Park, Cham II

    2000-01-01

    factor affecting overall survival was the response to overall treatment (CR vs. PR, p<0.01). In this study, there were only five patients who achieved CR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore the difference of overall survival rates between CR and PR to chemotherapy group was not statistically significant. Only the response to chemo-radiotherapy was the most important prognostic factor. There needs to be more effort to improve CR rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and consideration for future use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  17. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: The Addition of Systemic Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy Led to an Observed Improvement in Survival—A Single Centre Experience and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M. Lowe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is rare yet accounts for up to 50% of all thyroid cancer deaths. This study reviews outcomes of patients with confirmed ATC referred to a tertiary oncology centre plus reviews the literature to explore how poor outcomes may be improved. Materials and Methods. The management and outcomes of 20 patients with ATC were reviewed. Results. Median age at diagnosis was 69.5 years. 19 patients died due to ATC, 40% of whom died from asphyxiation. Median survival for all cases was 59 days. Patients who had previous surgery prior to other treatment modalities had a longer median survival overall compared to those who had not had previous surgery (142 days compared to 59 days and produced the one long-term survivor. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (without previous surgery was associated with longer median survival (220 days. Palliative radiotherapy alone did not decrease the rate of death by asphyxiation when compared to other single modality treatments. Conclusion. Multimodality treatment including surgery when feasible remains the best strategy to improve survival and prevent death from asphyxiation in the management of ATC. The addition of chemotherapy to our institutional protocol led to improved survival but prognosis remains very poor.

  18. Chemotherapy or radio-chemotherapy for advanced adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and cardiac orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.F.; Duffaud, F.; Dahan, L.; Ries, P.; Ville, E.; Laugier, R.

    2001-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas of esophagus and cardia represent in France approximately 20 to 40% of the esophagus cancers. They have a high risk to develop lymph nodes metastases and liver metastases. Currently, only 50 to 70% of patients may benefit from surgical curative resection at diagnosis, but more than 50% of them will recur. The standard of treatment of these metastatic adenocarcinomas is chemotherapy. Three large randomized comparative studies, between chemotherapy and supportive care, showed that chemotherapy significantly extends the median of survival (from 3-4 months to 10-12 months) and improves the quality of life. Currently, the combination of epirubicin-cisplatin-continuous 5FU (ECF) is the most effective regimen but it is difficult to administer and tolerate because of the long continuous 5FU infusion. In France, the most commonly used combination regimen still associates 5FU and cisplatin. New drugs (such as docetaxel, CPT11, oxaliplatin) used alone or in combination, especially with 5U, are very promising. Radio-chemotherapy is the preferred treatment for locoregional recurrences, because it improves dysphagia and enables to obtain complete tumor responses. Current results from concomitant radio-chemotherapy studies for esophagus cancer, based on 5FU alone, 5FU-cisplatin or 5FU-mitomycin, given as preoperative treatment or as exclusive treatment, support to use radio-chemotherapy for the treatment of loco-regional recurrences after surgical resection. Nevertheless, the optimal radio-chemotherapy schedule still remain to be defined (dose, duration, splitting of radiotherapy, choice of anticancer drugs). (authors)

  19. No survival benefit from adding cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in KRAS wild type patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-wei Zhou

    Full Text Available The efficacy of combined therapies of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs remains controversial in colorectal cancer (CRC. The aim of this study is to estimate the efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in the first line treatment in KRAS wild type patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC through meta-analysis.Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO were searched. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs which evaluated oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR drugs (cetuximab or panitumumab in untreated KRAS wild type patients with mCRC. The outcomes included overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, overall response rate (ORR and toxicities. Hazard ratios (HR and risk ratio (RR were used for the meta-analysis and were expressed with 95% confidence intervals.This meta-analysis included four RCTs with 1270 patients, and all of the patients were administered oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy regimens with or without anti-EGFR MAbs. The result of heterogeneity of OS was not significant. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the addition of cetuximab or panitumumab didn't result in significant improvement in OS (HR = 1.00, 95%CI [0.88, 1.13], P = 0.95 or PFS (HR = 0.86, 95%CI [0.71, 1.04], P = 0.13. The subgroup analysis of cetuximab also revealed no significant benefit in OS (HR = 1.02, 95%CI [0.89, 1.18], P = 0.75 or in PFS (HR = 0.87, 95%CI [0.65, 1.17], P = 0.36. Patients who received combined therapy didn't have a higher ORR (Risk Ratio = 1.08, 95%CI [0.86, 1.36]. Toxicities slightly increased in anti-EGFR drugs group.The addition of cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of mCRC in wild type KRAS population did not improve efficacy in

  20. Pretreatment anti-Müllerian hormone predicts for loss of ovarian function after chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Richard A; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea.......Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea....

  1. Survival benefit of levetiracetam in patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide for glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Tackeun; Joo, Jin-Deok; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, In Ah; Yun, Chang-Ho; Kim, Chae-Yong

    2015-09-01

    A chemosensitizing effect of levetiracetam (LEV) has been suggested because LEV inhibits O-6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). However, the survival benefit of LEV has not been clinically documented. The objective of this study was to assess the survival benefit of LEV compared with other antiepileptic drugs as a chemosensitizer to temozolomide for patients with glioblastoma. In total, 103 consecutive patients with primary glioblastoma who received concomitant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide were retrospectively reviewed, and 58 patients (56%) received LEV during temozolomide chemotherapy for at least 3 months. A Cox regression survival analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors, including age, extent of lesion, Karnofsky performance scale score, extent of removal, and MGMT promoter methylation status. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients who received LEV in combination with temozolomide (PFS: median, 9.4 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-11.3 months; OS: median, 25.7 months; 95% CI, 21.7-29.7 months) were significantly longer than those for patients who did not receive LEV (PFS: median, 6.7 months; 95% CI, 5.8-7.6 months; OS: median, 16.7 months; 95% CI, 12.1-21.3 months; P = .010 and P = .027, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the variables that were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS were preoperative Karnofsky performance scale score (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; P = .016), MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 0.30; P = .002), and receipt of LEV (HR, 0.31; P benefit in patients with glioblastoma who receive temozolomide-based chemotherapy. A prospective randomized study may be indicated. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  2. Improved survival with combined modality treatment for Stage IV breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nervi, C.; Arcangeli, G.; Concolino, F.; Cortese, M.

    1979-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1977, 85 patients with breast cancer at first postmastectomy relapse were irradiated (Radiation 3500 to 6000 rad--3/5 weeks) to all clinically evident lesions. Radiation fields were properly shaped to include a maximum 40% active bone marrow. After 3 to 4 weeks rest, chemotherapy was started as adjuvant therapy for residual or subclinical disease (ADR 30 mg/M 2 Day 1 and 8, 5-FU 400 mg/M 2 Day 1 and 8, CY 100 mg/M 2 Day 1 through 14: repeated after 14 days). ADR was discontinued at 500/M 2 and substituted by MTX 30 mg/M 2 Day 1 and 8 for a total of 2 years. Irradiated sites were chest wall in 35, supraclavicular and internal mammary nodes in 22, bone in 56, single lung lesions in 12, brain in 24. Controls were 52 comparable but non-randomized patients treated with chemotherapy only. Forty days after x-irradiation 68 patients (80%) were free of disease (NED) while in 17 cases (20%) some residual was still present (RED). In 28 of 68 cases (41%) NED after x-irradiation and 13 of 17 (76%) in RED group developed second relapse after a median interval of 26 and 20 mos., respectively. Four of 52 patients (8%) in the control group had complete regression with a median interval to second relapse of 7 mos. Median survival was 30 mos., 24 mos., and 13 mos., respectively, for NED, RED and chemotherapy only. Eighteen patients (26%) are free of disease after 36 to 48 mos. in the combined modality group; none in the chemotherapy group. Combined treatment cases did not show untolerable myelodepression. In 10 long-surviving patients a marked subcutaneous and skin fibrosis developed because of drug additive effect. Stage IV breast cancers rendered clinically free of disease with x-irradiation and subsequently treated with chemotherapy survive significantly longer than with chemotherapy alone

  3. Hemangiosarcoma in a Dog: Unusual Presentation and Increased Survival Using a Complementary/Holistic Approach Combined with Metronomic Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chaikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report documents the clinical and pathologic findings in a 12-year-old terrier mix with intraocular and splenic hemangiosarcoma. Pathologic findings in both the spleen and globe were consistent with hemangiosarcoma with a low mitotic count. Initial treatment consisted of enucleation and then splenectomy followed by one cycle of conventional doxorubicin chemotherapy. Due to poor tolerance, a subsequent treatment regimen consisted of metronomic chemotherapy with chlorambucil combined with an alternative/complementary regimen of I’m-Yunity (polysaccharopeptide and Yunnan Baiyao. Follow-up thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasounds over a period of 24 months showed no evidence of pulmonary, hepatic, or right atrial metastases, during which time the patient had an excellent quality of life. However, shortly after achieving two-year survival, the patient developed new onset seizures unresponsive to anticonvulsant therapy. Therefore, a decision was made to euthanize the dog given that the most likely etiology of the seizures was a brain tumor. Overall, this is an exceptional treatment response given the poor survival statistics of hemangiosarcoma even with conventional chemotherapy. However, additional clinical pharmacology and clinical trial data are needed to further support the use of a complementary/holistic approach in combination with metronomic chemotherapy.

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy by bronchial arterial infusion in patients with unresectable stage III squamous cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Sen; Ni, Jian

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered via bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) on unresectable stage III lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This was a single-arm retrospective study of chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) administered via BAI to patients with unresectable lung SCC. Data regarding the post-treatment response rate, downstage rate, and surgery rate, as well as progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), quality of life, and post-BAI side effects were collected. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and May 2014. The response rate was 72.2%, and the downstage rate was 22.2%. Among the patients who were downstaged, 16 (44.4%) patients were because of their T stage, and 5 (13.9%) patients were downstaged due to to their N stage. The surgery rate was 52.8%, the 1-year survival rate was 75.4%, and the 2-year survival rate was 52.1%. The median PFS was 14.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-19.4], and the median OS was 25.0 months (95% CI: 19.1-30.9). The quality of life was significantly improved, and the chemotherapy was well tolerated. Compared with intravenous neoadjuvant chemotherapy, BAI chemotherapy significantly improved the surgery rate, prolonged PFS and OS, and improved the quality of life in patients with unresectable stage III lung SCC.

  5. Chemotherapy options for the elderly patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B T

    2012-02-03

    Combination chemotherapy has been shown to improve overall survival compared with best supportive care in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The survival advantage is modest and was initially demonstrated with cisplatin-containing regimens in a large meta-analysis of randomized trials reported in 1995. Newer chemotherapy combinations have been shown to be better tolerated than older cisplatin-based combinations, and some trials have also shown greater efficacy and survival benefits with these newer combinations. Combination chemotherapy is, therefore, the currently accepted standard of care for patients with good performance statuses aged less than 70 years with advanced NSCLC. However, there are limited data from clinical trials to support the use of combination chemotherapy in elderly patients over 70 years of age with advanced NSCLC. Subgroup analyses of large randomized phase III trials suggest that elderly patients with good performance statuses do as well as younger patients treated with combination chemotherapy. There are few randomized trials reported that evaluate chemotherapy in patients aged greater than 70 years only. Based on data from trials performed by an Italian group, single-agent vinorelbine has been shown to have significant activity in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and to be well tolerated by those patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance statuses of two or less, with associated improvements in measures of global health.

  6. [Long term results of exclusive chemotherapy for glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachin, F; Hans, S; Atlan, D; Brasnu, D; Menard, M; Laccourreye, O

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of exclusive chemotherapy for T1-T3N0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy. Between 1985 and 2000, 69 patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy were managed with exclusive chemotherapy at our department. Chemotherapy associated platinum and fluorouracil. This retrospective analysis evaluated actuarial survival, treatment morbidity, oncologic events and laryngeal preservation. Various independent factors were tested for potential correlation with survival and local recurrence. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival, local control, lymph node control estimate were 83,6%, 64,8%, 98,6% respectively. Chemotherapy never resulted in death. The 10-year actuarial metachronous second primary tumors estimate was 32%. The overall laryngeal preservation rate was 98,6%. Altogether our data and the review of the literature suggest that in patients achieving a complete clinical response after and induction based chemotherapy regimen, the completion of an exclusive chemotherapy regimen appears to be a valid alternative to the conventional use of radiotherapy or chemo-radiation protocols.

  7. Peripheral venous blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1 Yanjiao Zuo,1 Lihua Zhu,2 Yuxin Zhang,3 Sen Li,1 Fei Ma,4 Yu Han,5 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue11Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 3Department of General Surgery, Mudanjiang First People’s Hospital, Mudanjiang, 4Department of Breast Surgery, 5Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Accurate and useful predictors of gastric carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are lacking at present. We aim to explore the potential prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR in advanced gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX or oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX regimen.Methods: We enrolled 91 patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from August 2008 to September 2015. The peripheral venous blood samples were collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The NLR was divided into two groups: low NLR <2.17 group and high NLR ≥2.17 group. Univariate analysis on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were generated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were assessed by univariate analyses, and the independent prognostic factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis (Cox’s proportional-hazards regression model.Results: The univariate analysis showed that median DFS and median OS were worse for high NLR values than low NLR values before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (median DFS: 19.97 and 26.87 months, respectively, P=0.299; median OS: 25.83 and 29.73 months, respectively, P=0.405. Multivariate analysis showed that the NLR before neoadjuvant

  8. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and the Influence of Chemotherapy on Overall Survival for Large (≥5 Centimeter) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grover, Surbhi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Simone, Charles B., E-mail: charles.simone@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5 cm lesions is poorly defined, largely owing to the low sample sizes in existing studies. The present analysis examined the SBRT outcomes and assessed the effect of chemotherapy in this population. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for primary non-small cell lung cancer ≥5 cm treated with SBRT (≤10 fractions). Patient, tumor, and treatment parameters were extracted. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Statistical methods involved Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results: From 2004 to 2012, data from 201 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up was 41.1 months. The median tumor size was 5.5 cm (interquartile range 5.0-6.0), with cT2a, cT2b, and cT3 disease in 24.9%, 53.2%, and 21.9%, respectively. The median total SBRT dose and fractionation was 50 Gy in 4 fractions, and 92.5% of the patients underwent SBRT with ≤5 fractions. The median OS was 25.1 months. Of the 201 patients, 15% received chemotherapy. The receipt of chemotherapy was associated with longer OS (median 30.6 vs 23.4 months; P=.027). On multivariable analysis, worse OS was seen with increasing age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03; P=.012), poorly differentiated tumors (HR 2.06; P=.049), and T3 classification (HR 2.13; P=.005). On multivariable analysis, chemotherapy remained independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.57; P=.039). Conclusions: SBRT has utility in the setting of tumors ≥5 cm, with chemotherapy associated with improved OS in this subset. These hypothesis-generating data now raise the necessity of performing prospective analyses to determine whether chemotherapy confers outcome benefits after SBRT.

  9. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves the Probability of Freedom From Recurrence in Patients With Resected Stage IB Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jung-Jyh; Wu, Yu-Chung; Chou, Teh-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hu

    2016-04-01

    The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial for patients with stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study investigated the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy and the predictors of benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage IB lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 243 patients with completely resected pathologic stage IB lung adenocarcinoma were included in the study. Predictors of the benefits of improved overall survival (OS) or probability of freedom from recurrence (FFR) from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected stage IB lung adenocarcinoma were investigated. Among the 243 patients, 70 (28.8%) had received platinum-based doublet adjuvant chemotherapy. A micropapillary/solid-predominant pattern (versus an acinar/papillary-predominant pattern) was a significantly worse prognostic factor for probability of FFR (p = 0.033). Although adjuvant chemotherapy (versus surgical intervention alone) was not a significant prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.303), it was a significant prognostic factor for a better probability of FFR (p = 0.029) on multivariate analysis. In propensity-score-matched pairs, there was no significant difference in OS between patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.386). Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly better probability of FFR than those who did not (p = 0.043). For patients with a predominantly micropapillary/solid pattern, adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.033) was a significant prognostic factor for a better probability of FFR on multivariate analysis. Adjuvant chemotherapy is a favorable prognostic factor for the probability of FFR in patients with stage IB lung adenocarcinoma, particularly in those with a micropapillary/solid-predominant pattern. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radium-223 Improves Survival in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This well-executed study shows a clear survival benefit in patients who had received the treatments that were available when the study was conducted, including standard chemotherapy,” said Bhupinder Mann, MBBS, of NCI’s Division of ...

  11. CMEA cooperative trials in chemotherapy of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, E.S.; Pitskhelauri, V.G.; Trakhtenberg, A.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    TA comparative analysis of the immediate and short-term results of chemo- and radiotherapy of 174 patients with well differentiated inoperable lung cancer has been performed. The data were presented by the participants of the CMEA cooperative trial (the Hungarian People's Reg public, the USSR and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic over the period of 1976-1980). Comparative analysis has shown that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy tends to improve an immediate therapeutic effect. In well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, a marked positive effect was obtained in 48.6% of the patients as compared to 31.2% in radiotherapy alone. However, judging by the survival rates such differences in favor of chemotherapy were not revealed. After conservative treatment (radio- and chemotherapy) of patients with differentiated lung cancer in the inoperable stage 55.7% survived for 1, 17.27% for 2, 8.55% for 3 yrs. Direct correlation between the immediate effect of radio- and chemotherapy and the survival of the patients was revealed. Of 67 patients with a marked immediate effect 49 (73.1%) lived over 1 year, 8 out of 9 patients lived for 3 yrs

  12. Brachytherapy Improves Survival in Stage III Endometrial Cancer With Cervical Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Orton, Andrew; Boothe, Dustin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Stoddard, Greg [Division of Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Huang, Y. Jessica; Gaffney, David K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: Matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival benefit of adding vaginal brachytherapy (BT) to pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in women with stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients with stage III endometrial cancer from 2004 to 2013. Only women who received adjuvant EBRT were analyzed. Women were grouped according to receipt of BT. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify predictors of receiving BT. Log–rank statistics were used to compare survival outcomes. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the effect of BT on survival. A propensity score–matched analysis was also conducted among women with cervical involvement. Results: We evaluated 12,988 patients with stage III endometrial carcinoma, 39% of whom received EBRT plus BT. Women who received BT were more likely to have endocervical or cervical stromal involvement (odds ratios 2.03 and 1.77; P<.01, respectively). For patients receiving EBRT alone, the 5-year survival was 66% versus 69% with the addition of BT at 5 years (P<.01). Brachytherapy remained significantly predictive of decreased risk of death (hazard ratio 0.86; P<.01) on multivariate Cox regression. The addition of BT to EBRT did not affect survival among women without cervical involvement (P=.84). For women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion, the addition of BT significantly improved survival (log–rank P<.01). Receipt of EBRT plus BT was associated with improved survival in women with positive and negative surgical margins, and receiving chemotherapy did not alter the benefit of BT. Propensity score–matched analysis results confirmed the benefit of BT among women with cervical involvement (hazard ratio 0.80; P=.01). Conclusions: In this population of women with stage III endometrial cancer the addition of BT to EBRT was associated with an improvement in survival for women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion.

  13. Brachytherapy Improves Survival in Stage III Endometrial Cancer With Cervical Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, Brian; Orton, Andrew; Boothe, Dustin; Stoddard, Greg; Huang, Y. Jessica; Gaffney, David K.; Poppe, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival benefit of adding vaginal brachytherapy (BT) to pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in women with stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients with stage III endometrial cancer from 2004 to 2013. Only women who received adjuvant EBRT were analyzed. Women were grouped according to receipt of BT. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify predictors of receiving BT. Log–rank statistics were used to compare survival outcomes. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the effect of BT on survival. A propensity score–matched analysis was also conducted among women with cervical involvement. Results: We evaluated 12,988 patients with stage III endometrial carcinoma, 39% of whom received EBRT plus BT. Women who received BT were more likely to have endocervical or cervical stromal involvement (odds ratios 2.03 and 1.77; P<.01, respectively). For patients receiving EBRT alone, the 5-year survival was 66% versus 69% with the addition of BT at 5 years (P<.01). Brachytherapy remained significantly predictive of decreased risk of death (hazard ratio 0.86; P<.01) on multivariate Cox regression. The addition of BT to EBRT did not affect survival among women without cervical involvement (P=.84). For women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion, the addition of BT significantly improved survival (log–rank P<.01). Receipt of EBRT plus BT was associated with improved survival in women with positive and negative surgical margins, and receiving chemotherapy did not alter the benefit of BT. Propensity score–matched analysis results confirmed the benefit of BT among women with cervical involvement (hazard ratio 0.80; P=.01). Conclusions: In this population of women with stage III endometrial cancer the addition of BT to EBRT was associated with an improvement in survival for women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion.

  14. Nutritional factors as predictors of response to radio-chemotherapy and survival in unresectable squamous head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Sebastien; Deville, Jean-Laurent; Giorgi, Roch; Pignon, Thierry; Bagarry, Danielle; Barrau, Karine; Zanaret, Michel; Giovanni, Antoine; Bourgeois, Aude; Favre, Roger; Duffaud, Florence

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study sought to evaluate nutritional prognostic factors before treatment in patients with unresectable head and neck cancer treated by concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Methods and materials: Seventy-two consecutive patients were treated. We studied the potential effects of CRP, Alb, preAlb, orosomucoid, weight, weight history, BMI, PINI, OPR and NRI on response to treatment, Event-Free Survival (EFS) and Overall Survival (OS). Effects of potential risk factors on OS and on EFS were analyzed by computing Kaplan-Meier estimates, and curves were compared using the log-rank test. Results: All biological nutritional factors were statistically correlated with the response to radio-chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, only CRP (p = 0.004) remained statistically significant. A statistical correlation was found between Alb and EFS in multivariate analysis (p = 0.04). The factors influencing OS in univariate analysis were Alb (p = 0.008), CRP (p = 0.004), orosomucoid (p = 0.01) and NRI (p = 0.01), response to radio-chemotherapy (p < 0.001) and staging (p = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, only the response to radio-chemotherapy (p < 0.001) remained significant. Conclusions: This study illustrates the prognostic value of nutritional status. CRP and Alb may be useful in the assessment of advanced head and neck cancer patients at diagnosis and for stratifying patients taking part in randomized trials

  15. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy in cervical cancer: recommendations for chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Haensgen, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Simultaneous radiochemotherapy has recently been demonstrated to be superior to radiation alone in the treatment of cervical cancer. The objective of this article is to summarize the data of major randomized trials and to derive recommendations for daily clinical practice. Materials and Methods: We have analyzed the data from seven randomized trials in the recent literature in which radiotherapy alone as standard treatment has been compared to simultaneous radiochemotherapy. Four trials used cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens, 5-FU, mitomycin C and epirubicin were used each in one trial. Results: All trials demonstrated some improvement in survival which was significant in the studies with cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens. The survival benefit resulted mainly from an improvement in local control whereas chemotherapy had only a small and insignificant effect on distant metastases. Thus, the main action of chemotherapy is ''radiosensitization''. Cisplatin as single drug yielded comparable results as compared to combined regimens although the cisplatin dose was lower in the studies with combination chemotherapy. For the definitive treatment of locally advanced cancers, monotherapy with cisplatin can be recommended. Mitomycin C offers an attractive alternative to cisplatin in patients with contraindications for cisplatin. For postoperative radiochemotherapy, a combination of cisplatin/5-FU should be used because data with cisplatin alone are lacking so far. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy should also be considered for the curative treatment of local recurrences. Conclusions: The addition of simultaneous chemotherapy to radiotherapy is indicated in the vast majority of patients with cervical cancers who are treated with curative intent. (orig.) [de

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  17. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Seemed Not to Have Survival Benefit in Rectal Cancer Patients with ypTis-2N0 After Preoperative Radiotherapy and Surgery from a Population-Based Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Li, Ya-Qi; Li, Qing-Guo; Ma, Yan-Lei; Peng, Jun-Jie; Cai, San-Jun

    2018-04-19

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently offered routinely, as standard, after radical resection for patients with rectal cancer receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation. However, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with ypTis-2N0M0 has not been documented to the same extent, and the survival benefit remained controversial. The purpose of this work was to determine the role of chemotherapy in patients with ypTis-2N0M0 classification. Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database ( n  = 4,217). A propensity score model was utilized to balance baseline covariates. Of the 4,217 included patients, 335 with ypTis-2N0M0 did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. There were comparable cancer-specific survivals (CSS) between those undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or not (log-rank test = 0.136, p  = .712) in the overall sample. After propensity score matching, the cancer-specific survival did not differ between the chemotherapy and observation groups (log-rank test = 0.089, p  = .765). Additionally, the Cox model did not demonstrate adjuvant chemotherapy as the prognostic factor, with hazard ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.32) for CSS. Furthermore, the 10-year cumulative CSS was 78.7% and 79.4% between the chemotherapy and observation groups, indicating no significance, and no impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival was observed in different subgroups stratified by T stage, histological grade, histology, lymph nodes, and tumor size. Patients with ypTis-2N0 rectal cancer did not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative radiology and radical surgery in this cohort study. These results provided new insight into the routine use of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer with completed neo-adjuvant radiotherapy and curative surgery. Inconsistent recommendations for patients with rectal cancer receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation are offered by clinical guidelines. Adjuvant

  18. Radiotherapy of esophageal cancer in combination with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, Shoshi; Koga, Kenji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Yasushi; Kusuhara, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Katuji

    1983-01-01

    The significance of combination of chemotherapy in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer was evaluated in 32 patients. They were irradiated routinely in 5 times a weeks with a fraction dose of 200 rad by 10MV-X-ray linear accelerator. Combined drugs consist of Bleomycin or Pepleomycin in two-third and 5FU or FT-207 in one-third. There was statistically no significance between the results of radiation alone and combined chemotherapy, and the improvement of survival rate could not be obtained by combining chemotherapy. Some discussion on the causes of this unimprovement were made. (author)

  19. Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radio-chemotherapy beneficial in T4 anal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L; Viret, F; Giovaninni, M; Lelong, B; Bories, E; Delpero, J R; Pesenti, C; Caillol, F; de Chaisemartin, C; Minsat, M; Monges, G; Sarran, A; Resbeut, M

    2011-07-01

    This study retrospectively describes the outcome of a series of 38 patients (pts) with T4 anal carcinoma exclusively treated by radio and chemotherapy. From 1992 to 2007, 38 pts with UST4-N0-2-M0 anal carcinoma were treated with exclusive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. All patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose 45 Gy) with a concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). Eleven patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). After 2-8 weeks, a 15-20 Gy boost was delivered either with EBRT (20 pts) or interstitial (192)Ir brachytherapy (18 pts). Mean follow-up was 66 months. After chemoradiation therapy (CRT), 13 pts (34%) had a complete response, 23 pts (60%) a response >50% (2 pts were not evaluated). The 5-year-disease-free survival was 79.2 ± 6.5%, and the 5-year overall survival was 83.9 ± 6%. Eight patients developed tumor progression (mean delay 8.8 months), six of them requiring a salvage surgery with definitive colostomy for local relapse. Late severe complication requiring colostomy was observed in 2 pts. The 5-year-colostomy-free survival was 78 ± 6.9%. Patients who received primary chemotherapy had a statistically significant better 5-year colostomy-free survival (100% vs. 38 ± 16.4%, P = 0.0006). T4 anal carcinoma can be treated with a curative intent using a sphincter-sparing approach of CRT, and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Impact of Molecular Subtypes in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer on Predicting Response and Survival after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Ashab, Hussam Al Deen; Erho, Nicholas; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Winters, Brian; Douglas, James; Van Kessel, Kim E; Fransen van de Putte, Elisabeth E; Sommerlad, Matthew; Wang, Natalie Q; Choeurng, Voleak; Gibb, Ewan A; Palmer-Aronsten, Beatrix; Lam, Lucia L; Buerki, Christine; Davicioni, Elai; Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Kardos, Jordan; Hoadley, Katherine A; Lerner, Seth P; McConkey, David J; Choi, Woonyoung; Kim, William Y; Kiss, Bernhard; Thalmann, George N; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Crabb, Simon J; North, Scott; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Boormans, Joost L; Wright, Jonathan; Dall'Era, Marc; van der Heijden, Michiel S; Black, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    An early report on the molecular subtyping of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) by gene expression suggested that response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) varies by subtype. To investigate the ability of molecular subtypes to predict pathological downstaging and survival after NAC. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed on pre-NAC transurethral resection specimens from 343 patients with MIBC. Samples were classified according to four published molecular subtyping methods. We developed a single-sample genomic subtyping classifier (GSC) to predict consensus subtypes (claudin-low, basal, luminal-infiltrated and luminal) with highest clinical impact in the context of NAC. Overall survival (OS) according to subtype was analyzed and compared with OS in 476 non-NAC cases (published datasets). Gene expression analysis was used to assign subtypes. Receiver-operating characteristics were used to determine the accuracy of GSC. The effect of GSC on survival was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. The models generated subtype calls in expected ratios with high concordance across subtyping methods. GSC was able to predict four consensus molecular subtypes with high accuracy (73%), and clinical significance of the predicted consensus subtypes could be validated in independent NAC and non-NAC datasets. Luminal tumors had the best OS with and without NAC. Claudin-low tumors were associated with poor OS irrespective of treatment regimen. Basal tumors showed the most improvement in OS with NAC compared with surgery alone. The main limitations of our study are its retrospective design and comparison across datasets. Molecular subtyping may have an impact on patient benefit to NAC. If validated in additional studies, our results suggest that patients with basal tumors should be prioritized for NAC. We discovered the first single-sample classifier to subtype MIBC, which may be suitable for integration into routine clinical practice. Different molecular

  1. Effect of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Perfusion Chemotherapy in Combination with Intravenous Chemotherapy as Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibing; Ma, Shenglin; Jing, Saisai; Deng, Qinghua; Zheng, Zhishuang; Wu, Kan; Li, Juan; Chen, Sumei; Tang, Rongjun; Li, Xiadong

    2014-06-01

    The aim is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and side effects of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin intravenous chemotherapy in combination with cisplatin hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (HIPEC) as postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients of locally advanced gastric cancer (GC) at high risk for recurrence after curative resection. Four GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were enrolled. All patients received paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 on day 1, 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, LV 200 mg/m2 on days 1-5 intravenous chemotherapy, cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 5, and HIPEC one month after surgery. It was repeated at 3 weeks intervals and at least two cycles administered. A total of 181 cycles of chemotherapy were administered (median, 4 cycles). The median disease free survival time of patients was 40.8 months. The median overall survival time was 48.0 months. The one-, two-, and three-year recurrence rates were 14.6%, 26.8%, and 46.3%, respectively. The main relapse patterns were remnant GC and metastases of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The morbidity of grade 3 and 4 toxicities of myelosuppression, nausea/ vomiting were less than 10%. The side effects of grade 1 and 2 of hematologic toxicity, nausea and vomiting, abnormal function of liver, kidney or cardiac, fatigue and neurotoxicity were well tolerated. Cisplatin HIPEC combined with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin intravenous chemotherapy regimen could improve the survival rate and decrease the postoperative recurrence of locally advanced GC.

  2. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC COLORECTAL CANCER TREATED WITH FIRST - LINE CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Davidov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance for survival of certain clinical and pathological factors in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC treated with first- line chemotherapy. Methods: From 2002 to 2011 seventy- four consecutive patients with advanced or metastatic CRC, treated in UMHAT- Dr. G. Stranski, Department of Medical Oncology entered the study. Some patient’s characteristics, hematological and pathological parameters, were evaluated for their role as predictors of overall survival. The therapeutic regimens included FOLFOX or FOlFIRI. Survival analysis was evaluated by Kaplan- Meier test. The influence of pretreatment characteristics as prognostic factor for survival was analyzed using multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses. Results: In multivariate analysis a significant correlation was exhibited between survival, poor performance status and multiple sites of metastasis. Variables significantly associated with overall survival in univariate analysis were performance status>1, thrombocytosis, anemia and number of metastatic sites >1. Conclusion: These results indicated that poor performance status, anemia, thrombocytosis as well as multiple site of metastasis could be useful prognostic factors in patients with metastatic CRC.

  3. Association of Metformin Use with Outcomes in Advanced Endometrial Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiageli Ezewuiro

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that metformin, a commonly used treatment for diabetes, might have the potential to be repurposed as an economical and safe cancer therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether stage III-IV or recurrent endometrial cancer patients who are using metformin during treatment with chemotherapy have improved survival. To test this we analyzed a retrospective cohort of subjects at two independent institutions who received chemotherapy for stage III-IV or recurrent endometrial cancer from 1992 to 2011. Diagnosis of diabetes, metformin use, demographics, endometrial cancer clinico-pathologic parameters, and survival duration were abstracted. The primary outcome was overall survival. The final cohort included 349 patients, 31 (8.9% had diabetes and used metformin, 28 (8.0% had diabetes but did not use metformin, and 291 (83.4% did not have diabetes. The results demonstrate that the median overall survival was 45.6 months for patients with diabetes who used metformin compared to 12.5 months for patients with diabetes who did not use metformin and 28.5 months for patients without diabetes (log-rank test comparing the three groups P = 0.006. In a model adjusted for confounders, the difference in survival between the three groups remained statistically significant (P = 0.023. The improvement in survival among metformin users was not explained by better baseline health status or more aggressive use of chemotherapy. Overall, the findings in this retrospective cohort of endometrial cancer patients with stage III-IV or recurrent disease treated with chemotherapy indicate that patients with diabetes who were concurrently treated with metformin survived longer than patients with diabetes who did not use metformin.

  4. Colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma: benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy but a poor prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugen, Niek; Verhoeven, Rob H; Lemmens, Valery E; van Aart, Carola J; Elferink, Marloes A; Radema, Sandra A; Nagtegaal, Iris D; de Wilt, Johannes H

    2015-01-15

    Colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) has been associated with poor survival compared with mucinous adenocarcinoma (MC) and the more common adenocarcinoma (AC). Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in SRCC has never been assessed. This study analyzes the prognostic impact of SRCC and determines whether colonic SRCC patients benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy equally compared with MC and AC patients. Data on 196,757 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in the period 1989-2010 was included in this Dutch nationwide population-based study. Five-year relative survival estimates were calculated and multivariate relative survival analyses using a multiple regression model of relative excess risk (RER) were performed. SRCC was found in 1,972 (1.0%) patients. SRCC patients presented more frequently with stage III or IV disease than AC patients (75.2% vs. 43.6%, p chemotherapy (RER 1.10, 95% CI 0.81-1.51), suggesting a comparable benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in AC and SRCC. In conclusion, the prognostic impact of SRCC is dismal in both colon and rectal cancer patients, but adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in AC, MC, and SRCC patients. © 2014 UICC.

  5. PD-L1 Expression and Survival among Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steffen Filskov; Zhou, Wei; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemotherapy are inconsistent. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between PD-L1 expression and overall survival (OS) among 204 patients with advanced NSCLC treated at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, from 2007 to 2012. PD......-positive tumors, and 50% had PD-L1 weak-positive tumors. No statistically significant association was found between PD-L1 expression and survival; adjusted hazard ratio of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-2.03; median OS, 9.0 months) for the PD-L1 strong-positive group and 1.07 (0.74-1.55; median OS, 9...... by immunohistochemistry to be frequently expressed in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, PD-L1 expression is not a strong prognostic marker in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with chemotherapy....

  6. Astrocytes protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and upregulate survival genes via gap junctional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingtang; Liu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Xu, Geng

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor. Using current standard treatment regimens, the prognosis of patients with gliomas remains poor, which is predominantly due to the resistance of glioma cells to chemotherapy. The organ microenvironment has been implicated in the pathogenesis and survival of tumor cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that astrocytes (the housekeeping cells of the brain microenvironment) may protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Immunofluorescent and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that glioma cells were surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes. In vitro co-culture of glioma cells with astrocytes significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects on glioma cells caused by various chemotherapeutic agents, as demonstrated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-propidium iodide flow cytometry. Transwell experiments indicated that this protective effect was dependent on physical contact and the gap junctional communication (GJC) between astrocytes and glioma cells. Microarray expression profiling further revealed that astrocytes upregulated the expression levels of various critical survival genes in the glioma cells via GJC. The results of the present study indicated that the organ microenvironment may affect the biological behavior of tumor cells and suggest a novel mechanism of resistance in glioma cells, which may be of therapeutic relevance clinically.

  7. Is adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for patients with microinvasive breast cancer after surgery?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Fei Niu; Li-Juan Wei; Jin-Pu Yu; Zhen Lian; Jing Zhao; Zi-Zheng Wu; Jun-Tian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Survival and treatment of patients with microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) remain controversial. In this paper, we evaluated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for patients with MIBC to identify risk factors influencing its prognosis and decide the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods:In this retrospective study, 108 patients with MIBC were recruited according to seventh edition of the staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). The subjects were divided into chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups. We compared the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between groups. Furthermore, we analyzed the factors related to prognosis for patients with MIBC using univariate and multivariate analyses. We also evaluated the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the prognostic factors by subgroup analysis after median follow-up time of 33 months (13-104 months). Results:The 5-year DFS and OS rates for the chemotherapy group were 93.7% and 97.5%, whereas those for the non-chemotherapy group were 89.7% and 100%. Results indicate that 5-year DFS was superior, but OS was inferior, in the former group compared with the latter group. However, no statistical significance was observed in the 5-year DFS (P=0.223) or OS (P=0.530) rate of the two groups. Most relevant poor-prognostic factors were Ki-67 overexpression and negative hormonal receptors. Cumulative survival was 98.2%vs. 86.5% between low Ki-67 (≤20%) and high Ki-67 (>20%). The hazard ratio of patients with high Ki-67 was 16.585 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.969-139.724;P=0.010]. Meanwhile, ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC had cumulative survival of 79.3% compared with 97.5% for ER(+) or PR(+) patients with MIBC. The hazard ratio for ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC was 19.149 (95% CI, 3.702-99.057;P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chemotherapy could improve the outcomes of ER(-)/PR(-) patients (P=0.014), but not those who overexpress Ki-67 (P=0

  8. Enzalutamide in Men with Chemotherapy-naïve Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Enzalutamide significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) among men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer at the prespecified interim analysis of PREVAIL, a phase 3, double-blind, randomized study. We evaluated...

  9. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor priming chemotherapy is more effective than standard chemotherapy as salvage therapy in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; He, Aili; Wang, Fangxia; Bai, Ju; Wang, Jianli; Zhao, Wanhong; Zhang, Wanggang; Cao, Xingmei; Chen, Yinxia; Liu, Jie; Ma, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongli; Feng, Yuandong; Yang, Yun

    2017-12-29

    To improve the complete remission (CR) rate of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and alleviate the severe side effects of double induction chemotherapy, we combined a standard regimen with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) priming chemotherapy to compose a new double induction regimen for AML patients who failed to achieve CR after the first course. Ninety-seven patients with AML who did not achieve CR after the first course of standard chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, 45 patients received G-CSF priming combined with low-dose chemotherapy during days 20-22 of the first course of chemotherapy, serving as priming group, 52 patients were administered standard chemotherapy again, serving as control group. Between the two groups there were no differences in the French-American-British (FAB) classification, risk status, the first course of chemotherapy, blood cell count or blasts percentage of bone marrow before the second course. But the CR rate was significantly higher and the adverse effect was much lower in the priming group than the control group. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that WBC level before the second course and the selection of the second chemotherapy regimen were two independent factors for long survival of patients. These results elucidate that standard chemotherapy followed by G-CSF priming new double induction chemotherapy is an effective method for AML patients to improve CR rate and reduce adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective analysis on prognostic impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in the patients with advanced and resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Koike, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Hideki; Uehara, Shinobu; Kobayashi, Hiroichi; Kurashina, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unclear mainly because there have been a few studies which evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in the patients with advanced and resectable oral SCC. Forty-one patients in whom advanced SCC (stage III and IV) was completely removed were included in this study. The impact of multiple variables including T-classification, degree of differentiation, mode of invasion, number and level of cervical metastatic node, pre- and post-operative radiation therapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy on survival and control of local relapse or distant metastasis was assessed using the stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. The level of neck node metastasis (p<0.02) was a significant independent predictor for cause-specific survival and adjuvant chemotherapy was of borderline significance (p=0.07). The number of neck node metastasis (p<0.01) and adjuvant chemotherapy (p<0.01) were significantly related with disease free survival. The results of this retrospective study suggested that adjuvant chemotherapy had a significant benefit in improving disease free survival. (author)

  11. Comparison of induction chemotherapy before radiotherapy with radiotherapy only in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, O.; Nou, E.; Mercke, C.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this randomised trial was to investigate the effect of induction chemotherapy before radiotherapy on survival in 302 patients with non-resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Radiotherapy, 56 Gy to the chest, was given to 154 patients and combined treatment, with chemotherapy preceding the radiotherapy, to 148 patients. Chemotherapy consisted of three courses of cisplatin (120 mg/m 2 ) and etoposide (100 mg/m 2 i.v. for 3 days) administered every fourth week. Median survival was 10.5 months in the radiotherapy arm and 11 months in the combined treatment arm. The 2-year survival rate was 17% in the radiotherapy arm and 21% in the combined treatment arm. Addition of chemotherapy seemed to significantly improve survival, according to the Cox multivariate analysis (P = 0.04), but as only a trend according to life-table analysis (P = 0.11). Chemotherapy also accomplished a trend towards improved local control (P 0.08) and towards decreased metastatic disease (P = 0.10). 2 patients in the combined treatment arm, but none in the radiotherapy ar, died from toxicity. The conclusion was that the value of the chemotherapy used in this study was very modest, but the results strongly support further research for more efficient drugs and combinations. (author)

  12. Palliative chemotherapy and targeted therapies for esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Vincent T; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Gaast, Ate; Mathijssen, Ron Hj; Bruno, Marco J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon Cw

    2017-11-28

    Almost half of people with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies are increasingly used with a palliative intent to control tumor growth, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. To date, and with the exception of ramucirumab, evidence for the efficacy of palliative treatments for esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer is lacking. To assess the effects of cytostatic or targeted therapy for treating esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer with palliative intent. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Web of Science, PubMed Publisher, Google Scholar, and trial registries up to 13 May 2015, and we handsearched the reference lists of studies. We did not restrict the search to publications in English. Additional searches were run in September 2017 prior to publication, and they are listed in the 'Studies awaiting assessment' section. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on palliative chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy versus best supportive care or control in people with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Two authors independently extracted data. We assessed the quality and risk of bias of eligible studies according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We calculated pooled estimates of effect using an inverse variance random-effects model for meta-analysis. We identified 41 RCTs with 11,853 participants for inclusion in the review as well as 49 ongoing studies. For the main comparison of adding a cytostatic and/or targeted agent to a control arm, we included 11 studies with 1347 participants. This analysis demonstrated an increase in overall survival in favor of the arm with an additional cytostatic or targeted therapeutic agent with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.84, high-quality evidence). The median increased

  13. Selections of appropriate regimen of high-dose chemotherapy combined with adoptive cellular therapy with dendritic and cytokine-induced killer cells improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer: reargument of such contentious therapeutic preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Di, Lijun; Song, Guohong; Yu, Jing; Jia, Jun; Zhu, Yuling; Yan, Ying; Jiang, Hanfang; Liang, Xu; Che, Li; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Fengling; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xinna; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that combination of dendritic cell (DC) with autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) immunotherapy in setting of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) would be effective for selected metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Our previous work showed thiotepa could eradicate breast cancer stem cells. From 2004 to 2009, 79 patients received standard dose chemotherapy (SDC) of 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel and 75 mg/m(2) thiotepa versus 87 patients of HDC + DC/CIK: 120 mg/m(2) docetaxel to mobilize peripheral CD34(+) progenitor cells, a sequence of HDC (120 mg/m(2) docetaxel, plus 175 mg/m(2) thiotepa) + DC/CIK, with or without 400 mg/m(2) carboplatin depending upon bone marrow function. The endpoints were response rates (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Compared with SDC, PFS and OS were improved in HDC + DC/CIK (median PFS 10.2 vs. 3.7 months, P < 0.001; median OS 33.1 vs. 15.2 months, P < 0.001). Patients of pre-menopausal, HDC as first-line treatment after metastasis, or with visceral metastasis showed prolonged PFS and OS. SDC group also achieved the similar response as previous reports. Our study demonstrated the novel combination of HDC with DC/CIK to be an effective choice for the selected MBC population, in which choosing appropriate chemo regimens played important roles, and also specific HDC regimen plus DC/CIK immunotherapy showed the clinical benefits compared with chemotherapy alone.

