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Sample records for chemotherapy febrile neutropenia

  1. Colony-stimulating factors for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara; Lyman, Gary; Engel Ayer Botrel, Tobias; Morganti Paladini, Luciano; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2014-10-30

    Febrile neutropenia is a frequent adverse event experienced by people with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy, and is a potentially life-threatening situation. The current treatment is supportive care plus antibiotics. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), such as granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), are cytokines that stimulate and accelerate the production of one or more cell lines in the bone marrow. Clinical trials have addressed the question of whether the addition of a CSF to antibiotics could improve outcomes in individuals diagnosed with febrile neutropenia. However, the results of these trials are conflicting. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding G-CSF or GM-CSF to standard treatment (antibiotics) when treating chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in individuals diagnosed with cancer. We conducted the search in March 2014 and covered the major electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and SCI. We contacted experts in hematology and oncology and also scanned the citations from the relevant articles. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared CSF plus antibiotics versus antibiotics alone for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adults and children. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We performed meta-analysis of the selected studies using Review Manager 5 software. Fourteen RCTs (15 comparisons) including a total of 1553 participants addressing the role of CSF plus antibiotics in febrile neutropenia were included. Overall mortality was not improved by the use of CSF plus antibiotics versus antibiotics alone (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.16) P = 0.19; 13 RCTs; 1335 participants; low quality evidence). A similar finding was seen for infection-related mortality (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.20) P = 0.23; 10 RCTs; 897

  2. G-CSF in solid tumor chemotherapy: a tailored regimen reduces febrile neutropenia, treatment delays and direct costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsavaris, Nicolas; Kosmas, Christos; Gouveris, Panagiotis; Vadiak, Maria; Dimitrakopoulos, Antonis; Karadima, Dimitra; Pagouni, Efterpi; Panagiotakopoulos, George; Tzima, Evanthia; Ispoglou, Sevasti; Sakelariou, Dimitris; Koufos, Christos

    2004-02-01

    Current guidelines do not recommend G-CSF for patients with risk factors for neutropenia. One-hundred patients undergoing chemotherapy were randomized to treatment with G-CSF at 5 Kg/kg for established febrile neutropenia (ANC <1000/microl) (Group A) or G-CSF at 263 Kg/day if ANC was 1500/microl or less on the day of the expected nadir, with the duration of treatment determined by the severity of neutropenia (Group B). The number of doses of G-CSF was similar in the two groups. There were 34 cases of febrile neutropenia in Group A, but none in Group B (p=0.0001). Hospital admission for febrile neutropenia, antibiotic use and delays in chemotherapy were all significantly more common in Group A. Total direct costs were estimated to be 66, 646 for Group A and 47, 119 for Group B. Tailoring treatment does not increase G-CSF use, but significantly reduces febrile neutropenia and treatment delays and lowers direct costs.

  3. Is serum albumin an independent predictor of post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, L.; Zahid, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between serum albumin and risk of post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of oncology, Liaquat National Hospital, from 1st Jan 2015 to 31st Dec 2016. Material and Method: One hundred and sixty-six biopsy proven cancer patients with Eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG) performance status <2 and without significant co-morbidities received first cycle of chemotherapy during two years study period. Different chemotherapies with moderate to severe risk of FN were used. Patient's pre-treatment serum albumin was measured and patients followed for occurrence of FN. Association between serum albumin and post chemotherapy FN was analyzed. Results: Data of 166 patients was available for final analysis. Post chemotherapy FN was observed in 19.9% (33/166) patients. Pre-chemotherapy serum albumin level was <3.5 mg/dl in (35/166) 21.1% of patients, out of which (15/35) 42.9% developed FN. Serum albumin (p=0.0005) was highly significantly associated with a risk of FN. On analysis of other factors age, gender, body surface area (BSA) and pre-chemotherapy hemoglobin level were not significantly associated with a risk of FN while body mass index (p=0.0005) was found to be associated with risk of FN. Conclusion: Pre-chemotherapy serum albumin levels were found to be statistically significant predictor of postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia.

  4. Triagem para o tratamento ambulatorial da neutropenia febril Screening for the outpatient treatment of febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bellesso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A neutropenia febril (NF é uma complicação frequente e potencialmente fatal nos pacientes em tratamento quimioterápico. Entendemos hoje que a neutropenia febril é considerada uma emergência clínica e que a administração de antibióticos de amplo espectro diminui drasticamente a mortalidade. Estudos sugerem que a neutropenia febril compreende um grupo extremamente heterogêneo e que dados clínicos como febre domiciliar, ausência de hipotensão, ausência de desidratação, ausência de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, ausência de outros sintomas, ausência de infecção fúngica prévia e idade Febrile neutropenia is a frequent and potentially fatal adverse event of chemotherapy. Nowadays, febrile neutropenia is considered an emergency and it is known that prompt infusion of antibiotics decreases mortality. Several studies demonstrated that febrile neutropenia is a heterogeneous group of diseases and that factors such as outpatient status, no hypotension, no dehydration, no chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, no symptoms, no previous fungal infection and age < 60 years are protective factors against serious complications as demonstrated by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC. These data show that outpatient treatment and early discharge is safer and much research has shown lower costs for outpatient treatment in low-risk patients with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this work is to review and discuss tools (in particular the MASCC index for safe screening of febrile neutropenia for outpatient treatment in addition to demonstrate results of research.

  5. Neutropenia febril em pacientes com câncer de mama submetidas à quimioterapia: experiência de 12 anos Febrile neutropenia in patients with breast cancer submitted to chemotherapy: a 12 year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omero Benedicto Poli Neto

    2004-12-01

    neutropenia and four controls per case matched by: date and number of previous chemotherapy cycles, drugs and doses used. The clinical and laboratory data were obtained from medical records. We utilized the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI to estimate the significance of risk factors. RESULTS: We identified two risk factors associated to occurrence of febrile neutropenia: use of chemotherapy within the first 24 hours post surgery (OR: 159.9 95% CI: 9.5 to 2699, and the concomitant use of chemotherapy and breast radiotherapy (OR: 108.3 95%CI: 4.9 to 2391. We did not observe a significant difference between cases and controls regarding age, body mass index, neutrophils and monocytes count prior to chemotherapy. Three patients died (23.1%, two of them were more than 60 years old, had no comorbidities, had received the first CMF within the first post surgery day and had surgical site infection. CONCLUSIONS: The main risk factors associated with febrile neutropenia in patients with breast cancer were: chemotherapy within the first 24 hours post surgery, and concomitant chemotherapy and breast radiotherapy. As such, our study shows that these situations must be avoided.