  14. Adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, I. Craig

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Present the results of the 1995 World Overview which will be held in Oxford England two weeks before ASTRO. Discuss the interpretation and application of these results. Review current research topics on the use of adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer. The survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women and adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal women are well established. Each will reduce the annual odds of death by about 25% resulting in a 10 year survival difference of 8-10%. By the time of this presentation, the results of the 1995 Adjuvant Therapy Overview should be with 10+ years of follow-up, and if possible these will be summarized. Current efforts to improve on previous results are focused on the following areas: Optimal chemotherapy dose. Decreasing dose will compromise patient survival. It is not as certain that increasing dose will have as much impact in improving survival. The NSABP was unable to demonstrate an improvement in survival by modestly increasing the dose of cyclophosphamide alone. However, recent results of a Canadian study of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epidoxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil) and an Intergroup trial of an intense 16 week polychemotherapy program keep alive the possibility that dose escalation is still a very important question. An NSABP trial evaluating even greater cyclophosphamide dose escalation, an Intergroup evaluation of different doxorubicin doses, and two Intergroup trials evaluating very high dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should provide definitive evidence regarding the importance of dose. Drug sequence. A study from Milan suggests that initial treatment with single agent doxorubicin followed by CMF will be superior to alternating doxorubicin and CMF. This has not been confirmed yet, and the reason for increased benefit from such a sequence is not entirely clear. This concept is being explored further in an Intergroup trial comparing four cycles of

  15. Combined modality treatment improves tumor control and overall survival in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed A; Brillant, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    as well as conference proceedings from January 1980 to February 2009 for randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone versus the same chemotherapy regimen plus radiotherapy. Progression free survival and similar outcomes were analyzed together as tumor control. Effect measures used were......Combined modality treatment (CMT) of chemotherapy followed by localized radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the role of radiotherapy has been questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication....... We thus performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma with respect to response rate, tumor control and overall survival (OS). We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library...

  16. Impact of chemotherapy relative dose intensity on cause-specific and overall survival for stage I-III breast cancer: ER+/PR+, HER2- vs. triple-negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Loch, Michelle; Chen, Vivien W; Fontham, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Tekeda

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the impact of chemotherapy relative dose intensity (RDI) on cause-specific and overall survival for stage I-III breast cancer: estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive, human epidermal-growth factor receptor negative (ER+/PR+ and HER2-) vs. triple-negative (TNBC) and to identify the optimal RDI cut-off points in these two patient populations. Data were collected by the Louisiana Tumor Registry for two CDC-funded projects. Women diagnosed with stage I-III ER+/PR+, HER2- breast cancer, or TNBC in 2011 with complete information on RDI were included. Five RDI cut-off points (95, 90, 85, 80, and 75%) were evaluated on cause-specific and overall survival, adjusting for multiple demographic variables, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, use of granulocyte-growth factor/cytokines, chemotherapy delay, chemotherapy regimens, and use of hormone therapy. Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were estimated and adjusted by stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) of propensity score. Of 494 ER+/PR+, HER2- patients and 180 TNBC patients, RDI PR+, HER2- patients, 85% was the only cut-off point at which the low RDI was significantly associated with worse overall survival (HR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.09-3.40). Among TNBC patients, 75% was the cut-off point at which the high RDI was associated with better cause-specific (HR = 2.64; 95% CI 1.09, 6.38) and overall survival (HR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.04-5.51). Higher RDI of chemotherapy is associated with better survival for ER+/PR+, HER2- patients and TNBC patients. To optimize survival benefits, RDI should be maintained ≥ 85% in ER+/PR+, HER2- patients, and ≥ 75% in TNBC patients.

  17. Treatment results of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu; Kato, Eriko; Ito, Yosiyuki; Kikuti, Yuzo

    1995-01-01

    Sixteen patients with nasopharyngeal cancer were treated with a combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy. Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin (50 mg/m 2 , 2 days) and 5-fluorouracil (700 mg/m 2 , 5 days) was given successively with radiation therapy. The complications of chemotherapy were generally acceptable except one patient who was shocked by cisplatin. The survival rate was significantly improved compared with historical control cases. The main reason for this effectiveness was the improvement of localized control. The suppression of distant metastasis is the subject of future research. (author)

  18. Systemic immune–inflammation index as a useful prognostic indicator predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1,* Ying Yan,2,* Lihua Zhu,3 Xiliang Cong,1 Sen Li,1 Shubin Song,1 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue1 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Internal Oncology, Harbin The First Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 3Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: A novel systemic immune–inflammation index named SII (SII=N×P/L, which is based on neutrophil (N, platelet (P and lymphocyte (L counts, has emerged and reflects comprehensively the balance of host inflammatory and immune status. We aimed to evaluate the potential prognostic significance of SII in patients with advanced gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Subjects and methods: The retrospective analysis included data from 107 patients with advanced gastric cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 185 patients with pathology-proven gastric cancer. The optimal cutoff value of SII by receiver operating characteristic curve stratified patients into low SII (<600×109/L and high SII (SII ≥600×109/L groups. The clinical outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were calculated by Kaplan–Meier survival curves and compared using log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the prognostic value of SII.Results: The results indicated that SII had prognostic significance using the cutoff value of 600×109/L on DFS and OS in univariate and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses. Low SII was associated with prolonged DFS and OS, and the mean DFS and OS for patients with low SII were longer than for those with high SII (57.22 vs 41.56 months and 62.25 vs 45.60 months, respectively. Furthermore, we found that patients

  19. Localized Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer Treated with High Energy Neutrons and Chemotherapy at Fermilab - Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroja, K. R. [Unlisted, US, IL; Cohen, Lionel [Unlisted, US, IL; Hendrickson, Frank R. [Unlisted, US, IL; Mansell, JoAnne [Fermilab

    1990-01-01

    Between January 1985 and July 1989 a total of thirty-eight patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were treated with high energy neutrons at Fermilab. Twenty-one patients received only neutrons and seventeen were given chemotherapy in addition, either concurrently or subsequently following the completion of neutron irradiation. This is a retrospective study. Data were analyzed for tolerance, complications and survival. Three of the twenty-one (14%) patients who received only neutron beam therapy developed Grade ID or greater complications in the RTOG/EORTC scale. The median survival was 6.4 months. One of these patients is alive 10 months post treatment. Of seventeen patients who also received chemotherapy, five (29%) had severe complications. However, median survival was 13.5 months. Four of these seventeen patients are still alive at the time of this analysis. The preliminary results show that there is improvement in the survival of patients treated with combined neutron irradiation and chemotherapy. A pilot study to further evaluate these results in a larger group of patients is underway. Details of complications and chemotherapy regimen will be preseqted.

  20. Is There a Survival Benefit of First-Line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine-Kinase Inhibitor Monotherapy Versus Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer?: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetz, Gaetan Des; Landre, Thierry; Uzzan, Bernard; Chouahnia, Kader; Nicolas, Patrick; Morere, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) markedly improve progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mutated for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Results on overall survival (OS) are less clear-cut. We performed a publication-based meta-analysis to address further this issue. We did a PubMed query using keywords simultaneously (lung neoplasm, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, survival, and randomized controlled trials). We also searched for relevant abstracts in annual proceedings of ASCO, ESMO, and WCLC meetings. We cross-checked all references from all eligible articles. Only phase III randomized controlled trials comparing TKI monotherapy and platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in first-line treatment of metastatic or advanced NSCLC were included. We used EasyMA software to perform statistical analyses. A random effect model was used in case of heterogeneity between studies (and a fixed effect model in absence of heterogeneity). The eight eligible studies included 2962 patients (780 males, 2182 females, mostly Asian, median age 60 years), 2909 adenocarcinomas (98 %), 1739 mutated tumors (897 exon 19 deletion, 699 L858 mutation), 448 stage IIIB, and 2222 stage IV (75 %) tumours and 2453 never smokers (83 %). Four studies assessed gefitinib, two studies assessed erlotinib, and two studies assessed afatinib. Chemotherapies were doublets including a platinum salt. All studies included patients with EGFR mutations, but six studies included only EGFR mutated patients. OS was similar among patients who first received TKI or chemotherapy (HR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.87-1.10, fixed effect model). Conversely, compared with chemotherapy, EGFR TKIs significantly improved PFS in patients with EGFR-mutated tumours (HR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.29-0.49, random effect model). Concerning side effects, rash (RR 6.29, 95 % CI 4.05-9.77), diarrhoea (RR 3.51, 95 % CI 2.15-5.75), stomatitis (RR 3.57, 95 % CI 1

  1. Optimisation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for untreated Hodgkin lymphoma patients with respect to second malignant neoplasms, overall and progression-free survival: individual participant data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jeremy; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Becker, Ingrid; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas

    2017-09-13

    radiotherapy; early stages). Fewer chemotherapy courses probably has little or no effect on SMN risk (Peto OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.62), OS (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73 to1.34) or PFS (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.45).Outcomes had a moderate (SMN) or high (OS, PFS) quality of evidence. Dose-intensified versus ABVD-like chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy in each case). In the mainly advanced-stage patients who were treated with intensified chemotherapy, the rate of secondary malignancies was low. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effect of chemotherapy intensification (Peto OR 1.37, CI 0.89 to 2.10, low quality of evidence). The rate of secondary acute leukemias (and for younger patients, all secondary malignancies) was probably higher than among those who had treatment with standard-dose ABVD-like protocols. In contrast, the intensified chemotherapy protocols probably improved PFS (eight-year PFS 75% versus 69% for ABVD-like treatment, HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.95, moderate quality of evidence). Evidence suggesting improved survival with intensified chemotherapy was not conclusive (HR: 0.85, CI 0.70 to 1.04), although escalated-dose BEACOPP appeared to lengthen survival compared to ABVD-like chemotherapy (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79, moderate quality of evidence).Generally, we could draw valid conclusions only in terms of secondary haematological malignancies, which usually occur less than 10 years after initial treatment, while follow-up within the present analysis was too short to record all solid tumours. The risk of secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS) is increased but efficacy is improved among patients treated with intensified chemotherapy protocols. Treatment decisions must be tailored for individual patients. Consolidating radiotherapy is associated with an increased rate of secondary malignancies; therefore it appears important to define which patients can safely be treated without radiotherapy after chemotherapy, both

  2. Assessing functional status and the survival benefit of chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer using administrative claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Josephine; Gardner, Lisa; Hendrick, Franklin; Edelman, Martin J; Davidoff, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Borderline or poor performance status (PS) patients comprise a significant proportion of those diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (AdvNSCLC), but are often excluded from clinical trials. It is difficult to draw conclusions about the benefit of therapy in borderline PS patients due to lack of reliable PS assessments, and small clinical trial samples. Retrospective population-based secondary analyses may allow investigators to study under-represented populations in clinical trials. We hypothesized that patients with poor functional status derive benefit from chemotherapy compared good functional status, but that the magnitude of the benefit is lower compared to patients with good functional status. By utilizing a "disability status" (DS) measure as a proxy for PS, we offer a reliable mechanism for patient stratification that can be implemented in administrative claims data. Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with AdvNSCLC between 2001 and 2005 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database linked to Medicare claims. Disability status, a previously developed and validated claims-based proxy for baseline PS, was implemented. Patients were assigned to good versus poor DS. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the differential effects of chemotherapy for the two DS groups on all-cause mortality, controlling for tumor and patient characteristics. Most patients in the cohort (n=21,019) were ≥75 years of age (59%), and non-Hispanic white (85%); 91% were assigned to good DS; 38% received chemotherapy. Chemotherapy had a strong protective effect among good DS patients (hazard ratio, 0.43; CI 0.42-0.45; pChemotherapy improves survival for advanced NSCLC patients with poor DS but to a lower magnitude than for good DS patients. The DS measure opens the door to assess outcomes for cancer patients with poor functional status using insurance claims data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adding concurrent chemotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy improves locoregional control but Not overall survival in patients with salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma—a propensity score matched study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lin, Chien-Yu; Lee, Li-Yu; Yang, Lan-Yan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Hung-Ming; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Ku-Hao; Tsang, Yan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term outcomes in patients with salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SGACC) treated with post-operative chemoradiotherapy (POCRT) versus post-operative radiotherapy (PORT). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 91 SGACC patients treated with surgery followed by PORT (n = 58) or POCRT (n = 33) between 2000 and 2013. Treatment outcomes between groups were compared using propensity score matching (1:1 nearest neighbor). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and patients were followed up for a median of 71 months. Cisplatin-based concurrent regimens were the most commonly used chemotherapy schedules. In the entire study cohort, patients undergoing POCRT showed a trend toward higher locoregional control (LRC) rates than those treated with PORT alone at both 5 and 8 years (97 and 97 % versus 84 and 79 %, respectively; P = .066). Distant metastases were the most common form of treatment failure and occurred in 31 (34 %) patients (PORT, n = 17; POCRT, n = 14). After propensity score matching (33 pairs), patients receiving POCRT had 5- and 8 year LRC rates of 97 and 97 %, respectively, compared with 79 and 67 % for patients treated with PORT alone (P = .017). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). However, a significantly better opioid-requiring pain-free survival (ORPFS) was achieved in POCRT group (P = .038). Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with stage III − IV disease (P = .040 and .017), positive surgical margins (P = .011 and .050), or perineural invasion (P = .013 and .035) had significantly higher 5- and 8 year LRC and ORPFS when treated with POCRT, respectively. In SGACC patients, adding concurrent chemotherapy to PORT may increase LRC and ORPFS rates, particularly in presence of stage III − IV disease, positive surgical margins, or perineural invasion. However, no significant differences in DMFS, DFS, and OS were

  4. Texture analysis for survival prediction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Escalon, Joanna G.; Allen, Peter J.; Lowery, Maeve A.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The five-year survival rate for all stages is approximately 6%, and approximately 2% when presenting with distant disease.1 Only 10-20% of all patients present with resectable disease, but recurrence rates are high with only 5 to 15% remaining free of disease at 5 years. At this time, we are unable to distinguish between resectable PDAC patients with occult metastatic disease from those with potentially curable disease. Early classification of these tumor types may eventually lead to changes in initial management including the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, or in the choice of postoperative adjuvant treatments. Texture analysis is an emerging methodology in oncologic imaging for quantitatively assessing tumor heterogeneity that could potentially aid in the stratification of these patients. The present study derives several texture-based features from CT images of PDAC patients, acquired prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and analyzes their performance, individually as well as in combination, as prognostic markers. A fuzzy minimum redundancy maximum relevance method with leave-one-image-out technique is included to select discriminating features from the set of extracted features. With a naive Bayes classifier, the proposed method predicts the 5-year overall survival of PDAC patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy and achieves the best results in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0:858 and accuracy of 83:0% with four-fold cross-validation techniques.

  5. Improving Patient Safety With Error Identification in Chemotherapy Orders by Verification Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Abigail; Rodriguez, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of medication errors associated with chemotherapy administration is not precisely known. Little evidence exists concerning the extent or nature of errors; however, some evidence demonstrates that errors are related to prescribing. This article demonstrates how the review of chemotherapy orders by a designated nurse known as a verification nurse (VN) at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center helps to identify prescribing errors that may prevent chemotherapy administration mistakes and improve patient safety in outpatient infusion units. This article will describe the role of the VN and details of the verification process. To identify benefits of the VN role, a retrospective review and analysis of chemotherapy near-miss events from 2009-2014 was performed. A total of 4,282 events related to chemotherapy were entered into the Reporting to Improve Safety and Quality system. A majority of the events were categorized as near-miss events, or those that, because of chance, did not result in patient injury, and were identified at the point of prescribing.

  6. Transarterial infusion chemotherapy combined with high intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of pancreatic carcinomas: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiping; Zhao Jingzhi; Qiao Xinrong; Huang Hankui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of transarterial infusion chemotherapy combined with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of pancreatic carcinomas. Methods: A total of 64 patients with inoperable pancreatic carcinomas were randomly divided into study group (n=32) and control group (n=32). Transarterial infusion chemotherapy combined with HIFU was employed in patients of study group, while simple transarterial infusion chemotherapy was conducted in patients of control group. The effective rate, the clinical benefit rate (CBR), the occurrence of side effect and the survival time of the two groups were recorded. The results were compared between the two groups. Results: The effective rate (PR + MR), the median survival time and the one-year survival rate of the study group were 55.56%, 13.0 months and 68.75% respectively, while the effective rate (PR + MR), the median survival time and the one-year survival rate of the control group were 28.57%, 9.0 months and 43.75% respectively. Both the effective rate and the one-year survival rate of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with pure transarterial infusion chemotherapy, transarterial infusion chemotherapy combined with HIFU can significantly improve the short-term efficacy and increase the one-year survival rate for patients with advanced pancreatic carcinomas. (authors)

  7. Study on combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the microcellular bronchial carcinoma (CCR study): chemo-/radiotherapy opposed to radio-/chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, H.P.; Buenemann, H.; Arnal, M.L.; Calavrezos, A.; Engel, J.; Hain, E.; Koschel, G.; Seysen, U.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Harburg, Hamburg; Franke, H.D.; Juengst, G.; Kohl, F.V.; Wichert, P. v.

    1983-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of a chemo-/radiotherapy or radio-/chemotherapy on 52 cases of microcellular bronchial carcinoma, classification ''limited disease''. The survival curves were slightly better for the patients submitted to primary chemotherapy, but the difference was not statistically significant, and the curves coincided again after 18 months. 60 to 80% of the patients had no complaints or only unimportant complaints during more than half of their survival time. In 23 patients with ''extensive disease'' who received only a symptomatic therapy or a combined palliative chemotherapy, chemotherapy had a slightly better effect, but this was not statistically significant. (orig.) [de

  8. Predictive test for chemotherapy response in resectable gastric cancer: a multi-cohort, retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jae-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Woo Ho; Kim, Young-Woo; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Park, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Kyung Hee; Gu, Mi Jin; Kim, Ha Yan; Lee, Jinae; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Soonwon; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Yoon Young; Hyung, Woo Jin; Jang, Eunji; Kim, Hyeseon; Huh, Yong-Min; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2018-05-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery improves survival of patients with stage II-III, resectable gastric cancer. However, the overall survival benefit observed after adjuvant chemotherapy is moderate, suggesting that not all patients with resectable gastric cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy benefit from it. We aimed to develop and validate a predictive test for adjuvant chemotherapy response in patients with resectable, stage II-III gastric cancer. In this multi-cohort, retrospective study, we developed through a multi-step strategy a predictive test consisting of two rule-based classifier algorithms with predictive value for adjuvant chemotherapy response and prognosis. Exploratory bioinformatics analyses identified biologically relevant candidate genes in gastric cancer transcriptome datasets. In the discovery analysis, a four-gene, real-time RT-PCR assay was developed and analytically validated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissues from an internal cohort of 307 patients with stage II-III gastric cancer treated at the Yonsei Cancer Center with D2 gastrectomy plus adjuvant fluorouracil-based chemotherapy (n=193) or surgery alone (n=114). The same internal cohort was used to evaluate the prognostic and chemotherapy response predictive value of the single patient classifier genes using associations with 5-year overall survival. The results were validated with a subset (n=625) of FFPE tumour samples from an independent cohort of patients treated in the CLASSIC trial (NCT00411229), who received D2 gastrectomy plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin chemotherapy (n=323) or surgery alone (n=302). The primary endpoint was 5-year overall survival. We identified four classifier genes related to relevant gastric cancer features (GZMB, WARS, SFRP4, and CDX1) that formed the single patient classifier assay. In the validation cohort, the prognostic single patient classifier (based on the expression of GZMB, WARS, and SFRP4) identified 79 (13%) of 625

  9. Impact of obesity on chemotherapy management and outcomes in women with gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Neil S; Wright, Alexi A

    2015-07-01

    To describe the effects of obesity on the pharmacokinetics and dosing of chemotherapies and provide recommendations for chemotherapy management in obese women with gynecologic malignancies. PubMEd and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles published before June 2014. Only English-language articles were considered. 84 manuscripts were reviewed and 66 were included. Search terms included: obesity, overweight, body mass index, body surface area, glomerular filtration rate, chemotherapy, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, inflammation, and pharmacokinetics, Obese cancer patients have worse clinical outcomes, compared with non-obese patients. This may be because of differences in pharmacokinetics, metabolic dysregulation, or physicians' decisions to reduce chemotherapy dose-intensity during treatment to minimize toxicities. A 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline recommends using actual body weight for chemotherapy dosing in all patients treated with curative intent, irrespective of obesity, to avoid compromising clinical outcomes, including progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In women with gynecologic cancers most studies demonstrate no difference in PFS or OS when obese patients receive the same chemotherapy dose intensity as non-obese patients, except perhaps with bevacizumab. Chemotherapy dose-intensity is a critical determinant of cancer outcomes and should be maintained in all patients, irrespective of obesity. Future studies should prospectively examine the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes (adverse events, survival) to improve the care of this growing population of patients who are at risk for inferior clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of care, predictors and outcomes of chemotherapy for uterine carcinosarcoma: a National Cancer Database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; Starbuck, Kristen D; Meyer, Larissa A; Clemmer, Joel; Schorge, John O; Lu, Karen H; Del Carmen, Marcela G

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate rates of chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivery in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma, and compare clinical outcomes of treated and untreated patients. The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients diagnosed with uterine carcinosarcoma between 2003 and 2011. The impact of chemotherapy on survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 10,609 patients met study eligibility criteria. Stages I, II, III, and IV disease accounted for 2997 (28.2%), 642 (6.1%), 2037 (19.2%), and 1316 (12.4%) of the study population, respectively. Most patients (91.0%) underwent definitive surgery, and lymphadenectomy was performed in 68.7% of the patients. Chemotherapy was administered in 2378 (22.4%) patients, radiotherapy to 2196 (20.7%), adjuvant chemo-radiation to 1804 (17.0%), and 4231 (39.9%) of women did not received adjuvant therapy. Utilization of chemotherapy became more frequent over time. Over the entire study period, after adjusting for race, period of diagnosis, facility location, facility type, insurance provider, stage, age, treatment modality, lymph node dissection, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity index, there was an association between treatment modality and survival. The lowest hazard ratio observed was in patients that received chemo-radiation. The strongest quantitative predictor of death was stage at the time of diagnosis. In addition, surgical treatment, lymph node dissection, most recent time-periods, lower comorbidity index, and higher socioeconomic status were associated with improved survival. The overall rates of chemotherapy use have increased over time. Adjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiation were associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HE4 as a predictor of adjuvant chemotherapy resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarenstrup Karlsen, Mona; Høgdall, Claus; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and HE4 tissue protein expression to predict tumor resistance to adjuvant chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Consecutive...... inclusion of 198 patients diagnosed with EOC was conducted. Blood samples were collected prior to surgery and tissue samples during surgery. Patient data were registered prospectively in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. The association between serum HE4 and HE4 tissue protein expression, resistance...... significantly (p tissue protein expression...

  12. Long-Term Survival and Improved Quality of Life following Multiple Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries for Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W. Larson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is in most cases complex and must be specifically tailored to the needs of the patient with the goals of extended survival and improved quality of life. Despite advancements in therapy, treatment outcomes remain almost universally poor. Salvage treatment options for the recurrence of the disease is an area of intense study. The following case highlights the utility of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (GKRS as a salvage treatment. In this clinical situation, three sequential GKRS treatments led to prolonged survival (beyond four years after diagnosis and improved quality of life in a patient who was unable to receive further chemotherapy regimens and was unwilling to undergo further aggressive resection. To date, there have been few reports of three or more sequential GKRS treatment sessions utilized as salvage therapy for recurrent GBM in patients who can no longer tolerate chemotherapy. This report provides evidence that aggressive local treatment with GKRS at the time of recurrence may be appropriate, depending on a patient’s individual clinical situation, and can lead to prolonged survival and improved quality of life.

  13. A Gene Expression Signature Associated With Overall Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Suggests a New Treatment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, Jesper B; Madigan, James P

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in the management of liver cancer, the survival rate for individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains dismal. The survival benefit of systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of liver cancer is only marginal. Although the reasons for treatment failure...... are multifactorial, intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy plays a primary role. Here, we analyzed the expression of 377 multidrug resistance-associated genes in two independent cohorts of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with the aim of finding ways to improve survival in this poor-prognosis cancer...

  14. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy of cervical cancer: mature results of the phase 2 PBM-PFU protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Rebecca; Bahtiyar, Mert; Kohorn, Ernest I; Chambers, Joseph T; Schwartz, Peter E; Chambers, Setsuko K

    2011-04-01

    The mature results of the neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy arms of the nonrandomized, phase 2 Yale University cisplatin, bleomycin, methotrexate, and 5-FU protocol are presented. Sixty-seven patients were prospectively accrued with a median follow-up of 5.4 years, and standard parameters of toxicity and efficacy were studied. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were applied. The 5-year disease-free survival of 78% for the 25 patients in the adjuvant group, of which 80% had high-risk features including positive margins, parametria, and lymph nodes and 28% had adenocarcinomas, was comparable to recent relevant literature. Only 64% of patients in this group received consolidation radiation therapy, which did not impact on survival. Only 12% of patients recurred distantly. Notably, those who received 4 months or more of chemotherapy had prolonged survival (P = 0.012). In the neoadjuvant group, chemotherapy response rate among 42 patients (with stages 1B-IIIB cancer) was 79% (50% partial response, 29% complete response), and no patient progressed. In the subgroup of 22 patients who underwent surgery after chemotherapy, 59% had nonsquamous histology. Forty-five percent of patients with stage IIB cancer were deemed operable after chemotherapy. Ninety-five percent received postoperative radiation therapy. There was a 9% pathologic complete response rate, with positive lymph nodes found in 27%. Notably, those who received 3 months or less of chemotherapy had improved overall survival (P = 0.030). Survival rates of these 22 patients at 3 and 5 years were 73% and 63%, respectively. Although not randomized, these survival rates were similar to those achieved with chemoradiation. Although there are several logistical/design features of the cisplatin, bleomycin, methotrexate, and 5-FU regimen that are not in line with the current chemotherapy era, our experience with this well-tolerated regimen can serve as a proof of principle. Our data suggests that both neoadjuvant

  15. Postoperative radio-chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Marcelo; Bustos, Marisa; Orellana, Eric; Madrid, Jorge; Galindo, Hector; Sanchez, Cesar; Pimentel, Fernando; Guzman, Sergio; Butte, Jean Michel; Alvarez, Manuel; Besa, Pelayo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overall 5 years survival for surgically excised gastric cancer is 30%. Adjuvant treatment may improve the surgical results. Aim: To assess treatment results and toxicity in patients with surgically excised gastric cancer, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant continuous 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Material and Methods: Forty one patients aged 32 to 73 years (29 males) with stage II-IVA gastric cancer, subjected to a total or subtotal gastrectomy and D2 nodal dissection between 1997 to 2006, were studied. They received adjuvant radiotherapy to the gastric bed and draining lymphatic nodes in a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and chemotherapy with continuous infusion 5-FU, 200 mg/m2/day. Results were compared to historical controls matched according to demographic parameters and tumor characteristics. Results: Eighteen patients were in stage II, 10 in stage IIIA, nine in stage IIIB and four in stage IVA. Twelve patients had an N0 nodal status, 15 were N1, nine were N2 and five were N3. After a mean follow up of 32 months, 26 patients (63%) were alive. Five year overall survival was 49.6% for surgery plus radiochemotherapy compared to 30.7% for the historical group subjected only to surgery (p =0.002). Radiotherapy was associated with grade 1-2 toxicity and treatment was completed without interruptions in all patients. Chemotherapy was delayed temporarily in 3 patients. Conclusions: Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy improved overall survival in gastric cancer, compared to historical controls subjected only to surgical treatment

  16. Lauren subtypes of advanced gastric cancer influence survival and response to chemotherapy: real-world data from the AGAMENON National Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Fonseca, Paula; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Hernández, Raquel; Custodio, Ana; Cano, Juana Maria; Lacalle, Alejandra; Echavarria, Isabel; Macias, Ismael; Mangas, Monserrat; Visa, Laura; Buxo, Elvira; Álvarez Manceñido, Felipe; Viudez, Antonio; Pericay, Carles; Azkarate, Aitor; Ramchandani, Avinash; López, Carlos; Martinez de Castro, Eva; Fernández Montes, Ana; Longo, Federico; Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Limón, Maria Luisa; Diaz-Serrano, Asun; Martin Carnicero, Alfonso; Arias, David; Cerdà, Paula; Rivera, Fernando; Vieitez, Jose Maria; Sánchez Cánovas, Manuel; Garrido, M; Gallego, J

    2017-09-05

    The choice of chemotherapy in HER2-negative gastric cancer is based on centre's preferences and adverse effects profile. No schedule is currently accepted as standard, nor are there any factors to predict response, other than HER2 status. We seek to evaluate whether Lauren type influences the efficacy of various chemotherapies and on patient overall survival (OS). We have conducted a multicenter study in 31 hospitals. The eligibility criteria include diagnosis of stomach or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, HER2 negativity, and chemotherapy containing 2-3 drugs. Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for confounding factors, with tests of 'treatment-by-histology' interaction, was used to estimate treatment effect. Our registry contains 1303 tumours analysable for OS end points and 730 evaluable for overall response rate (ORR). A decrease in ORR was detected in the presence of a diffuse component: odds ratio 0.719 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.525-0.987), P=0.039. Anthracycline- or docetaxel-containing schedules increased ORR only in the intestinal type. The diffuse type displayed increased mortality with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.201 (95% CI, 1.054-1.368), P=0.0056. Patients receiving chemotherapy with docetaxel exhibited increased OS limited to the intestinal type: HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.49-0.87), P=0.024, with no increment in OS for the subset having a diffuse component. With respect to progression-free survival (PFS), a significant interaction was seen in the effect of docetaxel-containing schedules, with better PFS limited to the intestinal type subgroup, in the comparison against any other schedule: HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.50-0.85), P=0.015, and against anthracycline-based regimens: HR 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.88), P=0.046. As a conclusion, in this registry, Lauren classification tumour subtypes predicted survival and responded differently to chemotherapy. Future clinical trials should stratify effect estimations based on histology.

  17. A meta-analysis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun He

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation can decrease the risk of recurrence and metastasis but not improve the 5 years overall survival and 5 years disease free survival compared to radiotherapy alone in the patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  18. [Long-term Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Chemotherapy 
in the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
--A Retrospective Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuhui; Qin, Da; Pang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Yeqing; Zhao, Siqi; Hu, Mu; Zhi, Xiuyi

    2017-10-20

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with chemotherapy has a certain short-term therapeutic effect for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but whether it can improve the long-term survival rate of patients is still controversy. This study retrospectively analyzed the difference of long-term efficacy between RFA combined with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. A total of 77 patients with stage IIIb and stage IV NSCLC who underwent radiofrequency ablation and chemotherapy in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences from September 2009 to December 2015 were enrolled as the treatment group. Chemotherapy with no radiofrequency ablation was performed in 56 patients with stage IIIb and stage IV NSCLC as the control group. Two groups of patients were followed up by telephone about their living conditions. "Survival" package of R software version 3.4.1 was used for statistical analysis. Two sets of data baseline levels were tested by chi-square test. The bias was processed by Cox regression model and the survival curve was plotted using covariate mean substitution method. The first-year survival rate of the treatment group was 70.74%, the two-year survival rate was 39.31% and the median survival time was 22.1 months. The one-year survival rate was 54.54% in the control group, the two-year survival rate was 19.49%, the median survival for 18.1 months. The long-term survival rate of the treatment group was better than that of the control group (PRadiofrequency ablation of lung cancer combined with chemotherapy can significantly improve the 2-year survival rate of patients with stage IIIb and stage IV NSCLC.

  19. Using lean principles to improve outpatient adult infusion clinic chemotherapy preparation turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Matthew H; Eckel, Stephen; Daniels, Rowell; Amerine, Lindsey B

    2015-07-01

    The workflow and chemotherapy preparation turnaround times at an adult infusion clinic were evaluated to identify opportunities to optimize workflow and efficiency. A three-phase study using Lean Six Sigma methodology was conducted. In phase 1, chemotherapy turnaround times in the adult infusion clinic were examined one year after the interim goal of a 45-minute turnaround time was established. Phase 2 implemented various experiments including a five-day Kaizen event, using lean principles in an effort to decrease chemotherapy preparation turnaround times in a controlled setting. Phase 3 included the implementation of process-improvement strategies identified during the Kaizen event, coupled with a final refinement of operational processes. In phase 1, the mean turnaround time for all chemotherapy preparations decreased from 60 to 44 minutes, and a mean of 52 orders for adult outpatient chemotherapy infusions was received each day. After installing new processes, the mean turnaround time had improved to 37 minutes for each chemotherapy preparation in phase 2. In phase 3, the mean turnaround time decreased from 37 to 26 minutes. The overall mean turnaround time was reduced by 26 minutes, representing a 57% decrease in turnaround times in 19 months through the elimination of waste and the implementation of lean principles. This reduction was accomplished through increased efficiencies in the workplace, with no addition of human resources. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma principles improved workflow and efficiency at an adult infusion clinic and reduced the overall chemotherapy turnaround times from 60 to 26 minutes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical research on cancer treatment with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Eriko; Koyama, Kazuyuki; Morita, Kozo

    1993-01-01

    There are two purposes of using combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancers. One is to suppress distant metastasis, especially micrometastasis; the other is to improve localized control. As a trial of the utility of the former, systemic chemotherapy with CDDP and 5 FU was given successively with radiotherapy to treat nasopharyngeal cancer. The survival rate was significantly improved compared with historical control cases. The main reason for this effectiveness was the improvement of localized control. The suppression of distant metastasis is the subject of future research. As a trial of the utility of the latter, a super-selective intraarterial chemotherapy with CBDCA combined with radiotherapy was used to head and neck localized progressive cancers. The control of localized cancer was remarkably effective. This treatment is considered to be especially suitable for locally advanced tongue cancer and cancer of the root of the tongue. (author)

  1. Postoperative Chemotherapy for Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate and cognitive function of 43 children, age <3 years, with medulloblastoma treated with intensive postoperative chemotherapy alone, without radiotherapy, were determined at the University of Wurzburg and other centers in Germany Chemotherapy consisted of three two-month cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, carboplatin, and etoposide.

  2. Comparing treatment outcomes of different chemotherapy sequences during intensity modulated radiotherapy for advanced N-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xueming; Zeng, Lei; Chen, Chunyan; Huang, Ying; Han, Fei; Xiao, Weiwei; Liu, Shuai; Lu, Taixiang

    2013-01-01

    N-stage is related to distant metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed this study to compare the efficacy of different chemotherapy sequences in advanced N-stage (N2 and N3) NPC patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From 2001 to 2008, 198 advanced N-stage NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-three patients received IMRT alone. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was delivered to 72 patients, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) + CCRT to 82 patients and CCRT + adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) to 11 patients. The 5-year overall survival rate, recurrence-free survival rate, distant metastasis-free survival rate and progress-free survival rate were 47.7% and 73.1%(p<0.001), 74.5% and 91.3% (p = 0.004), 49.2% and 68.5% (p = 0.018), 37.5% and 63.8% (p<0.001) in IMRT alone and chemoradiotherapy group. Subgroup analyses indicated that there were no significant differences among the survival curves of CCRT, NACT + CCRT and CCRT + AC groups. The survival benefit mainly came from CCRT. However, there was only an improvement attendency in distant metastasis-free survival rate of CCRT group (p = 0.107) when compared with RT alone group, and NACT + CCRT could significantly improve distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.017). For advanced N-stage NPC patients, NACT + CCRT might be a reasonable treatment strategy

  3. Trastuzumab after Chemotherapy Is Effective in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with trastuzumab for 1 year following standard chemotherapy improved disease-free survival in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer, according to 4-year follow-up results of the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial reported February 25, 2011,

  4. In vitro chemo-sensitivity assay guided chemotherapy is associated with prolonged overall survival in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelnow, Andrej; Schönfęlder, Manfred; Würl, Peter; Halloul, Zuhir; Meyer, Frank; Lippert, Hans; Mroczkowski, Paweł

    2013-06-01

    The overall survival (OS) of patients suffering From various tumour entities was correlated with the results of in vitro-chemosensitivity assay (CSA) of the in vivo applied drugs. Tumour specimen (n=611) were dissected in 514 patients and incubated for primary tumour cell culture. The histocytological regression assay was performed 5 days after adding chemotherapeutic substances to the cell cultures. n=329 patients undergoing chemotherapy were included in the in vitro/in vivo associations. OS was assessed and in vitro response groups compared using survival analysis. Furthermore Cox-regression analysis was performed on OS including CSA, age, TNM classification and treatment course. The growth rate of the primary was 73-96% depending on tumour entity. The in-vitro response rate varied with histology and drugs (e.g. 8-18% for methotrexate and 33-83% for epirubicine). OS was significantly prolonged for patients treated with in vitro effective drugs compared to empiric therapy (log-rank-test, p=0.0435). Cox-regression revealed that application of in vitro effective drugs, residual tumour and postoperative radiotherapy determined the death risk independently. When patients were treated with drugs effective in our CSA, OS was significantly prolonged compared to empiric therapy. CSA guided chemotherapy should be compared to empiric treatment by a prospective randomized trial.

  5. A favorable impact of preoperative FPLC chemotherapy on patients with gastric cardia cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Wu, G X; Zhang, M D; Guo, M; Zhang, H; Sun, X F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracili polyphase liposome composita pro orale (FPLC) on the tumour cells and the survival rate of the patients with gastric cardia cancer. Sixty patients with gastric cardia cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty patients were treated with FPLC prior to surgical resection, the other 30, as controls, did not receive the preoperative chemotherapy. Pathological responses of the tumours to the FPLC chemotherapy were determined by gross and microscopic assessments of tumour size, tumour emboli, cell degeneration and necrosis. Expressions of nm23 and CD44 were detected by flow cytometry. All patients were followed up to 5 years. In the FPLC-treated patients, the tumour size (pexpression (pexpression of nm23 (p<0.001) were increased, when compared with those observations seen in the controls. The postoperative 5-year survival rate was 40% in the FPLC-treated group and 23% in the controls (p=0.17). Preoperative FPLC chemotherapy might improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cardia cancer by inhibiting tumour proliferative, invasive and metastatic activities, and stimulating the patient's immune system.