  6. Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Chemotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression and Febrile Neutropenia in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Title. Chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression lowers the quality of life in breast cancer patients and causes many complications. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is a widely used complementary and alternative medicine therapies. Objective. To study whether TCM can reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia (FN in breast cancer patients. Methods. The data were analyzed retrospectively between patients who received TCM treatment (group 1, n=453 and patients who did not receive TCM treatment (group 2, n=359. Significant risk factors associated with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia, neutropenia, and FN were identified using multivariate analysis. Propensity score-matched patients were analyzed to adjust for any baseline differences. Results. Group 1 patients had a significantly lower rate of chemotherapy-induced severe leukopenia, neutropenia, and FN, compared with group 2 (43% versus 71%, P<0.0001, 72% versus 78%, P=0.005, 6% versus 24%, P<0.0001, resp.. Multivariate analysis revealed that chemotherapy regimens containing anthracyclines combined with paclitaxel or docetaxel were the most significant predictor. Subgroup analysis indicated that TCM treatment showed benefit in relieving chemotherapy-induced leukopenia and FN in most chemotherapy regimens. Conclusions. TCM treatment could lower the risk of severe chemotherapy-induced leukopenia, neutropenia, and FN in breast cancer patients.

  7. Appearance of febrile neutropenia episodes after cytostatic therapy on oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lami Casaus, Leonardo; Arbesu Michelena, Maria Antonieta; Sarmiento, Sofia Alsina; Brito Iglesia, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of oncology patient using cytotoxic drugs has the neutropenia and its infectious complications as the commonest dose-limiting toxicity. Its appearance provokes dose delays and reduction during post-chemotherapy cycles, as well as the quality of life deterioration of patients. Oncology Medicine Group including the Pharmacy Service carried out a study to analyze the appearance of febrile neutropenia after cytotoxic therapy administration, and the presence of other factors that may to increase the risk to these reactions. A total of 42 patients were studied admitted with febrile neutropenia after above therapy from February to August, 2007. Biomedical variables from included patient group were achieved and the previously applied cytostatic therapy. The prevalent age-group was those patients aged over 50 and predominance of male sex and advanced stages with associated affections. The more frequent tumor locations were in breast, lung, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The cytostatic agent more used in cases of febrile neutropenia was Adriamycin (71.4 %) followed by Cyclophosphamide (52.4 %). The factors more associated with febrile neutropenia appearance were: Anthracycline chemotherapy, age over 50, advanced stages, and presence of associated diseases

  8. Secondary Infections in Cancer Patients with Febrile Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpay Azap

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with neutropenia due to cancer chemotherapy are prone to severe infections. Cancer patients can experience >1 infectious episode during the same period of neutropenia. This study aimed to determine the etiological and clinical characteristics of secondary infectious episodes in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia and to identify the factors associated with the risk of secondary infectious episodes. METHODS: All cancer patients that received antineoplastic chemotherapy at Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Hematology between May 2004 and May 2005 and developed neutropenia were included in the study. Data were collected using survey forms that were completed during routine infectious diseases consultation visits. Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-square test, whereas Student’s t-test was used for continuous variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of secondary infections (SIs. RESULTS: SIs were observed during 138 (53% of 259 febrile neutropenic episodes. Of the 138 episodes, 89 (64.5% occurred in male patients with a mean age of 40.9 years (range: 17-76 years. In total, 80% of the SIs were clinically or microbiologically documented. Factors on d 4 of the initial febrile episode were analyzed via a logistic regression model. The presence of a central intravenous catheter (OR: 3.01; P < 0.001, acute myeloid leukemia (AML as the underlying disease (OR: 2.12; P = 0.008, diarrhea (OR: 4.59; P = 0.005, and invasive aspergillosis (IA during the initial febrile episode (OR: 3.96; P = 0.009 were statistically significant risk factors for SIs. CONCLUSION: Among the cancer patients with neutropenia in the present study, AML as the underlying disease, the presence of a central venous catheter, diarrhea, and IA during the initial febrile episode were risk factors for the development of SIs.

  9. Technical evaluation of methods for identifying chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in healthcare claims databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weycker, Derek; Sofrygin, Oleg; Seefeld, Kim; Deeter, Robert G; Legg, Jason; Edelsberg, John

    2013-02-13

    Healthcare claims databases have been used in several studies to characterize the risk and burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) and effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors against FN. The accuracy of methods previously used to identify FN in such databases has not been formally evaluated. Data comprised linked electronic medical records from Geisinger Health System and healthcare claims data from Geisinger Health Plan. Subjects were classified into subgroups based on whether or not they were hospitalized for FN per the presumptive "gold standard" (ANC based definition (diagnosis codes for neutropenia, fever, and/or infection). Accuracy was evaluated principally based on positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity. Among 357 study subjects, 82 (23%) met the gold standard for hospitalized FN. For the claims-based definition including diagnosis codes for neutropenia plus fever in any position (n=28), PPV was 100% and sensitivity was 34% (95% CI: 24-45). For the definition including neutropenia in the primary position (n=54), PPV was 87% (78-95) and sensitivity was 57% (46-68). For the definition including neutropenia in any position (n=71), PPV was 77% (68-87) and sensitivity was 67% (56-77). Patients hospitalized for chemotherapy-induced FN can be identified in healthcare claims databases--with an acceptable level of mis-classification--using diagnosis codes for neutropenia, or neutropenia plus fever.