  6. Chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy after surgery and preoperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS): an international, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Annemieke; Jansen, Edwin P M; van Grieken, Nicole C T; Sikorska, Karolina; Lind, Pehr; Nordsmark, Marianne; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Boot, Henk; Trip, Anouk K; Swellengrebel, H A Maurits; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Putter, Hein; van Sandick, Johanna W; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Hartgrink, Henk H; van Tinteren, Harm; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Verheij, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    Both perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy improve survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer from Europe and North America. To our knowledge, these treatment strategies have not been investigated in a head to head comparison. We aimed to compare perioperative chemotherapy with preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma. In this investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older who had stage IB- IVA resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma (as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, sixth edition), with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, and adequate cardiac, bone marrow, liver, and kidney function. Patients were enrolled from 56 hospitals in the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computerised minimisation programme with a random element to either perioperative chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) or preoperative chemotherapy with postoperative chemoradiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy group). Randomisation was done before patients were given any preoperative chemotherapy treatment and was stratified by histological subtype, tumour localisation, and hospital. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. Surgery consisted of a radical resection of the primary tumour and at least a D1+ lymph node dissection. Postoperative treatment started within 4-12 weeks after surgery. Chemotherapy consisted of three preoperative 21-day cycles and three postoperative cycles of intravenous epirubicin (50 mg/m 2 on day 1), cisplatin (60 mg/m 2 on day 1) or oxaliplatin (130 mg/m 2 on day 1), and capecitabine (1000 mg/m 2 orally as tablets twice daily for 14 days in combination with epirubicin and cisplatin, or 625 mg/m 2 orally as tablets twice daily for 21 days in combination with epirubicin and oxaliplatin), received once every three weeks

  7. The success of primary chemotherapy for group D heritable retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, V M L; Kingston, J; Hungerford, J L

    2009-07-01

    To report the ocular survival and event-free survival following primary multiagent chemotherapy for group D, heritable bilateral retinoblastoma (RB). The RB database was used to identify children with heritable, bilateral RB treated with primary chemotherapy (six cycles of vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin). Only Group D eyes with more than 12 months' follow-up were analysed. The timing, number and type of salvage treatments were recorded. Kaplan-Meier estimates for the ocular survival and event-free survival (percentage of eyes that avoided external beam radiotherapy and/or enucleation) were performed as a function of time. Of 18 group D eyes, two (11%) were treated successfully with chemotherapy alone, nine (50%) underwent successful salvage treatment, and seven (39%) were enucleated. The median time from completing chemotherapy to enucleation was 9 months (range 4 to 25 months). Ocular survival was 67% at 2 years. External beam radiotherapy proved successful salvage treatment in five of nine eyes, so the event-free survival was 34% at 2 years. Multiagent chemotherapy alone is rarely sufficient for the preservation of group D eyes. External beam radiotherapy and plaque radiotherapy remain important salvage treatments for advanced, heritable retinoblastoma.

  8. Primary colectomy in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases improves overall survival: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Mehdi; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Mesli, Farida; Mitry, Emmanuel; Aparicio, Thomas; Des Guetz, Gaetan; DesGuetz, Gaetan; Louvet, Christophe; Landi, Bruno; Tiret, Emmanuel; Sobhani, Iradj

    2011-08-01

    Whether patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases should be managed by primary colectomy followed by chemotherapy or immediate chemotherapy without resection of the primary tumor is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors associated with survival in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases. This large retrospective multicentric study included 6 academic hospitals. This study was conducted at 6 Paris University Hospitals (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Saint Antoine, Henri Mondor, Ambroise Paré, Hôpital Europeen Gorges Pompidou, Bichat, and Avicenne). Between 1998 and 2007, 208 patients with good performance status and stage IV colon cancer with unresectable distant metastases received chemotherapy, either as initial management or after primary tumor resection. Survival was estimated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with survival were tested by means of a log-rank test. Results were expressed as median values with 95% confidence intervals. Factors independently related to survival were tested using a Cox regression model adjusted for a propensity score. Of the 208 patients, 85 underwent colectomy before chemotherapy, whereas 123 were treated with use of primary chemotherapy with or without biotherapy. At univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with survival: primary colectomy (P = .031), secondary curative surgery (P < .001), well-differentiated primary tumor (P < .001), exclusive liver metastases (P < .027), absence of need for colonic stent (P = .009), and addition of antiangiogenic (P = .001) or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (P = .013) drugs to chemotherapy. After Cox multivariate analysis and after adjusting for the propensity score, all of these factors, with the exception of two, colonic stent and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drug, were found to be independently associated with overall

  9. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Martin D.; Manton, David J.; Lowry, Martin; Turnbull, Lindsay W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  10. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.pickles@hull.ac.uk; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.j.manton@hull.ac.uk; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.lowry@hull.ac.uk; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.w.turnbull@hull.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  11. Simultaneous radio-chemotherapy in esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Wendt, T.G.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1986, 41 patients with a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus without hematogenic metastases were treated with a combination of radio- and chemotherapy preoperatively. Treatment consisted of mitomycin C (10 mg/sqm/day 1) and continuous infusion of 5 fluorouracil (1000 mg/sqm/day - day 1 to 4) with a maximum of 1500 mg per day. On day 2 radiotherapy was started. After the administration of 36 Gy all patients were restaged. Nine patients were referred to surgery. In 13 cases surgery was refused, because of inoperability, due to local or distant metastases. In these patients radiotherapy was continued up to 50 to 60 Gy for palliation. Although the disease was confined to the esophagus no surgery was performed in 19 patients, because of age, enhanced risk of anaesthesia or refusal by the patient. These patients were treated with radiotherapy alone (60 Gy) with curative intention. 32 patients treated without surgery were followed up. For the patients treated with curative intent, the one year survival rate was 62%, the two year survival rate was 42%. Compared to a group treated in 1970 to 1982 with the same dosage of irradiation without the combination of chemotherapy the median survival could be raized from nine to 24 months, the two year survival rate improved from 18% to 42%. Patients treated for palliation only did not survive the first year after therapy. (orig.) [de

  12. The Results of Radiation Therapy Alone vs Radiation Plus Chemotherapy of Uterine Cervix Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Za; Choi, Suk Young; Chun, Ha Jeong

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Radiation therapy(RT) is conventionally standard treatment for locally advanced stage for uterine cervix cancer. Recently to improve treatment results, combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy was tried. We retrospectively analysed our experience of 122 patients. Comparison of the results in 45 patients treated with RT alone and 77 patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy was made. Materials and Methods : from January 1985 to December 1991, 122 patients with cervix cancer were treated with whole pelvic external RT and ICR(34 1 ICR, 77 2 ICR, 11 high dose rate ICR) in our department. Forty five patients were treated with RT alone, and 77 patients were treated with combined plus chemotherapy. Mean age was 58 years(range:29-81). Histologic types were 111 squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 2 adenosquamous cell carcinoma. According to the FIGO stage 6 had stage IA94.9%, 11 had IIA(9.0%), 37 had IIB(30.3%), 3 had IIA(2.5%), 63 had IIB(51.6%), and 2 had stage IV(1.6%). In 77 patients with RT plus chemotherapy, 36 patients were treated with VBP(vinblastin, bleoycin, cisplainum), 39 patients with cisplatinum plus 5-FU and 2 patients with 5-FU. Results : Complete response after external RT(3960cGy-5500cGy)was achieved in 61 patients(50%). He actuarial 5 year and 9 year survival rate was 57.8% and 53.9%, respectively. Five year actuarial survival rate was 63.1% with RT alone(n=45) and 55.9% with RT plus chemotherapy(n=77). Their 5 year survival rate was 35.5% for 1 course of ICR and 67% for 2 courses of ICR. There was statistically significant advantage of survival with RT alone group who were treated with 2 coursed of ICR and dose to the A point≥8000cGy(4/25 died). In RT plus chemotherapy group, dose response was not seen and there was no difference in 5 year survival between 1 course and 2 course of ICR(50% vs 56.8%), and dose to point A less than 8000cGy and more than 8000 cGy(55.6% vs 55.7%). There was no significant

  13. Effect of cryoablation sequential chemotherapy on patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of cryoablation sequential chemotherapy on patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: A total of 39 cases with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who received cryoablation sequential chemotherapy and 39 cases with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who received chemotherapy alone were selected and enrolled in sequential group and control group, disease progression and survival of two groups were followed up, and contents of tumor markers and angiogenesis molecules in serum as well as contents of T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood were detected. Results: Progressionfree survival and median overall survival (mOS of sequential group were longer than those of control group, and cumulative cases of tumor progression at various points in time were significantly less than those of control group (P<0.05; 1 month after treatment, serum tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE contents, serum angiogenesis molecules PCDGF, VEGF and HDGF contents as well as CD3+CD4-CD8+CD28-T cell content in peripheral blood of sequential group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05, and contents of CD3+CD4+CD8-T cell and CD3+CD4-CD8+CD28+T cell in peripheral blood were higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Cryoablation sequential chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, delay disease progression, prolong survival time, inhibit angiogenesis and improve immune function.

  14. Effect of pretreatment psoas muscle mass on survival for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer undergoing systemic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Noriko; Iwata, Yoshinori; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Akio; Miyamoto, Yuho; Yuri, Yukihisa; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Nishimura, Takashi; Yoh, Kazunori; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naoto; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Takata, Ryo; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2017-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are few previous studies that have investigated the effect of decreased skeletal muscle mass (DSMM) on survival in patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) who are undergoing systemic chemotherapy. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of DSMM, as determined by the psoas muscle index (PMI) following computed tomography and prior to systemic chemotherapy, on the outcomes of patients with unresectable APC (n=61). The primary endpoint used was the overall survival (OS) rate. The OS rates in the PMI-High group (exceeds the median PMI value in each gender) were retrospectively compared with those in the PMI-Low group (below the median PMI value in each gender), and factors associated with OS were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The study cohort included 31 male and 30 female patients with a median age of 72 years, 13 of whom were stage IVA, and 48 were stage IVB. The median PMI in males was 4.3 cm 2 /m 2 (range, 1.6-8.2 cm 2 /m 2 ), while that in females was 2.3 cm 2 /m 2 (range, 0.7-6.1 cm 2 /m 2 ). The proportion of patients with performance status 0 in the PMI-High group was significantly high, compared with that in the PMI-Low group [83.3% (25/30) vs. 58.1% (18/31); P=0.0486]. Body mass index in the PMI-High group was significantly higher compared with that in the PMI-Low group (P=0.0154). The 1-year cumulative survival rate was 43.3% in the PMI-High group and 12.9% in the PMI-Low group (P=0.0027). Following multivariate analysis, PMI (P=0.0036), prothrombin time (P=0.0044) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (P=0.0451) were identified to be significant predictors of OS. In conclusion, DSMM, as determined by the PMI, could be a significant predictor of prognosis in patients with unresectable APC who are receiving systemic chemotherapy.

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in triple-negative breast carcinoma: A prospective randomized controlled multi-center trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Shi, Mei; Ling, Rui; Xia Yuesheng; Luo Shanquan; Fu Xuehai; Xiao Feng; Li Jianping; Long Xiaoli; Wang Jianguo; Hou Zengxia; Chen Yunxia; Zhou Bin; Xu, Man

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents a high risk breast cancer that lacks the benefit from hormone treatment, chemotherapy is the main strategy even though it exists in poor prognosis. Use of adjuvant radiation therapy, which significantly decreases breast cancer mortality, has not been well described among poor TNBC women. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy could significantly increase survival outcomes in TNBC women after mastectomy. Patients and methods: A prospective randomized controlled multi-center study was performed between February 2001 and February 2006 and comprised 681 women with triple-negative stage I-II breast cancer received mastectomy, of them, 315 cases received systemic chemotherapy alone, 366 patients received radiation after the course of chemotherapy. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated. Simultaneously local and systemic toxicity were observed. Results: After a median follow-up of 86.5 months, five-year RFS rates were 88.3% and 74.6% for adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy alone, respectively, with significant difference between the two groups (HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.72, 0.98]; P = 0.02). Five-year OS significantly improved in adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation group compared with chemotherapy alone (90.4% and 78.7%) (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.74, 0.97]; P = 0.03). No severe toxicity was reported. Conclusions: Patients received standard adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation therapy was more effective than chemotherapy alone in women with triple-negative early-stage breast cancer after mastectomy.

  16. Neutron and photon clonogenic survival curves of two chemotherapy resistant human intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref, Amr; Yudelev, Mark; Mohammad, Ramzi; Choudhuri, Rajani; Orton, Colin; Al-Katib, Ayad

    1999-01-01

    Background: The potential role of neutron therapy in the management of intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IGNHL) has not been examined because of the belief that the anticipated radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) would be uniformly very low. Purpose: To determine the fast neutron RBE for two chemotherapy-resistant IGNHL cell lines. Methods and Materials: Conventional soft agar clonogenic survival curves following irradiation by 60 Co and fast neutron were established for two IGNHL cell lines. These cell lines, WSU-DLCL2 and SK-DHL2B, were found in previous studies to be able to repair sublethal damage, and were also resistant to L-Pam and doxorubicin chemotherapy. Results: When the surviving fraction after 2 Gy photon was chosen as the biological endpoint, the RBE for WSU-DLCL2 and SK-DHL2B measured 3.34 and 3.06. Similarly, when 10% survival was considered, the RBE for these two cell lines measured 2.54 and 2.59. The RBE, as measured by the ratios α neutron/α photon, for WSU-DLCL2, SK-DHL2B cell lines are 6.67 and 5.65, respectively. These results indicate that the RBE for these IGNHL cell lines is higher than the average RBE for cell lines of other histological types. Conclusion: Fast neutron irradiation may be of potential value in treating selected cases of IGNHL

  17. Clinical Benefit of Second-Line Palliative Chemotherapy in Advanced Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Minchom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper aimed to assess the utility of second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma. Materials and Methods. A retrospective search of a prospectively maintained database identified patients treated between 1991 and 2005. Patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours, small round cell tumours, and Ewing's sarcoma were excluded. Response was assessed using WHO and RECIST. Patients who achieved stable disease for 6 months or more were classified as having disease control. Results. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients received second-line chemotherapy. Eighty-six (22.7% achieved disease control. Median duration of response was 11 months (95% CI: 9–13. On multivariate analysis, pathological subtype, absence of lung metastases, and the use of combination chemotherapy were independent predictors of disease control. Twenty-eight (16.1% patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy achieved disease control. Eight (2.1% patients had sufficient downstaging to enable complete surgical resection. Progression-free survival was 23% at 6 months. Median overall survival was 8 months (95% CI: 7–10 months. On multivariate analysis, synovial histology and absence of lung metastases were associated with improved survival. Conclusion. Second-line chemotherapy can provide clinical benefit in over 20% of soft-tissue sarcoma patients.

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and methotrexate in patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Lisa; von der Maase, Hans; Lundbeck, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study based on two associated trials was designed to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and methotrexate with folinic acid rescue or no chemotherapy prior to local treatment in patients with T2-T4b, NX-3, MO transitional cell carcinoma...... was 12.9 months. Median time to progression was 14.2 months with chemotherapy and 11.4 months without chemotherapy. The actuarial 5-year overall survival rate for all 153 patients was 29%, and 29% for both treatment groups. Multivariate analyses showed that T-stage, tumour size and serum creatinine were...... independent prognostic factors for survival. The cystectomy trial included 33 patients. Median survival was 78.9 months, 82.5 months with chemotherapy and 45.8 months without chemotherapy (p = 0.76). The radiotherapy trial included 120 patients. The median survival was 17.6 months. Median survival was 19...

  19. Combined chemotherapy including platinum derivatives for medulloblastoma. The usefulness as maintenance chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Otani, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kagami, Hiroshi; Shimazaki, Kenji; Toya, Shigeo; Kawase, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The authors reviewed 24 cerebellar medulloblastoma patients treated at Keio University to determine usefulness of combined chemotherapy including platinum derivatives (cisplatin, carboplatin) as the induction and maintenance treatment. All patients underwent radical surgery and craniospinal irradiation. Ten received adjuvant chemotherapy other than platinum derivatives (mainly with nitrosourea compounds), five were treated by induction and maintenance chemotherapy including platinum derivatives, and nine patients did not undergo chemotherapy. The progression-free survival rate of patients treated with platinum derivatives was better than that of patients treated with other modes of chemotherapy and also that of patients who did not receive chemotherapy. The results were especially good in the case of four patients treated with maintenance chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and etoposide, two of whom had been free from relapse beyond the risk period of Collins. The occurrences of toxicity in maintenance chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide were limited to transient leucopenia. The present study indicates combined chemotherapy including platinum derivatives benefits patients with medulloblastoma, and could be useful, especially as maintenance treatment. (author)

  20. A randomized, controlled, multicenter study comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in gastric cancer patients with D2 resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weiguo; Xua Dafu; Pu, Jun; Zong, Cheng-dong; Li, Tao; Tao, Guang-zhou; Ji, Fu-zhi; Zhou, Xi-lei; Han, Ji-hua; Wang, Cheng-shi; Yu, Chang-hua; Yi, Jiang-guo; Su, Xi-long; Ding, Jin-xia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of patients with gastric cancer with D2 lymph node curative dissection is not well established. In this study, we compared postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus chemotherapy (IMRT-C) with chemotherapy-only in this patient population. Materials and methods: We randomly assigned patients with D2 lymph node dissection in gastric cancer to IMRT-C or chemotherapy-only groups. The adjuvant IMRT-C consisted of 400 mg of fluorouracil per square meter of body-surface area per day plus 20 mg of leucovorin per square meter of body-surface area per day for 5 days, followed by 45 Gy of IMRT for 5 weeks, with fluorouracil and leucovorin on the first 4 and the last 3 days of radiotherapy. Two 5-day cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin were given 4 weeks after the completion of IMRT. Chemotherapy-only group was given the same chemotherapy regimens as IMRT-C group. Results: The median overall survival (OS) in the chemotherapy-only group was 48 months, as compared with 58 months in the IMRT-C group; the hazard ratio for death was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.65; P = 0.122). IMRT-C was associated with increases in the median duration of recurrence-free survival (RFS) (36 months vs. 50 months), the hazard ratio for recurrence was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.78; P = 0.029). COX multivariate regression analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and TNM stage were both the independent prognostic factors. Rates of all grade adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups. Conclusions: IMRT-C improved RFS, but did not significantly improve OS among patients with D2 lymph node dissection in gastric cancer. Using IMRT plus chemotherapy was feasible and well tolerated in patients with gastric cancer after D2 resection.

  1. Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy in stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillet, T.; MOrere, J.F.; Piperno-Neuman, S.; Boaziz, C.; Breau, J.L.; Mazeron, J.J.; Haddad, E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the efficacy and safety of induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and whether the response to induction chemotherapy can predict the response to subsequent chemoradiotherapy and survival. In conclusion, there is a statistically significant relationship not only between the response to ICT and the response to CCrt, but also between the response to ICT and the local outcome and survival. (authors)

  2. Sequential versus simultaneous use of chemotherapy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients: effects on ovarian function, disease-free survival, and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ji, Yajie; Li, Jianwei; Lei, Li; Wu, Siyu; Zuo, Wenjia; Jia, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yujie; Mo, Miao; Zhang, Na; Shen, Zhenzhou; Wu, Jiong; Shao, Zhimin; Liu, Guangyu

    2018-04-01

    To investigate ovarian function and therapeutic efficacy among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, premenopausal breast cancer patients treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and chemotherapy simultaneously or sequentially. This study was a phase 3, open-label, parallel, randomized controlled trial (NCT01712893). Two hundred sixteen premenopausal patients (under 45 years) diagnosed with invasive ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled from July 2009 to May 2013 and randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy combined with sequential or simultaneous GnRHa treatment. All patients were advised to receive GnRHa for at least 2 years. The primary outcome was the incidence of early menopause, defined as amenorrhea lasting longer than 12 months after the last chemotherapy or GnRHa dose, with postmenopausal or unknown follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. The menstrual resumption period and survivals were the secondary endpoints. The median follow-up time was 56.9 months (IQR 49.5-72.4 months). One hundred and eight patients were enrolled in each group. Among them, 92 and 78 patients had complete primary endpoint data in the sequential and simultaneous groups, respectively. The rates of early menopause were 22.8% (21/92) in the sequential group and 23.1% (18/78) in the simultaneous group [simultaneous vs. sequential: OR 1.01 (95% CI 0.50-2.08); p = 0.969; age-adjusted OR 1.13; (95% CI 0.54-2.37); p = 0.737]. The median menstruation resumption period was 12.0 (95% CI 9.3-14.7) months and 10.3 (95% CI 8.2-12.4) months for the sequential and simultaneous groups, respectively [HR 0.83 (95% CI 0.59-1.16); p = 0.274; age-adjusted HR 0.90 (95%CI 0.64-1.27); p = 0.567]. No significant differences were evident for disease-free survival (p = 0.290) or overall survival (p = 0.514) between the two groups. For ER-positive premenopausal patients, the sequential use of GnRHa and chemotherapy showed ovarian preservation

  3. Predictive and prognostic factors associated with soft tissue sarcoma response to chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Robin J; Litière, Saskia; Lia, Michela

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62012 study was a Phase III trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in 455 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Analysis of the main study showed that combination chemotherapy...... improved tumor response and progression-free survival, but differences in overall survival (OS) were not statistically significant. We analyzed factors prognostic for tumor response and OS, and assessed histological subgroup and tumor grade as predictive factors to identify patients more likely to benefit...... patients had improved tumor response compared to other histological subgroups, whilst patients with metastases other than lung, liver or bone had a poorer response [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.78; p = 0.006]. Patients with bone metastases had reduced OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1...

  4. Preoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in resectable esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Choi, Eun K.; Kim, Sung B.; Park, Seung I.; Kim, Dong K.; Song, Ho Y.; Jung, Hwoon Y.; Min, Young I.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rates, survival rates, and patterns of failure for esophageal cancer patients receiving preoperative concurrent chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy followed by esophagectomy. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 through January 1997, 94 patients with resectable esophageal cancers received continuous hyperfractionated radiation (4,800 cGy/40 fx/4 weeks), with concurrent FP chemotherapy (5-FU 1 g/m 2 /day, days 2-6, 30-34, CDDP 60 mg/m 2 /day, days 1, 29) followed by esophagectomy 3-4 weeks later. If there was evidence of disease progression on preoperative re-evaluation work-up, or if the patient refused surgery, definitive chemoradiotherapy was delivered. Minimum follow-up time was 2 years. Results: All patients successfully completed preoperative treatment and were then followed until death. Fifty-three patients received surgical resection, and another 30 were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Eleven patients did not receive further treatment. Among 91 patients who received clinical reevaluation, we observed 35 having clinical complete response (CR) (38.5%). Pathologic CR rate was 49% (26 patients). Overall survival rate was 59.8% at 2 years and 40.3% at 5 years. Median survival time was 32 months. In 83 patients who were treated with surgery or definitive chemoradiotherapy, the esophagectomy group showed significantly higher survival, disease-free survival, and local disease-free survival rates than those in the definitive chemoradiation group. Conclusion: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in this trial showed improved clinical and pathologic tumor response and survival when compared to historical results. Patients who underwent esophagectomy following chemoradiation showed decreased local recurrence and improved survival and disease-free survival rates compared to the definitive chemoradiation group

  5. Improved survival for non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Dianne L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated if the survival benefit of adding rituximab to standard chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL observed in clinical trials has been experienced by an Australian NHL patient population. Methods NHL cases diagnosed in 1985-2004 in New South Wales (NSW were followed-up to the end of 2004. Rituximab prescription data were obtained from Medicare Australia. Using a Poisson regression model adjusted for age group, sex, NHL subtype and time period (1990-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, we estimated excess risk of death after a diagnosis of NHL. To give context to the survival trend, trends in incidence and mortality were also estimated. Results Compared with 1990-1994, after adjusting for age, sex and NHL subtype the relative excess risk of death was significantly lower (p Conclusion It is likely that some benefit of adding rituximab to the standard chemotherapy for NHL has been experienced at the population level.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: radiologic-pathologic correlation of the response and disease-free survival depending on molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Ciria, S; Jiménez Aragón, F; García Mur, C; Esteban Cuesta, H; Gros Bañeres, B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their correlation in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to analyze their impact in disease-free survival. We included 205 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the radiologic response by comparing MRI images acquired before and after chemotherapy. The pathologic response was classified on the Miller and Payne scale. For each subtype (HER2+, TN, luminal A, luminal B HER2-, and luminal B HER2+), we used the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Kendall's Tau-b to evaluate the radiologic response and the pathologic response, the radiologic-pathologic correlation, and the disease-free survival. The subtypes HER2+ (62.1%) and TN (45.2%) had higher rates of complete radiologic response. The pathologic response was 65.5% in the HER2+ subtype, 38.1% in the TN subtype, 2.6% in the luminal A subtype, 8.2% in the luminal B HER2- subtype, and 31% in the luminal B HER2+ subtype. The rate of radiologic-pathologic correlation was significant in all subtypes, higher in TN and HER2 (Tau-b coefficients 0.805 and 0.717, respectively). Disease-free survival was higher in HER2+ (91.9±3.3 months) and lower in TN (69.5±6.3 months), with significant differences between the cases with poor and good radiologic responses (P=.040). Survival was greater in cases with good radiologic response, except in cases with luminal A subtype. MRI can be a useful tool that provides information about the evolution of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which varies with the immunohistochemical subtype. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC) : an update on 93 randomised trials and 17,346 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pignon, Jean-Pierre; le Maître, Aurélie; Maillard, Emilie; Bourhis, Jean; Widder, Joachim

    BACKGROUND: Our previous individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis showed that chemotherapy improved survival in patients curatively treated for non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with a higher benefit with concomitant chemotherapy. However the heterogeneity of the

  8. Outcome of combination chemotherapy in extensive stage small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U N; Hirsch, F R; Osterlind, K

    1998-01-01

    During the past two decades many different treatment regimens of combination chemotherapy have been applied in extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This study was carried out to identify whether these modifications have resulted in an improved overall survival for extensive stage during...

  9. Photon buildup factors of some chemotherapy drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaz, Esra; Ahmadishadbad, Nader; Özdemir, Yüksel

    2015-02-01

    Everyday more and more people are diagnosed with some form of cancer. Some are treatable with chemotherapy alone, while others need radiotherapy and occasionally surgery. Recently, concurrent administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been increasingly used in cancer treatment, leading to improvements in survival as well as quality of life. Accordingly, interaction of chemotherapy drugs with radiation will be meaningful to examine. In the present study, gamma ray energy absorption and exposure of buildup factors were computed using the five-parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting formula for some chemotherapy drugs in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path (mfp). The generated energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of chemotherapy drugs have been studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. The significant variations in EABF and EBF for chemotherapy drugs have been observed at the moderate energy region. It has been concluded that the buildup of photons is less in azathioprine and is more in vinblastine compared with other drugs. Buildup factors investigated in the present work could be useful in radiation dosimetry and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of survival rates after treatment with induction chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Yukihiro; Kou, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 our treatment approach for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has involved comprehensive treatment with chemotherapy, radiation followed by surgery, if needed. Between 1989 and 2005 chemotherapy using fluorouracil and carboplatin div was administered as induction chemotherapy (ICT), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered more recently between 2006 and 2011. In this study we compared the statistical difference in 3-year survival rates between the ICT group and CCRT group. The number of target patients was 137, all of which were previously untreated and suffered from locoregionally advanced HNSCC: 52 with Stage III, 78 with Stage IVA, 7 with Stage IVB. In the ICT and CCRT groups, 3-year cause-specific survival rates were 68.2% and 76.3% respectively, both of which were statistically not recessive compared to those in the other issues. Furthermore, the rate between the two groups was identified as significant for Stage III and not significant for Stage IV. In conclusion, the addition of new modalities for the treatment of far-advanced HNSCC should be mandatory. (author)

  11. Chemotherapy for isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (CALOR): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Stefan; Gelber, Shari; Anderson, Stewart J; Láng, István; Robidoux, André; Martín, Miguel; Nortier, Johan W R; Paterson, Alexander H G; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Cañada, José Manuel Baena; Thürlimann, Beat; Murray, Elizabeth; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Geyer, Charles E; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Rastogi, Priya; Wolmark, Norman; Wapnir, Irene L

    2014-02-01

    Patients with isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRR) of breast cancer have a high risk of distant metastasis and death from breast cancer. We aimed to establish whether adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcome of such patients. The CALOR trial was a pragmatic, open-label, randomised trial that accrued patients with histologically proven and completely excised ILRR after unilateral breast cancer who had undergone a mastectomy or lumpectomy with clear surgical margins. Eligible patients were enrolled from hospitals worldwide and were centrally randomised (1:1) to chemotherapy (type selected by the investigator; multidrug for at least four courses recommended) or no chemotherapy, using permuted blocks, and stratified by previous chemotherapy, oestrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor status, and location of ILRR. Patients with oestrogen-receptor-positive ILRR received adjuvant endocrine therapy, radiation therapy was mandated for patients with microscopically involved surgical margins, and anti-HER2 therapy was optional. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074152. From Aug 22, 2003, to Jan 31, 2010, 85 patients were randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy and 77 were assigned to no chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 3·6-6 ·0), 24 (28%) patients had disease-free survival events in the chemotherapy group compared with 34 (44%) in the no chemotherapy group. 5-year disease-free survival was 69% (95% CI 56-79) with chemotherapy versus 57% (44-67) without chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0·59 [95% CI 0·35-0·99]; p=0·046). Adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly more effective for women with oestrogen-receptor-negative ILRR (pinteraction=0·046), but analyses of disease-free survival according to the oestrogen-receptor status of the primary tumour were not statistically significant (pinteraction=0·43). Of the 81 patients who

  12. Type of Resection (Whipple vs. Distal) Does Not Affect the National Failure to Provide Post-resection Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Localized Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, John R; Ivanics, Tommy; Shubert, Christopher R; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Smoot, Rory L; Kendrick, Michael L; Nagorney, David M; Farnell, Michael B; Truty, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival after curative intent resection for localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Given the differences in perioperative morbidity, we hypothesized that patients undergoing distal partial pancreatectomy (DPP) would receive adjuvant therapy more often those undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). The National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012) identified patients with localized PDAC undergoing DPP and PD, excluding neoadjuvant cases, and factors associated with receipt of adjuvant therapy were identified. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Overall, 13,501 patients were included (DPP, n = 1933; PD, n = 11,568). Prognostic characteristics were similar, except DPP patients had fewer N1 lesions, less often positive margins, more minimally invasive resections, and shorter hospital stay. The proportion of patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy was equivalent (DPP 33.7%, PD 32.0%; p = 0.148). The type of procedure was not independently associated with adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.02; p = 0.150), and patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had improved unadjusted and adjusted OS compared with surgery alone. The type of resection did not predict adjusted mortality (p = 0.870). Receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy did not vary by type of resection but improved survival independent of procedure performed. Factors other than type of resection appear to be driving the nationwide rates of post-resection adjuvant chemotherapy in localized PDAC.

  13. [Impact of the chemotherapy protocols for metastatic breast cancer on the treatment cost and the survival time of 371 patients treated in three hospitals of the Rhone-Alpes region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviot, B Trombert; Bachelot, T; Clavreul, G; Jacquin, J-P; Mille, D; Rodrigues, J-M

    2009-10-01

    The chemotherapy of the metastatic breast cancer is characterized by the diversity of the treatment protocols and the utilisation of new expensive molecules posing the double problem of outcomes for the patients and financial effects for the hospitals. This survey describes the different chemotherapy treatments prescribed in the metastatic breast cancer and the direct costs supported by the hospitals according to the patient survival time. A cohort of 371 patients treated for a metastatic breast cancer was followed in three hospitals of the Rhone-Alpes region between 2001 and 2006. The detail of their different antineoplasic treatments, as well as the purchase cost of the drugs and their cost of hospital administration, the cost of the other hospital stays are presented in relation with the survival. The median survival time (35,8 months; CI 95%: [31.7-39.1]) since the first metastasis does not differ significantly according to the hospital. Ninety-three different chemotherapy protocols are observed combining from one to five molecules. Thirty-two different molecules are identified. In first line treatment, there is a significant difference in the use of the new molecules according to hospital (Chi(2) test; P cost of a chemotherapy treatment is 3,919 euro (+/- 8,069 euro), the higher cost is observed for trastuzumab (23,443 euro). The average time period before the beginning of a new chemotherapy line is 212 days (+/- 237 days) and the mean cost of hospital stay during this period is 3,903 euro (+/- 4,097 euro). If no impact of the chemotherapy treatment strategy is observed on the survival time of the patient, it is the opposite for the hospital treatment cost. These results are asking for a better control system of the authorization procedure of new molecules marketing and the harmonization of the practices.

  14. The role of cisplatin in chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurga, L; Misurova, E; Kovac, V [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Teaching Hospital, 04190 Kosice (Slovak Republic); Sevcikova, L [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate School of Medicine, 81259 Bratislava (Slovak Republic)

    1994-12-31

    Cisplatin containing regimes as first-time, second-time or as third-line chemotherapy were administered in 26 and 36 patients, respectively. The overall response rate in patients on first-line chemotherapy was 53.9 %, in patients on on second or third-line chemotherapy 30.6 %. The differences both in overall and disease-free survival between patients on first-line and on second/third-line chemotherapy were statistically significant in favor of women treated with first-line chemotherapy (p = 0.05). Hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were mild to moderate and were more pronounced in patients on second and third-line chemotherapy. The overall response date, disease-free survival and overall survival were significantly better and longer in the group of patients treated with `bolus` cisplatin in comparison to the group of patients treated with continuous venous infusion cisplatin. Our results confirm the activity of cisplatin-containing regimes (mainly CAP schedules) in patients with advanced breast cancer not only as first-line therapy but also in heavily pretreated patients by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and endocrine manipulation. (author) 10 tabs., 21 refs.

  15. Chemotherapy for intracranial ependymoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatzki, Dorothee; Roth, Patrick; Felsberg, Jörg; Hofer, Silvia; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Hentschel, Bettina; Westphal, Manfred; Krex, Dietmar; Simon, Matthias; Schnell, Oliver; Wick, Wolfgang; Reifenberger, Guido; Weller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ependymal tumors in adults are rare, accounting for less than 4 % of primary tumors of the central nervous system in this age group. The low prevalence of intracranial ependymoma in adults limits the ability to perform clinical trials. Therefore, treatment decisions are based on small, mostly retrospective studies and the role of chemotherapy has remained unclear. We performed a retrospective study on 17 adult patients diagnosed with intracranial World Health Organisation grade II or III ependymoma, who were treated with chemotherapy at any time during the disease course. Benefit from chemotherapy was estimated by applying Macdonald criteria. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from start of chemotherapy, using the Kaplan-Meier method. Eleven patients had supratentorial and 6 infratentorial tumors. Ten patients were treated with temozolomide (TMZ), 3 with procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV), 3 with platinum-based chemotherapy and 1 patient received epirubicin/ifosfamide. Response rates were as follows: TMZ 8/10 stable disease; PCV 3/3 stable disease; platinum-based chemotherapy 1/3 partial response; epirubicin/ifosfamide 1/1 complete response. PFS rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 52.9, 35.3 and 23.5 %. OS rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 82.4, 82.4 and 70.1 %. There was no indication for a favourable prognostic role of O 6 -methylguanyl-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation which was detected in 3/12 investigated tumors. Survival outcomes in response to chemotherapy in adult intracranial ependymoma patients vary substantially, but individual patients may respond to any kind of chemotherapy. There were too few patients to compare survival data between chemotherapeutic subgroups. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2323-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  16. Emmprin and survivin predict response and survival following cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne B; Dyrskjøt, Lars; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    in an independent material of 124 patients receiving cisplatin-containing therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-five differentially expressed genes correlated significantly to survival time. Two of the protein products (emmprin and survivin) were validated using immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis identified emmprin...... metastases, both markers showed significant discriminating power as supplemental risk factors (P emmprin and survivin) had estimated 5-year survival rates of 44.......0%, 21.1%, and 0%, respectively. Response to chemotherapy could also be predicted with an odds ratio of 4.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.91-10.1) and 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.5) for emmprin and survivin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Emmprin and survivin proteins were identified as strong...

  17. Duration of chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintenance chemotherapy is widely provided to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. However, the benefits of maintenance chemotherapy compared with observation are a subject of debate. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify relevant literature, we systematically searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Eligible trials included patients with SCLC who either received maintenance chemotherapy (administered according to a continuous or switch strategy or underwent observation. The primary outcome was 1-year mortality, and secondary outcomes were 2-year mortality, overall survival (OS, and progression-free survival (PFS. Of the 665 studies found in our search, we identified 14 relevant trials, which together reported data on 1806 patients with SCLC. When compared with observation, maintenance chemotherapy had no effect on 1-year mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-1.19; P = 0.414, 2-year mortality (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.57-1.19; P = 0.302, OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.71-1.06; P = 0.172, or PFS (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62-1.22; P = 0.432. However, subgroup analyses indicated that maintenance chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer PFS than observation in patients with extensive SCLC (HR, 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58-0.89; P = 0.003. Additionally, patients who were managed using the continuous strategy of maintenance chemotherapy appeared to be at a disadvantage in terms of PFS compared with patients who only underwent observation (HR, 1.27; 95% CI: 1.04-1.54; P = 0.018. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Maintenance chemotherapy failed to improve survival outcomes in patients with SCLC. However, a significant advantage in terms of PFS was observed for maintenance chemotherapy in patients with extensive disease. Additionally, our results suggest that the continuous strategy is inferior to observation; its clinical

  18. A review of topotecan in combination chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Robati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minoo Robati, David Holtz, Charles J DuntonDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Main Line Gynecologic Oncology, Lankenau Hospital, Wynnewood, PA, USAAbstract: Treatment of advanced, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiation has been the primary treatment modality for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Concomitant systemic cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation have shown high response rates with improvements in durable remissions and overall survival. Cisplatin has been the standard medication for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. Combinations with other chemotherapeutic agents have been the subject of clinical trials with varying results. The toxicity of combination chemotherapy and tolerability of patients are other factors that should be considered in the management of patients with advanced disease. Recently topotecan, in combination with cisplatin, achieved increased response and overall survival rates without further compromising the patients’ quality of life. This review focuses on the mechanism of action and toxicities of topotecan, as well as its role as a radio-sensitizer and chemotherapeutic agent in the management of advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer. Other combination modalities and dosages are also discussed.Keywords: topotecan, combination chemotherapy, advanced cervical cancer

  19. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of stage II (T1-2N1M0) non-small cell lung cancer in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark F; Coleman, Brooke K; Curtis, Lesley H; Worni, Mathias; D'Amico, Thomas A; Akushevich, Igor

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the use and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of T1-2N1M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in elderly patients. Factors associated with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients older than 65 years of age who underwent surgical resection of T1-2N1M0 NSCLC without induction chemotherapy or radiation in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database from 1992 to 2006 were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model that included treatment, patient, tumor, and census tract characteristics. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier approach and inverse probability weight-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Overall, 2,781 patients who underwent surgical resection as the initial treatment for T1-2N1M0 NSCLC and survived at least 31 days after surgery were identified, with adjuvant chemotherapy given to 784 patients (28.2 %). Factors that predicted adjuvant chemotherapy use were younger age and higher T status. The 5-year OS was significantly better for patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients not given adjuvant chemotherapy: 35.8 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 31.9-39.6) vs. 28.0 % (95 % CI 25.9-30.0) (p = 0.008). In the inverse probability weight-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression model, adjuvant chemotherapy use predicted significantly improved survival (hazard ratio 0.84; 95 % CI 0.76-0.92; p = 0.0002). Adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of T1-2N1M0 NSCLC is associated with significantly improved survival in patients older than 65 years. These data can be used to provide elderly patients with realistic expectations of the potential benefits when considering adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting.

  20. The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio May Predict Benefit from Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR on overall survival (OS and to explore the value of changes in the NLR and PLR with treatment as a response indicator. Methods: A total of 934 patients were eligible for retrospective analysis between 2008 and 2014. The pretreatment and post-treatment PLR and NLR in all patients were calculated based on complete blood counts. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of the PLR and NLR with OS. Results: The pretreatment NLR and PLR were correlated with different disease status and response to chemotherapy. Patients with lower NLR and PLR had a significantly better complete response (CR rate to chemotherapy versus those with a higher NLR and PLR (p< 0.001. The NLR and PLR were sustained in patients who obtained a CR compared with moderate or poor response patients. The lower NLR of pretreatment was independently associated with a favourable prognosis in whole patients with lung cancer (HR: 0.69, 95% CI, 0.55-0.85, p< 0.001. In the patients under control after chemotherapy, the NLR of post-chemotherapy had a greater impact on survival, and the low NLR level maintained during chemotherapy was identified a predictor for favourable survival. PLR was not an independent prognostic indicator in the whole cohort or any subgroups. Conclusion: Our results suggested that NLR was well-connected with outcomes and response to chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. As a response indicator, NLR may predict benefit from chemotherapy and improve patient selection.

  1. Locally advanced cervix cancer: chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiotherapy. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; O'Donnell, A.; Tattersall, M.H.N.; Dalrymple, C.; Firth, I.

    2001-01-01

    Primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy has potential advantages for locally advanced cervix cancer. It can down stage a cancer and allow definitive local therapy to be technically possible (surgery), or potentially more effective (radiotherapy). It can also eradicate subclinical systemic metastases. This report reviews a single institution's experience of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy for cervix cancer over a 13-year period. One hundred and six patients were treated with this intent. The patients were analysed for their response to chemotherapy, treatment received, survival, relapse and toxicity. The chemotherapy was feasible and the majority of patients had a complete or partial response (58.5%). Eight patients did not proceed to local treatment. Forty-six patients had definitive surgery and 52 had definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival was 27% and the majority of patients died with disease. The first site of relapse was usually in the pelvis (46.2%). Late complications that required ongoing medical therapy (n = 6) or surgical intervention (n = 2) were recorded in eight patients (7.5%). On univariate analysis stage (P= 0.04), tumour size (P = 0.01), lymph node status (P=0.003), response to chemotherapy (P = 0.045) and treatment (P = 0.003) were all significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.0001) and nodal status (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of survival. Despite the impressive responses to chemotherapy of advanced cervix cancer, there is evidence from randomized trials that it does not improve or compromise survival prior to radiotherapy. As its role prior to surgery remains unclear, it should not be used in this setting outside a prospective randomized trial. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Short-course radiotherapy followed by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer – the RAPIDO trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Per J; Marijnen, Corrie AM; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Wiggers, Theo; Glimelius, Bengt; Etten, Boudewijn van; Hospers, Geke AP; Påhlman, Lars; Velde, Cornelis JH van de; Beets-Tan, Regina GH; Blomqvist, Lennart; Beukema, Jannet C; Kapiteijn, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    chemotherapy. In a multi-centre setting this regimen is compared to current standard with the aim of improving survival for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT01558921

  3. Paradox of Prescribing Late Chemotherapy: Oncologists Explain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Minnie; Connell, Cathleen M; De Vries, Raymond G; Janz, Nancy K; Bickel, Kathleen E; Silveira, Maria J

    2016-12-01

    The value of chemotherapy for patients with cancer in the last weeks of life warrants examination. Late chemotherapy may not improve survival or quality of life but typically precludes hospice enrollment and may result in additional symptoms, increased use of other aggressive treatments, and worsening quality of life. Few studies have explored oncologists' rationales for administering chemotherapy near death. This study examines the self-reported factors that influence oncologists' decisions about late chemotherapy. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 17 oncologists through a semistructured interview guide. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using conventional content analysis, a qualitative method that allows the detection and analysis of patterns in the data. Clinical factors take priority in determining late chemotherapy decisions when clear treatment choices exist. When clinical factors are ambiguous, emotion becomes a highly salient influence. Oncologists view late chemotherapy to be patient driven and use it to palliate emotional distress and maintain patient hope even when physical benefit is unexpected. Oncologists experience unique and difficult challenges when caring for dying patients, including emotionally draining communication, overwhelming responsibility for life/death, limitations of oncology to heal, and prognostic uncertainty. These challenges are also eased by offering late chemotherapy. The findings reveal a nuanced understanding of why oncologists find it difficult to refuse chemotherapy treatment for patients near death. Optimal end-of-life treatment decisions require supportive interventions and system change, both of which must take into account the challenges oncologists face.

  4. Salmonella Immunotherapy Improves the Outcome of CHOP Chemotherapy in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma-Bearing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuas, Thais; Moreno, María; Grille, Sofía; Chabalgoity, José A.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that Salmonella immunotherapy is effective to treat B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in mice. However, this model involves animals with high tumor burden, whereas in the clinics B-NHL patients are usually treated with chemotherapy (CHOP: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as first-line therapy prior to immunotherapy. Recently, we have described a NHL-B preclinical model using CHOP chemotherapy to achieve MRD in immunocompetent animals that closely resemble patients’ conditions. In this work, we assessed the efficacy of Salmonella immunotherapy in B-NHL-bearing mice undergoing chemotherapy. Salmonella administration significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival of chemotherapy-treated NHL-bearing animals. Mice receiving the CHOP–Salmonella combined therapy showed increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and a different profile of cytokines and chemokines expressed in the tumor microenvironment. Further, Salmonella immunotherapy in CHOP-treated animals also enhanced NK cells cytotoxic activity as well as induced systemic lymphoma-specific humoral and cellular responses. Chemotherapy treatment profoundly impacted on the general health status of recipient animals, but those receiving Salmonella showed significantly better overall body condition. Altogether, the results clearly demonstrated that Salmonella immunotherapy could be safely used in individuals under CHOP treatment, resulting in a better prognosis. These results give strong support to consider Salmonella as a neoadjuvant therapy in a clinical setting. PMID:29410666

  5. Retrospective analysis of chronomodulated chemotherapy versus conventional chemotherapy with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and 5-fluorouracil in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dan Chen, Jue Cheng, Kai Yang, Yue Ma, Fang Yang Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Background: Chronomodulated chemotherapy has emerged as a new therapy as a result of recent studies focusing on the biological clock. It has been demonstrated that combination chronomodulated chemotherapy of platinum-based drugs and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu can significantly improve efficacy and reduce the incidence of adverse events in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, as compared with conventional chemotherapy. However, the results may be different in different tumors. Recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is very difficult to treat, with an extremely unfavorable prognosis. So far, no report is available on chronomodulated chemotherapy for HNSCC. Methods: Retrospective analyses were made on 49 patients with local recurrent and/or metastatic HNSCC who underwent palliative treatments with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and 5-Fu. The patients were divided into a chronomodulated chemotherapy group (28 patients and a conventional chemotherapy group (21 patients according to their administration times. The two groups were compared for tumor objective response rate, overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, and the incidence of adverse events. Results: The tumor objective response rate and patients' OS were significantly higher and longer in the chronomodulated chemotherapy group than in the conventional chemotherapy group (71.43% versus 42.86%, respectively, P0.05. The global incidence of adverse events in the chronomodulated chemotherapy group was significantly lower than that in the conventional chemotherapy group (46.43% versus 76.19%, P<0.05, with significantly lower incidence of grade 3–4 adverse events (7.14% versus 33.33%, P<0.05. Conclusion: Chronomodulated chemotherapy with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and

  6. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy for unresectable locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Phase II study and clinical review on literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Stoll, P.; Wannenmacher, M.; Zierhut, D.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Neither surgical advances nor those in therapeutic radiology have been able to significantly reduce the mortality related to esophageal carcinomas. The results of combining: first surgery, then radiation therapy, which have been dissatisfactory for decades, encourage therapeutic concepts involving a variety of modalities. Patients and Methods: For 50 patients with unresectable locally advanced esophageal carcinomas, a palliative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy was carried out according to the ''intent to treat'' principle. The aim was a minimal dose of 40 Gy. The concurrent chemotherapy was carried out using cisplatin/5-FU during the 1st and 4th weeks of radiation therapy. In the case of partial or complete remission, the chemotherapy was to be continued as maintenance therapy with a maximum of four cycles. In the case of no change or minor response, instead of maintenance chemotherapy, the dose of local radiation was to be increased by means of brachytherapy. Results: The median survival rate for the entire population under study was 8.7 months. The survival rates of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were, respectively, 38%, 20.5%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 6.8%. The remission rates were as follows: NC: 14 patients (28%), PR: 32 patients (64%), CR: 4 patients (8%). 17 patients (34%) tolerated the full concurrent chemotherapy; only twelve patients (24%) tolerated supportive chemotherapy. The following factors exhibited a significant correlation to survival: the intensity of the chemotherapy, the Karnofsky index, the age of the patients, and the improvement of oral food intake. Conclusions: The concurrent chemotherapy was toxic and the benefit to the patients questionable. At best, meta-analyses of randomized studies along the lines of ''evidence-based medicine'' demonstrate for concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy an improvement of 2-year survival rates, but with these also involving a high level of toxicity. Due to the heterogeneous data available

  7. Receipt of maintenance therapy is most predictive of survival in older acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated with intensive induction chemotherapy regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsburg, Daniel J; Stadtmauer, Edward; Loren, Alison; Goldstein, Steven; Frey, Noelle; Nasta, Sunita D; Porter, David L; Tsai, Donald E; Perl, Alexander E; Hexner, Elizabeth O; Luger, Selina

    2013-08-01

    While the prognosis for older adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is frequently poor, long-term survival can be achieved in patients treated with curative intent. We reviewed the outcomes of 37 patients age ≥60 treated at our institution with either DVP- or hyperCVAD-based chemotherapy regimens from 2003-2011. In this patient population, a complete response rate of 92%, relapse rate of 56% and median overall survival of 18.1 months was experienced. Univariate analysis revealed that receipt of maintenance therapy vs. no maintenance therapy was associated with a statistically-significant impact on overall survival (p = 0.001, HR 0.15 for death), while disease-related characteristics including high-risk white blood cell count at diagnosis and Philadelphia chromosome status as well as treatment-related factors including chemotherapy regimen or completion of intensive therapy were not. Many patients were unable to initiate or remain on maintenance therapy due to toxicities including infections and cytopenias. Our analysis reveals the benefit of prolonged therapy in the treatment of older adults with ALL as well as the high incidence of treatment-related toxicity experienced by these patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Enzalutamide in Men with Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Extended Analysis of the Phase 3 PREVAIL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, T.M.; Armstrong, A.J.; Rathkopf, D.; Loriot, Y.; Sternberg, C.N.; Higano, C.S.; Iversen, P.; Evans, C.P.; Kim, C.S.; Kimura, G.; Miller, K.; Saad, F.; Bjartell, A.S.; Borre, M.; Mulders, P.; Tammela, T.L.; Parli, T.; Sari, S.; Os, S. van; Theeuwes, A.; Tombal, B.

    2017-01-01

    Enzalutamide significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) among men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer at the prespecified interim analysis of PREVAIL, a phase 3, double-blind, randomized study. We evaluated the

  9. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination chemotherapy concurrent with small dose radiation therapy for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Toshihiko; Fujita, Hiroji; Shintomi, Takenori

    1987-01-01

    Forty consecutive patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both. Of 34 patients treated with chemotherapy, 24 were treated with combination chemotherapy, containing cyclophosphamide vincristine methotrexate and procarbazine, concurrent with small dose radiation therapy (500 cGy/5 fraction) as a chemosensitizer (COMPrt). The response rate to this regimen was 81 % (29 % complete) and the 2 year survival rate was 28.6 %. These results have been superior to other regimens and the toxicity was not see to be any higher. After completion of COMPrt regimen, 10 patients were treated with intrathoracic radiation therapy (average dose 3000 cGy) and 3 recieved surgical treatment. Radiation therapy improved the 2-year survival rate (42.2 %) when compared with those patients who received no radiation therapy (18.2 %). Three patients received surgical treatment were considered to be disease-free for 23, 17, and 9 months respectively, after induction of chemotherapy. (author)

  11. Correlation between response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Fuentes-Ferrer, M; López Garcia-Asenjo, J A; Furió, V; Román, J M; Moreno, A; de la Hoya, M; Díaz-Rubio, E; Martín, M; Caldés, T

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of residual disease following neoadjuvant chemotherapy that accurately predicts long-term survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is an essential requirement for clinical trials development. Several methods to assess tumor response have been described. However, the agreement between methods and correlation with survival in independent cohorts has not been reported. We report survival and tumor response according to the measurement of residual breast cancer burden (RCB), the Miller and Payne classification and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria, in 151 LABC patients. Kappa Cohen's coefficient (К) was used to test the agreement between methods. We assessed the correlation between the treatment outcome and overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) by calculating Harrell's C-statistic (c). The agreement between Miller and Payne classification and RCB classes was very high (К = 0.82). In contrast, we found a moderate-to-fair agreement between the Miller and Payne classification and RECIST criteria (К = 0.52) and RCB classes and RECIST criteria (К = 0.38). The adjusted C-statistic to predict OS for RCB index (0.77) and RCB classes (0.75) was superior to that of RECIST criteria (0.69) (P = 0.007 and P = 0.035, respectively). Also, RCB index (c = 0.71), RCB classes (c = 0.71) and Miller and Payne classification (c = 0.67) predicted better RFS than RECIST criteria (c = 0.61) (P = 0.005, P = 0.006 and P = 0.028, respectively). The pathological assessment of tumor response might provide stronger prognostic information in LABC patients.

  12. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu KG

    2014-06-01

    .6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups.Conclusion: Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer.Keywords: carboplatin, docetaxel, epidermal growth factor receptor, nimotuzumab, non-small cell lung cancer

  13. Effect of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy on Survival for Patients With Cervical Esophageal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Lachlan J.; Huang, Shao Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei; Che, Jiahua [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Brierley, James; Kim, John; Cummings, Bernard; Waldron, John; Bayley, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hansen, Aaron [Division of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ringash, Jolie, E-mail: jolie.ringash@rmp.uhn.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of consecutive protocols on overall survival (OS) for cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC). Methods and Materials: All CEC cases that received definitive radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy from 1997 to 2013 in 3 consecutive protocols were reviewed. Protocol 1 (P1) consisted of 2-dimensional RT of 54 Gy in 20 fractions with 5-fluorouracil plus either mitomycin C or cisplatin. Protocol 2 (P2) consisted of 3-dimensional conformal RT (3DRT) of ≥60 Gy in 30 fractions plus elective nodal irradiation plus cisplatin. Protocol 3 (P3) consisted of intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of ≥60 Gy in 30 fractions plus elective nodal irradiation plus cisplatin. Multivariable analyses were used to assess the effect of the treatment protocol, RT technique, and RT dose on OS, separately. Results: Of 81 cases (P1, 21; P2, 23; and P3, 37), 34 local (P1, 11 [52%]; P2, 12 [52%]; and P3, 11 [30%]), 16 regional (P1, 6 [29%]); P2, 3 [13%]; and P3, 7 [19%]), and 34 distant (P1, 10 [48%]; P2, 9 [39%]; and P3, 15 [41%]) failures were identified. After adjusting for age (P=.49) and chemotherapy (any vs none; hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9; P=.023), multivariable analysis showed P3 had improved OS compared with P1 (HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8; P=.005), with a trend shown for benefit compared with P2 (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.0; P=.061). OS between P1 and P2 did not differ (P=.29). Analyzed as a continuous variable, higher RT doses were associated with a borderline improved OS (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-1.0; P=.075). IMRT showed improved OS compared with non-IMRT (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.3-0.8; P=.008). Conclusions: The present retrospective consecutive cohort study showed improved OS with our current protocol (P3; high-dose IMRT with concurrent high-dose cisplatin) compared with historical protocols. The outcomes for patients with CEC remain poor, and novel approaches to improve the therapeutic ratio are warranted.

  14. The SNP rs6500843 in 16p13.3 is associated with survival specifically among chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Rainer; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Khan, Sofia; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Muranen, Taru A; Fasching, Peter A; Janni, Wolfgang; Weinshilboum, Richard; Loehberg, Christian R; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Keeman, Renske; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hooning, Maartje J; Jager, Agnes; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Luben, Robert; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D P; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2015-04-10

    We have utilized a two-stage study design to search for SNPs associated with the survival of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our initial GWS data set consisted of 805 Finnish breast cancer cases (360 treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). The top 39 SNPs from this stage were analyzed in three independent data sets: iCOGS (n=6720 chemotherapy-treated cases), SUCCESS-A (n=3596), and POSH (n=518). Two SNPs were successfully validated: rs6500843 (any chemotherapy; per-allele HR 1.16, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.26, p=0.0001, p(adjusted)=0.0091), and rs11155012 (anthracycline therapy; per-allele HR 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35, p=0.0010, p(adjusted)=0.0270). The SNP rs6500843 was found to specifically interact with adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of standard prognostic markers (p(interaction)=0.0009), with the rs6500843-GG genotype corresponding to the highest hazard among chemotherapy-treated cases (HR 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.20-1.80). Upon trans-eQTL analysis of public microarray data, the rs6500843 locus was found to associate with the expression of a group of genes involved in cell cycle control, notably AURKA, the expression of which also exhibited differential prognostic value between chemotherapy-treated and untreated cases in our analysis of microarray data. Based on previously published information, we propose that the eQTL genes may be connected to the rs6500843 locus via a RBFOX1-FOXM1 -mediated regulatory pathway.

  15. WITHDRAWN: Chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy for metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Andre D; Sasse, Emma C; Clark, Luciana Go; Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara

    2018-02-06

    Malignant melanoma, one of the most aggressive of all skin cancers, is increasing in incidence throughout the world. Surgery remains the cornerstone of curative treatment in earlier stages. Metastatic disease is incurable in most affected people, because melanoma does not respond to most systemic treatments. A number of novel approaches are under evaluation and have shown promising results, but they are usually associated with increased toxicity and cost. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy has been reported to improve treatment results, but it is still unclear whether evidence exists to support this choice, compared with chemotherapy alone. No language restrictions were imposed. To compare the effects of therapy with chemotherapy and immunotherapy (chemoimmunotherapy) versus chemotherapy alone in people with metastatic malignant melanoma. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (14 February 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (2003 to 30 January 2006 ), EMBASE (2003 to 20 July 2005) and LILACS (1982 to 20 February 2006). References, conference proceedings, and databases of ongoing trials were also used to locate trials. All randomised controlled trials that compared the use of chemotherapy versus chemoimmunotherapy on people of any age, diagnosed with metastatic melanoma. Two authors independently assessed each study to determine whether it met the pre-defined selection criteria, with differences being resolved through discussion with the review team. Two authors independently extracted the data from the articles using data extraction forms. Quality assessment included an evaluation of various components associated with biased estimates of treatment effect. Whenever possible, a meta-analysis was performed on the extracted data, in order to calculate a weighed treatment effect across trials. Eighteen studies met our criteria and were included in the meta

  16. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The percentage of patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy was determined as well as the comprehensiveness of staging and outcome. Forty percent (54/135) of the patients with early-stage EOC received adjuvant chemotherapy. Treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with FIGO stage, clear-cell histology and nonoptimal staging. Optimal staging was achieved in 50%, and nonoptimal staging was associated with advanced age, comorbidity and treatment in a non-referral hospital. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. Yet, in grade 3 tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy seems beneficial. Selective treatment of patients with early-stage EOC might reduce adjuvant chemotherapy without compromising outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomatosis cerebri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jung-Il; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Won Seog; Kwon, Ki-Hoon; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is characterized by a diffuse infiltration of tumor cells throughout CNS, however, few details are available about the chemotherapeutic effect on GC. The aim of this study was to investigate its clinical course and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC. Between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2004, 37 GC patients were diagnosed by biopsy and treated with radiotherapy in a single institution. To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC, we retrospectively reviewed their clinical courses. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups, those with and without receiving post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy such as temozolomide or nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Nineteen patients with adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotreatment group and 18 with radiotherapy alone were assigned to the control group. Mean survival for chemotreatment group and control group were 24.2 and 13.1 months, respectively (p = 0.045). Time to progression for these groups were 16.0 and 6.0 months, respectively (p = 0.007). Overall review of the clinical course of patients with GC provided that early appearance of new contrast-enhancing lesions within 6 months from the initial diagnosis and higher histological grade were closely associated with poor survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy could prolong the survival in patients with GC. In addition, newly developed contrast-enhanced lesions on the follow-up MR images indicate the progression of GC

  18. Cytogenetic Evolution in Myeloid Neoplasms at Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Association with Previous Chemotherapy and Effect on Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertz-Archambault, Natalie; Kosiorek, Heidi; Slack, James L; Lonzo, Melissa L; Greipp, Patricia T; Khera, Nandita; Kelemen, Katalin

    2017-05-01

    Cytogenetic evolution (CGE) in patients with myeloid neoplasms who relapsed after an allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been evaluated by only few studies. The effect of the CGE on survival of relapsed allo-HCT recipients is not clear. The effect of previously received chemotherapy to induce CGE in this patient population has not been studied. The aims of our study are to (1) characterize the patterns of cytogenetic change in patients with myeloid neoplasms who relapsed after an allo-HCT, (2) evaluate the effect of CGE on survival, and (3) explore the association of CGE with previous chemotherapy (including the lines of salvage therapy, type of induction, and conditioning therapy). Of 49 patients with a myeloid malignancy (27 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 19 myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]/myeloproliferative neoplasm [MPN], and 3 chronic myelogenous leukemia) who relapsed after an allo-HCT, CGE was observed in 25 (51%), whereas 24 patients had unchanged cytogenetic findings at relapse. The CGE group carried more cytogenetic abnormalities at original diagnosis. The most frequent cytogenetic change was the acquisition of 3 or more new chromosomal abnormalities followed by acquisition of unbalanced abnormalities, aneuploidy, and emergence of apparently new clones unrelated to the original clone. The CGE cohort had higher proportion of MDS and MPN and fewer patients with de novo AML. Disease risk assessment category showed a trend to higher frequency of high-risk patients in the CGE group, though the difference was not statistically significant. Time from diagnosis to transplantation and time from transplantation to relapse were not different between the CGE and non-CGE groups. CGE and non-CGE cohorts had similar exposures to salvage therapy and to induction chemotherapy, as well as similar conditioning regimens; thus, no particular type of chemotherapy emerged as a predisposing factor to CGE. CGE was associated with significantly shortened

  19. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamm Reinhard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical

  20. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca L; Astner, Sabrina; Thamm, Reinhard; Molls, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical implementation. A potential chemotherapy

  1. Nanoparticle delivery of chemosensitizers improve chemotherapy efficacy without incurring additional toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Sethi, Manish; Kowalczyk, Sonya; Wang, Edina; Tian, Xi; Nabeel Hyder, Sayed; Wagner, Kyle T.; Zhang, Ying-Ao; Kapadia, Chintan; Man Au, Kin; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensitizers can improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy and overcome treatment resistance. Successful translation of chemosensitizers depends on the development of strategies that can preferentially deliver chemosensitizers to tumors while avoiding normal tissue. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) formulation of chemosensitizers can improve their delivery to tumors which can in turn improve their therapeutic index. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach, we engineered NP formulations of two chemosensitizers, the PI3-kindase inhibitor wortmanin (Wtmn) and the PARP inhibitor olaparib. NP Wtmn and NP olaparib were evaluated as chemosensitizers using lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells respectively. We found Wtmn to be an efficient chemosensitizer in all tested lung-cancer cell lines reducing tumor cell growth between 20 and 60% compared to drug alone. NP formulation did not decrease its efficacy in vitro. Olaparib showed less consistent chemosensitization as a free drug or in NP formulation. NP Wtmn was further evaluated as a chemosensitizer using mouse models of lung cancer. We found that NP Wtmn is an effective chemosensitizer and more effective than free Wtmn showing a 32% reduction in tumor growth compared to free Wtmn when given with etoposide. Importantly, NP Wtmn was able to sensitize the multi-drug resistant H69AR cells to etoposide. Additionally, the combination of NP Wtmn and etoposide chemotherapy did not significantly increase toxicity. The present study demonstrates the proof of principle of using NP formulation of chemosensitizing drugs to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy.

  2. Long-term results of RTOG trial 8911 (USA Intergroup 113): a random assignment trial comparison of chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, David P; Winter, Katryn A; Gunderson, Leonard L; Mortimer, Joanne; Estes, Norman C; Haller, Daniel G; Ajani, Jaffer A; Kocha, Walter; Minsky, Bruce D; Roth, Jack A; Willett, Christopher G

    2007-08-20

    We update Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 8911 (USA Intergroup 113), a comparison of chemotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with localized esophageal cancer. The relationship between resection type and between tumor response and outcome were also analyzed. The chemotherapy group received preoperative cisplatin plus fluorouracil. Outcome based on the type of resection (R0, R1, R2, or no resection) was evaluated. The main end point was overall survival. Disease-free survival, relapse pattern, the influence of postoperative treatment, and the relationship between response to preoperative chemotherapy and outcome were also evaluated. Two hundred sixteen patients received preoperative chemotherapy, 227 underwent immediate surgery. Fifty-nine percent of surgery only and 63% of chemotherapy plus surgery patients underwent R0 resections (P = .5137). Patients undergoing less than an R0 resection had an ominous prognosis; 32% of patients with R0 resections were alive and free of disease at 5 years, only 5% of patients undergoing an R1 resection survived for longer than 5 years. The median survival rates for patients with R1, R2, or no resections were not significantly different. While, as initially reported, there was no difference in overall survival for patients receiving perioperative chemotherapy compared with the surgery only group, patients with objective tumor regression after preoperative chemotherapy had improved survival. For patients with localized esophageal cancer, whether or not preoperative chemotherapy is administered, only an R0 resection results in substantial long-term survival. Even microscopically positive margins are an ominous prognostic factor. After a R1 resection, postoperative chemoradiotherapy therapy offers the possibility of long-term disease-free survival to a small percentage of patients.

  3. Clinical evaluation of radio and chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Imajo, Yoshinari; Gose, Kyuhei

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were treated at Kobe University Hospital from January 1972 to August 1982. The results of treatment were as follows. i) Five year survival rate was greater for stage III cases than for stage IV cases (p < 0.05). ii) Differences of therapeutic effects between two periods, before and after 1977, were evaluated. Cases with stage III small cell carcinoma showed a tendency forwards improved survival rate after 1977, however, no significant difference was seen with stage IV cases before and after 1977. iii) In terms of what therapy improved the survival rate, among stage III patients, 7 were treated with combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy (group A), 14 were treated with single agent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (group B) and 4 with only radiotherapy. Among stage IV cases, 9 belonged to group A and 20 to group B. Better survival rate was seen in group A compared with group B with regard to stage III, although it did not quite reach statistical significance (0.05 < p < 0.1), whereas no significant survival difference was seen with stage IV disease. iv) Significant differences of survival rate were seen between CR (complete remission) and PR (partial remission) patients (p < 0.05) and between CR and PD (progressive disease) patients (p < 0.01), as classified by preliminary therapeutic effects. v) No significant difference in survival rate was noted among the histologic subtypes. (author)

  4. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Amit M; Cook, Adrian D; Pfisterer, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICON7 trial previously reported improved progression-free survival in women with ovarian cancer with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy, with the greatest effect in patients at high risk of disease progression. We report the final overall survival results...... of the trial. METHODS: ICON7 was an international, phase 3, open-label, randomised trial undertaken at 263 centres in 11 countries across Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Eligible adult women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer that was either high-risk early-stage disease (International Federation....... This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN91273375. FINDINGS: Between Dec 18, 2006, and Feb 16, 2009, 1528 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy (n=764) or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (n=764). Median follow-up at the end...

  5. Epoetin beta for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Luca Galli,1 Clara Ricci,2 Colin Gerard Egan2 1Oncology Unit 2, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Epoetin beta belongs to the class of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs that are currently available to treat anemic patients receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced anemia affects a high percentage of cancer patients and, due to its negative effects on disease outcome and the patient’s quality of life, should be treated when first diagnosed. Initial trials with ESAs have shown efficacy in improving quality of life and reducing the need for blood transfusions in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. However, recent meta-analyses have provided conflicting data on the impact of ESAs on survival and tumor progression. Here we provide an overview of these recent data and review the role of epoetin beta in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia over the past 20 years. Keywords: epoetin beta, erythropoietin, chemotherapy, cancer, anemia, treatment

  6. High RBM3 expression is associated with an improved survival and oxaliplatin response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Siesing

    Full Text Available High expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3 has been shown to correlate, with prolonged survival in several malignant diseases and with the benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate RBM3 in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC as a prognostic factor for overall survival and in relation to benefit of first-line chemotherapy.Immunohistochemical staining was conducted and evaluated in tumours from 455 mCRC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to access the impact of RBM3 expression on overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS.High RBM3 expression, both nuclear and cytoplasmic, was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.90 and HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.91, respectively. PFS was significantly longer in patients with high RBM3 expression who had received first-line oxaliplatin based treatment, compared to those who had received irinotecan based treatment, both regarding nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (p-value 0.020 and 0.022 respectively.High RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of prolonged survival in mCRC patients, in particular in patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin based chemotherapy.

  7. Adjuvant treatment for resected rectal cancer: impact of standard and intensified postoperative chemotherapy on disease-free survival in patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation-a propensity score-matched analysis of an observational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlipp, Benjamin; Ptok, Henry; Benedix, Frank; Otto, Ronny; Popp, Felix; Ridwelski, Karsten; Gastinger, Ingo; Benckert, Christoph; Lippert, Hans; Bruns, Christiane

    2016-12-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected rectal cancer is widely used. However, studies on adjuvant treatment following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME) have yielded conflicting results. Recent studies have focused on adding oxaliplatin to both preoperative and postoperative therapy, making it difficult to assess the impact of adjuvant oxaliplatin alone. This study was aimed at determining the impact of (i) any adjuvant treatment and (ii) oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant treatment on disease-free survival in CRT-pretreated, R0-resected rectal cancer patients. Patients undergoing R0 TME following 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-only-based CRT between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010, were selected from a nationwide registry. After propensity score matching (PSM), comparison of disease-free survival (DFS) using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test was performed in (i) patients receiving no vs. any adjuvant treatment and (ii) patients treated with adjuvant 5FU/capecitabine without vs. with oxaliplatin. Out of 1497 patients, 520 matched pairs were generated for analysis of no vs. any adjuvant treatment. Mean DFS was significantly prolonged with adjuvant treatment (81.8 ± 2.06 vs. 70.1 ± 3.02 months, p rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT and TME surgery under routine conditions, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved DFS. No benefit was observed for the addition of oxaliplatin to adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting.

  8. National incidence, management and survival of urachal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearbhaile C. Collins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon cancer whose rarity has precluded its study and evidence-based management strategies are lacking. This study assessed all urachal carcinomas in Ireland and clinical parameters in order to improve understanding. Urachal carcinomas diagnosed from 1994 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Registry in Ireland. Data obtained included patient age, gender, diagnostic year, pathology, tumor stage, patient treatment strategies and survival. Twenty-six urachal carcinomas were identified, the majority being adenocarcinoma. This comprised 0.3% of all invasive bladder tumors. Patients were predominantly male (62% and over 50 years of age (58%. Twenty-two patients (85% underwent surgery, with only six (23% undergoing chemotherapy. On average, median overall survival was 2.6 years (range 0-15.2 yrs. Survival was longer in women (5 vs. 1.9 yrs, patients under 50 years of age (3.6 vs. 1.9 yrs, those without confirmed metastasis (4.1 vs. 0.7 yrs and those who received chemotherapy (3.6 vs. 2.6 yrs. The overall survival of urachal carcinoma in Ireland is less than expected from published literature. This study highlights the need for centralization of rare tumors with international collaboration to identify the optimal treatment strategy and improve outcome.

  9. Time-to-administration in postoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: does minimally-invasive surgery help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Checcacci, Paolo; Guerra, Francesco; Mirasolo, Vita M; Moraldi, Luca; Ferrara, Angelo; Annecchiarico, Mario; Coratti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The optimal delay in the start of chemotherapy following rectal cancer surgery has not yet been identified. However, postponed adjuvant therapy has been proven to be connected with a significant survival detriment. We aimed to investigate whether the time to initiation of adjuvant treatment can be influenced by the application of minimally invasive surgery rather than traditional open surgery. By comprehensively evaluating the available inherent literature, several factors appear to be associated with delayed postoperative chemotherapy. Some of them are strictly related to surgical short-term outcomes. Laparoscopy results in shortened length of hospital stay, reduced surgical morbidity and lower rate of wound infection compared to conventional surgery. Probably due to such advantages, the application of minimally-invasive surgery to treat rectal malignancies seems to impact favorably the possibility to start adjuvant chemotherapy within an adequate timeframe following surgical resection, with potential improvement in patient survival.

  10. Pregnancy associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective case-control analysis of maternal survival outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Kan; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Jia, Wei-Hua; Shao, Jian-Yong; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PANPC) has been associated with poor survival. Recent advances in radiation technology and imaging techniques, and the introduction of chemotherapy have improved survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not clear whether these changes have improved survival in PANPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare five-year maternal survival in patients with PANPC and non-pregnant patients with NPC. Methods: After adjusting for age, stage and chemotherapy mode, we conducted a retrospective case-control study among 36 non-metastatic PANPC patients and 36 non-pregnant NPC patients (control group) who were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Results: The median age of both groups was 30 years (range, 23–35 years); median follow-up for all patients was 70 months. Locoregionally-advanced disease accounted for 83.3% of all patients with PANPC and 92.9% of patients who developed NPC during pregnancy. In both the PANPC and control groups, 31 patients (86.1%) received chemotherapy and all patients received definitive radiotherapy. The five-year rates for overall survival (70% vs. 78%, p = 0.72), distant metastasis-free survival (79% vs. 76%, p = 0.77), loco-regional relapse-free survival (97% vs. 91%, p = 0.69) and disease-free survival (69% vs. 74%, p = 0.98) were not significantly different between the PANPC and control groups. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed that only N-classification was significantly associated with five-year OS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in the modern treatment era, pregnancy itself may not negatively influence survival outcomes in patients with NPC; however, pregnancy may delay the diagnosis of NPC

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer: Current evidence and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Rosalba; Tomasello, Gianluca; Bregni, Giacomo; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer still represents one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Patients survival is mainly related to stage, with a high proportion of patients with metastatic disease at presentation. Thus, the cure rate largely depend upon surgical resection. Despite the additional, albeit small, benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy has been clearly demonstrated, no general consensus has been reached on the best treatment option. Moreover, the narrow therapeutic index of adjuvant chemotherapy (i.e., limited survival benefit with considerable toxicity) requires a careful assessment of expected risks and benefits for individual patients. Treatment choices vary widely based on the different geographic areas, with chemotherapy alone more often preferred in Europe or Asia and chemoradiotherapy in the United States. In the present review we discuss the current evidence and future challenges regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively resected gastric cancer with particular emphasis on the recently completed landmark studies and meta-analyses. The most recent patient-level meta-analysis demonstrated the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy over curative surgery; the same Authors also showed that disease-free survival may be used as a surrogate end-point for overall survival. We finally discuss future research issues such as the need of economic evaluations, development of prognostic or predictive biomarkers, and the unmet clinical need of trials comparing perioperative chemotherapy with adjuvant treatment. PMID:24782604

  12. Minimally invasive surgical approaches offer earlier time to adjuvant chemotherapy but not improved survival in resected pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Katelin A; Greenleaf, Erin K; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Wong, Joyce

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic surgery encompasses complex operations with significant potential morbidity. Greater experience in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has allowed resections to be performed laparoscopically and robotically. This study evaluates the impact of surgical approach in resected pancreatic cancer. The National Cancer Data Base (2010-2012) was reviewed for patients with stages 1-3 resected pancreatic carcinoma. Open approaches were compared to MIS. A sub-analysis was then performed comparing robotic and laparoscopic approaches. Of the 9047 patients evaluated, surgical approach was open in 7511 (83%), laparoscopic in 992 (11%), and robotic in 131 (1%). The laparoscopic and robotic conversion rate to open was 28% (n = 387) and 17% (n = 26), respectively. Compared to open, MIS was associated with more distal resections (13.5, 24.3%, respectively, p offered significantly shorter LOS in all types. Multivariate analysis demonstrated no survival benefit for any MIS approach relative to open (all, p > 0.05). When adjusted for patient, disease, and treatment characteristics, TTC was not an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.09, p = 0.084). MIS appears to offer comparable surgical oncologic benefit with improved LOS and shorter TTC. This effect, however, was not associated with improved survival.

  13. Peri-operative chemotherapy in the management of resectable colorectal cancer pulmonary metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Eliza A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is often advocated in patients with resectable pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC. Our study aims to evaluate peri-operative chemotherapy in patients with metastastic CRC undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods Patients treated for CRC who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy by a single surgeon were identified. Outcome measures included survival, peri-operative complications, radiological and histological evidence of chemotherapy-induced lung toxicities. Results Between 1997 and 2009, 51 eligible patients were identified undergoing a total of 72 pulmonary resections. Thirty-eight patients received peri-operative chemotherapy, of whom 9 received an additional biological agent. Five-year overall survival rate was 72% in the whole cohort - 74% and 68% in those who received peri-operative chemotherapy (CS and those who underwent surgery alone (S respectively. Five-year relapse free survival rate was 31% in the whole cohort - 38% and ≤18% in CS and S groups respectively. Only 8% had disease progression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There were no post-operative deaths. Surgical complications occurred in only 4% of patients who received pre-operative chemotherapy. There was neither radiological nor histological evidence of lung toxicity in resected surgical specimens. Conclusions Peri-operative chemotherapy can be safely delivered to CRC patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy. Survival in this selected group of patients was favourable.

  14. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: two randomised studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, L.; Grover, R.; Pokharel, Y.H.; Chander, S.; Kumar, S.; Singh, R.; Rath, G.K.; Kochupillai, V.

    1998-01-01

    The results of two studies looking at the place of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer being treated with radiotherapy are presented. Between August 1990 and January 1992, 184 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, FIGO stage II B IVA were randomised (study 1) to receive either two cycles of bleomycin, ifosfamide-mesna and cisplatin (BIP) chemotherapy (CT) followed by radiotherapy (RT). Three patients died of CT toxicity - two in study 1 and one in study 2. Cystitis, proctitis and local skin reaction after RT occurred equally in the two groups in both the studies. The neo-adjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy demonstrated a high response rate, but this did not translate into improved overall survival compared to those patients receiving radiotherapy alone

  15. The clinical efficacy of consolidation chemotherapy for resectable esophageal squamous cell cancer after trimodality therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Cheng, Siguo; Lu, Yufei; Zheng, Xiaoli; Ye, Ke; Ge, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the clinical outcome of consolidation chemotherapy for resectable esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) after trimodality therapy. From January 2005 to December 2012, a total of 192 consecutive locally advanced ESCC patients who underwent trimodality therapy successfully was included. Grouping was based on the degree of myelosuppression occurred during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Of the 192 patients, 120 patients underwent trimodality therapy only (TT group), while 72 patients received consolidation chemotherapy additionally after trimodality therapy (TC group). Preoperative chemoradiotherapy included two cycles of chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2/day administered intravenously infusion on days 1-5 of a 21 days cycle. Concurrent radiotherapy was delivered in a total of 40 Gy in 20 fractions. All patients underwent surgery successfully. For 72 patients in TC group, additional 1-4 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy were administered, and chemotherapy regimen was as before. The 5-year survival rate was 43.5% in TT group, as compared with 48.8% in TC group. (P = 0.238). The 5.year progression.free survival. (PFS) rates were 34.0% in TT group and 38.8% in TC group. (P = 0.049). Risk reduction in PFS was remarkable for males and those who did not achieve pathologic complete response. (pCR). The incidence rate of disease progression did not differ significantly. (P = 0.200). The addition of consolidation chemotherapy demonstrates no survival benefit for patients with locally advanced ESCC, but PFS is significantly improved, especially for males and those who did not achieve pCR.

  16. Combination radiotherapy and chemotherapy for primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Kusuhara, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Takao; Takeuchi, Midori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-six patients with carcinoma of the lung treated with radiotherapy alone or combination of chemotherapy were reviewed. Radiation was given with a 10MV photon beam by a linear accelerator. A fraction dose of 2Gy (200 rad) was given routinely 5 times a week. Combined durgs consist of 5FU or FT-207 in monochemotherapy and METT, MFC, or METVFC in combination chemotherapy. 5 year survival rate of all patients was 3.8%. As for the stage classification, 5 year survival rate is 30% in Stage I and II cancer, but there was no 3 year survivor in Stage III cancer and 2 year survivor in Stage IV cancer. As for the cell types, cases of adenocarcinoma had worse prognosis than them of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. The prognosis of patients treated with combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy was similar to that of patients treated with radiotherapy alone. These results suggest that combined chemotherapy did not influence tumor control. Some discussion on the treatment modality of chemotherapy are made, emphasizing untoward effect of chemotherapy on immunopotency. (author)

  17. Cytoplasmic Hu-Antigen R (HuR) Expression is Associated with Poor Survival in Patients with Surgically Resected Cholangiocarcinoma Treated with Adjuvant Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Naru; Uemura, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2018-05-01

    Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability, translation, and nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of HuR in cholangiocarcinoma patients who received adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (AGC) after surgical resection. Nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 131 patients with resected cholangiocarcinoma, including 91 patients administered AGC and 40 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The correlation between HuR expression and survival was evaluated by statistical analysis. High nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was observed in 67 (51%) and 45 (34%) patients, respectively. Cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01), while high cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival [DFS] (p = 0.03) and overall survival [OS] (p = 0.001) in the 91 patients who received AGC, but not in the 40 patients who did not receive AGC (DFS p = 0.17; OS p = 0.07). In the multivariate analysis of patients who received AGC, high cytoplasmic HuR expression was an independent predictor of poor DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.77; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 2.09; p = 0.02). Nuclear HuR expression did not affect the survival of enrolled patients. High cytoplasmic HuR expression was closely associated with the efficacy of AGC in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The current findings warrant further investigations to optimize adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for resectable cholangiocarcinoma.

  18. Use and duration of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer according to tumor subtype and line of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Davinia S E; Luis, Ines Vaz; Macrae, Erin; Sohl, Jessica; Litsas, Georgia; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U; Burstein, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of chemotherapy vary in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This article describes the impact of tumor subtype and the line of therapy on the duration of chemotherapy. Clinicopathologic characteristics were extracted from the medical records of 199 consecutive patients with MBC at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and analyzed according to subtype. Tumor subtypes were classified as hormone receptor (HR)-positive, triple-negative (TNBC), or HER2-amplified breast cancer. Duration of chemotherapy of each line was defined as the start of a chemotherapy regimen to the start of the next line of therapy as a result of progression or toxicity. There were 96, 44, and 59 patients with HR(+), TNBC, and HER2-amplified breast cancer, respectively. Median age at MBC diagnosis was 53 years. Median overall survivals were 32 and 54 months for HER2-amplified disease, 36 months for HR(+) breast cancer, and 17 months for TNBC (Pchemotherapy for every line. The median duration of chemotherapy in HER2-amplified patients remained at more than 4 months even out to sixth-line therapy. Patients with TNBC tended to receive the shortest duration of chemotherapy for every line of therapy. Tumor subtypes influence the number of lines, duration of chemotherapy, and survival. Among patients with HR(+) and HER2-amplified disease who undergo chemotherapy beyond the third line, substantial rates of prolonged therapies suggest clinical benefit. The role of advanced (greater than third) chemotherapy lines in improving survival of all patients with MBC warrants further study.