  10. Febrile neutropenia in haematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever is the principle sign of infection in neutropenic patient and frequently may be the only evidence of infection. The pattern of fever in neutropenia is non-specific and not pathognomonic of any type of infections or non-infectious process and can be suppressed by the antipyretic effects of drugs such as corticosteroids. Neutropenia, resulting from cytotoxic chemotherapy is the most common risk factor for severe infections in hematological malignancies. The duration of neutropenia also contributes significantly to the risk of serious infections. This risk is significantly greater a lower neutrophil counts, such that 100% patients with ANC < 100 cells/µl lasting 3 weeks or more develop documented infections. The prompt initiation of empirical antibiotics in febrile neutropenia has been the most important advance in the management of the immunocompromised host. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen started at presentation of the febrile episode frequently requires modifications especially in high-risk febrile neutropenia. Neutropenic patients who remain febrile despite 4-7 days of broad spectrum antibacterial therapy are at a high risk of invasive fungal infection. Empirical antifungal therapy with Amphotericin B in persistently febrile neutropenic patients and other high risk patients has shown to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection by 50-80% and the risk of fungal infection related mortality by 23-45% in 1980′s. The IDSA has recommended that amphotericin B at 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day be administered till marrow recovery. This approach is limited however by the adverse effects caused by drug infusion (fever, chills, myalgias, nausea, hypotension and bronchospasm. Lipid formulations which improve the therapeutic ratio of the traditional formulation are available. The safety and efficacy of these formulations is well established. These formulations have comparable efficacy and are less nephrotoxic than conventional amphotericin B

  11. Technical evaluation of methods for identifying chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in healthcare claims databases

    OpenAIRE

    Weycker Derek; Sofrygin Oleg; Seefeld Kim; Deeter Robert G; Legg Jason; Edelsberg John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare claims databases have been used in several studies to characterize the risk and burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) and effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors against FN. The accuracy of methods previously used to identify FN in such databases has not been formally evaluated. Methods Data comprised linked electronic medical records from Geisinger Health System and healthcare claims data from Geisinger Health Plan. Subjects were classifie...

  12. Management of Febrile Neutropenia in Patients receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: One in ten patients on anticancer medication will develop febrile neutropenia irrespective of tumour type. There is need to protect our patients from this fatal condition while optimising chemotherapy. This may be difficult for a poor country. OBJECTIVE: To assess the management of cancer patients with

  13. Technical evaluation of methods for identifying chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in healthcare claims databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weycker Derek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare claims databases have been used in several studies to characterize the risk and burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN and effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors against FN. The accuracy of methods previously used to identify FN in such databases has not been formally evaluated. Methods Data comprised linked electronic medical records from Geisinger Health System and healthcare claims data from Geisinger Health Plan. Subjects were classified into subgroups based on whether or not they were hospitalized for FN per the presumptive “gold standard” (ANC 9/L, and body temperature ≥38.3°C or receipt of antibiotics and claims-based definition (diagnosis codes for neutropenia, fever, and/or infection. Accuracy was evaluated principally based on positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity. Results Among 357 study subjects, 82 (23% met the gold standard for hospitalized FN. For the claims-based definition including diagnosis codes for neutropenia plus fever in any position (n=28, PPV was 100% and sensitivity was 34% (95% CI: 24–45. For the definition including neutropenia in the primary position (n=54, PPV was 87% (78–95 and sensitivity was 57% (46–68. For the definition including neutropenia in any position (n=71, PPV was 77% (68–87 and sensitivity was 67% (56–77. Conclusions Patients hospitalized for chemotherapy-induced FN can be identified in healthcare claims databases--with an acceptable level of mis-classification--using diagnosis codes for neutropenia, or neutropenia plus fever.

  14. Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia and Prophylaxis in Hematologic Malignancies: A Critical Review and Update

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    Paola Villafuerte-Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis.

  15. EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphomas and solid tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aapro, M.S.; Cameron, D.; Pettengell, R.; Bohlius, J.; Crawford, J.; Ellis, M.; Kearney, N.; Lyman, G.H.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.; Walewski, J.A.; Weber, D.C.; Zielinski, C.

    2006-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is not only a major risk factor for infection-related morbidity and mortality, but is also a significant dose-limiting toxicity in cancer treatment. Patients developing severe (grade 3/4) or febrile neutropenia (FN) during chemotherapy frequently receive dose

  16. Tratamiento ambulatorio del paciente con neutropenia febril Outpatient therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Londoño Gallo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El tratamiento de los pacientes con neoplasia y neutropenia febril plantea muchas dudas. Una de ellas, que genera ansiedad en el personal de la salud, el paciente y sus familiares, es la necesidad de hospitalización porque ésta implica exponer a gérmenes intrahospitalarios potencialmente resistentes a un paciente cuyo sistema inmune puede no estar en las mejores condiciones; incluso con un aislamiento óptimo existe el riesgo de adquirir una infección nosocomial. Muchos estudios han tratado de validar métodos para clasificar a los pacientes con fiebre y neutropenia en grupos de diferente riesgo, como fundamento para implementar estrategias de tratamiento selectivo; así se ha abierto la posibilidad de utilizar medidas más conservadoras para el tratamiento de los episodios de bajo riesgo, entre ellas la administración de regímenes orales ambulatorios de antibióticos de amplio espectro; ello sin demeritar la necesidad de aplicar un juicio clínico adecuado, hacer un buen seguimiento y tener acceso a la atención médica inmediata. La neutropenia es una de las consecuencias graves de la quimioterapia para el cáncer, y se ha demostrado que el tratamiento del paciente neutropénico febril con antibióticos intravenosos reduce la mortalidad. La terapia oral podría ser una alternativa aceptable para pacientes bien seleccionados. Ella puede mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer, evitar las complicaciones asociadas con la terapia intravenosa y disminuir los costos del tratamiento.

    Treatment of patients with neoplasia and febrile neutropenia, as a consequence of chemotherapy, poses many doubts, among them the need for hospitalization, since this implies exposure to potentially resistant nosocomial microorganisms. Even under the best isolation techniques, there may

  17. Serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia

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    Eylem Kiral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33 and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33 and also with healthy children (n=24. The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both. No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05. Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  18. 2010 update of EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aapro, M.S.; Bohlius, J.; Cameron, D.A.; Dal Lago, L.; Donnelly, J.P.; Kearney, N.; Lyman, G.H.; Pettengell, R.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.; Walewski, J.; Weber, D.C.; Zielinski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major risk factor for infection-related morbidity and mortality and also a significant dose-limiting toxicity in cancer treatment. Patients developing severe (grade 3/4) or febrile neutropenia (FN) during chemotherapy frequently receive dose reductions and/or

  19. Weak circadian rhythm increases neutropenia risk among breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Kwok, Carol Chi-Hei; Chan, Dominic Chun-Wan; Wang, Feng; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-04-01