  19. Safety and benefits of self-expandable metallic stents with chemotherapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Sano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Tomonori; Takada, Hiroki; Naitoh, Itaru; Shimizu, Shuya; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Yoshida, Michihiro; Umemura, Shuichiro; Hori, Yasuki; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Joh, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The influence of chemotherapy on placement of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO) has not been evaluated extensively. We investigated the influence of chemotherapy on the clinical outcomes of SEMS placement for MGOO. A total of 152 cancer patients with MGOO from a university hospital and affiliate hospitals were included. The patients were classified according to chemotherapy status and evaluated for palliative efficacy and safety of SEMS placement. Technical success rate, time to oral intake, and parameters indicating improvement of physical condition did not differ between the with- and without-chemotherapy groups after stent placement. Re-intervention and stent migration were significantly more frequent in the with-chemotherapy group than in the without-chemotherapy group after stent placement (re-intervention, 32.4% vs 7.8%, P = 0.0005; stent migration, 13.5% vs 1.7%, P = 0.0097). The frequency of adverse events did not differ between the with- and without-chemotherapy groups. Although chemotherapy after stent placement was an independent predictive factor for shortening the stent patency period (hazard ratio [HR], 3.10; P = 0.0264), the use of additional stents facilitated uneventful recovery and further prolonged survival time (HR, 0.60; P = 0.0132). Various cancer patients with MGOO can undergo SEMS placement safely regardless of chemotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy after stent placement can prolong survival time, although re-intervention and stent migration may be increased. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  20. Maintenance Chemotherapy for Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: New Life for an Old Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, David E.; Schiller, Joan H.

    2013-01-01

    Although well established for the treatment of certain hematologic malignancies, maintenance therapy has only recently become a treatment paradigm for advanced non–small-cell lung cancer. Maintenance therapy, which is designed to prolong a clinically favorable state after completion of a predefined number of induction chemotherapy cycles, has two principal paradigms. Continuation maintenance therapy entails the ongoing administration of a component of the initial chemotherapy regimen, generally the nonplatinum cytotoxic drug or a molecular targeted agent. With switch maintenance (also known as sequential therapy), a new and potentially non–cross-resistant agent is introduced immediately on completion of first-line chemotherapy. Potential rationales for maintenance therapy include increased exposure to effective therapies, decreasing chemotherapy resistance, optimizing efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents, antiangiogenic effects, and altering antitumor immunity. To date, switch maintenance therapy strategies with pemetrexed and erlotinib have demonstrated improved overall survival, resulting in US Food and Drug Administration approval for this indication. Recently, continuation maintenance with pemetrexed was found to prolong overall survival as well. Factors predicting benefit from maintenance chemotherapy include the degree of response to first-line therapy, performance status, the likelihood of receiving further therapy at the time of progression, and tumor histology and molecular characteristics. Several aspects of maintenance therapy have raised considerable debate in the thoracic oncology community, including clinical trial end points, the prevalence of second-line chemotherapy administration, the role of treatment-free intervals, quality of life, economic considerations, and whether progression-free survival is a worthy therapeutic goal in this disease setting. PMID:23401441

  1. Chemotherapy and intensity modulated conformational radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreas cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, F.; Wu, A.; Zhang, Z.; Winston, C.; Reidy, D.; Ho, A.; Allen, P.; Karyn, G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of the tolerance and survival of 48 patients who have been treated by a chemotherapy followed by a chemotherapy concomitant with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy for a locally advanced pancreas cancer. Results are discussed in terms of toxicity, cancer response, operability, survival rate. Tolerance is good. Local control rates, global survival rates and secondary resection rates are promising. Short communication

  2. Determinants of survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parau, Angela; Todor, Nicolae; Vlad, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic factors for survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer identified up to date are quite inconsistent with a great inter-study variability. In this study we aimed to identify predictors of outcome in our patient population. A series of 70 consecutive patients from the oncological hepatobiliary database, who had undergone curative hepatic surgical resection for hepatic metastases of colorectal origin, operated between 2006 and 2011, were identified. At 44.6 months (range 13.7-73), 30 of 70 patients (42.85%) were alive. Patient demographics, primary tumor and liver tumor factors, operative factors, pathologic findings, recurrence patterns, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Clinicopathologic variables were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. The 3-year CSS after first hepatic resection was 54%. Median CSS survival after first hepatic resection was 40.2 months. Median CSS after second hepatic resection was 24.2 months. The 3-year DFS after first hepatic resection was 14%. Median disease free survival after first hepatic resection was 18 months. The 3-year DFS after second hepatic resection was 27% and median DFS after second hepatic resection 12 months. The 30-day mortality and morbidity rate after first hepatic resection was 5.71% and 12.78%, respectively. In univariate analysis CSS was significantly reduced for the following factors: age >53 years, advanced T stage of primary tumor, moderately- poorly differentiated tumor, positive and narrow resection margin, preoperative CEA level >30 ng/ml, DFS <18 months. Perioperative chemotherapy related to metastasectomy showed a trend in improving CSS (p=0.07). Perioperative chemotherapy improved DFS in a statistically significant way (p=0.03). Perioperative chemotherapy and achievement of resection margins beyond 1 mm were the major determinants of both CSS and DFS after first liver resection in multivariate

  3. Phase 3 Trial of Postoperative Chemotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Gastric Cancer Treated With R0 Gastrectomy and D2 Lymph Node Dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Sook Ryun; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Bae, Jae-Moon; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Dae Yong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare chemotherapy alone with chemoradiation therapy in stage III-IV(M0) gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Methods and Materials: The chemotherapy arm received 5 cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin (FL), and the chemoradiation therapy arm received 1 cycle of FL, then radiation therapy of 45 Gy concurrently with 2 cycles of FL, followed by 2 cycles of FL. Intent-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analyses were performed. Results: Between May 6, 2002 and June 29, 2006, a total of 90 patients were enrolled. Forty-four were randomly assigned to the chemotherapy arm and 46 to the chemoradiation therapy arm. Treatment was completed as planned by 93.2% of patients in the chemotherapy arm and 87.0% in the chemoradiation therapy arm. Overall intent-to-treat analysis showed that addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) but not disease-free survival. In subgroup analysis for stage III, chemoradiation therapy significantly prolonged the 5-year LRRFS and disease-free survival rates compared with chemotherapy (93.2% vs 66.8%, P=.014; 73.5% vs 54.6%, P=.056, respectively). Conclusions: Addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy could improve the LRRFS in stage III gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection.

  4. Comparison of long-term efficacy between intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Ying; Sun Xueming; Zeng Lei; Chen Chunyan; Han Fei; Lu Taixiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the long-term efficacy between two radiochemotherapy regimens for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by CCRT. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 278 patients with locally advanced NPC who were admitted to our hospital from 2001 to 2008. Of the 278 patients, 133 received CCRT, and 145 received NACT followed by CCRT (NACT + CCRT). Results: The follow-up rate was 96.6%. The 5-year overall survival (OS),distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were 78.1%, 78.0%, 90.6%, and 72.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the CCRT group and NACT + CCRT group in 5-year OS (79.9% vs. 76.4%, P=0.443), DMFS (77.1% vs. 78.9%, P=0.972), RFS (91.6% vs. 89.8%, P=0.475), and PFS (71.6% vs. 72.2%, P=0.731). Subgroup analysis showed that compared with CCRT, NACT + CCRT did not significantly improve 5-year RFS in T 3-4 N 0-1 patients (90.7% vs. 86.9%, P=0.376) and did not significantly improve 5-year DMFS in patients with advanced N-stage disease (57.6% vs. 69.7%, P=0.275). There were significantly higher numbers of individuals with neutropenia,decrease in hemoglobin, and upper gastrointestinal reactions in patients treated with NACT + CCRT than in those treated with CCRT (100 vs. 52, P=0.000; 64 vs. 35, P=0.010; 90 vs. 63, P=0.044). Conclusions: Compared with CCRT,NACT + CCRT does not significantly improve the prognosis in patients with locally advanced NPC and leads to significant increases in grade ≥ 3 toxicities (neutropenia, decrease in hemoglobin, and upper gastrointestinal reactions). The role of NACT in the treatment of locally advanced NPC needs further study. (authors)

  5. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide adriamycin and vincristine for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edralin, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Between January, 1988 and January, 1991, 29 patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and vincristine (CAV) chemotherapy and were evaluable after a median follow-up of 7.5 months. Of the 29 patients, 25 had limited disease (LD) and 4 had extensive disease (ED). Three patients had a complete remission (CR), 19 had a partial remission (PR) and 7 were non-responders. All the complete responders are still alive at 8, 10 and 40.8 months. The median survival time (MST) of all the patients was 8.5 months. The patients with LD had an MST of 8.5 months while those with ED had an MST of 5.5 months. The chemotherapy regimen produced a total response rate and median survival comparable to those achieved with other regimens. The complete response rate, however, was low and needed to be improved with other approaches. In partial responders, continuation of chemotherapy beyond the 3 courses given for induction did not improve the CR rate. Drug resistance was a limiting factor to the efficacy of this CAV regimen. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended. (auth.). 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, N.P.M.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  7. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, L.M.; Pijlman, B.M.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  8. [Current Status and Development of Traditional Chemotherapy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer under the Background of Targeted Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Mina; Li, Peng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2015-09-20

    In recent years, along with rapid development of targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer, traditional chemotherapy get less and less attention. Yet it still can not be ignored in the current that how to locate and use traditional chemotherapy so patients could derive maximum benefit. For this purpose, through the literature review and analysis, we point out there are still many traditional chemotherapy irreplaceable places whatever patients' driver gene status. And there are some new treatment modalities of traditional chemotherapy which have been developed to further improve patients' survival. At the same time, through exposition of predictive bio-markers development in chemotherapy, we pointed out that the future of traditional chemotherapy must be part of "targeted therapy".

  9. Results of radiotherapy and a combined radio- and chemotherapy for hypopharyngeal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariya, Yasushi; Tarusawa, Nobuko; Takekawa, Shoichi; Yodono, Hiraku; Mori, Isao; Shinkawa, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Sadao; Miyano, Kazuo; Kattou, Keiichi.

    1992-01-01

    We analyzed the results of radiotherapy in 36 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma. The overall 2-year and 5-year survival rates were 45.3% and 31.1%, respectively. For 23 patients given radical irradiation, the corresponding figures were 37.8% and 28.3%. However, in 16 patients receiving a combined therapy of radical irradiation and chemotherapy, mainly an intraarterial injection of cisplatin, the survivals were better; the 2-year survival rate was 50.0% and four patients have survived for more than three years without recurrence. In managing patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma, this combined therapy would improve therapeutic outcome and also assist in larynx preservation. (J.P.N.)

  10. The first report from Sapporo Tsukisamu Hospital. Chemotherapy and Chemoradiotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamitsu, Susumu; Kimura, Hiromichi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Inui, Noriaki; Hiyama, Shigemi; Hirata, Koichi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Koito, Kazumitsu; Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The remedy, especially chemotherapy, for advanced pancreatic cancer is hardly ever successful in terms of efficacy rate and survival period, because it is virtually unable to contribute to the improvement of median survival time (MST). Thus, we devised a new intermittent dosage regimen utilizing the cell cycle difference of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, bone marrow cell and pancreatic cancer cell, making use of 5-FU (→S-1), cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel in March 2002. Ten patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (4 in Stage IVa and 6 in Stage IVb) were treated with this new regimen. As a result, an efficacy ratio of 50.0% and a 1-year survival ratio of 60.0% were achieved. However, 2-year survival ratio of 12.0% was low, and there was no 3-year survivor. The MST was 19 months as of December 31, 2006. All of the non-hematological toxicities were under grade 2. Eight patients had hematological toxicities over grade 3 and most of them were anemia and neutropenia. Only 2 cases had thrombocytopenia. Although adverse effects related to this regimen were clinically manageable, it was difficult to improve MST of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer with chemotherapy alone including this regimen. Hence, we devised another regimen with the joint use of radiotherapy along with the same chemotherapy regimen in January 2003. Twenty patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (Stage IV) were treated with this regimen. It is presently under way, and an efficacy ratio of 35.0%, 1-year survival ratio of 86.3% and 2-year survival ratio of 64.0% were obtained by May 2005, showing that this may contribute to the extension of survival time of Stage IV pancreatic cancer patients. (author)

  11. Tumor response and survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the predictive value of chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Shuang; Zhou, Qiyin; Li, Heming; Liu, Yunpeng; Qu, Xiujuan; Zhao, Mingfang; Jin, Bo; Yu, Ping; Hu, Xuejun; Teng, Yuee; Zhang, Jingdong; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Lingyun

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas, and is accompanied by hypercoagulablity. In advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze the association between chemotherapy-induced changes in plasma fibrinogen level and the chemotherapeutic response after the first two courses of standard first-line platinum-based chemotherapy; and 2) evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with advanced NSCLC. In this retrospective study, the data from 160 patients with advanced NSCLC were collected. The association between the changes in fibrinogen and the response to chemotherapy, or between the pre-and post-chemotherapy fibrinogen levels and patient clinical characteristics, were analyzed using SPSS software. In addition, the prognostic value of pre-chemotherapy fibrinogen levels was assessed. The median pre-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen level was 4.4 g/L. Pre-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.041). Post-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen levels correlated with gender (p = 0.023), age (p = 0.018), ECOG (p = 0.002) and tumor response (p = 0.049). Plasma fibrinogen levels markedly decreased after chemotherapy in 98 (61.25 %) patients with pre-chemotherapy hyperfibrinogenemia (p = 0.008); and in this population there was a significant link between the decrease in fibrinogen level, and initial partial response (PR; p = 0.017) and stable disease (SD; p = 0.031). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of fibrinogen (≥4.4 g/L) and ECOG 1 were positively associated with shorter overall survival (OS). CEA and CA125 also decreased significantly (p =0.015, p =0.000) in DCR group after chemotherapy. This study showed that the reduction in plasma fibrinogen levels

  12. Inflammatory markers in blood and serum tumor markers predict survival in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Terence C; Chong, Chanel H; Liauw, Winston; Zhao, Jing; Morris, David L

    2012-08-01

    The study examines the role inflammatory and tumor markers as biomarkers to preoperatively predict outcome in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Associations between baseline variables, tumor markers [CEA (carcinoembyronic antigen], CA125, CA199), inflammatory markers including neutrophils-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined in patients undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for epithelial appendiceal neoplasm. A total of 174 patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm (low-grade pseudomyxoma, n = 117; appendiceal cancer, n = 57) underwent cytoreduction. On univariate analysis, all 3 inflammatory and tumor markers predicted for both PFS and OS, respectively; NLR ≤ 2.6 (P = 0.01, P = 0.002), PLR ≤ 166 (P = 0.006, P = 0.016), CRP ≤ 12.5 (P = 0.001, P = 0.008), CEA (P 37 (P = 0.003), and a CRP > 12.5 (P = 0.013). A higher peritoneal cancer index (PCI > 24) was associated with elevation in CEA > 12, CA125 > 39, CA199 > 37, PLR > 166 and CRP > 12. The tumor histologic subtype was associated with CA 199 levels. The results from this investigation suggest that preoperative inflammatory markers in blood and serologic tumor markers may predict outcomes and are associated with tumor biology in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy treatment.

  13. Chemotherapy-Induced IL34 Enhances Immunosuppression by Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Mediates Survival of Chemoresistant Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Muhammad; Wada, Haruka; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Abe, Hirotake; Han, Nanumi; Putra, Wira Eka; Endo, Daisuke; Watari, Hidemichi; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kaga, Kichizo; Miyagi, Yohei; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Takano, Atsushi; Daigo, Yataro; Seino, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-10-15

    The ability of tumor cells to escape immune destruction and their acquired resistance to chemotherapy are major obstacles to effective cancer therapy. Although immune checkpoint therapies such as anti-PD-1 address these issues in part, clinical responses remain limited to a subpopulation of patients. In this report, we identified IL34 produced by cancer cells as a driver of chemoresistance. In particular, we found that IL34 modulated the functions of tumor-associated macrophages to enhance local immunosuppression and to promote the survival of chemoresistant cancer cells by activating AKT signaling. Targeting IL34 in chemoresistant tumors resulted in a remarkable inhibition of tumor growth when accompanied with chemotherapy. Our results define a pathogenic role for IL34 in mediating immunosuppression and chemoresistance and identify it as a tractable target for anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6030-42. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The Evaluation of More Lymph Nodes in Colon Cancer Is Associated with Improved Survival in Patients of All Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter B Aan de Stegge

    Full Text Available Improvement in survival of patients with colon cancer is reduced in elderly patients compared to younger patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the removal of ≥ 12 lymph nodes can explain differences in survival rates between elderly and younger patients diagnosed with colon cancer.In a population-based cohort study, all patients (N = 41,074 diagnosed with colon cancer stage I to III from 2003 through 2010 from the Netherlands Cancer Registry were included. Age groups were defined as 75 years of age. Main outcome measures were overall and relative survival, the latter as a proxy for disease specific survival.Over an eight years time period there was a 41.2% increase in patients with ≥ 12 lymph nodes removed, whereas the percentage of patients with the presence of lymph node metastases remained stable (35.7% to 37.5%. After adjustment for patient and tumour characteristics and adjuvant chemotherapy, it was found that for patients in which ≥ 12 lymph nodes were removed compared to patients with 75: HR: 0.734 (95% CI, 0.700-0.771 and relative survival ( 75: RER: 0.621 (95% CI, 0.567-0.681 in all three age groups.The removal of ≥ 12 lymph nodes is associated with an improvement in both overall and relative survival in all patients. This association was stronger in the elderly patient. The biology of this association needs further clarification.

  15. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J.; Richard, S.; Khalil, A.; Alexandre, I.; Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G.; Lotz, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis

  16. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Pierre & Marie Curie University (UPMC Paris VI), Paris (France); Richard, S.; Khalil, A. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Alexandre, I. [Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Centre of Bligny, Briis-sous-Forges (France); Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Lotz, J.P. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Pierre & Marie Curie University (UPMC Paris VI), Paris (France)

    2014-11-04

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis.

  17. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sune Høirup; Harling, Henrik; Kirkeby, Lene Tschemerinsky; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Mocellin, Simone

    2012-03-14

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the Western world. Apart from surgery - which remains the mainstay of treatment for resectable primary tumours - postoperative (i.e., adjuvant) chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based regimens is now the standard treatment in Dukes' C (TNM stage III) colon tumours i.e. tumours with metastases in the regional lymph nodes but no distant metastases. In contrast, the evidence for recommendations of adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer is sparse. In Europe it is generally acknowledged that locally advanced rectal tumours receive preoperative (i.e., neoadjuvant) downstaging by radiotherapy (or chemoradiotion), whereas in the US postoperative chemoradiotion is considered the treatment of choice in all Dukes' C rectal cancers. Overall, no universal consensus exists on the adjuvant treatment of surgically resectable rectal carcinoma; moreover, no formal systematic review and meta-analysis has been so far performed on this subject. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1975 until March 2011 in order to quantitatively summarize the available evidence regarding the impact of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with surgically resectable rectal cancer. The outcomes of interest were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). CCCG standard search strategy in defined databases with the following supplementary search. 1. Rect* or colorect* - 2. Cancer or carcinom* or adenocarc* or neoplasm* or tumour - 3. Adjuv* - 4. Chemother* - 5. Postoper* Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer who received no adjuvant chemotherapy with those receiving any postoperative chemotherapy regimen. Two authors extracted data and a third author performed an independent search for verification. The main outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) between the risk of event between the treatment arm (adjuvant chemotherapy

  18. The effect of geriatric intervention in frail elderly patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C M; Vistisen, K K; Dehlendorff, C

    2017-01-01

    patients are offered inclusion and are then randomized to two groups (the intervention group and the control group). Patients in the intervention group receive a full geriatric assessment of comorbidity, medication, psycho-cognitive function, physical, functional and nutrition status, and interventions......BACKGROUND: Better surgical techniques, chemotherapy and biological therapy have improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), most markedly in younger patients. About half of patients over 70 years receive dose reductions or early treatment discontinuation of the planned adjuvant...... or first-line treatment due to side effects. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is a multidisciplinary evaluation of an elderly individual's health status. This assessment in older patients with cancer can predict survival, chemotherapy toxicity and morbidity. METHODS: This randomized phase II...

  19. Radiation therapy: A major factor in the five-year survival analysis of women with breast cancer in Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjuola, Samira B.L.; Popoola, Abiodun O.; Oludara, Mobolaji A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective study was carried out to examine five-year survival from breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and May 2008 in Nigerian women. Material and methods: Two hundred and twenty-four patients were entered into the study. Five-year survival was evaluated using proportional hazard model proposed by Cox to assess variables such as age of diagnosis, menopausal status, and stage of the disease in the two treatment groups: surgery/chemotherapy or surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Results: Findings revealed that the different staging of disease and treatment are independent predictors of disease outcome whereas age of diagnosis and menopausal status although associated with low hazards, are not significant. TNM Stage I (Hazard Ratio = 0.153, 95% CI 0.45–0.51, P = 0.003), II (Hazard Ratio = 0.245, 95% CI 0.12–0.46, P = 0.0001), and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.449, 95% CI 0.31–0.46, P = 0.0001) showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Similarly, for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy TNM Stage II (Hazard Ratio = 0.110, 95% CI 0.02–0.46, P = 0.003) and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.238, 95% CI 0.07–0.73, P = 0.012) also showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV. Treatment had a significant impact on survival independent of stage, age, and menopausal status. Patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy had a significant increase in survival outcome for TNM Stage (II, P = 0.045; III, P = 0.0001); age groups (40–49, P = 0.021; 50–59, P = 0.016; 60–69, P = 0.017; >70, P = 0.025); and menopausal status (premenopausal, P = 0.049; postmenopausal, P = 0.0001) compared to those receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Conclusion: The five-year breast cancer survival rate in Lagos, Nigeria 24.1% (54/224) is relatively poor compared to most countries in the world and needs to be improved. Poor survival rates are mainly attributed to late

  20. Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone in previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botrel, Tobias Engel Ayer; Clark, Luciana Gontijo de Oliveira; Paladini, Luciano; Clark, Otávio Augusto C.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of neoplasm-related death in the United States. Several studies analyzed the efficacy of bevacizumab combined with different chemotherapy regimens consisting on drugs such as 5-FU, capecitabine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab versus chemotherapy alone in patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Data extracted from the studies were combined by using hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The final analysis included 9 trials comprising 3,914 patients. Patients who received the combined treatment (chemotherapy + bevacizumab) had higher response rates (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI: 0.82 to 0.96; p = 0.003) with heterogeneity, higher progression-free survival (HR = 0.69; 95 % CI: 0.63 to 0.75; p < 0.00001) and also higher overall survival rates (HR = 0.87; 95 % CI: 0.80 to 0.95; p = 0.002) with moderate heterogeneity. Regarding adverse events and severe toxicities (grade ≥ 3), the group receiving the combined therapy had higher rates of hypertension (RR = 3.56 95 % CI: 2.58 to 4.92; p < 0.00001), proteinuria (RR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.26 to 2.84; p = 0.002), gastrointestinal perforation (RR = 3.63; 95 % CI: 1.31 to 10.09; p = 0.01), any thromboembolic events (RR = 1.44; 95 % CI: 1.20 to 1.73; p = 0.0001), and bleeding (RR = 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.22 to 2.67; p = 0.003). The combination of chemotherapy with bevacizumab increased the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival of patients with mCRC without prior chemotherapy. The results of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were comparatively higher

  1. Intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy to treat T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor: results of a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhang,1,* Linguo Xie,1,* Tao Chen,1,* Wanqin Xie,2 Zhouliang Wu,1 Hao Xu,1 Chen Xing,1 Nan Sha,1 Zhonghua Shen,1 Yunkai Qie,1 Xiaoteng Liu,1 Hailong Hu,1 Changli Wu1 1Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin, 2Key Laboratory of Genetics and Birth Health of Hunan Province, The Family Planning Research Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The management of stage 1 and grade 3 (T1G3 bladder cancer continues to be controversial. Although the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT followed by intravesical chemotherapy is a conservative strategy for treatment of T1G3 bladder cancer, a relatively high risk of tumor recurrence and progression remains regarding the therapy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder cancer after TURBT surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 457 patients who were newly diagnosed with T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma between January 2009 and March 2014. After TURBT, 281 patients received intravesical chemotherapy alone, whereas 176 patients underwent intravesical chemotherapy in combination with intravenous chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence and progression were monitored periodically by urine cytology and cystoscopy in follow-up. Recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival of the two chemotherapy strategies following TURBT were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox hazards analyses were performed to predict the prognostic factors for tumor recurrence and progression. Results: The tumor recurrence rate was 36.7% for patients who received intravesical chemotherapy alone after TURBT, compared with 19.9% for patients who received intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy after

  2. Prospective construction and validation of a prognostic score to identify patients who benefit from third-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in terms of overall survival: the METAL3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filleron, Thomas; Bonnetain, Franck; Mancini, Julien; Martinez, Alejandra; Roché, Henri; Dalenc, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an incurable disease and represents a complex therapeutic challenge for oncologists. Despite the possibility of prescribing new agents such as tailored therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and hormone therapy remain the major treatments for MBC. Several lines of chemotherapy can be proposed for these patients, but beyond the second-line, evidence of effectiveness is lacking and such treatment has important associated toxicity affecting quality of life (QoL). Prospective data on third-line chemotherapy is very poor. There is no recent retrospective data and it mainly includes single-centre experiences. Moreover, prognostic parameters considered in these retrospective studies are limited to clinico-pathological factors. Previous reports don't evaluate prognostic impact of circulating tumour cells (CTC) and baseline QoL. METAL3 METAstatic Line 3 is a prospective, multicentric trial designed to prospectively construct a prognostic score (including selected clinico-pathological factors, CTC and baseline QoL) to identify patients who benefit from third-line chemotherapy for MBC in terms of overall survival (training cohort). Score will then be validated with another cohort (validation cohort). The aim of this paper is to review literature data on third-line chemotherapy for MBC and to describe in detail our prospective study. We hope that this prognostic score could be used by physicians to develop new therapeutic strategies when there will be limited benefit of third-line chemotherapy; this score will also help to improve patient information on their outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adjuvant therapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases: the predictive value of the MSKCC clinical risk score in the era of modern chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Reissfelder, Christoph; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Jäger, Dirk; Büchler, Markus W; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz

    2014-03-11

    Despite introduction of effective chemotherapy protocols, it has remained uncertain, if patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases should receive adjuvant therapy. Clinical or molecular predictors may help to select patients at high risk for disease recurrence and death who obtain a survival advantage by adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 297 patients with potentially curative resection of CRC liver metastases were analyzed. These patients had no neoadjuvant therapy, no extrahepatic disease and negative resection margins. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients' risk status was evaluated using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center clinical risk score (MSKCC-CRS). Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 137 (43%) patients had a MSKCC-CRS > 2. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 116 (37%) patients. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were of younger age (p = 0.03) with no significant difference in the presence of multiple metastases (p = 0.72) or bilobar metastases (p = 0.08). On multivariate analysis adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in the entire cohort (Hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.98). It improved survival markedly in high-risk patients with a MSKCC-CRS > 2 (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23-0.69), whereas it was of no benefit in patients with a MSKCC-CRS ≤ 2 (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.57-1.43). The MSKCC-CRS offers a tool to select patients for adjuvant therapy after resection of CRC liver metastases. Validation in independent patient cohorts is required.

  4. Precision oncology in advanced cancer patients improves overall survival with lower weekly healthcare costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Derrick S.; Chakravarty, Ingo; Fulde, Gail; Gilbert, Heather; Tudor, Brian P.; Lin, Karen; Ford, James M.; Nadauld, Lincoln D.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of precision oncology on guiding treatment decisions of late-stage cancer patients was previously studied in a retrospective analysis. However, the overall survival and costs were not previously evaluated. We report the overall survival and healthcare costs associated with precision oncology in these patients with advanced cancer. Building on a matched cohort study of 44 patients with metastatic cancer who received all of their care within a single institution, we evaluated the overall survival and healthcare costs for each patient. We analyzed the outcomes of 22 patients who received genomic testing and targeted therapy (precision oncology) between July 1, 2013 and January 31, 2015, and compared to 22 historically controlled patients (control) who received standard chemotherapy (N = 17) or best supportive care (N = 5). The median overall survival was 51.7 weeks for the targeted treatment group and 25.8 weeks for the control group (P = 0.008) when matching on age, gender, histological diagnosis and previous treatment lines. Average costs over the entire period were $2,720 per week for the targeted treatment group and $3,453 per week for the control group, (P = 0.036). A separate analysis of 1,814 patients with late-stage cancer diagnoses found that those who received a targeted cancer treatment (N = 93) had 6.9% lower costs in the last 3 months of life compared with those who did not. These findings suggest that precision oncology may improve overall survival for refractory cancer patients while lowering average per-week healthcare costs, resource utilization and end-of-life costs. PMID:29552312

  5. Efficacy and safety of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy for osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan XL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Liang Fan,1,* Guo-Ping Cai,2,* Liu-Long Zhu,1 Guo-Ming Ding1 1Department of Orthopaedics, Hangzhou First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Hangzhou, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The efficacy of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in the treatment of osteosarcoma has been investigated; however, results are inconsistent. Therefore, we reviewed the relevant studies and conducted a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma.Methods: A systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed. Eligible studies were clinical trials of patients with osteosarcoma who received ifosfamide-based chemotherapy. Hazard ratios (HRs were pooled to compare event-free survival (EFS and overall survival (OS. Risk ratios (RRs were pooled to compare good histologic response rates and adverse event incidence. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model according to heterogeneity.Results: A total of seven randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that ifosfamide-based chemotherapy significantly improved EFS (HR=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.82; P=0.000 and OS (HR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.99; P=0.034; furthermore, this form of chemotherapy increased good histologic response rate (RR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.46; P=0.001. In addition, patients in the ifosfamide group exhibited a significantly higher incidence of fever (RR=2.23, 95% CI: 1.42, 3.50; P=0.000 and required more frequent platelet transfusion (RR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.01; P=0.004.Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirmed that ifosfamide-based chemotherapy can significantly improve EFS and OS; this chemotherapy can also increase good histologic response rate in patients with osteosarcoma

  6. Stages III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth: Three-year experience with superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using cisplatin prior to definitive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Hamatake, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Uji, Yasuyoshi; Taen, Akira

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the 3-year experience with superselective intraarterial chemotherapy prior to definitive treatment for stages III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth.Methods: Twenty-two patients prospectively received superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using relatively low-dose cisplatin via a transfemoral approach. The locations of the tumors were the tongue (n=12), gingiva (n=5), buccal mucosa (n=2), hard palate (n=1), floor of the mouth (n=1), and lip (n=1). After intraarterial chemotherapy, 21 patients underwent surgery (n=14), radiation therapy (n=6), or both (n=1). The survival rate of 25 patients who underwent surgery with/without radiationtherapy until 1992 at Kumamoto University Hospital was also evaluated as a historical control. The survival curve was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the statistical difference between survival curves was determined with the generalized Wilcoxon test.Results: The overall response rate was 95% [complete response (tumor completely resolved), 24%; partial response (tumor reduction ≥50%), 71%]. Fifty-two intraarterial infusions were performed without any catheter-related complications. Mild and transient local toxicity such as edema or mucositis of the infused area was relatively common. One patient died of renal failure from cisplatin. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range 2-41 months), the estimated 3-year survival rate for patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery was 91%. The survival of the patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery tended to be longer than that of the historical control.Conclusions: Early tumor reduction without delay of subsequent treatments can be obtained by intraarterial chemotherapy while minimizing complications and possibly improving survival. Further investigations of long-term survival with larger series need to be performed.

  7. Greater efficacy of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab compared to chemo- and targeted therapy alone on non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yali; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-19

    Control of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis is clinically challenging. This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of different adjuvant therapies for 776 cases of advanced NSCLCs with brain metastasis who treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) alone, or supportive care. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) of patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were 8.5 and 10.5 months, respectively, which were better than those of patients treated with other three therapies(P chemotherapy plus bevacizumab but was significantly better than that of other therapies. Moreover, for patients with EGFR wild-type NSCLC, the mPFS and mOS after chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were greater than those with other two therapies (P Chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was more effective for NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. Further studies will investigate the benefit of TKI alone for patients with EGFR-mutated. For patients with EGFR wild-type, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab did improve PFS and OS. Furthermore, regimens including pemetrexed led to a greater RR.

  8. Palliative Radiotherapy in the Presence of Well-Controlled Metastatic Disease after Initial Chemotherapy May Prolong Survival in Patients with Metastatic Esophageal and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingorani, Mohan; Dixit, Sanjay; Johnson, Miriam; Plested, Victoria; Alty, Kevin; Colley, Peter; Beavis, Andrew W; Roy, Rajarshi; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    We report the outcomes of patients treated with palliative radiotherapy (pRT) to the primary tumour in the context of well-controlled metastatic disease after initial chemotherapy. Clinical records of 132 patients with metastatic esophago-gastric (OG) cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy (pCT) between January 2009 and June 2013 were reviewed. Ninetyseven patients had responding or stable disease after 3 months of chemotherapy, of whom 53 patients received pRT to the primary tumour after initial chemotherapy in the presence of well-controlled metastatic disease (group A, pCT-RT). The remaining 44 patients were treated with pCT alone (group B, pCT). Treatment-related outcomes were assessed in above groups including time to local progression (TTLP), progression-free and overall survival. The median overall survival for patients treated with pRT after initial chemotherapy (group A) was 23.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.70 to 28.89 months) and significantly higher than the 14 months (95% CI, 10.91 to 17.08 months) in patients treated with pCT alone (group B) (p < 0.001). The use of pCT-RT was an independent predictor of OS in multivariate analysis. Local recurrence was observed in 12/53 of patients (23%) in group A compared to 16/44 (36%) in group B. The median TTLP was significantly higher in patients after pCT-RT at 17.3 months (5.23 months to 44.50 months) compared to 8.3 months (range, 4.10 to 25.23 months) in patients treated with pCT alone (p=0.006). The possibility of pRT influencing systemic disease in advanced OG cancer has not been reported, and results from the present study present strong arguments for investigation of this therapeutic strategy in a randomized trial.

  9. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junxing, E-mail: Junxingchen@hotmail.com; Yao, Zhijun, E-mail: yaozhijun1985@qq.com; Qiu, Shaopeng, E-mail: qiushp@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Lingwu, E-mail: chenlingwu@hotmail.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Urology (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: zsyyjr@163.com; Yang, Jianyong, E-mail: yangjianyong_2011@163.com; Li, Jiaping, E-mail: jpli3s@126.com [First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Oncology (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3 weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4 of 31

  10. INTRAPERITONEAL AEROSOL CHEMOTHERAPY UNDER PRESSURE (IACUP – AN INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer, in fact, is the end-stage of the disease. The survival median of patients is no more than 3–6 months. Development of various methods of intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of this category of patients.Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis.Materials and methods. The treatment Protocol consisted of a laparotomy or laparoscopy for the staging of the tumor process, 3–4 courses of systemic chemotherapy scheme XELOX followed by conducting at least 3 sessions of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP with an interval of 6 weeks on the background of chemotherapy. In the case of progression the patient was excluded from the study. Currently, the study included 27 patients with disseminated gastric cancer who underwent 46 procedures of IACUP. There were 8 men and 19 women. The average age of patients was 50.6 years.Results. In the framework of the safety assessment of IACUP there were 3 cases of adverse effects. Two patients (7,4% noted nausea for the first 2 days after running the session of IACUP. In one patient the iatrogenic perforation of the diaphragm during biopsy of the peritoneum with the development of carbonetworks occurred. The survival median was 11 months. One-year survival rate (by KaplanMeier was 50.7%. 14 patients are alive and continue to participate in the study during the first year of observation.Conclusion. Intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP is a simple, minimally invasive and safe method for the palliative treatment of patients with disseminated carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. We developed the treatment Protocol that allows us to achieve one-year survival of more than half of patients.

  11. [Benefit of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapy for colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca, Sebastián; Villalón, Constanza; Leal, José Luis; Zúñiga, Álvaro; Bellolio, Felipe; Padilla, Oslando; Palma, Silvia; Garrido, Marcelo; Nervi, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for patients with resectable colon cancer (CC), especially in stage III. To describe the clinical characteristics of a cohort of CC patients treated at a single university hospital in Chile since 2002, and to investigate if chemotherapy had an effect on survival rates. Review of a tumor registry of the hospital. Medical records of patients with CC treated between 2002 and 2012 were reviewed. Death certificates from the National Identification Service were used to determine mortality. Overall survival was described using the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was also used. A total of 370 patients were treated during the study period (202 in stage II and 168 in stage III). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 22 and 70% of patients in stage II and III respectively. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years. The 5-year survival rate for stage II patients was 79% and there was no benefit observed with adjuvant chemotherapy. For stage III patients, the 5-year survival rate was 81% for patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, compared to 56% for those who did not receive chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.56). The benefit of chemotherapy was found to persist after adjustment for other prognostic variables (HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.94). Patients with colon cancer in stage III who received adjuvant chemotherapy had a better overall survival.

  12. Locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus concurrent weekly cisplatin with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Chan Woo; Keam, Bhum Suk; Heo, Dae Seog; Sung, Myung Whun; Won, Tae Bin; Wu, Hong Gyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The outcomes of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with/without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) were evaluated. Eighty-three patients who underwent NCT followed by CCRT (49%) or CCRT with/without adjuvant chemotherapy (51%) were reviewed. To the gross tumor, 67.5 Gy was prescribed. Weekly cisplatin was used as concurrent chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 49.4 months, the 5-year local control, regional control, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 94.7%, 89.3%, 77.8%, 68.0%, and 81.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (p = 0.016) and N stage (p = 0.001) were negative factors for DMFS and DFS, respectively. Overall, NCT demonstrated no benefit and an increased risk of severe hematologic toxicity. However, compared to patients treated with CCRT alone, NCT showed potential of improving DMFS in stage IV patients. CCRT using IMRT resulted in excellent local control and survival outcome. Without evidence of survival benefit from phase III randomized trials, NCT should be carefully administered in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who are at high-risk of developing distant metastasis and radiotherapy-related mucositis. The results of ongoing trials are awaited.

  13. Locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus concurrent weekly cisplatin with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, Chan Woo; Keam, Bhum Suk; Heo, Dae Seog; Sung, Myung Whun; Won, Tae Bin; Wu, Hong Gyun

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with/without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) were evaluated. Eighty-three patients who underwent NCT followed by CCRT (49%) or CCRT with/without adjuvant chemotherapy (51%) were reviewed. To the gross tumor, 67.5 Gy was prescribed. Weekly cisplatin was used as concurrent chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 49.4 months, the 5-year local control, regional control, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 94.7%, 89.3%, 77.8%, 68.0%, and 81.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (p = 0.016) and N stage (p = 0.001) were negative factors for DMFS and DFS, respectively. Overall, NCT demonstrated no benefit and an increased risk of severe hematologic toxicity. However, compared to patients treated with CCRT alone, NCT showed potential of improving DMFS in stage IV patients. CCRT using IMRT resulted in excellent local control and survival outcome. Without evidence of survival benefit from phase III randomized trials, NCT should be carefully administered in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who are at high-risk of developing distant metastasis and radiotherapy-related mucositis. The results of ongoing trials are awaited

  14. A randomized trial of combined multidrug chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report concerns the design and results of a randomized prospective trial (SECOG I) in the treatment of advanced Stage III and IV head and neck cancer with radical radiotherapy combined with polychemotherapy. Synchronous administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy was compared with sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy and VBM (vincristine, bleomycin and methotrexate) compared with VBM plus 5-fluorouracil in a 2 x 2 standard factorial design. Two-hundred-and-seventy patients were entered and 267 were included in the analysis. Treatment did not present serious problems of toxicity. The addition of 5-fluorouracil to VBM produced a significant improvement in disease-free survival (P=0.04) though not in overall survival. Synchronous chemotherapy was similarly better than sequential chemotherapy, though not significantly so (P=0.1). A new study (SECOG II), based on this was started in February 1984, and one-third of the patients are now being allocated to treatment by radiotherapy as the sole method of treatment. (author)

  15. Progression-free survival, post-progression survival, and tumor response as surrogate markers for overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Imai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effects of first-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS might be confounded by subsequent therapies in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We examined whether progression-free survival (PFS, post-progression survival (PPS, and tumor response could be valid surrogate endpoints for OS after first-line chemotherapies for patients with extensive SCLC using individual-level data. Methods: Between September 2002 and November 2012, we analyzed 49 cases of patients with extensive SCLC who were treated with cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy. The relationships of PFS, PPS, and tumor response with OS were analyzed at the individual level. Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that PPS was strongly correlated with OS (r = 0.97, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.94, PFS was moderately correlated with OS (r = 0.58, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.24, and tumor shrinkage was weakly correlated with OS (r = 0.37, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.13. The best response to second-line treatment, and the number of regimens employed after progression beyond first-line chemotherapy were both significantly associated with PPS ( p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: PPS is a potential surrogate for OS in patients with extensive SCLC. Our findings also suggest that subsequent treatment after disease progression following first-line chemotherapy may greatly influence OS.

  16. Treatment of primary brain lymphoma without immune deficiency, The importance of chemotherapy before radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keihani M

    1999-09-01

    patients were evaluated for disease free survival and relaps based on the different treatment groups. Results: Median follow-up time was 19 months. Ten patients relapsed. These patients initially received radiotherapy (Group I. In this time period there were no relapses in Group II patients. The median DFS was 24 months with a chance of survival in 3 years of 45.95+11.95% for both groups. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy was more efficacious than radiotherapy prior to chemotherapy. Two years survival was 9% in contrast to 100% in favor of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Conclusion: The above model demonstrated that treatment using a protocol consisting of chemotherapy prior to radiation provides improved disease free survival over a treatment regimen consisting of radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy.