    Severe neutropenia is a common dose-limiting side effect of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. We aimed to test the hypothesis that weak circadian rhythm is associated with an increased risk of neutropenia using a cohort study. We consecutively recruited 193 breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel; doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide; docetaxel and cyclophosphamide). Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 168 h at the beginning of chemotherapy. Values of percent rhythm and double amplitude below medians represented weak circadian rhythm. Mesor measured the mean activity level and acrophase symboled the peak time of the rhythm. We used Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in relation to actigraphy-derived parameters. Low levels of percent rhythm (HR:2.59, 95% CI 1.50-4.72), double amplitude (HR:2.70, 95% CI 1.51-4.85), and mesor (HR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.44-4.29) were positively associated with the risk of grade 4 neutropenia during chemotherapy. Low levels of percent rhythm (HR: 2.41, 95% CI 1.02-5.69) and double amplitude (HR:2.49, 95% CI 1.05-5.90) were also associated with increased risks of febrile neutropenia. The HRs for acrophase were not statistically significant. This study provides the first epidemiological evidence that increased risks of grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia are associated with weak circadian rhythm among adjuvant breast cancer patients. The results suggest that circadian rhythm might be one potential target for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia among cancer patients.

  20. Febrile neutropenia in childhood cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To classify and treat patients with febrile neutropenia adequately, one has to have a ... 48 hours.2,4,5. Approach. A child with possible febrile neutropenia should be viewed as a ... treating centre for information on the child's treatment if the family do not have a ... treatment, such as antimicrobial therapy, as well as the nature.

  1. Aparición de episodios de neutropenia febril tras la quimioterapia citostática en el paciente oncológico Appearance of febrile neutropenia episodes after cytostatic therapy on Oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lami Casaus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento con drogas citotóxicas en el paciente oncológico, tiene como toxicidad limitante de dosis más común la neutropenia y sus complicaciones infecciosas. Su aparición provoca retrasos y reducción de dosis en los ciclos posteriores de quimioterapia, así como deterioro en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. El colectivo de Medicina Oncológica, que incluye el Servicio de Farmacia, decidió realizar un estudio, con el objetivo de analizar la aparición de neutropenia febril tras la administración de la terapia citotóxica y la presencia de otros factores que pueden incrementar el riesgo de estas reacciones. Se estudiaron los 42 pacientes que ingresaron con neutropenia febril tras el tratamiento citotóxico en el periodo comprendido entre febrero y agosto del 2007. Se recogieron variables biomédicas del grupo de pacientes incluidos y se analizó el tratamiento citostático empleado previamente. El grupo de edad que prevaleció fue el de los pacientes mayores de 50 años, con un predomino del sexo masculino y los estadios avanzados con afecciones asociadas. Las localizaciones tumorales más frecuentes radicaron en mama, pulmón y linfoma no Hodgkin. El citostático más señalado en casos de neutropenia febril resultó la adriamicina con un 71,4 %, seguido de la ciclofosfamida con 52,4 %. Los factores que más se asociaron con la aparición de neutropenia febril fueron: quimioterapia con antraciclinas, la edad mayor de 50 años, estadios avanzados y presencia de enfermedades asociadas.Treatment of oncology patient using cytotoxic drugs has the neutropenia and its infectious complications as the commonest dose-limiting toxicity. Its appearance provokes dose delays and reduction during post-chemotherapy cycles, as well as the quality of life deterioration of patients. Oncology Medicine Group including the Pharmacy Service carried out a study to analyze the appearance of febrile neutropenia after cytotoxic therapy administration, and

  2. A Patient Risk Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia: Lessons Learned From the ANC Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Gary H; Poniewierski, Marek S

    2017-12-01

    Neutropenia and its complications, including febrile neutropenia (FN), represent major toxicities associated with cancer chemotherapy, resulting in considerable morbidity, mortality, and costs. The myeloid growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been shown to reduce the risk of neutropenia complications while enabling safe and effective chemotherapy dose intensity. Concerns about the high costs of these agents along with limited physician adherence to clinical practice guidelines, resulting in both overuse and underuse, has stimulated interest in models for individual patient risk assessment to guide appropriate use of G-CSF. In a model developed and validated by the ANC Study Group, half of patients were classified as high risk and half as low risk based on patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors. This model has been further validated in an independent patient population. Physician-assessed risk of FN, as well as the decision to use prophylactic CSF, has been shown to correlate poorly with the FN risk estimated by the model. Additional modeling efforts in both adults and children receiving cancer treatment have been reported. Identification of patients at a high individual risk for FN and its consequences may offer the potential for optimal chemotherapy delivery and patient outcomes. Likewise, identification of patients at low risk for neutropenic events may reduce costs when such supportive care is not warranted. This article reviews and summarizes FN modeling studies and the opportunities for personalizing supportive care in patients receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  3. Infusional β-lactam antibiotics in febrile neutropenia: has the time come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Iain J; Roberts, Jason A

    2012-12-01

    Febrile neutropenia presents a clinical challenge in which timely and appropriate antibiotic exposure is crucial. In the context of altered pharmacokinetics and rising bacterial resistance, standard antibiotic doses are unlikely to be sufficient. This review explores the potential utility of altered dosing approaches of β-lactam antibiotics to optimize treatment in febrile neutropenia. There is a dynamic relationship between the antibiotic, the infecting pathogen, and the host. Great advancements have been made in the understanding of the pharmacokinetic changes in critical illness and the pharmacodynamic relationships of antibiotics in these settings. Antibiotic treatment in febrile neutropenia is becoming increasingly difficult. Patients are of higher acuity, receive more intensive chemotherapy regimens leading to prolonged neutropenia, and are often exposed to multiple antibiotic courses. These patients display significant variability in antibiotic clearances and increases in volume of distribution compared with standard ward-based patients. Rising antibiotic resistance and a lack of new antibiotics in production have prompted alternative dosing strategies based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, such as extended or continuous infusions of β-lactam antibiotics, to maximize the likelihood of treatment success. A definitive study that describes a mortality benefit of such dosing regimens remains elusive and the theoretical advantages require testing in well designed clinical trials.