  17. Fish oil mitigates myosteatosis and improves chemotherapy efficacy in a preclinical model of colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A Almasud

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether feeding a diet containing fish oil was efficacious in reducing tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis, and improving tumor response to treatment.Female Fischer 344 rats were fed either a control diet for the entire study (control, or switched to a diet containing fish oil (2.0 g /100 g of diet one week prior to tumor implantation (long term fish oil or at the start of chemotherapy (adjuvant fish oil. Chemotherapy (irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil was initiated 2 weeks after tumor implantation (cycle-1 and 1 week thereafter (cycle-2. Reference animals received no tumor or treatment and only consumed the control diet. All skeletal muscle measures were conducted in the gastrocnemius. To assess myosteatosis, lipids were assessed histologically by Oil Red O staining and total triglyceride content was quantified by gas chromatography. Expression of adipogenic transcription factors were assessed at the mRNA level by real-time RT-PCR.Feeding a diet containing fish oil significantly reduced tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated increases in skeletal muscle neutral lipid (p<0.001 and total triglyceride content (p<0.03, and expression of adipogenic transcription factors (p<0.01 compared with control diet fed animals. The adjuvant fish oil diet was as effective as the long term fish oil diet in mitigating chemotherapy-associated skeletal muscle fat content, and in reducing tumor volume during chemotherapy compared with control fed animals (p<0.01.Long term and adjuvant fish oil diets are equally efficacious in reducing chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis that may be occurring by reducing expression of transcription factors involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and improving tumor-response to chemotherapy in a neoplastic model.

  18. Usefulness of chemotherapy with gemcitabine for unresectable advanced pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of chemotherapy with gemcitabine for unresectable advanced pancreatic carcinoma. We examined 121 cases with unresectable advanced pancreatic carcinoma. They consisted of 65 locally advanced cases with no distant metastasis (Stage IVa) and 56 cases with distant metastasis (Stage IVb). Seventy-three cases were treated by chemotherapy with only gemcitabine (GEM) alone. Forty cases were not treated. Eight cases received chemoradiotherapy (CRT) combined with GEM. Their survival curves were compared. The survival curve of the GEM group was significantly longer than that of the no therapy group. In the locally advanced and distant metastasis groups, the survival curve of the GEM group was significantly longer than that of the no therapy group. And in the GEM group, the survival curve of the locally advanced group was significantly longer than that of the distant metastasis group. The survival curve of the CRT group was significantly longer than that of GEM group. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine for unresectable advanced pancreatic carcinoma was useful but the prognosis remained poor. (author)

  19. Does adjuvant therapy improve overall survival for stage IA/B pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapoff, Katherine T; Gabriel, Emmanuel; Attwood, Kristopher; Kuvshinoff, Boris W; Nurkin, Steven J; Hochwald, Steven N

    2017-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, no studies have addressed its survival benefit for stage I patients as they comprise IA or IB PDAC were identified. Median OS was 60.3 months (mo) for stage IA and 36.9 mo for IB. 45.5% received adjuvant chemotherapy; 19.9% received adjuvant chemoradiation. There was OS benefit for both stage IA/IB patients with adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.73 and 0.76 for IA and IB, respectively, p = 0.002 and IA disease (n = 1,477, 37.8%), age ≥70 (p < 0.001), higher grade (p < 0.001), ≤10 lymph nodes examined (p = 0.008), positive margins (p < 0.001), and receipt of adjuvant chemoradiation (p = 0.002) were associated with worse OS. For stage IB patients (n = 2,432, 62.2%), similar associations were observed with the exception of adjuvant chemoradiation whereby there was no significant association (p = 0.35). Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an OS benefit for patients with stage I PDAC; adjuvant chemoradiation was either of no benefit or associated with worse OS. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative radiation with concurrent chemotherapy for resectable rectal cancer: Effect of dose escalation on pathologic complete response, local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Ward, Iain G.; Swallow, Carol; Oza, Amit M.; Cummings, Bernard; Pond, Gregory R.; Catton, Pamela; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Chong S.; Wong, Rebecca; Siu, Lillian L.; Moore, Malcolm; Brierley, James

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Three Phase II studies of preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent 5FU chemotherapy were undertaken. The primary endpoints were acute toxicity and pathologic complete response rate (pCR). Secondary endpoints were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: A total of 134 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum (clinical T3/T4 or N1/N2) were treated. The initial cohort received 40 Gy in 20 fractions, the second 46 Gy in 23 fractions, and the third 50 Gy in 25 fractions. 5FU (225 mg/m 2 /day) was given continuously throughout radiotherapy. A total of 121 patients underwent surgical resection. Results: Treatment was well tolerated. Grade 3/4 acute toxicity was observed in 13%, 4%, and 14% of patients in the 40 Gy, 46 Gy, and 50 Gy cohorts, respectively (p = 0.20). pCR was documented in 15%, 23%, and 33% of patients, respectively (p = 0.07). The 2-year actuarial LRFS was 72%, 90%, and 89% (p = 0.02); DFS was 62%, 84%, and 78% (p = 0.02); and OS was 72%, 94%, and 92%, respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusions: All treatment schedules were well tolerated. There was a trend toward increased pCR with higher doses. A statistically significant increase in LRFS, DFS, and OS was seen with radiation doses of 46 Gy and greater, but there was no difference between 46 Gy and 50 Gy

  1. Randomized study: small cell anaplastic lung cancer treated by combination chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.M.; Woods, R.L.; Brodie, G.N.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    1980-01-01

    Chemotherapy and primary site radiation therapy were compared to chemotherapy alone in a randomized study of 125 patients with small cell cancer of the lung. The sites of initial relapse, as well as disease free and overall survival were analyzed. Radiotherapy to the primary site reduced the rate of local relapse, but median survival was not prolonged in patients with either limited or extensive disease, when the radiation therapy-chemotherapy group was compared to the group that received chemotherapy alone

  2. Platinum-based chemotherapy with or without thoracic radiation therapy in patients with unresectable thymic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kubota, Kaoru

    2000-01-01

    Thymic carcinoma is a rare mediastinal neoplasm with poor prognosis. Although the clinical benefit of chemotherapy for thymic carcinoma is controversial, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is ordinarily adopted in advanced cases. We evaluated the clinical outcome of platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy in unresectable thymic carcinoma patients. Ten patients with unresectable thymic carcinoma were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy in the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1989 and 1998. We reviewed the histological type, treatment, response and survival of these patients. Four of the 10 patients responded to chemotherapy and both the median progression-free survival period and the median response duration were 6.0 months. The median survival time was 11.0 months. There was no relationship between histological classification and prognosis. Platinum-based chemotherapy with or without thoracic radiation is, regardless of tumor histology, marginally effective in advanced thymic carcinoma patients, giving only a modest tumor response rate and short response duration and survival. (author)

  3. Bladder cancer: the combination of chemotherapy and irradiation in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    1995-01-01

    In the USA the recommended treatment for patients with muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder is usually radical cystectomy. Conservative surgery (transurethral resection and partial cystectomy), irradiation, and cis-platinum based systemic chemotherapy are, however, each effective for some patients. Although they provide the opportunity for bladder preservation, each modality, when used alone, is inferior to radical cystectomy in terms of local control and, perhaps, survival. Initial response and local control rates are improved when a multimodality approach is used. Up to 85% of patients selected for bladder sparing therapy on the basis of their initial response to chemo-radiation may keep their bladders. This figure could increase further when other powerful prognostic factors, such as the presence of hydronephrosis or carcinoma in situ, are taken into account in initial patient selection. Deferring the patient from immediate cystectomy does not appear to compromise survival. The most appropriate sequencing of radiation and chemotherapy is yet to be established. Concomitant cis-platinum and irradiation improves local control and bladder preservation when compared with irradiation alone but does not decrease the metastatic rate. It is hoped that the well recognized activity of cis-platinum based combination chemotherapy in advanced disease will translate into effective eradication of micrometastatic disease (known to be present in up to 40% of patients at diagnosis). This has yet to be clearly demonstrated in a randomized trial. The addition of combination chemotherapy to radiation does not increase bladder morbidity but carries a considerable systemic risk. Thus, despite promising phase II studies, until a survival benefit is proven in a randomized trial, neoadjuvant or adjuvant combination chemotherapy in conjunction with irradiation should continue to be regarded as experimental

  4. Germ cell tumors of testis; an update in chemotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2002-01-01

    Prior to the use of cisplatin, durable complete remission of metastatic testicular cancer were rare. In 1977, a chemotherapy treatment program including cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin (PVB) let to high response rates and acceptable toxicity in patients with disseminated testicular cancer. After that, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy regimen was established as a standard therapy for good- and poor-risk disease and further, ifosfamide-based regimens or high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue as the salvage therapy. The results of these prospective, randomized clinical trials that have markedly improved the outlook of patients with this type of cancer have been reviewed in this article. While the present state-of-the-art treatment for metastatic testicular cancer is promising approximately one-third of patients with poor risk disease will not achieve a remission. Trials of new agents and approaches are needed to increase the patient survival. (author)

  5. Perioperative chemotherapy in gastroesophageal cancer. A retrospective monocenter evaluation of 42 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin E Brehler

    Full Text Available Perioperative chemotherapy increases the overall and progression-free survival of patients suffering from resectable adenocarcinomas of the lower esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and stomach (GEC. Comparing different chemotherapy regimens platin-based protocols with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU/calcium folinate (CF or oral fluoropyrimidines were favorable in terms of efficacy and side-effects. However, there is no consensus which regimen is the most efficacious.42 consecutive patients with resectable GEC (UICC II and III were treated with 3 pre- and postoperative chemotherapy cycles each consisting of epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine (EOX. We analyzed the overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity retrospectively in comparison to published data.The median overall survival in our cohort was 29 months and the progression-free survival was 17 months. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 toxicities during preoperative chemotherapy were diarrhea (16.7%, leukocytopenia (9.5% and nausea (9.5%; overall 38.1% of our patients suffered from grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Surgery was carried out in 83% of our patients, 69% of those achieved R0 resection.Comparing our data with the results of previously published randomized trials EOX is at least non-inferior with regard to overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity. In conclusion, EOX is an appropriate perioperative therapy for patients with resectable GEC.

  6. A Matched-Case Comparison to Explore the Role of Consolidation Chemotherapy After Concurrent Chemoradiation in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim; Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Gie, E-mail: bksong.kim@samsung.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) and CCRT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Using medical records from January 2001 to December 2007, 39 patients treated with consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT (Group 1) were matched to 39 patients treated with CCRT alone (Group 2). Consolidation chemotherapy consisted of three additional cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin 60 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 1) and 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} per day (Days 1-5) given every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: During a median follow-up period of 35 months (range, 8-96 months), 10 (25.6%) and 16 (41.0%) patients showed disease progression in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Distant recurrence with or without locoregional/lymphogenous recurrence occurred more frequently in Group 2 than in Group 1 (23.1% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.06). By contreast, there was no difference in locoregional or lymphogenous recurrence between the two groups. The rate of overall survival was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.7% vs. 69.9%, p = 0.042), whereas the difference in progression-free survival between the groups was not statistically significant (70.1% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.079). Although the difference was not statistically significant, neutropenia was more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (10.9% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT may improve survival and reduce distant recurrence without additional toxicity compared to CCRT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

  7. The efficacy and safety of standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua extract as maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinsoo; Chae, Jean; Lee, Sookyung; Kim, Kyungsuk; Eo, Wankyu; Kim, Sehyun; Choi, Woncheol; Cheon, Seong Ha

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy improves the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but tumor progression is often inevitable. Strategies are needed to improve the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Over recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (aRVS) as maintenance therapy in patients with non-progressive disease following first-line chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of 33 patients with advanced NSCLC, who started treatment with aRVS in a state of tumor regression or stable disease after completion of four or six cycles of induction chemotherapy at the Integrative Cancer Center, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong from June 2006 to April 2012. The primary objective of this study was progression-free survival (PFS) of aRVS as maintenance therapy. Secondary objectives included assessments of disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and the safety of aRVS treatment. The median PFS was 5.2 months with a 6- and 12-month PFS rate of 40.6% and 12.9%, respectively. The DCR was 93.9% and the median OS was 34.8 months. The overall survival rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 84.2%, 76.7% and 49.9%, respectively. We observed no hematologic toxicity, nephrotoxicity, or hepatotoxicity during aRVS treatment. In conclusion, maintenance therapy with aRVS for patients with advanced NSCLC is well-tolerated and offers encouraging improved PFS and OS compared with historical controls. Our data provide further evidence that aRVS may be used beyond disease progression in this clinical setting.

  8. Use of maintenance endocrine therapy after chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, S; Miles, D; Makris, A

    2016-12-01

    For women with oestrogen receptor+ metastatic breast cancer (MBC), the options for systemic treatment include endocrine therapy (ET) and chemotherapy. For women whose disease is also HER2+, anti-HER2 therapies are also routinely used either with chemotherapy or less commonly with ET. Where chemotherapy is used as initial therapy, treatment is often discontinued due to cumulative toxicity in the absence of disease progression. In this setting, there is the option of introducing ET with the aim of prolonging response and delaying relapse. Literature review revealed four trials addressing the question of whether there is a benefit from introducing ET following chemotherapy for MBC. We also sought evidence for alternative approaches, including concurrent chemotherapy and ET and continuing chemotherapy until disease progression. The evidence for the use of ET after chemotherapy in MBC is limited, and the trials done were small. Furthermore, they were performed at a time when both the chemotherapy regimens and ET were different from those used currently. Despite these limitations, there is probably a modest improvement in time to progression for the sequential use of ET after chemotherapy but with no overall survival benefit. An alternative approach, particularly considering agents with relatively low toxicity, such as orally bioavailable fluoropyrimidines, is to continue chemotherapy until disease progression. Where chemotherapy for MBC is discontinued due to toxicity, in the absence of progression, the use of ET, with its relatively low toxicity, is a reasonable approach with the aim of delaying relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Pre-Irradiation Chemotherapy in High Risk Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: The present study evaluates the effect of pre-irradiation chemotherapy in pediatric patients with high risk medulloblastoma. Twenty-four (24) pediatric patients attended the pediatric unit of Kasr-EI-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) from January 2000 to January 2003. Patients and Methods: Our patients were 13 boys and II girls aged 3-12 years with a median of 6.5 years. According to Chang staging system 6 cases had T2, 14 cases had T3 A and 4 cases had T3 B, 20 cases were M0, 3 cases were M I and I case was M2. All patients were treated by initial surgery, 2 cycles of pre-irradiation chemotherapy followed by craniospinal radiation then by 4 cycles of post-radiation chemotherapy. Results: Fifteen out of the 20 patients with M0 had objective response (10CR + 5PR) and no one had disease progression after pre-irradiation chemotherapy. Among 4 patients with M0 disease, 2 patients had PR and 2 had S.D. There was no disease progression among patients who received pre-irradiation chemotherapy. The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression-free survival; (PFS) were 50% and 51 %, respectively, Myelosuppression was the main toxic effect observed during pre-irradiation chemotherapy; however, there was no delay or interruption of craniospinal irradiation. Conclusion: Pre-irradiation chemotherapy is effective in high risk medulloblastoma and is associated with acceptable side effects. The delay in craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for about 5 weeks to receive 2 courses of chemotherapy will not significantly increase disease progression. Multiple cycles of post-irradiation chemotherapy can be given safely after C51. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up is needed to confirm the results

  10. Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Curative Resection of Lung Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Soon; Jung, Minkyu; Shin, Sang Joon; Heo, Su Jin; Kim, Chang Gon; Lee, Min Goo; Beom, Seung Hoon; Lee, Chang Young; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Ahn, Joong Bae

    2016-03-01

    The survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy after colorectal cancer (CRC) lung metastasectomy is uncertain. We enrolled 221 CRC patients who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy between October 2002 and July 2013, including those with previous liver metastasis that had been curatively resected. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the day of lung metastasectomy. Among all patients, 176 (79.6%) received adjuvant chemotherapy after lung metastasectomy. Median follow-up was 34.7 months from the time of lung metastasectomy [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 7.4-90.9 months]. Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy had longer DFS compared with surgery alone (median 32.7 vs 11.2 months respectively, P = 0.076). Multivariate analysis revealed previous liver metastasis, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen ≥5 ng/mL, disease-free interval chemotherapy as independent risk factors for recurrence. Low-risk patients who had 0-1 risk factors received a significant survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR) 0.54; 95% CI 0.32-0.91, P = 0.020]; however, high-risk patients with ≥2 risk factors did not (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.48-2.14, P = 0.964). Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy showed no OS benefit compared with patients who received surgery alone (median 89.6 vs 86.8 months respectively, P = 0.833). CRC patients received lung metastasectomy could have a DFS benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, especially in low-risk patients. Larger, prospective studies are needed to evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after CRC lung metastasectomy.

  11. Assessment of Referral and Chemotherapy Treatment Patterns for Elderly Patients With Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, David E; Pond, Gregory R; Ellis, Peter M

    2016-11-01

    Physiologic changes of aging in combination with greater comorbidity could lead to treatment nihilism for elderly patients (≥ 70 years old) with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Randomized trials have shown improved survival with chemotherapy since 1999, but it remains unclear whether these data have translated into practice. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of NSCLC cases diagnosed in Ontario, Canada from 2000 to 2010. We compared referral and treatment patterns among patients aged treatment with chemotherapy. Of 61,646 patients with NSCLC, 32,131 (52.1%) were ≥ 70 years. Fewer adenocarcinomas were diagnosed in the elderly (29.8% vs. 44%), and more elderly patients lacked microscopic confirmation of malignancy (20.1% vs. 6.2%). Charlson co-morbidity scores ≥ 2 (14.0% vs. 7.4%) were higher in the elderly. Only 59.5% of elderly patients with NSCLC were referred to a medical oncologist, versus 78.5% of younger patients. Elderly patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy (18.3% vs. 46.7%), even among those referred to a medical oncologist (30.1% vs. 58.6%). Neither referral nor treatment changed substantially over time. The elderly also had a shorter median survival (5.8 vs. 9.6 months); however, there was less difference in median survival (13.6 vs. 14.9 months) among patients receiving chemotherapy. Elderly patients are less likely to be considered for systemic therapy for NSCLC, and evidence of benefit has had minimal impact on practice. We believe this disparity could be improved through systematically using tools to comprehensively assess elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A clinical study on combined modality therapy, radio-hyperthermo-chemotherapy, for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshikazu

    1989-01-01

    A new multimodality therapy, radio-hyperthermo-chemotherapy, has been performed in a total of 31 pancreatic cancer patients with the purpose of improving treatment outcome. Combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy was given as a pre-irradiation therapy in 7 resectable cancer patients. Among 24 unresectable cancer patients, 17 had irradiation in combination with hyperthermia and chemotherpay. Although both degeneration and necrosis of cancer cells were observed in all resectable cases at biopsy, these were not predictive of a better outcome. Of evaluable 17 patients with unresectable cancer, tumor regression was observed in 5 (29.4%). Although 22 patients had pain before therapy, 8 and 5 patients had remarkable and moderate pain relief, respectively, with therapy. Performance status was improved in 7 patients (29.2%). Survival rate at 12 months was still low (8.3%). However, the radio-hyperthermo-chemotherapy appears to help in increasing the quality of life in view of pain relief. (N.K.)

  13. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marina, Neyssa M.; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Bielack, Stefan S.; Bernstein, Mark; Jovic, Gordana; Krailo, Mark D.; Hook, Jane M.; Arndt, Carola; van den Berg, Henk; Brennan, Bernadette; Brichard, Bénédicte; Brown, Ken L. B.; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Calaminus, Gabriele; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Eriksson, Mikael; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerss, Joachim; Goldsby, Robert; Goorin, Allen; Gorlick, Richard; Grier, Holcombe E.; Hale, Juliet P.; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Hardes, Jendrik; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Helmke, Knut; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Isakoff, Michael S.; Janeway, Katherine A.; Jürgens, Heribert; Kager, Leo; Kühne, Thomas; Lau, Ching C.; Leavey, Patrick J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Mascarenhas, Leo; Meyers, Paul A.; Mottl, Hubert; Nathrath, Michaela; Papai, Zsuzsanna; Randall, R. Lor; Reichardt, Peter; Renard, Marleen; Safwat, Akmal Ahmed; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Stevens, Michael C. G.; Strauss, Sandra J.; Teot, Lisa; Werner, Mathias; Sydes, Matthew R.; Whelan, Jeremy S.

    2016-01-01

    We designed the EURAMOS-1 trial to investigate whether intensified postoperative chemotherapy for patients whose tumour showed a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy (≥10% viable tumour) improved event-free survival in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. EURAMOS-1 was an open-label,

  14. Benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Siewert type II esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Kei; Yamashita, Keishi; Katada, Natsuya; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Mieno, Hiroaki; Sakuramoto, Shinichi; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to clarify if preoperative chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in Japanese patients with Siewert type II adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 86 patients with Siewert type II adenocarcinoma who underwent R0 resection at the Kitasato University between 1997 and 2013. Cox regression analysis using a backward stepwise selection method was performed to identify independent prognostic factors for relapse-free survival (RFS). The median age was 67 years. The male:female ratio was 74:12. Right thoracic, left thoracic and transhiatal approaches were performed in 10, 10 and 66 patients, respectively, and perioperative transfusion in 16 patients. Preoperative chemotherapy was administered to 19 patients; out of these, 13 received chemotherapy using the DCS regimen (docetaxel 40 mg/m(2), day 1; cisplatin 60 mg/m(2), day 1; S-1 80-120 mg/body, days 1-14; every 28 days). A median of three cycles of preoperative DCS chemotherapy were used. Histological responses of 1b, 2, 3 and unknown grades were obtained in three, three, four and three patients, respectively. The 5-year RFS rate was 55%, and the median follow-up period was 36 months. Cox regression analysis regarding RFS identified (y)pN1-3 [hazard ratio (HR)=4.44; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.98-11.27], performance of perioperative transfusion (HR=4.71; 95% CI=1.69-11.88) and no preoperative chemotherapy (HR=3.75; 95% CI=1.22-14.26) as significant and independent indicators of poor prognosis. Preoperative chemotherapy using DCS is potentially beneficial for Japanese patients with Siewert type II adenocarcinoma. Further prospective clinical studies are required to confirm our findings. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Low muscle attenuation is a prognostic factor for survival in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with first line palliative chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, Hánah N; Jager, Agnes; Sleijfer, Stefan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Kock, Marc C J M; Levin, Mark-David

    2017-02-01

    Low muscle mass (LMM) and low muscle attenuation (LMA) reflect low muscle quantity and low muscle quality, respectively. Both are associated with a poor outcome in several types of solid malignancies. This study determined the association of skeletal muscle measures with overall survival (OS) and time to next treatment (TNT). A skeletal muscle index (SMI) in cm 2 /m 2 and muscle attenuation (MA) in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using abdominal CT-images of 166 patients before start of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Low muscle mass (SMI factor for OS and TNT in metastatic breast cancer patients receiving first-line palliative chemotherapy, whereas LMM and sarcopenic obesity are not. Further research is needed to establish what impact LMA should have in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SELECTIVE INTRA-ARTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY (IAC IN TREATMENT AT CHILDREN WITH THE INTRAOCULAR RETYNOBLASTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Pogrebnyakov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma is challenging. It requires a multidisciplinary personalized approach that includes focal treatments, chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. Today, the focus of therapy has shifted to eye preservation with the major aim to save the child’s life and to preserve the eyeball as a functioning organ of vision with minimal complications. One of the most promising therapy approaches is selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC, by which a cytostatic agent is given directly into the eye. This treatment modality has been shown to provide survival benefit and improvement of quality of life, reducing toxicity and minimizing side effects.

  17. Second-line treatments: moving towards an opportunity to improve survival in advanced gastric cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Massimiliano; Di Emidio, Katia; Tarantino, Vittoria; Cascinu, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death globally with approximately 723 000 deaths every year. Most patients present with advanced unresectable or metastatic disease, only amenable to palliative systemic treatment and a median survival uncommonly exceeding 12 months. Over the last years, the efficacy of chemotherapy combination has plateaued and the introduction of the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 trastuzumab has resulted in a limited survival gain in the upfront setting. After this positive experience, first-line treatment with new targeted therapies failed to improve the outcome of advanced gastric cancer. On the contrary, second-line options, including monochemotherapy with taxanes or irinotecan and the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 ramucirumab, either alone or combined with paclitaxel, opened new therapeutic rooms for an ever-increasing number of patients who maintain an acceptable performance status across multiple lines. This article provides an updated overview on the current management of advanced gastric cancer and discusses how the different treatment options available may be best combined to favourably impact the outcome of patients following the logic of a treatment strategy.

  18. A new survival model for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in tumor-bearing rats in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelz, Joerg OW; Doerfer, Joerg; Hohenberger, Werner; Meyer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Cytoreduction followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) improves survival in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Animal models are important in the evaluation of new treatment modalities. The purpose of this study was to devise an experimental setting which can be routinely used for the investigation of HIPEC in peritoneal carcinomatosis. A new peritoneal perfusion system in tumor bearing rats were tested. For this purpose CC531 colon carcinoma cells were implanted intraperitoneally in Wag/Rija rats. After 10 days of tumor growth the animals were randomized into three groups of six animals each: group 1: control (n = 6), group 2: HIPEC with mitomycin C in a concentration of 15 mg/m 2 (n = 6), group III: mitomycin C i.p. as monotherapy in a concentration of 10 mg/m 2 (n = 6). After 10 days, total tumor weight and the extent of tumor spread, as classified by the modified Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI), were assessed by autopsy of the animals. No postoperative deaths were observed. Conjunctivitis, lethargy and loss of appetite were the main side effects in the HIPEC group. No severe locoregional or systemic toxity was observed. All control animals developed massive tumor growth. Tumor load was significantly reduced in the treatment group and was lowest in group II. The combination of hyperthermia with MMC resulted in an increased tumoricidal effect in the rat model. The presented model provides an opportunity to study the mechanism and effect of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and new drugs for this treatment modality

  19. Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in limited disease small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Kyung; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keun Chil; Lim Do Hoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyu Chan; Kwon, O Jung [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the response rate, acute toxicity, and survival rate of a combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer. Forty six patients with limited disease small-cell lung cancer who underwent combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy between October 1994 and April 1998 were evaluated. Six cycles of chemotherapy were planned either using a VIP regimen (etoposide, ifosfamide, and cis-platin) or a EP regimen (etoposide and cis-platin). Thoracic radiation therapy was planned to deliver 44 Gy using 10MV X-ray, starting concurrently with chemotherapy. Response was evaluated 4 weeks after the completion of the planned chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and the prophylactic cranial irradiation was planned only for the patients with complete responses. Acute toxicity was evaluated using the SWOG toxicity criteria, and the overall survival and disease-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier Method. The median follow-up period was 16 months (range:2 to 41 months). Complete response was achieved in 30 (65%) patients, of which 22 patients received prophylactic cranial irradiations. Acute toxicities over grade III were granulocytopenia in 23 (50%), anemia in 17 (37%), thrombo-cytopenia in nine (20%), alopecia in nine (20%), nausea/vomiting in five (11%), and peripheral neuropathy in one (2%). Chemotherapy was delayed in one patient, and the chemotherapy doses were reduced in 58 (24%) out of the total 246 cycles. No radiation esophagitis over grade III was observed, while interruption during radiation therapy for a mean of 8.3 days occurred in 21 patients. The local recurrences were observed in 8 patients and local progressions were in 6 patients, and the distant metastases in 17 patients. Among these, four patients had both the local relapse and the distant metastasis. Brain was the most common metastatic site (10 patients), followed by the liver as the next common site (4 patients). The

  20. Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in limited disease small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Kyung; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keun Chil; Lim Do Hoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyu Chan; Kwon, O Jung

    1999-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the response rate, acute toxicity, and survival rate of a combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer. Forty six patients with limited disease small-cell lung cancer who underwent combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy between October 1994 and April 1998 were evaluated. Six cycles of chemotherapy were planned either using a VIP regimen (etoposide, ifosfamide, and cis-platin) or a EP regimen (etoposide and cis-platin). Thoracic radiation therapy was planned to deliver 44 Gy using 10MV X-ray, starting concurrently with chemotherapy. Response was evaluated 4 weeks after the completion of the planned chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and the prophylactic cranial irradiation was planned only for the patients with complete responses. Acute toxicity was evaluated using the SWOG toxicity criteria, and the overall survival and disease-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier Method. The median follow-up period was 16 months (range:2 to 41 months). Complete response was achieved in 30 (65%) patients, of which 22 patients received prophylactic cranial irradiations. Acute toxicities over grade III were granulocytopenia in 23 (50%), anemia in 17 (37%), thrombo-cytopenia in nine (20%), alopecia in nine (20%), nausea/vomiting in five (11%), and peripheral neuropathy in one (2%). Chemotherapy was delayed in one patient, and the chemotherapy doses were reduced in 58 (24%) out of the total 246 cycles. No radiation esophagitis over grade III was observed, while interruption during radiation therapy for a mean of 8.3 days occurred in 21 patients. The local recurrences were observed in 8 patients and local progressions were in 6 patients, and the distant metastases in 17 patients. Among these, four patients had both the local relapse and the distant metastasis. Brain was the most common metastatic site (10 patients), followed by the liver as the next common site (4 patients). The

  1. Intracranial microcapsule chemotherapy delivery for the localized treatment of rodent metastatic breast adenocarcinoma in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Urvashi M; Tyler, Betty; Patta, Yoda; Wicks, Robert; Spencer, Kevin; Scott, Alexander; Masi, Byron; Hwang, Lee; Grossman, Rachel; Cima, Michael; Brem, Henry; Langer, Robert

    2014-11-11

    Metastases represent the most common brain tumors in adults. Surgical resection alone results in 45% recurrence and is usually accompanied by radiation and chemotherapy. Adequate chemotherapy delivery to the CNS is hindered by the blood-brain barrier. Efforts at delivering chemotherapy locally to gliomas have shown modest increases in survival, likely limited by the infiltrative nature of the tumor. Temozolomide (TMZ) is first-line treatment for gliomas and recurrent brain metastases. Doxorubicin (DOX) is used in treating many types of breast cancer, although its use is limited by severe cardiac toxicity. Intracranially implanted DOX and TMZ microcapsules are compared with systemic administration of the same treatments in a rodent model of breast adenocarcinoma brain metastases. Outcomes were animal survival, quantified drug exposure, and distribution of cleaved caspase 3. Intracranial delivery of TMZ and systemic DOX administration prolong survival more than intracranial DOX or systemic TMZ. Intracranial TMZ generates the more robust induction of apoptotic pathways. We postulate that these differences may be explained by distribution profiles of each drug when administered intracranially: TMZ displays a broader distribution profile than DOX. These microcapsule devices provide a safe, reliable vehicle for intracranial chemotherapy delivery and have the capacity to be efficacious and superior to systemic delivery of chemotherapy. Future work should include strategies to improve the distribution profile. These findings also have broader implications in localized drug delivery to all tissue, because the efficacy of a drug will always be limited by its ability to diffuse into surrounding tissue past its delivery source.

  2. Hormonotherapy and chemotherapy in hormone refractory prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The median survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer is 3 years, though it is only one year when the tumor is hormone refractory (HRPC). The number of possible problems is great, but the major one is pain. The number of therapeutics is also great. They have only palliative and symptomatic impact. Early hormone suppression in patients with advanced disease may have slight survival impact. Thus, a general scheme of management can be proposed, based on several principles: 1- Early hormone suppression is proposed is metastatic prostate cancer. Hormone suppression is castration or LH-RH agonist. 2- Powerful tools must be used to measure palliative impact: pain and analgesic scales, quality of life evaluation. PSA decrease may only be a surrogate of clinical response evaluation. 3- After first line hormone suppression, indication of further hormone therapy, chemotherapy and radio pharmaceutics is based only on symptomatic progression. It is not based on tumor progression as measured by PSA increase or metastasis evolution, because it is well established that, till now, treatment has only palliative effect. 4- Management of local problems (urinary obstruction, fracture, nerve compression) must be done depending on the situation. 4- Patients must be clearly informed of the palliative end-points, of the therapeutic tools, of the current side effects and goals of treatments. The strategy must be prospectively explained at the early beginning of treatment. Chemotherapy has become a standard treatment in HRPC because it has shown palliative improvement (Mitoxantrone studies), and more recently survival improvement (Docetaxel studies). However new drugs are under development. It will be focussed on drugs acting on EGF-receptor, endothelin-A, proteasome and V EGF. Practical management of HRPC will be discussed

  3. THROMBOCYTOSIS AS PROGNOSTIC FACTOR FOR SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED NON SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER TREATED WITH FIRST- LINE CHEMOTHERAPY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Davidov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate elevated platelet count as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with advanced (stage IIIB/ IV non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC receiving first- line chemotherapy. Methods: From 2005 to 2009 three hundreds forty seven consecutive patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC, treated in Department of Medical Oncology, UMHAT "Dr Georgi Stranski" entered the study. The therapeutic regimens included intravenous administration of platinum- based doublets. Survival analysis was evaluated by Kaplan- Meier test. The influence of pretreatment thrombocytosis as prognostic factor for survival was analyzed using multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses. Results: Elevated platelet counts were found in 78 patients. The overall survival for patients without elevated platelet counts was 9,6 months versus 6,9 months for these with thrombocytosis. In multivariate analysis as independent poor prognostic factors were identified: stage, performance status and elevated platelet counts. Conclusions: These results indicated that platelet counts as well as some clinical pathologic characteristics could be useful prognostic factors in patients with unresectable NSCLC.

  4. Utilization pattern and survival outcomes of adjuvant therapies in high-grade nonretroperitoneal abdominal soft tissue sarcoma: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William Ross; Chokshi, Ravi; Jabbour, Salma K; DeLaney, Thomas F; Mahmoud, Omar

    2018-02-01

    Nonretroperitoneal abdominal soft tissue sarcoma (NRA-STS) is a rare disease with limited data supporting its management. Our study aimed to reveal the utilization patterns of adjuvant therapy and its potential survival benefits using the National Cancer Data Base. The analysis included patients with resected high-grade NRA-STS. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate distribution of patient and tumor-related factors within treatment groups. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards model were utilized to evaluate overall survival according to treatment approach. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of these factors on patients' outcome. Matched propensity score analysis was implemented to control for imbalance of confounding variables. At median follow-up of 49 months, 5-year overall survival improved from 46% without adjuvant radiation therapy to 52% (P = 0.009) with radiotherapy delivery with a 30% reduction in hazard of death (95% confidence interval = 0.58-0.84). On multivariate analysis, age <50, tumor <8 cm, negative margins and radiotherapy delivery were significant predictors of improved survival. Chemotherapy was not associated with significant survival improvement (Hazard Ratios [HR]: 0.89, P = 0.28). Adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved survival in high-grade NRA-STS. Chemotherapy was not associated with a survival improvement; however, further studies are needed to refine treatment strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Treatment and survival outcomes of small cell carcinoma of the esophagus: an analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew T; Shao, Meng; Rineer, Justin; Osborn, Virginia; Schwartz, David; Schreiber, David

    2017-02-01

    Given the paucity of esophageal small cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, there are few large studies evaluating this disease. In this study, the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was utilized to analyze the clinical features, treatment, and survival of patients with esophageal SCC in a large, population-based dataset. We selected patients diagnosed with esophageal SCC from 1998 to 2011. Patients were identified as having no treatment, chemotherapy alone, radiation ± sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemoradiation, and esophagectomy ± chemotherapy and/or radiation. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with OS. A total of 583 patients were identified. Most patients had stage IV disease (41.7%). Regarding treatment selection, chemoradiation was the most commonly utilized for patients with nonmetasatic disease, whereas chemotherapy alone was most common for metastatic patients. Esophagectomy (median survival 44.9 months with 3 year OS 50.5%) was associated with the best OS for patients with localized (node-negative) disease compared with chemotherapy alone (p < 0.001) or chemoradiation (p = 0.01). For locoregional (node-positive) disease, treatment with chemoradiation resulted in a median survival of 17.8 months and a 3 year OS 31.6%. On multivariate analysis, treatment with chemotherapy alone (p = 0.003) was associated with worse OS while esophagectomy (p = 0.04) was associated with improved OS compared to chemoradiation. Esophageal SCC is an aggressive malignancy with most patients presenting with metastatic disease. Either esophagectomy or chemoradiation as part of multimodality treatment appear to improve OS for selected patients with nonmetastatic disease. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  6. Outcome of Resection and Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone for Retroperitoneal Recurrence of Testicular Cancer Involving the Inferior Vena Cava: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 22 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio, Francesco G; Angelici, Alberto M; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Masci, Federica; Vietri, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Optimal treatment strategy for retroperitoneal recurrence of testicular cancer involving the inferior vena cava (IVC) is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to validate the hypothesis that surgical resection, en-bloc with the involved segment of IVC and its subsequent reconstruction followed by chemotherapy, would yield better oncologic results than chemotherapy alone. Two consecutive series of patients with retroperitoneal recurrence of testicular cancer involving the IVC, treated with surgical resection plus chemotherapy (group A, n=14) or chemotherapy alone (group B, n=8) were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of follow-up was was 65 months (range=8-184). Operative mortality and morbidity in group A, response to chemotherapy in group B, disease-specific survival and quality adjusted life-years (QALY) for both groups, were primary end-points of the study. Postoperative mortality and morbidity (group A) were, respectively, nil and 14%. In group B, two patients (25%) fully responded to chemotherapy and remained free from disease progression. Disease-specific survival at 3 and 5 years was 81% and 54% in group A and 36% in group B both at 3 and 5 years, respectively (p=0.02). QALY was 3.92 in group A and 0.77 for both 3 and 5 years in group B, respectively, (p=0.031). En bloc resection of retroperitoneal recurrence of testicular tumors invading the IVC, followed by chemotherapy, allows a better survival rate compared to chemotherapy alone. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. The Benefit of Chemotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients With Residual Disease After Trimodality Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace J; Koshy, Matthew; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Horiba, M Naomi; Edelman, Martin J; Burrows, Whitney M; Battafarano, Richard J; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the potential benefits of chemotherapy in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery. At our institution, 145 patients completed trimodality therapy from 1993 to 2009. Neoadjuvant treatment predominantly consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with a concurrent median radiation dose of 50.4 Gy. Sixty-two patients received chemotherapy postoperatively. The majority (49/62) received 3 cycles of docetaxel. Within the entire cohort, a 5-year overall survival (OS) benefit was found in those who received postoperative chemotherapy, OS 37.1% versus 18.0% (P=0.024). The response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation was as follows: 33.8% had a pathologic complete response and 62.8% with residual disease. A 5-year OS and cause-specific survival (CSS) advantage were associated with postoperative chemotherapy among those with macroscopic residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy: OS 38.7% versus 13.9% (P=0.016), CSS 42.8% versus 18.8% (P=0.048). This benefit was not seen in those with a pathologic complete response or those with microscopic residual. A stepwise multivariate Cox regression model evaluating the partial response group revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and M stage were independent predictors of overall and CSS. This analysis revealed that patients with gross residual disease after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer who received postoperative chemotherapy had an improved overall and CSS. These data suggest that patients with residual disease after trimodality therapy and a reasonable performance status may benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Prospective trials are needed to confirm these results to define the role of postoperative treatment after trimodality therapy.

  8. Salvage concurrent radio-chemotherapy for post-operative local recurrence of squamous-cell esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Gong, Youling; Peng, Feng; Li, Na; Liu, Yongmei; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Meijuan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome of salvage concurrent radio-chemotherapy for patients with loco-recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery. 50 patients with loco-recurrent squamous-cell cancer after curative esophagectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with radiotherapy (median 60 Gy) combined with chemotherapy consisting of either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin (DDP) (R-FP group) or paclitaxel plus DDP (R-TP group). The median follow-up period was 16.0 months. The 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 56% and 14%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time was 9.8 and 13.3 months respectively. There was no statistical significance of the PFS of the two groups. The OS (median 16.3 months) in the R-TP group was superior to that in the R-FP group (median: 9.8 months) (p = 0.012). Among the patients who had received ≥60 Gy irradiation dose, the median PFS (10.6 months) and OS (16.3 months) were significantly superior to the PFS (8.7 months) and OS (11.3 months) among those patients did not (all p < 0.05). Grade 3 treatment-related gastritis were observed in 6 (27.3%) and 7 (25%) patients in the R-FP and R-TP group respectively. By univariate survival analysis, the age (<60 years), TP regimen and higher irradiation dose might improve the OS of such patients in present study. For those patients with post-operative loco-recurrent squamous-cell esophageal carcinoma, radiotherapy combined with either FP or TP regimen chemotherapy was an effective salvage treatment. Younger age, treatment with the TP regimen and an irradiation dose ≥60 Gy might improve the patients’ treatment outcome

  9. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  10. Differential impacts of clinical variables and 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy on 5-year disease-free survival of patients with stage IIa and IIb colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Different predictors of DFS were observed in stage IIa and IIb colon cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy could provide a survival benefit for patients with stage IIb colon cancer who have one of the four factors that were studied in our hospital-based analysis.

  11. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck ca...

  12. Simultaneous intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for carcinoma of oropharynx without neck metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kichinobu; Higaki, Yuichiro

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of simultaneous intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer without neck metastasis. Fifty eight cases without neck metastasis out of previously untreated 117 patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated at National Kyushu Cancer Center from 1972 to 1995 were examined. Seventeen patients were in T1, 27 in T2, 10 in T3, 4 in T4. Fourteen patients of 58 patients were treated by simultaneous intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The 5-year survival rate by Kaplan-Meier method for intra-arterial infusion group and non intra-arterial infusion group were 86% and 71%, respectively. Thirty one patients were treated with irradiation without surgery. In 31 cases without surgery, the 5-year survival rate for intra-arterial infusion group (13 cases) was 85%, while that for non intra-arterial infusion group (18 cases) was 60%, and the local control rate for intra-arterial infusion group is 92%, while that for non intra-arterial infusion group was 56%. Simultaneous intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer without neck metastasis is useful to improve the prognosis with preserving the function. (author)

  13. Malignant cliomas treated after surgery by combination chemotherapy and delayed irradiation. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, M.; Mashaly, R.; Pertuiset, B.F.; Metzger, J.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-six patients with gliomas were introduced after surgery into a therapeutic programme of six cycles of combination chemotherapy with VM 26 and CCNU, followed by delayed irradiation six months after surgery with an average dose of 5,800 rads. After irradiation the same preradiation chemotherapy was readministered for an average of four cycles. The results were compared to those from another group of 28 patients treated only by the same chemotherapy (CRC and C groups successively). Twelve patients (26%) died before irradiation in the CRC groups, six patients (13%) had recurrences at the time of irradiation, and 28 patients (61%) had no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence at the time of irradiation. For the total of treated patients the median survival after surgery was 17 months, and 46% of the patients were surviving at 18 months. The percentage of survivors at 18 months was significantly more elevated in the group treated by combination chemotherapy and delayed irradiation than in a control group treated by the same combination chemotherapy alone. This result suggests that in approximately 50% of cases combination chemotherapy after surgery, and delayed irradiation six months after surgery, cumulated their effects on survival time. (author)

  14. Induction Chemotherapy for p16 Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuki; Ando, Mizuo; Omura, Go; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy for treating p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer in our department. This was a retrospective case series to assess treatment effectiveness. We administered induction chemotherapy to patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal p16-positive squamous cell carcinoma between 2008 and 2013. Induction chemotherapy was administered using combinations of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil. We measured the survival rates using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. We reviewed 23 patients (18 men and 5 women; age, 42-79 years). Induction chemotherapy resulted in partial or complete remission (20 patients) and in stable (2 patients) or progressive (1 patient) disease. In partial or complete remission, subsequent radiotherapy was performed in 16 patients, chemoradiotherapy in two, and transoral resection in two. In stable or progressive disease, subsequent open surgery was performed. Overall, one patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis, one died of kidney cancer, and one died of myocardial infarction. Event-free, distant-metastasis-free survival was present for 20 patients. The 3-year disease-specific survival was 95%; the overall survival was 87%. Two patients required gastrostomies during chemoradiotherapy and three required tracheotomies, but these were closed in all patients. The therapeutic response to induction chemotherapy for p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer was good. Partial or complete remission was achieved in almost 90% patients, and control of local and distant metastases was possible when it was followed by radiotherapy alone or with transoral resection of the primary tumor. A multicenter study is required to confirm these findings. 4.

  15. Three-dimensional evaluation of chemotherapy response in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ak, Guntulu [Department of Chest Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: guntuluak@yahoo.com; Metintas, Muzaffer [Department of Chest Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Metintas, Selma [Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yildirim, Huseyin [Department of Chest Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozkan, Ragip [Department of Radiology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozden, Hilmi [Department of Anatomy, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objectives: Measurement of tumor response to chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is problematic because of non-spherical tumor growth patterns and difficulty in choosing target lesion. In this study, we aimed to determine the effectiveness of tumor volume measurement for evaluating chemotherapy response. Methods: Fifty-seven MPM patients were included. Chemotherapy responses were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) using volumetric method, World Health Organization (WHO), and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST). The tumor volume was measured using the Cavalieri principle of stereological approaches. Results: According to the volumetric method, median survival was 10.0 months for progressive disease (PD), 14.0 months for stable disease (SD) and 16.0 months for objective response (OR). According to the WHO method, median survival was 11.3, 14.0, and 13.0 months, respectively. For modified RECIST, median survival was 10.0, 14.0, and 14.0 months, respectively. The correspondence between the WHO and modified RECIST methods was substantial (K = 0.66), as was that between the volumetric and WHO methods (K = 0.64); however the correspondence between the volumetric and modified RECIST methods was only moderate (K = 0.52). Conclusions: The most suitable chemotherapy response measurement technique is the volumetric method because of non-spherical tumor growth patterns in MPM. However, larger studies should be performed to better establish the suitability of this method. We recommend our method for determining the chemotherapy response in mesothelioma cases. However, modified RECIST criteria can also be applied due to favourable prediction of survival, ease of application, and moderate correspondence with the volumetric method.

  16. Validation of the CPS + EG Staging System for Disease-Specific Survival in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Jad M; Al-Hilli, Zahraa; Hoskin, Tanya L; Heins, Courtney N; Boughey, Judy C

    2016-10-01

    CPS + EG staging, which incorporates estrogen receptor (ER) status and tumor grade with pretreatment clinical stage (CS) and post-treatment pathologic stage (PS), has been reported to have better correlation with outcome than classic TNM staging for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Our goal was to evaluate the performance of CPS + EG staging system in an external cohort treated with NAC. We reviewed patients with stages I-IIIC breast cancer treated with NAC and surgery at our institution between 1988 and 2014. ER status, Nottingham grade, treatment, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) CS before NAC and PS after NAC, and follow-up data were collected. The discrimination of CPS + EG and pathologic AJCC stage were assessed using area under the curve (AUC) for survival data. A total of 769 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up of 2.6 (range 0.0-19.4) years; 103 patients died of breast cancer. Overall, the 5-year breast cancer cause-specific survival was 81.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 77.6-85.5]. The 5-year, cause-specific survival by CPS + EG score was 93.8 % score 0, 89.9 % score 1, 90.7 % score 2, 84.8 % score 3, 67.7 % score 4, and 43.4 % score 5/6. CPS + EG score was significantly associated with cause-specific survival (p < 0.001) with an AUC of 0.69 (95 % CI 0.62-0.77) at 5 years. This was higher than the AUC of 0.63 (95 % CI 0.56-0.70) for AJCC PS (p = 0.10). This study validates the CPS + EG staging system using Nottingham grade in an external cohort. Addition of tumor biology and treatment response shows promise in improving survival estimates for patients treated with NAC.

  17. Evaluation and analysis of superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and its complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, Kiyoto; Tateda, Masaru; Saijo, Shigeru [Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital, Natori (Japan); Yokoyama, Junkichi

    2001-03-01

    Superselective intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy was administered 213 times to 76 patients, from April 1995 to August 1999, in our hospital. These included 64 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 cases out of these 64 cases dropped out because of severe complications when their survival was evaluated. The five-year overall survival rate, calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 49% for all patients, 78% for the patients who underwent surgery before or after IA chemotherapy (20 cases), and 48% for the patients who were treated by IA chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy (26 cases). No renal failure was observed in these patients. The five-year overall survival rate was 53% for the patients with stage III or stage IV disease who were treated by surgery alone or surgery and radiation therapy (+chemotherapy), while it was 45% for the patients with stage III or stage IV disease who were treated by IA chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Since this study was not randomized and more advanced cases tended to be treated by IA chemotherapy, this result was assumed to be good enough to improve the prognosis of the patients with advanced disease. The prognosis of the patients treated by IA chemotherapy and radiation therapy who had recurrence, or who were cases of secondary treatment, was poor and similar to that of the patients who received palliative radiation therapy (+chemotherapy). Drop-out cases of IA chemotherapy encountered severe complications, such as 2 cerebral infarctions, one sudden death, one pneumonia with DIC, and one ARDS. There was also a sudden death, and deaths due to bleeding from local recurrent lesions after the treatment was finished. As some patients complained of dysphagia and/or dyspnea after IA chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the QOL of the patients was not very satisfactory. It is suggested that the indication of IA chemotherapy should be limited, considering the patient's condition and the location of

  18. Evaluation and analysis of superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and its complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Kiyoto; Tateda, Masaru; Saijo, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Junkichi

    2001-01-01

    Superselective intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy was administered 213 times to 76 patients, from April 1995 to August 1999, in our hospital. These included 64 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 cases out of these 64 cases dropped out because of severe complications when their survival was evaluated. The five-year overall survival rate, calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 49% for all patients, 78% for the patients who underwent surgery before or after IA chemotherapy (20 cases), and 48% for the patients who were treated by IA chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy (26 cases). No renal failure was observed in these patients. The five-year overall survival rate was 53% for the patients with stage III or stage IV disease who were treated by surgery alone or surgery and radiation therapy (+chemotherapy), while it was 45% for the patients with stage III or stage IV disease who were treated by IA chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Since this study was not randomized and more advanced cases tended to be treated by IA chemotherapy, this result was assumed to be good enough to improve the prognosis of the patients with advanced disease. The prognosis of the patients treated by IA chemotherapy and radiation therapy who had recurrence, or who were cases of secondary treatment, was poor and similar to that of the patients who received palliative radiation therapy (+chemotherapy). Drop-out cases of IA chemotherapy encountered severe complications, such as 2 cerebral infarctions, one sudden death, one pneumonia with DIC, and one ARDS. There was also a sudden death, and deaths due to bleeding from local recurrent lesions after the treatment was finished. As some patients complained of dysphagia and/or dyspnea after IA chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the QOL of the patients was not very satisfactory. It is suggested that the indication of IA chemotherapy should be limited, considering the patient's condition and the location of the

  19. Factors associated with improved survival among older colorectal cancer patients in the US: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earle Craig C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative impact of changes in demographics, stage at detection, treatment mix, and medical technology on 5-year survival among older colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Methods We selected older patients diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2000 from the SEER-Medicare database and followed them through 2005. Trends in demographic characteristics, stage at detection and initial treatment mix were evaluated descriptively. Separate multivariate logistic regression models for colon (CC and rectal cancer (RC patients were estimated to isolate the independent effects of these factors along with technological change (proxied by cohort year on 5-year survival. Results Our sample included 37,808 CC and 13,619 RC patients (combined mean ± SD age: 77.2 ± 7.0 years; 55% female; 87% white. In recent years, more CC patients were diagnosed at Stage I and fewer at Stages II and IV, and more RC patients were diagnosed at Stage I and fewer at Stages II and III. CC and RC patients diagnosed in later years were slightly older with somewhat better Charlson scores and were more likely to be female, from the Northeast, and from areas with higher average education levels. Surgery alone was more common in later years for CC patients while combined surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy was more common for RC patients. Between 1992 and 2000, 5-year observed survival improved from 43.0% to 46.3% for CC patients and from 39.4% to 42.2% for RC patients. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate that patients diagnosed in 2000 had significantly greater odds of 5-year survival than those diagnosed in 1992 (OR: 1.35 for CC, 1.38 for RC. Our decomposition suggests that early detection had little impact on survival; rather, technological improvements (e.g., new medical technologies or more effective use of existing technologies and changing demographics were responsible for the largest share of the change in 5

  20. Improvement of quality of life and survival using self-expandable metal stent placement for severe malignant stenosis of the gastric body: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumagai Hozumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Advanced gastric carcinoma often decreases quality of life because of upper gastrointestinal tract stenosis. Self-expandable metal stents have been thought to be an effective, minimally invasive treatment for stenosis. However, the effectiveness of self-expandable metal stent placement for carcinomatous stenosis of the gastric body and antrum has not been clarified, and there have been few reports of such cases. Case presentation A 74-year-old Japanese woman developed stenosis of the gastric body and antrum caused by advanced gastric cancer during first-line chemotherapy. She developed weight loss and poor nutrition due to inadequate intake. Self-expandable metal stent placement for stenosis of the gastric body and antrum ameliorated her symptoms rapidly and improved her general condition and quality of life. Eight days after self-expandable metal stent placement, second-line chemotherapy could be administered safely. Oral intake and nutritional status were maintained for 117 days after self-expandable metal stent placement, and she died of gastric cancer 176 days after self-expandable metal stent placement and initiation of second-line chemotherapy. Conclusions Self-expandable metal stent placement for carcinomatous stenosis in the gastric body and antrum could be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with inadequate oral uptake. It may provide rapid improvement of the patient’s general condition and oral intake with minimal complications, comparatively long-term symptom relief, and a survival benefit by allowing second-line chemotherapy.

  1. Chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: An individual patient data meta-analysis of eight randomized trials and 1753 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, Bertrand; Audry, Helene; Bourhis, Jean; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Onat, Haluk; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Al-Sarraf, Muhyi; Chi, K.-H.; Hareyama, Masato; Leung, Sing F.; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Pignon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival and event-free survival for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This meta-analysis used updated individual patient data from randomized trials comparing chemotherapy plus RT with RT alone in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The log-rank test, stratified by trial, was used for comparisons, and the hazard ratios of death and failure were calculated. Results: Eight trials with 1753 patients were included. One trial with a 2 x 2 design was counted twice in the analysis. The analysis included 11 comparisons using the data from 1975 patients. The median follow-up was 6 years. The pooled hazard ratio of death was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.94; p = 0.006), corresponding to an absolute survival benefit of 6% at 5 years from the addition of chemotherapy (from 56% to 62%). The pooled hazard ratio of tumor failure or death was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.86; p < 0.0001), corresponding to an absolute event-free survival benefit of 10% at 5 years from the addition of chemotherapy (from 42% to 52%). A significant interaction was observed between the timing of chemotherapy and overall survival (p = 0.005), explaining the heterogeneity observed in the treatment effect (p = 0.03), with the highest benefit resulting from concomitant chemotherapy. Conclusion: Chemotherapy led to a small, but significant, benefit for overall survival and event-free survival. This benefit was essentially observed when chemotherapy was administered concomitantly with RT

  2. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could improve overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Tsinghua University, Medical Center Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Jinyu; Hu, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Jiao, Shunchang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yibao [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhifei [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer (ESCLC). Between April 2005 and May 2014, 204 patients with ESCLC who had any response (according to RECIST 1.1) to initial chemotherapy were reviewed. All patients had undergone appropriate imaging tests to exclude brain metastases before initial chemotherapy. PCI was performed on 45 patients (22.1 %) and the remaining patients (77.9 %) received no such treatment (control group). Primary endpoint was OS. The incidence of brain metastases, brain metastases-free survival (BMFS), and adverse effects were also evaluated. Survival data of the 204 patients were analyzed statistically. PCI significantly prolonged median OS from 12.6 to 16.5 months as compared to the control group (hazard ratio, HR, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.41 to 0.96; p = 0.033). PCI significantly lowered the risk of brain metastases (HR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.30 to 0.76; p = 0.001). The 1-year incidence of brain metastases was 17.1 and 55.9 % in the PCI and control group, respectively. PCI significantly correlated with the increased median BMFS (p = 0.002). Additionally, multivariate analyses demonstrated that PCI was a favorable independent predictor of OS, BMFS, and the incidence of brain metastases. Acute and chronic adverse effects were generally low grade and well tolerated in patients receiving PCI. PCI after any response to initial chemotherapy significantly improved OS of ESCLC patients analyzed in this study. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung des Effekts der prophylaktischen kranialen Bestrahlung (PCI) auf das Gesamtueberleben (OS) bei Patienten mit ausgedehntem kleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom (ESCLC). Zwischen April 2005 und Mai 2014 wurden 204 Patienten mit ESCLC nach Ansprechen auf eine initiale Chemotherapie (gemaess RECIST 1.1) untersucht. Vor der Chemotherapie wurden bei allen Patienten Untersuchungen mit entsprechenden Bildgebungsverfahren

  3. Is intraperitoneal chemotherapy still an acceptable option in primary adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, B J; Chan, J K

    2017-11-01

    The role of intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemotherapy in treating newly diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been the subject of controversy for almost three decades. Three large intergroup phase III trials (GOG 104, 114, 172) have demonstrated a survival benefit associated with i.p. over intravenous (i.v.) therapy in advanced, low-volume EOC. Despite the positive clinical trial results and a subsequent National Cancer Institute alert in 2006, i.p. treatment has not been widely accepted as the standard of care in the United States and is infrequently used in Europe. The hesitancy of clinicians to use i.p. therapy is likely attributed to higher toxicity, inconvenience, catheter complications, and clinical trial design issues. On the other hand, In a long-term follow-up report from these trials, we showed that the effect of i.p. chemotherapy extends beyond 10 years and that the more cycles of i.p. therapy portends for improved survival over similar cycles of i.v. therapy with younger patients having a higher likelihood of completing 6 cycles of i.p. More recently, a fourth randomized phase III trial, GOG 252, failed to show a survival advantage associated with i.p. cisplatin and i.p. carboplatin over dose-dense i.v. paclitaxel and carboplatin. Since the use of bevacizumab was incorporated in all arms of the study, this anti-vascular agent may have equalized or negated the clinical advantage of i.p. chemotherapy and dose-dense weekly as suggested in GOG 262. We are awaiting the results of the Asian iPocc trial comparing dose-dense paclitaxel to i.p. chemotherapy without bevacizumab, though the differences in the tumor histology and pharmacokinetics in Asian versus non-Asian patients may influence the interpretation of the results worldwide. In this review, we review the polarizing opinions on the relevance of i.p. therapy in today's clinical armamentarium. Never before, have oncologists examined the same datasets with divergent conclusions. This topic is

  4. High-dose chemotherapy for patients with high-risk breast cancer: a clinical and economic assessment using a quality-adjusted survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Patricia; Roché, Henri; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2008-04-01

    The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) has not been clearly demonstrated. It may offer disease-free survival improvement at the expense of major toxicity and increasing cost. We evaluated the trade-offs between toxicity, relapse, and costs using a quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity (Q-TWiST) analysis. The analysis was conducted in the context of a randomized trial (PEGASE 01) evaluating the benefit of HDC for 314 patients with high-risk breast cancer. A Q-TWiST analysis was first performed to compare HDC with standard chemotherapy. We then used the results of this Q-TWiST analysis to inform a cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) comparison between treatments. Q-TWiST durations were in favor of HDC, whatever the weighting coefficients used for the analysis. This benefit was significant when the weighting coefficient related to the time spent after relapse was low (0.78), HDC offered no benefit. For intermediate values, the results depended on the weighting coefficient attributed to the toxicity period. The incremental cost per QALY ranged from 12,691euro/QALY to 26,439euro/QALY, according to the coefficients used to weight toxicity and relapse. The benefits of HDC outweigh the burdens of treatment for a wide range of utility coefficients. Economic impact is not a barrier to HDC diffusion in this situation. Nevertheless, no significant benefit was demonstrated for a certain range of utility values.

  5. Chemotherapy disruption of efficient radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nervi, C.; Friedman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the use of chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: indications for the use of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy; improvement of the therapeutic ratio following the use of methotrexate; advantages of preirradiation and postirradiation chemotherapy; side effects following simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy; and effects of chemotherapy on cure rate of radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. (U.S.)

  6. Concurrent image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy and chemotherapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shueng, Pei-Wei; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Shen, Bing-Jie; Wu, Le-Jung; Liao, Li-Jen; Hsiao, Chi-Huang; Lin, Yu-Chin; Cheng, Po-Wen; Lo, Wu-Chia; Jen, Yee-Min

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the experience of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiationwith helical tomotherapy (HT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Between August 2006 and December 2009, 28 patients with pathological proven nonmetastatic NPC were enrolled. All patients were staged as IIB-IVB. Patients were first treated with 2 to 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy with EP-HDFL (Epirubicin, Cisplatin, 5-FU, and Leucovorin). After induction chemotherapy, weekly based PFL was administered concurrent with HT. Radiation consisted of 70 Gy to the planning target volumes of the primary tumor plus any positive nodal disease using 2 Gy per fraction. After completion of induction chemotherapy, the response rates for primary and nodal disease were 96.4% and 80.8%, respectively. With a median follow-up after 33 months (Range, 13-53 months), there have been 2 primary and 1 nodal relapse after completion of radiotherapy. The estimated 3-year progression-free rates for local, regional, locoregional and distant metastasis survival rate were 92.4%, 95.7%, 88.4%, and 78.0%, respectively. The estimated 3-year overall survival was 83.5%. Acute grade 3, 4 toxicities for xerostomia and dermatitis were only 3.6% and 10.7%, respectively. HT for locoregionally advanced NPC is feasible and effective in regard to locoregional control with high compliance, even after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. None of out-field or marginal failure noted in the current study confirms the potential benefits of treating NPC patients by image-guided radiation modality. A long-term follow-up study is needed to confirm these preliminary findings

  7. Combined Adjuvant Radiochemotherapy With IMRT/XELOX Improves Outcome With Low Renal Toxicity in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Weiss, Christel; Mennemeyer, Philipp; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermes, Petra; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Post, Stefan; Massner, Bernd; Hieber, Udo; Hochhaus, Andreas; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Adjuvant radiochemotherapy improves survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer. We assessed in two sequential cohorts whether improved radiotherapy technique (IMRT) together with intensified chemotherapy improves outcome vs. conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and standard chemotherapy in these patients while maintaining or reducing renal toxicity. Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients treated for gastric cancer either with 3D-CRT (n = 27) and IMRT (n = 33) were evaluated. More than 70% had undergone D2 resection. Although there was a slight imbalance in R0 status between cohorts, N+ status was balanced. Chemotherapy consisted predominantly of 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (n = 36) in the earlier cohort and mostly of oxaliplatin/capecitabine (XELOX, n = 24) in the later cohort. Primary end points were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and renal toxicity based on creatinine levels. Results: Median follow-up (FU) of all patients in the 3D-CRT group was 18 months and in the IMRT group 22 months (median FU of surviving patients 67 months in the 3D-CRT group and 25 months in the IMRT group). Overall median survival (and DFS) were 18 (13) months in the 3D-CRT group and both not reached in the IMRT group (p = 0.0492 and 0.0216). Actuarial 2-year survival was 37% and 67% in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively. No late renal toxicity >Grade 2 (LENT-SOMA scale) was observed in either cohort. Conclusion: When comparing sequentially treated patient cohorts with similar characteristics, OS and DFS improved with the use of IMRT and intensified chemotherapy without signs of increased renal toxicity.

  8. A phase III study of adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, K.-H.; Chang, Y.-C.; Guo, W.-Y.; Leung, M.-J.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y; Wang, L.-W.; Lai, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-M.; Lian, S.-L.; Chang, C.-H.; Liu, T.-W.; Chin, Y.-H.; Yen, S.-H.; Perng, C.-H.; Chen, Kuang Y.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, we conducted a randomized Phase III trial comparing radiotherapy (RT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy to RT alone in patients with advanced NPC. Methods and Materials: Between November 1994 and March 1999, 157 patients with Stage IV, M 0 (UICC/AJCC, 1992) advanced NPC disease were randomized to receive standard radiotherapy, as follows: 35-40 fractions, 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction/day, 5 days/week, to a total dose 70-72 Gy with or without 9 weekly cycles of 24-h infusional chemotherapy (20 mg/m 2 cisplatin, 2,200 mg/m 2 5-fluorouracil, and 120 mg/m 2 leucovorin) after RT. Of 157 patients enrolled, 154 (77 radiotherapy, 77 combined therapy) were evaluable for survival and toxicity analysis. Results: With a median follow-up of 49.5 months, the 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates were 60.5% vs. 54.5% (p = 0.5) and 49.5% vs. 54.4% (p = 0.38) for the radiotherapy-alone group and the combined radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy group, respectively. The Cox regression showed that the hazard rates ratio of combined treatment to RT alone was 0.673 (p value = 0.232); the 95% confidence interval was 0.352 and 1.288, respectively. Patients who received combined treatment had a lower systemic relapse rate than radiotherapy-alone patients, according to relapse pattern analysis. The incidence of leukopenia (≥ Grade 3) occurred in 17 out of 819 (2.1%) cycles of weekly chemotherapy. No patient developed moderate to severe mucositis (≥ Grade 3). Conclusions: We conclude that adjuvant chemotherapy after RT for patients with advanced NPC has no benefit for overall survival or relapse-free survival

  9. [Strategy of liver resection during chemotherapy for otherwise unresectable colorectal metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kuniya; Kumamoto, Takafumi; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Nojiri, Kazunori; Endo, Itaru

    2013-07-01

    With multidisciplinary management of patients with effective chemotherapy that can downstage metastases, more patients with previously inoperable disease can benefit from surgery. Surgery in isolation may be approaching technical limits, but now is likely to help more patients because of success of complementary strategies, particularly newer chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Leaving behind disappearing metastases after chemotherapy, margin-positive resection, staged liver resection, and liver-first reversed management permit potentially curative surgery for patients previously unable to survive resection. Further, survival benefit from maximum debulking surgery, like ovarian cancer, for colorectal liver metastases is uncertain at present, but likely. Individualized multidisciplinary treatment planning using such strategies is essential.

  10. A prospective and randomized study of radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy radiotherapy and concomitant chemo therapy-radiotherapy in unresectable non small cell carcinoma of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Anirban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment of advanced Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC often produces dismal results. Combination of available treatment modalities has reportedly improved the outcome. A prospectively randomized trial was conducted, comparing combined treatment modalities versus radiotherapy alone, in treatment of unresectable NSCLC. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients were randomized to three groups. In group ′A′, 32 patients received radiotherapy alone (6500 cGy/30 fraction. In group ′B′, 35 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1 and Etoposide 100 mg/m day 1-3 intravenously q3 weeks for 3 cycles, followed by radiotherapy (6000 cGy/30 fractions and 3 more cycles of Chemotherapy, with the same regimen. In group ′C′, 36 patients received radiotherapy (5000 cGy/25 fractions with concurrent chemotherapy (ciplatin 20 mg/m2 + Etoposide 75 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1-5 and day 22-26, followed by 2 more cycles of chemotherapy,q3 weeks with the same regimen. Results: Initial treatment responses were significantly higher in group ′B′ ( P P Conclusion: Addition of chemotherapy with radiation in unresectable NSCLC improves response rates, time to tumour progression and disease free survival, though the same effect is not translated in overall survival.

  11. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-01-01

    The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol 'SCHARC' and the overall survival of our patients. From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III) were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %), one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 %) and one fifth (19 %) suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m 2 /d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m 2 /d 5FU (cont. infusion). This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy). All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Forty patients (63 %) received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d) and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d), respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 %) had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 %) suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient < 1.0 g/nl) and the mean hemoglobin value decreased from 13.2 to 10.5 g/dl. Univariate analysis of survival showed a better outcome for patients with a hemoglobin nadir >10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led

  12. Split course hyperfractionated accelerated radio-chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-12-07

    The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III) were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %), one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 %) and one fifth (19 %) suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1-5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750-1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion). This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69-70.5 Gy). All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Forty patients (63 %) received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d) and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d), respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 %) had acute grade 2-3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 %) suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient hemoglobin value decreased from 13.2 to 10.5 g/dl. Univariate analysis of survival showed a better outcome for patients with a hemoglobin nadir >10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in

  13. Breast conserving treatment of breast carcinoma T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy, high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, external beam radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: local control and overall survival analysis; Tratamento conservador do cancer de mama T2 ({<=} 4 cm) e T3 por quimioterapia neoadjuvante, quadrantectomia, braquiterapia com alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante: analise de controle local e sobrevida global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Celia Regina; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Baraldi, Helena Espindola; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: celiarsoares@terra.com.br; Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia; Paes, Roberto Pinto [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering local control and overall survival. Material and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 88 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIb and IIIa, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated from June/1995 to December/2006. Median follow-up was 58 months. Using clinical methods the tumor was evaluated before and after three or four cycles of chemotherapy based on anthracyclines. Overall survival and local control were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Local control and overall survival in five years were 90% and 73.5%, respectively. Conclusion: local control and overall survival were comparable to other forms of treatment. (author)

  14. Locoregional first recurrence after mastectomy: prospective cohort studies with and without immediate chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylock, Brian J.; Coppin, Chris M.L.; Jackson, Jeremy; Basco, Vivien E.; Wilson, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the impact of combination chemotherapy in the combined modality treatment of isolated first locoregional recurrence (LRR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1989, 120 chemotherapy-naive women with isolated LRR as first failure after mastectomy were prospectively identified, uniformly staged, and systematically followed. Treatment consisted of excision if feasible, radical locoregional radiotherapy, and a hormonal maneuver (unless estrogen receptor negative). The initial chemotherapy cohort also received 8 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. This was compared to a subsequent control cohort. Results: For all patients, the 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival ± 95% confidence interval was 42.1 ± 9.2%, and overall survival was 56.8 ± 9.1%. No difference was seen in locoregional control between cohorts. At 5 years, distant recurrence-free survival for chemotherapy and control cohort respectively was 75.4 ± 10.8% and 60.7 ±12.5% (p = 0.33) and overall survival was 81.9% ± 9.6 and 74.3% ± 11.2 (p = 0.24). Univariate analysis showed no prognostic importance for any imbalance between cohorts. Cox modeling confirmed that complete resection was strongly associated with fewer LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.32, p = 0.001) and also with better overall survival (HR 1.82, p = 0.019). Chemotherapy produced a substantial reduction in risk of death (HR 0.72 CI 0.421-1.235, p = 0.23). Conclusions: In this prospective but nonrandomized study of treatment for first LRR, the risk of death in the later control cohort was 1.39 times the risk in the chemotherapy cohort but failed to reach statistical significance. The results justify further study

  15. Long-term survival in an adolescent with widely metastatic renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, L J; Goodell, L A; Javidian, P; Hsieh, Y; Amenta, P

    2000-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Patients with widespread disease at diagnosis have a particularly poor survival rate. Currently, all known chemotherapy has been ineffective in improving the median survival in patients with advanced disease. A 13-year-old black boy with stage IV renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid features is a long-term disease-free survivor after aggressive multiagent chemotherapy. After the initial evaluation and histologic diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, the patient received three courses of an aggressive chemotherapy regimen consisting of vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide with mesna uroprotection, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin (Epogen). After an almost complete response, a radical nephrectomy was performed and results demonstrated a solitary small nodule with viable tumor. After surgery, he received floxuridine infusion for 14 days by circadian schedule at 28-day intervals for a total of 1 year. The patient is well and free of disease 5 years after initial presentation. The dramatic response to treatment and long-term disease-free survival of this patient suggest this chemotherapeutic approach warrants additional investigation.

  16. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2015-01-01

    . Data on patients with stage III colonic cancer operated between January 1, 2005 and August 31, 2012 were retrieved. Perioperative variables, surgical modality, and time to adjuvant therapy (8 weeks) were evaluated and Cox regression was performed to identify factors influencing survival...

  17. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a “high-risk situation” (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12 %); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33 %). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (p < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008). However, no difference was observed between oxaliplatin-containing and non-oxaliplatin-containing treatment regimens. G2 and G3 tumors were found to particularly benefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1404-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  18. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-05-20

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a "high-risk situation" (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12%); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33%). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (pbenefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients.

  19. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    A total of 83 patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (T1, n=5; T2, n=28; T3a, n=21; T3b, n=21; T4, n=8) were treated with intra-arterial (i.a.) cisplatin and adriamycin (or epirubicin) chemotherapy. In 51 of the 83 cases, we combined this treatment with radiotherapy. The pathological complete response (CR) rate was 68% for all patients, 84% for i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and only 41% for i.a. chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate was 57% for all patients, 71% for i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and only 44% for i.a. chemotherapy. The 5-year survival as a function of the clinical stage was 82% for T1+T2, 66% for T3a, 28% for T3b, 25% for T4 (T1+T2 vs. T3b: p<0.001, T1+T2 vs. T4: p<0.0001, T3a vs. T3b: p<0.0263, T3a vs. T4: p<0.0214, T3b vs. T4: p<0.029). In 46% of all patients, we succeeded in preserving the bladder; especially noteworthy, is that in 65% of the patients undergoing i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy, we succeeded in preserving the bladder. These results demonstrate that i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy is a useful method for locally advanced bladder cancer which may make preservation of the bladder function feasible. (author)

  20. Role of combination chemotherapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, H.S.; Chandra, A.B.; Mitter, M.; Mukherjee, D.; Batabyal, S.; Samaddar, A.S.; Mukherjee, S.

    1980-01-01

    Eighteen children suffering from Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were studied. Of these eighteen children, eight (44.4 percent) had well differentiated diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma and six (33.3 percent) had poorly differentiated diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma and four (22.3 percent) had histiocytic lymphoma. Histological study was based on the concept of Rappaport (1966). Children belonging to Stage IIB were treated with radiotherapy followed by combination chemotherapy and those with Stage IIIB and Stage IVB were treated with combination chemotherapy utilising cyclophosphamide, oncovin and prednisolone. The result of combination chemotherapy (COP) was dramatic and appears to have resulted in long term disease free survival. In well differentiated diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma in Stage IIB the life expectancy of two children was extended to 12 years with well maintained remission for 9.5 years. Recurrence rate was 44.4 percent. Death rate was 61.1 percent and median survival time was 26.7 months. In histiocytic lymphomas the results were unsatisfactory. Median survival time was 9.5 months. (author)

  1. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in chemotherapy and radiotherapy trials in operable and locally advanced lung cancer: a re-analysis of meta-analyses of individual patients' data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauguen, Audrey; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Burdett, Sarah; Domerg, Caroline; Fisher, David; Paulus, Rebecca; Mandrekar, Samithra J.; Belani, Chandra P.; Shepherd, Frances A.; Eisen, Tim; Pang, Herbert; Collette, Laurence; Sause, William T.; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Crawford, Jeffrey; O'Brien, Mary; Schild, Steven E.; Parmar, Mahesh; Tierney, Jayne F.; Le Pechoux, Cécile; Michiels, Stefan; Burdett, S.; Fisher, D.; Le Péchoux, C.; Mauguen, A.; Michiels, S.; Pignon, J. P.; Tierney, J. F.; Belani, C. P.; Collette, L.; Dahlberg, S.; Eisen, T.; Mandrekar, S.; O'Brien, M.; Parmar, M.; Pang, H.; Paulus, R.; Crawford, J.; Sause, W.; Schild, S. E.; Shepherd, F.; Arriagada, R.; Atagi, S.; Auperin, A.; Ball, D.; Baumann, M.; Behrendt, K.; Belderbos, J.; Koning, C. C. E.; Uitterhoeve, A.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard endpoint in clinical trials of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for lung cancer is overall survival. Although reliable and simple to measure, this endpoint takes years to observe. Surrogate endpoints that would enable earlier assessments of treatment effects would be useful. We

  2. Twelve-year experience of radioembolization for colorectal hepatic metastases in 214 patients: survival by era and chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Memon, Khairuddin; Hickey, Ryan; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel; Vouche, Michael; Atassi, Rohi; Desai, Kush; Hohlastos, Elias; Sato, Kent; Habib, Ali [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F.; Kircher, Sheetal; Newman, Steven B.; Nimeiri, Halla; Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Marshall, Karen; Williams, Melissa; Salzig, Krystina; Salem, Riad [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the safety, treatment characteristics and survival outcomes of Yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization for unresectable colorectal carcinoma (CRC) liver metastases refractory to standard of care therapy. A total of 214 patients with CRC metastases were treated with Y90 radioembolization over 12 years. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria. Overall survival was analyzed from date of diagnosis of primary cancer, hepatic metastases and from the first Y90. Uni/multivariate analyses were performed. Substratification by era of chemotherapeutics was performed. Most patients were male (60 %) and <65 years old (61 %). Of them, 98 % had been exposed to chemotherapy. Grade 3 lymphocyte, bilirubin, albumin, ALP and AST toxicities were observed in 39 %, 11 %, 10 %, 8 % and 4 % of patients, respectively. Grade 4 lymphocyte and ALP toxicities were observed in 5 % and 3 % of patients, respectively. Median overall survival was 43.0, 34.6, and 10.6 months from date of diagnosis of primary cancer, hepatic metastases and first Y90, respectively. Survival was significantly longer in patients: (1) who received ≤2 cytotoxic drugs (n = 104) than those who received 3 (n = 110) (15.2 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.0001); and (2) who received no biologic agents (n = 52) compared with those that did (n = 162) (18.6 vs. 9.4 months, p = 0.0001). Multivariate analyses identified ≤2 cytotoxic agents, no exposure to biologics, ECOG 0, tumor burden <25 %, lack of extrahepatic disease and albumin >3 g/dL as independent predictors of survival. In this largest metastatic CRC series published to date, Y90 radioembolization was found to be safe; survival varied by prior therapy. Further studies are required to further refine the role of Y90 in metastatic CRC. (orig.)

  3. Efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Sung Wook; Jeong, Jin Sook; Park, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kim, Young Hoon; Roh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyung Sik; Choi, Young Min; Han, Sang Young

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using floxuridine (FUDR) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver. METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had advanced HCC with unresectability or unsuccessful previous therapy in the absence of extrahepatic metastasis were treated with intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy at our hospital between March 2005 and May 2008. Among the 34 patients, 9 patients were classified as Child class C, and 18 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). One course of chemotherapy consisted of continuous infusion of FUDR (0.3 mg/kg during day 1-14) and dexamethasone (10 mg on day 1, 4, 7 and 11), and this treatment was repeated every 28 d. RESULTS: Two patients (5.9%) displayed a complete response, and 12 patients (35.3%) had a partial response. The tumor control rate was 61.8%. The median overall survival times were 15.3 mo, 12.4 mo and 4.3 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0392). The progression-free survival was 12.9 mo, 7.7 mo and 2.6 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0443). The cumulative survival differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and the presence of PVTT. In addition to hepatic reserve capacity and PVTT, the extent of HCC was an independent factor in determining a poor prognosis. The most common adverse reactions to HAIC were mucositis, diarrhea and peptic ulcer disease, but most of these complications were improved by medical treatment and/or a delay of HAIC. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC that is recalcitrant to other therapeutic modalities, even in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:22807613

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer ≥4 cm in size: an SEER-Medicare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, J; Mhango, G; Gomez, J E; Smith, C; Galsky, M D; Strauss, G M; Wisnivesky, J P

    2015-04-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage I patients with tumors size ≥4 cm is not well established in the elderly. We identified 3289 patients with stage I NSCLC (T2N0M0 and tumor size ≥4 cm) who underwent lobectomy from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database diagnosed from 1992 to 2009. Overall survival and rates of serious adverse events (defined as those requiring admission to hospital) were compared between patients treated with resection alone, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, or postoperative radiation (PORT) with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Propensity scores for receiving each treatment were calculated and survival analyses were conducted using inverse probability weights based on the propensity score. Overall, 84% patients were treated with resection alone, 9% received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and 7% underwent PORT with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjusted analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.98] was associated with improved survival compared with resection alone. Conversely, the use of PORT with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64-2.23) was associated with worse outcomes. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had more serious adverse events compared with those treated with resection alone, with neutropenia (odds ratio, 21.2; 95% CI 5.8-76.6) being most significant. No significant difference was observed in rates of fever, cytopenias, nausea, and renal dysfunction. Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with reduced mortality and increased serious adverse events in elderly patients with stage I NSCLC and tumor size ≥4 cm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Preoperative chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer is associated with improved surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanlik, H; Ozgur, I; Cabioglu, N; Sen, F; Erturk, K; Kilic, B; Onder, S; Deniz, M; Yavuz, E; Aydiner, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcome in T2 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy (PC) and who did not. The study also tried to define a subgroup of patients, who are more beneficial after PC in terms of lower re-excision rates, better cosmetic results and local recurrence free survival. 251 consecutive patients treated for nonmetastatic T2 invasive breast cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Of those; 141 underwent primary surgery (PS) followed by chemotherapy, whereas 110 were treated with combination of PC and surgery. The patients who were treated with PC had a significantly higher incidence of negative margins and lower rate of re-excision (5% vs. 16%, p = 0.02). Of all patients attempted breast conserving surgery (BCS), patients in the PC group were more likely to undergo BCS as their definitive operation compared to patients with PS group (BCS rates; PC group: 99% vs. PS group: 92%, p = 0.05). Multifocal disease (OR: 7, 95% Cl, 2.7-18.4, p = 0.0001) and PC (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.72, p = 0.01) were factors associated with margin positivity in patients treated with BCS. There was no statistically significant difference in 5 year local-recurrence free survival rates between 2 groups. Our study shows that PC significantly decreases the re-excision in patients undergoing BCS with primary T2 breast tumors. This data suggests that any patient with a tumor greater than 2 cm might be considered for PC to increase BCS success with final negative margins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided versus empirical chemotherapy in unresectable non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yong Wha; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Kim, Yong Tai; Chang, Hyun; Jeong, Jae Heon; Lee, Young Joo; Chang, Joon; Kim, Se Kyu; Jung, Minkyu; Hong, Soojung; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2009-10-01

    We retrospectively compared adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided and empirical chemotherapies for unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in this case-control study. Unresectable NSCLC patients receiving ATP-CRA-guided platinum-based doublets as first-line therapy were enrolled as cases (n=27; 14 platinum-sensitive and 13 platinum-resistant patients). Performance status, stage, and chemotherapeutic regimen-matched patients receiving empirical chemotherapy were selected from the retrospective database as controls (n=93) in a case to control ratio of approximately 1:3. Response rate and survival (progression-free; overall) in both groups were not significantly different. However, the platinum-sensitive subgroup by ATP-CRA showed a higher response rate than the empirical group (71 versus 38%; p=0.023) with a trend toward longer progression-free survival (8.7 versus 4.8 months for platinum-sensitive versus empirical; p=0.223) and overall survival (not reached versus 12.6 months for platinum-sensitive versus empirical for p=0.134). ATP-CRA may be helpful in selecting platinum-responsive patients in unresectable NSCLC. We consider that nonplatinum doublets in platinum-resistant patients by ATP-CRA may be a more adapted approach than platinum-based doublets in future clinical trials.