  4. Very early discharge versus early discharge versus non-early discharge in children with cancer and febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, Erik A. H.; te Poele, Esther M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common adverse effect in children with cancer. Due to the high relative risk of infections and infectious complications, standard care for children with cancer and febrile neutropenia consists of routine hospitalization and parenteral administration

  5. Lipegfilgrastim in the management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guariglia R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Guariglia,1 Maria Carmen Martorelli,1 Rosa Lerose,2 Donatella Telesca,2 Maria Rita Milella,2 Pellegrino Musto3 1Unit of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, 2Pharmacy Service, 3Scientific Direction, IRCCS, Referral Cancer Center of Basilicata, Rionero in Vulture, Potenza, Italy Abstract: Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN are frequent and potentially fatal toxicities of myelosuppressive anticancer treatments. The introduction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs in clinical practice has remarkably reduced the duration and severity of neutropenia, as well as the incidence of FN, thus allowing the administration of chemotherapeutic agents at the optimal dose and time with lower risk. The current scenario of G-CSFs in Europe includes filgrastim, lenograstim, some G-CSF biosimilars, and pegfilgrastim. Recently, a novel long-acting G-CSF, lipegfilgrastim, became available. Lipegfilgrastim is a glycopegylated G-CSF, alternative to pegfilgrastim, and has shown in randomized trials, to be equivalent to pegfilgrastim in reducing the incidence of severe neutropenia and FN in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy, with a similar safety profile. Furthermore, lipegfilgrastim was more effective than the placebo in reducing the incidence of severe neutropenia, its duration, and time to absolute neutrophil count recovery, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving myelosuppressive therapy. Although the number of studies currently published is still limited, lipegfilgrastim seems to be a promising drug in the management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Keywords: neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF, pegfilgrastim, lipegfilgrastim

  6. Febrile neutropenia and refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, H K; Barraclough, S; Currell, S; Tighe, M P

    2016-12-01

    We describe the management of a 4-year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) who presented with febrile neutropenia, Cryptosporidium and subsequently developed refeeding syndrome. Febrile neutropenia is common and can be life-threatening and we highlight the identification of well low-risk neutropenic children with resolved febrile illnesses suitable for early discharge. We also discuss the potential management strategies for Cryptosporidium Refeeding syndrome is not common, but should be considered as a cause of acute inpatient deterioration and is a significant risk, with potential morbidity, in children who have undergone a period of catabolism. This article reviews the current literature and provides useful guidance on these issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The diagnostic value of CRP, IL-8, PCT, and sTREM-1 in the detection of bacterial infections in pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Karin G. E.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Elferink, Rob F. M. Oude; van Vliet, Michel J.; Nijhuis, Claudi S. M. Oude; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-8, procalcitonin (PCT), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) as predictors for bacterial infection in febrile neutropenia, plus their usefulness in febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy-induced

  8. Treatment of febrile neutropenia with cefepime monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jándula, B M; Martino, R; Gurgi, M; Manteiga, R; Sierra, J

    2001-01-01

    The empirical administration of a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic, either as monotherapy or in combination with an aminoglycoside, is an essential component of the initial management of patients with fever and severe neutropenia. Multiple antibiotics have been tested for this indication. Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with in vitro activity against most gram-negative and many gram-positive bacteria. We have studied the use of this agent as monotherapy in this indication. One hundred and twenty-six episodes of febrile neutropenia in 98 adults with hematological malignancies were treated with cefepime monotherapy. Cefepime was given at a dose of 2 g every 8 h i.v. Most episodes (49%) were fever of unexplained origin, while a microbiologically documented and clinically documented infection occurred in 25% episodes each. Seventy-six (61%) episodes occurred after conventional chemotherapy, while 51 (41%) after a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twelve episodes (10%) were not evaluable for response. Among the 114 evaluable episodes, 69 (55% of the initial sample and 61% of those evaluable) responded to cefepime monotherapy, while therapy failed in 45 cases (36% of the initial sample and 39% of those evaluable), including 14 cases who developed breakthrough bacteremia during therapy. There were no deaths due to bacterial infection. At the end of all antibiotic therapy (final outcome) 69 episodes were cured only with monotherapy, 47 were cured with modification of therapy and 10 patients died from an unrelated cause. The only variable that appeared to correlate with response to therapy was the duration of neutropenia, which was longer among patients who failed or developed breakthrough bacteremia than among those who responded to monotherapy. Initial empirical antibiotic therapy with cefepime as a single agent in patients with febrile neutropenia and a hematological malignancy is effective, but patients with prolonged neutropenia appear to be

  9. CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NEUTROPENIA IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA: COMPARISON OF PEGFILGRASTIM WITH DAILY FILGRASTIM ADMINISTRATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Teofili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    We retrospectively compared the incidence of neutropenia  in two groups of  HIV patients with lymphoma,  who underwent chemotherapy supported by once-per-cycle administration of pegfilgrastim or by daily subcutaneous injection of filgrastim, respectively. Our findings indicate that pegfilgrastim and filgastrim produce similar results in preventing both neutropenia and febrile neutropenia.

  10. CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NEUTROPENIA IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA: COMPARISON OF PEGFILGRASTIM WITH DAILY FILGRASTIM ADMINISTRATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Teofili

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively compared the incidence of neutropenia  in two groups of  HIV patients with lymphoma,  who underwent chemotherapy supported by once-per-cycle administration of pegfilgrastim or by daily subcutaneous injection of filgrastim, respectively. Our findings indicate that pegfilgrastim and filgastrim produce similar results in preventing both neutropenia and febrile neutropenia.

  11. Cost Effectiveness of Primary Pegfilgrastim Prophylaxis in Patients With Breast Cancer at Risk of Febrile Neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Maureen J.; Grutters, Janneke P.; Peters, Frank P.; Mandigers, Caroline M.; Dercksen, M. Wouter; Stouthard, Jacqueline M.; Nortier, Hans J.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W.; van Warmerdam, Laurence J.; van de Wouw, Agnes J.; Jacobs, Esther M.; Mattijssen, Vera; van der Rijt, Carin C.; Smilde, Tineke J.; van der Velden, Annette W.; Temizkan, Mehmet; Batman, Erdogan; Muller, Erik W.; van Gastel, Saskia M.; Joore, Manuela A.; Borm, George F.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines advise primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis during chemotherapy if risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) is more than 20%, but this comes with considerable costs. We investigated the incremental costs and effects between two treatment strategies of primary