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer with variant histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Malte W; Wankowicz, Stephanie A M; Seisen, Thomas; Lander, Richard; Löppenberg, Björn; Chun, Felix K-H; Menon, Mani; Sun, Maxine; Barletta, Justine A; Choueiri, Toni K; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Preston, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pure urothelial bladder cancer provides a significant survival benefit. However, to the authors' knowledge, it is unknown whether this benefit persists in histological variants. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the probability of non-organ-confined disease and overall survival after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with histological variants. Querying the National Cancer Data Base, the authors identified 2018 patients with histological variants who were undergoing RC for bladder cancer between 2003 and 2012. Variants were categorized as micropapillary or sarcomatoid differentiation, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, and other histology. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC for each histological variant, stratified by the receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cox regression models were used to examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on overall mortality in each variant subgroup. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (odds ratio [OR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.08-0.32 [Pchemotherapy. An overall survival benefit for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was only found in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.74 [P=.001]). Patients with neuroendocrine tumors benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as evidenced by better overall survival and lower rates of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC. For tumors with micropapillary differentiation, sarcomatoid differentiation, or adenocarcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy decreased the frequency of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC. However, this favorable effect did not translate into a statistically significant overall survival benefit for these patients, potentially due to the aggressive tumor biology. Cancer 2017;123:4346-55. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Mesothelioma: treatment and survival of a patient population and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, John; Antoniou, Dimosthenis; Stathopoulos, George P; Rigatos, Sotiris K; Dimitroulis, John; Koutandos, John; Michalopoulou, Pinelopi; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Veslemes, Marinos

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the survival of patients with pleural and intraperitoneal malignant mesothelioma and, particularly, to estimate the efficacy of chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy and surgery. A review of the literature with respect to these parameters is included. Thirty-five patients with malignant mesothelioma (28 with pleural and 7 with intraperitoneal) were enrolled. Twenty-eight patients underwent chemotherapy, 7/35 radiation and 9/35 surgery (2 with pleural and 7 with abdominal disease). Combination chemotherapy included cisplatin-gemcitabine, cisplatin (or carboplatin) with premetrexed and doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide. In 2/28 patients with pleural mesothelioma the tumor was excised and in 7 with intraperitoneal disease, surgical therapy was palliative and there was survival prolongation. Radiotherapy was only palliative. Chemotherapy produced a very low response: 2/28 (7.14%) patients achieved a partial response. The median survival was 17 months, 4-year survival, 24.4% and 5-year survival, 12.12%. No serious toxicity was observed. Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and intraperitoneum is a slow-growing disease which is indicated by the long survival, despite the failure of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.

  9. Guide to intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for pancreatic cancers (draft text)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of most malignant solid tumors. Trans-arterial infusion chemotherapy has been used for the inoperable pancreatic cancers. The local drug concentration in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is much higher than that in intravenous chemotherapy. Thus, a better therapeutic effect can be surely achieved, the disease-related symptoms can be well improved, the patient's survival time can be markedly prolonged, and the liver metastases can be effectively reduced. This paper aims to suggest a more detailed and standardized therapeutic scheme to perform intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for inoperable pancreatic cancers, focusing on the relevant concept, contraindications, indications, preoperative preparation, methods of operation, postoperative treatment, the prevention and treatment of complications, etc. The scheme will help domestic interventional physicians to make reasonable decisions in their clinical practice. Of course, the scheme proposed here is not a mandatory standard, and it can not resolve all the problems which might be encountered in employing intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the interventional physicians should fully understand the most useful medical evidence of a given patient and sincerely take the patient's own will into consideration before an individualized and reasonable therapeutic plan is able to be worked out. (authors)

  10. CYP39A1 polymorphism is associated with toxicity during intensive induction chemotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchardt, Thomas; Hufnagl, Clemens; Magnes, Teresa; Weiss, Lukas; Hutarew, Georg; Neureiter, Daniel; Schlattau, Alexander; Moser, Gerhard; Gaggl, Alexander; Tränkenschuh, Wolfgang; Greil, Richard; Egle, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy incorporating docetaxel, cisplatin and 5- fluorouracil before radiotherapy may improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Nevertheless, the addition of docetaxel increases hematological toxicity and infectious complications. Therefore, genetic markers predicting toxicity and efficacy of this treatment regimen may help to identify patients, who would have the most benefit from this intensive treatment. A cohort of 78 patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with induction chemotherapy was assessed for clinical outcome and toxicity during treatment with curative intention. Genetic polymorphisms primary associated with treatment efficacy (ERCC2-rs13181, rs1799793, ERCC1-rs3212986, rs11615, XRCC1-rs25487) or with docetaxel caused toxicity (CYP39A1-rs7761731, SLCO1B3-rs11045585) were evaluated in all patients. The results of these analyses were correlated with the clinical outcome of the patients (loco regional control, progression free survival, overall survival) and treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Median progression free survival and overall survival was 20 and 31 months in an intention to treat analysis, respectively. Overall response rate to induction chemotherapy was high with 78.1 % of all patients. None of the polymorphisms tested was associated with the clinical outcome of the patients. Genotype A of the CYP39A1 rs7761731 polymorphism was associated with a higher incidence of leucopenia and infections or death during induction chemotherapy. Intensive induction chemotherapy results in a high response rate in the majority of patients. None of the polymorphisms tested was associated with the clinical outcome of the patients. The CYP39A1 polymorphism rs7761731 may help to identify patients at high risk for treatment related toxicity

  11. Efficacy and safety of COX-2 inhibitors for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with chemotherapy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai P

    2018-02-01

    .18, progression-free survival (HR =0.97, 95% CI: 0.86–1.10, and 1-year survival rate (RR =1.03, 95% CI: 0.89–1.20. Toxicity did not differ significantly between COX-2 inhibitors plus chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone with the exception of leukopenia (RR =1.21, 95% CI: 1.03–1.42, thrombocytopenia (RR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.04–1.67, and cardiovascular events (RR =2.39, 95% CI: 1.06–5.42. The results of the Egger’s test indicated no significant difference in primary outcomes.Conclusion: COX-2 inhibitors improved ORR of advanced NSCLC with chemotherapy, but had no effect on survival indices. Moreover, COX-2 inhibitors may lead to higher rates of hematologic toxicities and cardiovascular events. Keywords: cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, non-small-cell lung cancer, chemotherapy, overall survival, meta-analysis 

  12. Efficacy of Systemic Chemotherapy Plus Radical Nephroureterectomy for Metastatic Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, Thomas; Jindal, Tarun; Karabon, Patrick; Sood, Akshay; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Rouprêt, Morgan; Leow, Jeffrey J; Vetterlein, Malte W; Sun, Maxine; Alanee, Shaheen; Choueiri, Toni K; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2017-05-01

    Given the growing body of evidence supporting the benefit of primary tumor control for a wide range of metastatic malignancies, we hypothesized that chemotherapy plus radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is associated with an overall survival (OS) benefit compared to chemotherapy alone for metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (mUTUC). Within the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012), we identified 398 (38.4%) and 637 (61.6%) patients who received chemotherapy plus RNU and chemotherapy alone, respectively. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 3-yr OS was 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.1-20.3) for chemotherapy plus RNU and 6.4% (95%CI 4.1-8.7) for chemotherapy alone (pchemotherapy plus RNU was associated with a significant OS benefit (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.61-0.80; pbenefit for fit patients who received chemotherapy plus RNU for mUTUC relative to their counterparts treated with chemotherapy alone. We examined the role of radical nephroureterectomy in addition to systemic chemotherapy for metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We found that such treatment may be associated with an overall survival benefit compared to chemotherapy alone in fit patients. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation dose ≥54 Gy and CA 19–9 response are associated with improved survival for unresectable, non-metastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Daniel W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unresectable pancreatic cancer (UPC has low survival. With improving staging techniques and systemic therapy, local control in patients without metastatic disease may have increasing importance. We investigated whether the radiation dose used in chemoradiation (CRT as definitive treatment for UPC and the CA 19–9 response to therapy have an impact on overall survival (OS. Methods From 1997–2009 46 patients were treated with CRT for non-metastatic UPC. Median prescribed RT dose was 54 Gy (range 50.4-59.4 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy (41: 5-fluorouracil, 5: other and 24 received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results 41 patients were inoperable due to T4 disease and 5 patients with T3 disease were medically inoperable. Five patients did not complete CRT due to progressive disease or treatment-related toxicity (median RT dose 43.2 Gy. Overall, 42 patients were dead of disease at the time of last follow-up. The median and 12 month OS were 8.8 months and 35%, respectively. By univariate analysis, minimum CA 19–9 post-CRT Conclusions CRT as definitive treatment for UPC had low survival. However, our retrospective data suggest that patients treated to ≥54 Gy or observed to have a minimum post-CRT CA 19–9

  14. Prognostic impact of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea on premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiong; Yin, Wenjin; Du, Yueyao; Shen, Zhenzhou; Lu, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis of published data to assess the exact prognostic value of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) as a prognostic factor for premenopausal breast cancer. Methods: We searched for all relevant studies published before May 2014 in the PubMed, OVID, and EMBASE databases. Relative risks (RRs) were used to estimate the association between CIA and various survival outcomes, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: This meta-analysis identified 13 eligible studies including 5,513 cases and 2,008 controls for DFS and 5 eligible studies including 2,331 cases and 776 controls for OS. Results demonstrated that CIA is associated with improved DFS (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.74; P < 0.001) and OS (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72; P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, CIA was found to affect DFS (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = 0.001) in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive patients; however, similar results were not observed in ER-negative patients (for DFS: RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.41; P = 0.858). Participants with CIA achieved a significantly better prognosis than participants without CIA, irrespective of nodal status, chemotherapy regimen, endocrine therapy, or publication year. Conclusions: This meta-analysis clarifies that CIA contributes to improved prognosis in premenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer and is at least partially responsible for the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in these women, which induce chemical castration. PMID:25783467

  15. Adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided platinum-based 2-drug chemotherapy for unresectable nonsmall-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yong Wha; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Yong Tai; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Chang, Joon; Kim, Se Kyu; Park, Moo Suk; Chung, Kyung Young; Lee, Hyoun Ju; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2007-05-01

    The study investigated correlations between adenosine triphosphate / chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) and clinical outcomes after ATP-CRA-guided platinum-based chemotherapy for unresectable nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The authors performed an in vitro chemosensitivity test, ATP-CRA, to evaluate the chemosensitivities of anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine for chemonaive, unresectable NSCLC. The cell death rate was determined by measuring the intracellular ATP levels of drug-exposed cells compared with untreated controls. A sensitive drug was defined as a drug producing 30% or more reduction in ATP compared with untreated controls. Assay-guided platinum-based 2-drug chemotherapy was given to patients with pathologically confirmed NSCLC. Thirty-four patients were enrolled. Thirty tumor specimens were obtained by bronchoscopic biopsies and 4 obtained surgically. The median age was 61 years and 27 patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1. The response rate was 43.8%. At a median follow-up period of 16.9 months, the median progression-free and overall survivals were 3.6 and 11.2 months, respectively. Patients were dichotomized into the platinum-sensitive (S; 20 patients) and resistant (R; 14 patients) groups. The positive/negative predictive values were 61.1% and 78.6% with a predictive accuracy of 68.8%. Although without significant differences in pretreatment parameters, the S-group showed better clinical response (P=.036), longer progression-free survival (P=.060), and longer overall survival (P=.025). Despite using bronchoscopic biopsied specimens, ATP-CRA and clinical outcomes correlated well after assay-guided platinum-based 2-drug chemotherapy for unresectable NSCLC. There was a favorable response and survival in the platinum-sensitive vs resistant groups. Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society

  16. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating preoperative chemotherapy in resectable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ZW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhiwei Chen,* Qingquan Luo,* Hong Jian, Zhen Zhou, Baijun Cheng, Shun Lu, Meilin LiaoShanghai Lung Tumor Clinical Medical Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equallyObjective: We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative chemotherapy provides benefits in the survival and prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in resectable stages I to IIIA, except T1N0. Methods: In this randomized, controlled trial, 356 patients with stage I (except for T1N0, II and IIIA NSCLC were assigned to either the preoperative chemotherapy plus surgery arm (179 patients or the primary surgery arm (177 patients. Both treatments were followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The end point of this study included overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, and survival rate associated with clinical remission. Results: Statistical survival difference was found between the preoperative chemotherapy plus surgery arm and the surgery-alone arm. However, the median survival time (MST in the preoperative chemotherapy arm was lower than that of surgery-alone arm (MST, 45.42 months vs 57.59 months (P = 0.016. When comparing the effect of preoperative chemotherapy at each stage of NSCLC, a statistical survival difference was found in stage II NSCLC but not in stage I and IIIA (MST 40.86 months vs 80.81 months (P = 0.044. However, no statistically significant difference in PFS was noticed between the two arms, except for stage I NSCLC (hazard radio [HR] = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.561−1.629; P = 0.027. The survival rate was higher for patients who had clinical remission after preoperative chemotherapy, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (MST 42.10 months vs 35.33 months (P = 0.630. Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy did not show benefits in OS and PFS for stage I-IIIA NSCLC patients. Keywords: NSCLC, neoadjuvent, mitomycin, cisplatin, vindesine

  17. Change of SPARC expression after chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yong-Yin; Han, Ru-Bing; Wang, Xia; Ge, Shao-Hua; Li, Hong-Li; Deng, Ting; Liu, Rui; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Li-Kun; Zhang, Xin-Yuan; Ba, Yi; Huang, Ding-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The expression of tumor biomarkers may change after chemotherapy. However, whether secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression changes after chemotherapy in gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. This study investigated the influence of chemotherapy on SPARC expression in GC. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze SPARC expression in 132 GC cases (including 54 cases with preoperative chemotherapy and 78 cases without preoperative chemotherapy). SPARC expression of postoperative specimens with and without preoperative chemotherapy was assessed to analyze the influence of chemotherapy on SPARC expression. SPARC was highly expressed in GC compared with the desmoplastic stroma surrounding tumor cells and noncancerous tissues. High SPARC expression was correlated with invasion depth, lymph node, and TNM stage. After chemotherapy, a lower proportion of high SPARC expression was observed in patients with preoperative chemotherapy than in the controls. For 54 patients with preoperative chemotherapy, gross type, histology, depth of invasion, lymph node, TNM stage, and SPARC expression were related to overall survival. Further multivariate analysis showed that lymph node, histology, and SPARC expression after chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. SPARC expression may change after chemotherapy in GC. SPARC expression should be reassessed for patients with GC after chemotherapy

  18. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P chemotherapy. For patients with ILC, the 10-year OS rate was 94% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 92% (P chemotherapy. After adjusting for patient and treatment factors, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decreased 10-year hazard of death for patients with IDC (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.92). In contrast, adjuvant chemotherapy was not independently associated with the adjusted 10-year hazard of death for patients with ILC (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.46). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS for patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative, stage I/II ILC. Avoidance of ineffective chemotherapy will markedly reduce the adverse effects and economic burden of breast cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Lisa D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %, one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 % and one fifth (19 % suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion. This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy. All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Results Forty patients (63 % received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d, respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 % had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 % suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient 10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. Conclusion The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in about 50 % of the patients with significant but acceptable toxicity. Most patients

  20. Serum levels of LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 have prognostic roles on survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Karabulut, Senem; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Sen, Fatma; Sakar, Burak; Disci, Rian; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Serum LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 levels are important tumor markers in pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 levels in metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the outcome of 196 MPC patients who are treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in our clinic. Positivity rates of serum LDH, CEA, and CA19-9 were 22, 40, and 83 %, respectively. Likewise, the rates of very high serum levels of tumor markers were correlated with these positivity rates (9 % for LDH, 30 % for CEA, and 55 % for CA19-9). The serum LDH levels were significantly higher in older patients (p = 0.05) and also in the patients with large tumors (p = 0.05), hepatic metastasis (p = 0.01), hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.01), and unresponsive to chemotherapy (p = 0.04). However, no correlation was found between both serum CEA and CA19-9 levels and possible prognostic factors (p > 0.05). The significant relationships were found between the serum levels of CEA and CA19-9 (r s = 0.24, p = 0.004), and serum LDH and CEA (r(s) = 0.193, p = 0.02). But, there was no correlation between serum LDH and CA19-9 levels (p = 0.39). One-year overall survival rate was 12.8 % (95 % CI 8-18). Increased serum levels of all the tumor markers significantly had adverse affect on survival (p = 0.001 for LDH, p = 0.002 for CEA, and p = 0.007 for CA19-9). However, no difference was observed in between high levels and very high levels of serum markers for all tumor markers (p > 0.05). Patients with normal serum levels of all three tumor markers had better outcome than others (p = 0.002) and those with normal serum LDH and CEA levels (whatever CA19-9) levels had associated with better survival compared with other possible alternatives (p CEA, and CA19-9 had significant affect on survival in MPC patients.

  1. Comparison of anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy with or without all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.; Ahmed, P.; Khan, B.

    2008-01-01

    To compare survival in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) patients treated with or without All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA). Longitudinal, comparative study. All consecutive newly diagnosed patients of acute promyelocytic leukemia, treated at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, between May 2001 and April 2007, were included and given chemotherapy according to availability of ATRA. Diagnosis was confirmed on morphology/ karyotyping/ molecular analysis. Eligibility criteria included confirmed morphologic diagnosis and/or by demonstration of t(15;17) and/or PML/RAR macro re-arrangement, no prior chemotherapy, normal hepatic and renal function, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 - 2 and no contraindications to ATRA (history of sensitivity to Vit. A or other retinoids). All patients having history of cardiac failure (LVEF 150 macro mol/L and pregnancy were excluded from this study. Survival was calculated from the date of chemotherapy to death or last follow-up according to Kaplan-Meier and Cox (Proportional hazard) regression analysis methods. During the 6 years study period, 31 newly diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia received treatment at AFBMTC. Seventeen patients received anthracycline-based remission induction and consolidation chemotherapy, while 14 received ATRA-based remission induction, consolidation and by two years maintenance therapy. Overall Survival (OS), Disease Free Survival (DFS) and mortality were 29.4%, 29.4% and 70.6% respectively in 17 patients who received anthracycline based chemotherapy, whereas in patients who received ATRA-based chemotherapy OS, DFS and mortality was 71.4%, 64.2% and 28.6% respectively. Major causes of mortality were septicemia and chemotherapy related toxicity. Response to ATRA-based chemotherapy in patient cohort was better as compared with anthracycline based chemotherapy (71.4% vs. 29.4%) in terms of survival and mortality. (author)

  2. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy of small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yasuo; Chohtoh, Shuichi; Nishijima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Hirose, Jin-ichiro; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Konishi, Hideo; Miyata, Samon.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment results of 49 patients (25, limited disease, LD, 24, extensive disease, ED) with small cell lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients received chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide (CPM) and Vincristine (VCR) following thoracic radiotherapy (RT). Twenty-two patients were given induction chemotherapy with CPM, Adriamycin (ADM), and VCR and were followed by thoracic RT. Other chemotherapy consisted of CPM, VCR, Methotrexate, and ADM in 2 patients, 5-FU, CPM, Mitomycin C, and Toyomycin in 1 patient. The remaining 9 patients (2, LD, 7, ED) were treated with RT alone. The response rate was 80 % (64 % CR; 16 % PR) for LD patients and 33 % (4 % CR; 29 % PR) for ED patients (P < 0.001). The three-year survival (Kaplan-Meier's product) of all patients was 14 %, with a median survival time (MST) of 8 months. For patients with LD, the 3-year survival was 27 % (MST 15 months). Survival of patients with ED was 14 % at 1 year, 0 % at 2 year (MST 5.5 months). The difference between these figures was statistically significant (P < 0.0003). The 3-year survival and relapse-free survival for complete responders with LD were 43 % (MST 21 months) and 36 % (median CR duration, 11.5 months) respectively. Six of 16 complete responders with LD are alive and well at over 2 years. Local recurrence rate of the complete responders with LD was 28.8 %. None of the 7 complete responders given more than 48 Gy relapsed within the radiation field. We believe that the addition of thoracic RT to patients with LD is necessary for the control of the primary tumors and for long-term disease-free survival. (author)

  3. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOSan open-label, international, randomised controlled trial-1): an open-label, international, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Neyssa M; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We designed the EURAMOS-1 trial to investigate whether intensified postoperative chemotherapy for patients whose tumour showed a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy (≥10% viable tumour) improved event-free survival in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. METHODS: EURAMOS-1 wa...

  4. Developing a performance data suite to facilitate lean improvement in a chemotherapy day unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaratnam, Senthil; Murray, Danielle; Carle, Amber; Kirsa, Sue W; Paterson, Rebecca; Rischin, Danny

    2013-07-01

    A multidisciplinary team from the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia, developed a performance data suite to support a service improvement project based on lean manufacturing principles in its 19-chair chemotherapy day unit (CDU) and cytosuite chemotherapy production facility. The aims of the project were to reduce patient wait time and improve equity of access to the CDU. A project team consisting of a pharmacist and CDU nurse supported the management team for 10 months in engaging staff and customers to identify waste in processes, analyze root causes, eliminate non-value-adding steps, reduce variation, and level workloads to improve quality and flow. Process mapping, staff and patient tracking and opinion surveys, medical record audits, and interrogation of electronic treatment records were undertaken. This project delivered a 38% reduction in median wait time on the day (from 32 to 20 minutes; P product manufactured within 10 minutes of appointment times by 29% (from 47% to 76%; P lean improvement methodology provided a robust framework for improved understanding and management of complex system constraints within a CDU, resulting in improved access to treatment and reduced waiting times on the day.

  5. Improved Adherence Rates and Clinical Outcomes of an Integrated, Closed-Loop, Pharmacist-Led Oral Chemotherapy Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Benyam; Schneider, Molly; Faso, Aimee; Amerine, Lindsey; Daniels, Rowell; Crisp, Brett; Valgus, John; Savage, Scott

    2018-06-01

    To address the growing use of oral anticancer therapy, an integrated, closed-loop, pharmacist-led oral chemotherapy management program was created within an academic medical center. An integrated, closed-loop, pharmacy-led oral chemotherapy management program was established. From September 2014 until June 2015, demographic information, rates of adherence, patient understanding of treatment, pharmacist interventions, patient and provider satisfaction, and molecular response rates in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were collected. After full implementation, 107 patients were enrolled in our oral chemotherapy management program from September 2014 until June 2015. All patients were educated before starting oral chemotherapy, and using pre- and postassessment tests, comprehension of oral chemotherapy treatment increased from 43% to 95%. Patient-reported adherence was 86% and 94.7% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively, and these were validated with medication possession ratio, revealing adherence rates of 85% and 93.9% for the GI/breast and malignant hematology patient populations, respectively. A total of 350 encounters with a clinical pharmacist and 318 adverse effects were reported, which led to 235 interventions. This program led to a higher major molecular response rate (83%) in our CML population compared with published clinical trials (average major molecular response rates, 40% and 60% with 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively). An innovative model was developed and resulted in improved patient knowledge regarding oral chemotherapy, improved adherence rates that exceeded nationally established thresholds, and superior major molecular response outcomes for patients with CML compared with published literature. As a result, this model has produced the gold standard in managing patients receiving oral chemotherapy.

  6. Predictive factors for response and prognostic factors for long-term survival in consecutive, single institution patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma following cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Christian; Agerbaek, Mads; Von Der Maase, Hans

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study was undertaken to identify pre-treatment clinical and histopathological factors of importance for response and survival after cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. PATIENTS...

  7. Chemotherapy resistance mechanisms in advanced skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma.

  8. Autologous cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy may improve overall survival in advanced malignant melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Yu'nan; Zhao, Erjiang; He, Xiaolei; Zhao, Lingdi; Wang, Zibing; Fu, Xiaomin; Qi, Yalong; Ma, Baozhen; Song, Yongping; Gao, Quanli

    2017-11-01

    Our study was conducted to explore the efficacy of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Materials & Methods: Here we reviewed 113 stage IV malignant melanoma patients among which 68 patients received CIK cell immunotherapy alone, while 45 patients accepted CIK cell therapy combined with chemotherapy. Results: We found that the median survival time in CIK cell group was longer than the combined therapy group (21 vs 15 months, p = 0.07). In addition, serum hemoglobin level as well as monocyte proportion and lymphocyte count were associated with patients' survival time. These indicated that CIK cell immunotherapy might extend survival time in advanced malignant melanoma patients. Furthermore, serum hemoglobin level, monocyte proportion and lymphocyte count could be prognostic indicators for melanoma.

  9. Adjuvant Medications That Improve Survival after Locoregional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, F Edward; Ziv, Etay; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Brown, Karen T; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Harding, James J; Solomon, Stephen B

    2017-07-01

    To determine if outpatient medications taken at the time of liver tumor embolization or ablation affect survival. A retrospective review was done of 2,032 liver tumor embolization, radioembolization, and ablation procedures performed in 1,092 patients from June 2009 to April 2016. Pathology, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer), neuroendocrine tumor (NET) grade, initial locoregional therapy, overall survival after initial locoregional therapy, Child-Pugh score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and outpatient medications taken at the time of locoregional therapy were analyzed for each patient. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for patients taking 29 medications or medication classes (including prescription and nonprescription medications) for reasons unrelated to their primary cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared using the log-rank test. For patients with HCC initially treated with embolization (n = 304 patients), the following medications were associated with improved survival when taken at the time of embolization: beta-blockers (P = .0007), aspirin (P = .0008) and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (P = .009), proton pump inhibitors (P = .004), and antivirals for hepatitis B or C (P = .01). For colorectal liver metastases initially treated with ablation (n = 172 patients), beta-blockers were associated with improved survival when taken at the time of ablation (P = .02). Aspirin and beta-blockers are associated with significantly improved survival when taken at the time of embolization for HCC. Aspirin was not associated with survival differences after locoregional therapy for NET or colorectal liver metastases, suggesting an HCC-specific effect. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective analysis of third-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatli

    2015-01-01

    Results: A total of 72 patients who had received third-line or higher chemotherapy were included in the analysis. The median age of patients was 49 years (range 41-76, and there were 13 (18.1% women and 59 (81.9% men. Estimated median survival was 26 months. Moreover, overall survival was significantly longer in patients for whom disease control was achieved after second-line chemotherapy compared to those with disease progression (34 vs. 17 months, respectively. Survival after third-line treatment was significantly longer in the group with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status 0-1 at the beginning of third-line therapy compared to patients with a status of 2-3. Conclusions: In patients with advanced stage NSCLC, administration of third-line and higher systemic chemotherapy may be associated with increase in overall survival. Furthermore, greater increases in overall survival were also observed in patients for whom disease control was achieved after second-line therapy and in those with ECOG performance status of 0-1 before third-line treatment.

  11. Nicotine induces resistance to chemotherapy by modulating mitochondrial signaling in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingmei; Kamdar, Opal; Le, Wei; Rosen, Glenn D; Upadhyay, Daya

    2009-02-01

    Continued smoking causes tumor progression and resistance to therapy in lung cancer. Carcinogens possess the ability to block apoptosis, and thus may induce development of cancers and resistance to therapy. Tobacco carcinogens have been studied widely; however, little is known about the agents that inhibit apoptosis, such as nicotine. We determine whether mitochondrial signaling mediates antiapoptotic effects of nicotine in lung cancer. A549 cells were exposed to nicotine (1 muM) followed by cisplatin (35 muM) plus etoposide (20 muM) for 24 hours. We found that nicotine prevented chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, improved cell survival, and caused modest increases in DNA synthesis. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt prevented the antiapoptotic effects of nicotine and decreased chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Small interfering RNA MAPK kinase-1 blocked antiapoptotic effects of nicotine, whereas small interfering RNA MAPK kinase-2 blocked chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Nicotine prevented chemotherapy-induced reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-9 activation. Antiapoptotic effects of nicotine were blocked by mitochondrial anion channel inhibitor, 4,4'diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid. Chemotherapy enhanced translocation of proapoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, whereas nicotine blocked these effects. Nicotine up-regulated Akt-mediated antiapoptotic X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and phosphorylated proapoptotic Bcl2-antagonist of cell death. The A549-rho0 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated partial resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, but blocked the antiapoptotic effects of nicotine. Accordingly, we provide evidence that nicotine modulates mitochondrial signaling and inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in lung cancer. The mitochondrial regulation of nicotine imposes an important mechanism that can critically impair the treatment of lung cancer, because many cancer

  12. Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

  13. Does Response to Induction Chemotherapy Predict Survival for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Secondary Analysis of RTOG 8804/8808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Cox, James D.; Sause, William T.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) improves survival compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) patients with good prognostic factors. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to ICT followed by RT. The question arises whether ICT response predicts the outcome of patients subsequently treated with CCRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 194 LANSCLC patients were treated prospectively with ICT (two cycles of vinblastine and cisplatin) and then CCRT (cisplatin plus 63 Gy for 7 weeks) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8804 trial (n = 30) or ICT and then RT (60 Gy/6 wk) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 8808 trial (n = 164). Of the 194 patients, 183 were evaluable and 141 had undergone a postinduction assessment. The overall survival (OS) of those with complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was compared with that of patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) after ICT. Results: Of the 141 patients, 6, 30, 99, and 6 had CR, PR, SD, and PD, respectively. The log-rank test showed a significant difference (p <0.0001) in OS when the response groups were compared (CR/PR vs. SD/PD). On univariate and multivariate analyses, a trend was seen toward a response to ICT with OS (p = 0.097 and p = 0.06, respectively). A squamous histologic type was associated with worse OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.031 and p = 0.018, respectively). SD/PD plus a squamous histologic type had a hazard ratio of 2.25 vs. CR/PR plus a nonsquamous histologic type (p = 0.007) on covariate analysis. Conclusion: The response to ICT was associated with a significant survival difference when the response groups were compared. A response to ICT showed a trend toward, but was not predictive of, improved OS in LANSCLC patients. Patients with SD/PD after ICT and a squamous histologic type had the poorest OS. These data suggest that patients with squamous LANSCLC might benefit

  14. Impact of Dose Reductions, Delays Between Chemotherapy Cycles, and/or Shorter Courses of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients: a Single-Center Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouros, Joseph; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Kouvatseas, George; Rapti, Anna; Stamoulis, George; Bisvikis, Anastasios; Res, Helen; Samantas, Epameinondas

    2015-12-01

    Most stage II or III colorectal cancer patients are receiving nowadays a 4 to 6-month course of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, delays between cycles, reductions in the doses of chemotherapy drugs, or even permanent omissions of chemotherapy cycles might take place due to side effects or patient's preference. We examined the impact of these treatment modifications on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively collected data from colorectal cancer patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy in our Department. Patients were categorized in five groups based on whether they had or not delays between chemotherapy cycles, dose reductions, and permanent omissions of chemotherapy cycles. Three-year RFS and OS of the five different groups were compared using the log-rank test and the Sidak approach. Five hundred and eight patients received treatment. Twenty seven percent of the patients had the full course of chemotherapy; the others had delays, dose reductions, or early termination of the treatment. No statistically significant differences were observed in 3-year RFS and OS between the five groups. A trend for worse RFS was noticed with early termination of treatment. A similar trend was also noticed for OS but only for stage II patients. In colorectal cancer patients, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, delays between chemotherapy cycles, dose reductions of chemotherapy drugs, or even early termination of the treatment course do not seem to have a negative impact in 3-year RFS and OS; however, due to the trend of worse RFS in patients receiving shorter courses of chemotherapy, further studies are needed.

  15. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morland, Sarah Louise; Martins, Karen J.B.; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from several clinical trials suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation during cancer chemotherapy improves patient outcomes related to chemotherapy tolerability, regardless of the type of chemotherapy used. While the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation during chemotherapy have been the subject of several reviews, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA improve patient responses through improved chemotherapy tolerability are unclear. There are several barriers c...

  16. A non-randomised, single-centre comparison of induction chemotherapy followed by radiochemotherapy versus concomitant chemotherapy with hyperfractionated radiotherapy in inoperable head and neck carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Reinhold; Hildebrandt, Bert; Tilly, Wolfgang; Riess, Hanno; Felix, Roland; Budach, Volker; Wust, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The application of induction chemotherapy failed to provide a consistent benefit for local control in primary treatment of advanced head and neck (H&N) cancers. The aim of this study was to compare the results of concomitant application of radiochemotherapy for treating locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma in comparison with the former standard of sequential radiochemotherapy. Between 1987 and 1995 we treated 122 patients with unresectable (stage IV head and neck) cancer by two different protocols. The sequential protocol (SEQ; 1987–1992) started with two courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin [CDDP] + 120-h continuous infusions (c.i.) of folinic acid [FA] and 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]), followed by a course of radiochemotherapy using conventional fractionation up to 70 Gy. The concomitant protocol (CON; since 1993) combined two courses of FA/5-FU c.i. plus mitomycin (MMC) concomitantly with a course of radiotherapy up to 30 Gy in conventional fractionation, followed by a hyperfractionated course up to 72 Gy. Results from the two groups were compared. Patient and tumor characteristics were balanced (SEQ = 70, CON = 52 pts.). Mean radiation dose achieved (65.3 Gy vs. 71.6 Gy, p = 0.00), response rates (67 vs. 90 % for primary, p = 0.02), and local control (LC; 17.6% vs. 41%, p = 0.03), were significantly lower in the SEQ group, revealing a trend towards lower disease-specific (DSS; 19.8% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.08) and overall (14.7% vs. 23.7%, p = 0.11) survival rates after 5 years. Mucositis grades III and IV prevailed in the CON group (54% versus 44%). Late toxicity was similar in both groups. Concurrent chemotherapy seemed more effective in treating head and neck tumors than induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation, resulting in better local control and a trend towards improved survival

  17. A non-randomised, single-centre comparison of induction chemotherapy followed by radiochemotherapy versus concomitant chemotherapy with hyperfractionated radiotherapy in inoperable head and neck carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Roland

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of induction chemotherapy failed to provide a consistent benefit for local control in primary treatment of advanced head and neck (H&N cancers. The aim of this study was to compare the results of concomitant application of radiochemotherapy for treating locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma in comparison with the former standard of sequential radiochemotherapy. Methods Between 1987 and 1995 we treated 122 patients with unresectable (stage IV head and neck cancer by two different protocols. The sequential protocol (SEQ; 1987–1992 started with two courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin [CDDP] + 120-h continuous infusions (c.i. of folinic acid [FA] and 5-fluorouracil [5-FU], followed by a course of radiochemotherapy using conventional fractionation up to 70 Gy. The concomitant protocol (CON; since 1993 combined two courses of FA/5-FU c.i. plus mitomycin (MMC concomitantly with a course of radiotherapy up to 30 Gy in conventional fractionation, followed by a hyperfractionated course up to 72 Gy. Results from the two groups were compared. Results Patient and tumor characteristics were balanced (SEQ = 70, CON = 52 pts.. Mean radiation dose achieved (65.3 Gy vs. 71.6 Gy, p = 0.00, response rates (67 vs. 90 % for primary, p = 0.02, and local control (LC; 17.6% vs. 41%, p = 0.03, were significantly lower in the SEQ group, revealing a trend towards lower disease-specific (DSS; 19.8% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.08 and overall (14.7% vs. 23.7%, p = 0.11 survival rates after 5 years. Mucositis grades III and IV prevailed in the CON group (54% versus 44%. Late toxicity was similar in both groups. Conclusion Concurrent chemotherapy seemed more effective in treating head and neck tumors than induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation, resulting in better local control and a trend towards improved survival.

  18. Dysphagia is not a Valuable Indicator of Tumor Response after Preoperative Chemotherapy for R0 Resected Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandby, Rune B; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Bæksgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    was to evaluate dysphagia as a predictor of tumor response after preoperative chemotherapy and as a predictor of recurrence and survival. METHODS: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, treated between 2010 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Dysphagia scores (Mellow-Pinkas) were...... obtained before and after three cycles of perioperative chemotherapy together with clinicopathological patient characteristics. A clinical response was defined as improvement of dysphagia by at least 1 score from the baseline. The tumor response was defined as down staging of T-stage from initial computer...... tomography (CT) scan (cT-stage) to pathologic staging of surgical specimen (pT-stage). Patients were followed until death or censored on June 27th, 2014. RESULTS: Of the 110 included patients, 59.1% had improvement of dysphagia after three cycles of perioperative chemotherapy, and 31.8% had a chemotherapy...

  19. Cancer chemotherapy of the upper aero digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrine, L.; Chargari, C.; Le Moulec, S.; Fayolle, M.; Ceccaldi, B.; Bauduceau, O.

    2008-01-01

    Tumours of the upper aero digestive tract represent the sixth most frequent kind of cancer in France and throughout the world. If the localised forms may be controlled in the long run in two thirds of cases by surgery or radiotherapy, only one third of locally advanced forms are accessible to a cure after association from radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Besides, with a median of survival less than six months, metastatic tumours present a catastrophic spontaneous prognosis among patients with a medical ground that is often heavily deteriorated by prolonged exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Thus, there is a necessity to implement adapted therapeutic strategies to each patient and based on satisfactory proof levels of effectiveness. Optimisation of existing chemotherapy protocols and development of new therapies, in particular of targeted therapies, remain an important objective in the hope to improve results of treatments in locally advanced and metastatic cancers of the oral cavity. (authors)

  20. Improved survival in HIV treatment programs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mata, Nicole L; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Khol, Vohith; Ng, Oon Tek; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Lee, Man Po; Durier, Nicolas; Law, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-positive patients has expanded rapidly in Asia over the last ten years. Our study aimed to describe the time trends and risk factors for overall survival in patients receiving first-line ART in Asia. Methods We included HIV-positive adult patients who initiated ART between 2003–2013 (n=16 546), from seven sites across six Asia-Pacific countries. Patient follow-up was to May 2014. We compared survival for each country and overall by time period of ART initiation using Kaplan-Meier curves. Factors associated with mortality were assessed using Cox regression, stratified by site. We also summarized first-line ART regimens, CD4 count at ART initiation, and CD4 and HIV viral load testing frequencies. Results There were 880 deaths observed over 54 532 person-years of follow-up, a crude rate of 1.61 (1.51, 1.72) per 100 person-years. Survival significantly improved in more recent years of ART initiation. The survival probabilities at 4 years follow-up for those initiating ART in 2003–05 was 92.1%, 2006–09 was 94.3% and 2010–2013 was 94.5% (pAsia have improved survival in more recent years of ART initiation. This is likely a consequence of improvements in treatment and, patient management and monitoring over time. PMID:26961354

  1. ERCC1 as a biomarker for bladder cancer patients likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Choi, Han Yong; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Se Hoon; Kwon, Ghee Young; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Jo, Jisuk

    2012-01-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy and the value of molecular biomarkers in bladder cancer have not been determined. We aimed to assess the predictive and prognostic values of excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) in identifying appropriate patients who may potentially benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on 93 patients with completely resected transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. ERCC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERCC1 expression was analyzed in 57 patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy and 36 who were not treated. Among 93 patients, ERCC1 expression was positive in 54 (58.1%) and negative in 39 (41.9%). ERCC1 positivity was significantly associated with longer survival (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.014-0.99; P = 0.049) in the group without adjuvant chemotherapy while ERCC1 positivity was associated with shorter survival among patients who have received adjuvant chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 2.64; 95% CI 1.01-6.85; P = 0.047). Therefore, clinical benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with ERCC1 negativity as measured by overall survival (test for interaction, P = 0.034) and by disease-free survival (test for interaction, P = 0.20). Among patients with completely resected transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, those with ERCC1-negative tumors seemed to benefit more from adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy than those with ERCC1-positive tumors. Future prospective, randomized studies are warranted to confirm our findings

  2. Success of Chemotherapy in Soft Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Trifonova, I.; Kurteva, G.; Stefanov, S. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The success of chemotharapy in soft matter as a survival is found in the paper. Therefore, it is found the analogous tumor stretching force in soft matter; ultrasonography is performed for this tumor; restoration in soft matter with such a tumor is found; Bayes estimate of the probability of chemotherapy success is derived from the transferred chemical energy and from soft matter entropy; survival probability is juxtaposed to this probability of success.

  3. Molecular-targeted therapy for chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Yang; Yeh, Kun-Huei

    2014-07-01

    The prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor despite therapeutic advances in recent decades. Several recent positive phase III trials established the efficacy of second-line chemotherapy for metastatic gastric cancer in prolonging overall survival. However, malnutrition and poor performance of AGC in late stages usually preclude such patients from intensive treatment. Many targeted-therapies failed to show a significant survival benefit in AGC, but have regained attention after the positive result of ramucirumab was announced last year. Among all targeted agents, only trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) protein, has been proven as having survival benefit by addition to first-line chemotherapy. Herein we reported a patient who benefited from adding trastuzumab to the same second-line combination chemotherapy (paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin) upon progression of bulky liver metastases. At least five months of progression-free survival were achieved without any additional toxicity. We also reviewed literature of molecularly-targeted therapy for chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer, including several large phase III trials (REGARD, GRANITE-1, EXPAND, and REAL-3) published in 2013-2014. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Azacitidine in combination with intensive induction chemotherapy in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia: The AML-AZA trial of the Study Alliance Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Tidow, C; Tschanter, P; Röllig, C; Thiede, C; Koschmieder, A; Stelljes, M; Koschmieder, S; Dugas, M; Gerss, J; Butterfaß-Bahloul, T; Wagner, R; Eveslage, M; Thiem, U; Krause, S W; Kaiser, U; Kunzmann, V; Steffen, B; Noppeney, R; Herr, W; Baldus, C D; Schmitz, N; Götze, K; Reichle, A; Kaufmann, M; Neubauer, A; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Hänel, M; Peceny, R; Frickhofen, N; Kiehl, M; Giagounidis, A; Görner, M; Repp, R; Link, H; Kiani, A; Naumann, R; Brümmendorf, T H; Serve, H; Ehninger, G; Berdel, W E; Krug, U

    2016-03-01

    DNA methylation changes are a constant feature of acute myeloid leukemia. Hypomethylating drugs such as azacitidine are active in acute myeloid leukemia (