  12. Cost effectiveness of primary pegfilgrastim prophylaxis in patients with breast cancer at risk of febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Peters, F.P.; Mandigers, C.M.P.W.; Dercksen, M.W.; Stouthard, J.M.; Nortier, H.J.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Warmerdam, L.J. van; Wouw, A.J. van de; Jacobs, E.M.G.; Mattijssen, V.; Rijt, C.C. van der; Smilde, T.J.; Velden, A.W. van der; Temizkan, M.; Batman, E.; Muller, E.W.; Gastel, S.M. van; Joore, M.A.; Borm, G.F.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Guidelines advise primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis during chemotherapy if risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) is more than 20%, but this comes with considerable costs. We investigated the incremental costs and effects between two treatment strategies of primary

  13. Emergence of MRSA in positive blood cultures from patients with febrile neutropenia--a cause for concern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morris, Patrick G

    2008-09-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) causes considerable morbidity in patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, there has been a trend towards fewer Gram-negative and more Gram-positive infections with increasing antibiotic resistance. To assess these patterns, data from a supra-regional cancer centre in Ireland were reviewed.

  14. Managing febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the interventions performed by health professionals with a view to managing chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. Method: Integrative literature review, the sample of 12 primary articles was selected from the following databases: LILACS, SciELO, BVS, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Results: There was a prevalence of studies, realized by doctors, focused on pharmacological treatment and on the association of methods for greater diagnostic accuracy of febrile neutropenia. A study was found on pharmaceutical management regarding antibiotic dosing efficacy and a study indicating that nurses could contribute to the identification of elderly patients who would benefit from prophylactic use of growth factor. Conclusion: There was a shortage of studies involving the participation of other health professionals, besides the doctors, and a knowledge gap regarding interprofessional practice in the management of interventions specific to their area of specialism, joint interventions and non-pharmacological interventions.

  15. Prediction of Febrile Neutropenia after Chemotherapy Based on Pretreatment Risk Factors among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roen, Ashley; Daugaard, Gedske; Brown, Peter; Sengeløv, Henrik; Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Helleberg, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication to chemotherapy associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Reliable prediction of individual risk based on pretreatment risk factors allows for stratification of preventive interventions. We aimed to develop such a risk stratification model to predict FN in the 30 days after initiation of chemotherapy. Methods We included consecutive treatment-naïve patients with solid cancers and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas at Copenhagen University Hospital, 2010–2015. Data were obtained from the PERSIMUNE repository of electronic health records. FN was defined as neutrophils ≤0.5 × 10E9/L ​at the time of either a blood culture sample or death. Time from initiation of chemotherapy to FN was analyzed using Fine-Gray models with death as a competing event. Risk factors investigated were: age, sex, body surface area, haemoglobin, albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and chemotherapy drugs. Parameter estimates were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The scores were grouped into four: low, intermediate, high and very high risk. Results Among 8,585 patients, 467 experienced FN, incidence rate/30 person-days 0.05 (95% CI, 0.05–0.06). Age (1 point if > 65 years), albumin (1 point if 2) and chemotherapy (range -5 to 6 points/drug) predicted FN. Median score at inclusion was 2 points (range –5 to 9). The cumulative incidence and the incidence rates and hazard ratios of FN are shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, respectively. Conclusion We developed a risk score to predict FN the first month after initiation of chemotherapy. The score is easy to use and provides good differentiation of risk groups; the score needs independent validation before routine use. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  16. Imbalances in serum angiopoietin concentrations are early predictors of septic shock development in patients with post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand-Metze Irene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia carries a high risk of sepsis complications, and the identification of biomarkers capable to identify high risk patients is a great challenge. Angiopoietins (Ang - are cytokines involved in the control microvascular permeability. It is accepted that Ang-1 expression maintains endothelial barrier integrity, and that Ang-2 acts as an antagonizing cytokine with barrier-disrupting functions in inflammatory situations. Ang-2 levels have been recently correlated with sepsis mortality in intensive care units. Methods We prospectively evaluated concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 at different time-points during febrile neutropenia, and explored the diagnostic accuracy of these mediators as potential predictors of poor outcome in this clinical setting before the development of sepsis complications. Results Patients that evolved with septic shock (n = 10 presented higher levels of Ang-2 measured 48 hours after fever onset, and of the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio at the time of fever onset compared to patients with non-complicated sepsis (n = 31. These levels correlated with sepsis severity scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that imbalances in the concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 are independent and early markers of the risk of developing septic shock and of sepsis mortality in febrile neutropenia, and larger studies are warranted to validate their clinical usefulness. Therapeutic strategies that manipulate this Ang-2/Ang-1 imbalance can potentially offer new and promising treatments for sepsis in febrile neutropenia.

  17. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors for febrile neutropenia prophylaxis following chemotherapy: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Stevenson Matt D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia (FN occurs following myelosuppressive chemotherapy and is associated with morbidity, mortality, costs, and chemotherapy reductions and delays. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs stimulate neutrophil production and may reduce FN incidence when given prophylactically following chemotherapy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim, filgrastim or lenograstim in reducing FN incidence in adults undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumours or lymphoma. G-CSFs were compared with no primary G-CSF prophylaxis and with one another. Nine databases were searched in December 2009. Meta-analysis used a random effects model due to heterogeneity. Results Twenty studies compared primary G-CSF prophylaxis with no primary G-CSF prophylaxis: five studies of pegfilgrastim; ten of filgrastim; and five of lenograstim. All three G-CSFs significantly reduced FN incidence, with relative risks of 0.30 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65 for pegfilgrastim, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.48 to 0.69 for filgrastim, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.88 for lenograstim. Overall, the relative risk of FN for any primary G-CSF prophylaxis versus no primary G-CSF prophylaxis was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.62. In terms of comparisons between different G-CSFs, five studies compared pegfilgrastim with filgrastim. FN incidence was significantly lower for pegfilgrastim than filgrastim, with a relative risk of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.98. Conclusions Primary prophylaxis with G-CSFs significantly reduces FN incidence in adults undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumours or lymphoma. Pegfilgrastim reduces FN incidence to a significantly greater extent than filgrastim.

  18. Parental perspectives on inpatient versus outpatient management of pediatric febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Caroline; Martino, Julia; Boydell, Katherine Mary; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Mayo, Chris; Wing, Richard; Teuffel, Oliver; Sung, Lillian; Tomlinson, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    To describe parent preference for treatment of febrile neutropenia and the key drivers of parental decision making, structured face-to-face interviews were used to elicit parent preferences for inpatient versus outpatient management of pediatric febrile neutropenia. Parents were presented with 4 different scenarios and asked to indicate which treatment option they preferred and to describe reasons for this preference during the face-to-face interview. Comments were recorded in writing by research assistants. A consensus approach to thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the written comments of the research assistants. A total of 155 parents participated in the study. Of these, 80 (51.6%) parents identified hospital-based intravenous treatment as the most preferred treatment scenario for febrile neutropenia. The major themes identified included convenience/disruptiveness, physical health, emotional well-being, and modifiers of parental decision making. Most parents preferred hospital-based treatment for febrile neutropenia. An understanding of issues that influence parental decision making may assist health care workers in planning program implementation and further support families in their decision-making process.

  19. New developments in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: focus on balugrastim

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    Ghidini M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michele Ghidini,1 Jens Claus Hahne,2 Francesco Trevisani,3 Stefano Panni,1 Margherita Ratti,1 Laura Toppo,1 Gianluca Tomasello1 1Medical Department, Division of Oncology, ASST di Cremona, Ospedale di Cremona, Cremona, Italy; 2Division of Molecular Pathology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London and Sutton, UK; 3Department of Urology, Unit of Urology/Division of Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, URI, Milan, Italy Abstract: Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia are two major complications of chemotherapy. Dose reductions, delays in treatment administration, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors are equally recommended options to preserve absolute neutrophil count in case of chemotherapy regimens bringing a risk of febrile neutropenia of 20% or higher. Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, such as filgrastim and lenograstim, have a short elimination half-life (t1/2 and need to be used daily, while others, like pegfilgrastim and lipegfilgrastim, are characterized by a long t1/2 requiring only a single administration per cycle. Balugrastim is a novel long-acting recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor obtained by means of a genetic fusion between recombinant human serum albumin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Albumin binding increases the molecular weight and determines a high plasmatic stability leading to a t1/2 of ~19 days. Balugrastim’s efficacy, safety, and tolerability have been assessed in four different clinical trials involving breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and docetaxel. Pegfilgrastim was chosen as a comparator. Balugrastim was noninferior to pegfilgrastim with regard to the reduction of mean duration of severe neutropenia during cycle 1. Moreover, both treatments were comparable in terms of efficacy and safety profile. Balugrastim was well tolerated, with the only related adverse event being mild to moderate bone pain. The aim of this review is to summarize the

  20. Outpatient management of febrile neutropenia: time to revise the present treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, M.; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed medical literature on the efficacy and safety of outpatient versus hospital-based therapy of low-risk febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients. A PubMed search for all studies evaluating the outpatient treatment of adults diagnosed with solid tumors who suffered from low......-risk febrile neutropenia was completed; reference lists from identified articles also were used. In all, 10 trials were included in the analysis, which showed no significant difference in clinical failure rates and mortality for ambulatory regimens and standard hospital-based therapy. Subgroup analysis...... treatment failure (P febrile neutropenia is safe, effective, and comparable to standard hospital-based therapy. Patients at low risk are outpatients and are hemodynamically...

  1. Is febrile neutropenia prophylaxis with granulocyte-colony stimulating factors economically justified for adjuvant TC chemotherapy in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedgel, Chris; Rayson, Daniel; Younis, Tallal

    2016-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) during adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with morbidity, mortality risk, and substantial cost, and subsequent chemotherapy dose reductions may result in poorer outcomes. Patients at high risk of, or who develop FN, often receive prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF). We investigated whether different prophylaxis strategies with G-CSF offered favorable value-for-money. We developed a decision model to estimate the short- and long-term costs and outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant taxotere + cyclophosphamide (TC) chemotherapy. The short-term phase estimated upfront costs and FN risks with adjuvant TC chemotherapy without G-CSF prophylaxis (i.e., chemotherapy dose reductions) as well as with secondary and primary G-CSF prophylaxis strategies. The long-term phase estimated the expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for patients who completed adjuvant TC chemotherapy with or without one or more episodes of FN. Secondary G-CSF was associated with lower costs and greater QALY gains than a no G-CSF strategy. Primary G-CSF appears likely to be cost-effective relative to secondary G-CSF at FN rates greater than 28%, assuming some loss of chemotherapy efficacy at lower dose intensities. The cost-effectiveness of primary vs. secondary G-CSF was sensitive to FN risk and mortality, and loss of chemotherapy efficacy following FN. Secondary G-CSF is more effective and less costly than a no G-CSF strategy. Primary G-CSF may be justified at higher willingness-to-pay thresholds and/or higher FN risks, but this threshold FN risk appears to be higher than the 20% rate recommended by current clinical guidelines.

  2. La neutropenia severa febril en niños con cáncer: Estudio descriptivo en el Hospital Universitario de Santander Severe febrile neutropenia in children with cancer: A descriptive study at the Hospital Universitario de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rueda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir una población oncológica afectada por neutropenia severa febril, sus características demográficas, nutricionales, microbiológicas, de tratamiento y severidad de la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: Esta es una serie de casos prospectiva de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de Santander entre enero/2007 y enero/2008. Resultados: Veintiun (21 pacientes aportaron 35 episodios de neutropenia febril; 65,7% eran hombres, la edad promedio 5,6 años; 38,3% vivían en el Área Metropolitana de Bucaramanga y 91,4% en estrato socioeconómico bajo. El diagnóstico oncológico más frecuente fue leucemia linfocítica aguda. Ninguno presentó dolor abdominal o síntomas neurológicos. La neutropenia se detectó 8,5 días en promedio posterior a la última quimioterapia. El 31,4% no tuvieron neutrófilos absolutos, 54,2% plaquetas Objective: To describe an oncological population affected with severe febrile neutropenia, its demographic, nutritional, and microbiological features, their treatment and severity of the illness. Materials and methods: A descriptive-prospective clinical chart review from attended patients at the Hospital Universitario de Santander, from January/2007 to January/2008. Results: Twenty (21 patients contributed with 35 febrile neutropenia episodes; 65.7% were male; they aged average was 5.6-years; 38.37% lived in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area; 91.4% had low economic status. The most frequent oncological diagnosis was acute lumphocytic leukemia. No one presented abdominal pain or neurological symptoms. The neutropenia was detected 8.5 days after the last chemotherapy cycle. 31.4% patients had no absolute neutrophils; 54.2% blood platelets <50,000/mm3, 45.7% had reactive C protein <90 mg|/dL. The bloodculture was positive only in 7 patients. It was found the infection focus in 88.6% of the episodes and the most frequently diagnosis were related with the gastrointestinal tract. The most used

  3. Clinical profile of high-risk febrile neutropenia in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan V Bhojaraja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection in the immunocompromised host has been a reason of concern in the clinical setting and a topic of debate for decades. In this study, the aim was to analyse the clinical profile of high-risk febrile neutropenic patients. Aims To study the clinical profile of high risk febrile neutropenia patients with the objective of identifying the most common associated malignancy, most common associated pathogen, the source of infection, to correlate the treatment and management with that of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA 2010 guidelines and to assess the clinical outcome. Methods A cross-sectional time bound study was carried out and a total of 80 episodes of high-risk febrile neutropenia were recorded among patients with malignancies from September 2011 to July 2013 with each episode being taken as a new case. Results Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (30 per cent was the most common malignancy associated, commonest source of infection was due to central venous catheters, the commonest pathogens were gram negative (52 per cent the treatment and management of each episode of high risk febrile neutropenia correlated with that of IDSA 2010 guidelines and the mortality rate was 13.75 per cent. Conclusion Febrile neutropenia is one of the major complications and cause of mortality in patients with malignancy and hence understanding its entire spectrum can help us reduce morbidity and mortality.

  4. Cost Minimization Analysis of the Use of Meropenem and Ceftazidime in Febrile Neutropenia Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Abdulah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of antibiotics is required in febrile neutropenia therapy. The variety choice on the use of antibiotics has increased the role of pharmacoeconomics study to determine the most effective and efficient antibiotic in a specific area. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lowest cost antibiotic between meropenem and ceftazidime that were used as one of febrile neutropenia treatments at one of referral hospitals in West Java province during 2011–2013. This study was a retrospective, observational and analytical study that was performed on February 2014 by collecting medical record data related to febrile neutropenia inpatient who received meropenem or ceftazidime therapy. The result showed that although it was not statistically significant, the total cost for ceftazidime therapy was IDR7,082,523, which was lower than meropenem therapy (IDR11,094,147. Hopefully, this result can assist the health professionals in the management of febrile neutropenia therapy.

  5. A brucellosis case presenting with vesicular and maculopapular rash and febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmin Dirgen Çaylak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a systemic disease in which all kind of tissues and organs can be affected. Brucellosis may present with different symptoms and symptoms are non-specific. A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations can be seen, therefore diagnosis can be difficult. Cutaneous complications and febrile neutropenia have been rarely reported. Here, a rare brucellosis case was reported that he applied with fever, skin eruption and neutropenia. We emphasized that especially in endemic areas brucellosis should always be kept on mind in the differential diagnosis of patient with skin eruption and febril neutropenia.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 39-41

  6. [A pilot study of antibiotic cycling for the treatment of febrile neutropenia patients with hematological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Keiichi; Urasaki, Yoshimasa; Tsutani, Hiroshi; Ueda, Takanori

    2004-03-01

    Two antibiotics recommended by the guideline of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) were selected for treatment of febrile neutropenia, and these paired antibiotics were changed periodically three times. The clinical efficacy of each antibiotic was retrospectively evaluated at the end of the final period. There was no significant difference about efficacy rate between two kinds of antibiotics in the same sequential period. However, the efficacy rate has been rising and febrile duration has been shortening by degrees. Only a few drug resistant bacteria were recognized by the surveillance culture during antibiotic cycling. Recently, antibiotic cycling therapy has attracted attention especially in the ICU. However, a clinical study of treatment for febrile neutropenia has not been reported. Our trial suggests that cycling therapy may be useful for febrile neutropenia. However, Some deviation in the patients characteristics of each period may affect the result. It seems that further examination is necessary about usefullness of the cycling therapy for febrile neutropenia.

  7. Neutropenia febril: convertir el bajo riesgo en cero riesgo To convert the low risk in zero risk in patients with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arencibia Núñez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril constituye una de las principales causas de morbiletalidad en los pacientes con hemopatías malignas; sin embargo, la presentación clínica y evolución de esta complicación varía considerablemente de un paciente a otro. El primer modelo de estratificación de riesgo fue desarrollado por Talcot a partir de elementos clínicos y diferenciaba a los pacientes según el riesgo de presentar complicaciones letales. No obstante, cerca del 10 % de los pacientes catalogados como de bajo riesgo de complicaciones graves requieren tratamiento intrahospitalario. La determinación de algunos reactantes de fase aguda como la proteína C reactiva, las interleucinas 6 y 8 y la procalcitonina, aumentan notablemente la sensibilidad y especificidad de los modelos pronósticos. Las nuevas técnicas imagenológicas y de biología molecular facilitarán el diagnóstico precoz y certero de las infecciones en un futuro cercano. Sin embargo, es necesario desarrollar modelos pronósticos que combinen elementos clínicos y humorales adaptados a las condiciones epidemiológicas de cada centro, para optimizar el tratamiento diferenciado de los enfermos con neutropenia febril.Febrile neutropenia is one of the main causes of mortality in patients presenting with malignant hemopathic disorders; however the clinical and course presentation of this condition differ notably between patients. The first risk stratification model was developed by Talcot from clinical elements and differentiated the patients according the risk of lethal complications. However, around the 10% of patients classed as low risk of severe complications required intrahospital treatment. The determination of some acute phase reactants e.g. reactive C protein, 6 and 8 interleukins, and procalcitonin, increases remarkably the sensitivity and specificity of prognostic model. The new imaging techniques and of molecular biology allow an early and accurate diagnosis of infections in a near

  8. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Gerritsen

    Full Text Available We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4% had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197. Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  9. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M G; Willemink, M J; Pompe, E; van der Bruggen, T; van Rhenen, A; Lammers, J W J; Wessels, F; Sprengers, R W; de Jong, P A; Minnema, M C

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  10. Aplicación de un modelo pronóstico para predecir la evolución de la neutropenia febril en niños con leucemias agudas A new model applied in prediction of febrile neutropenia in children with acute leukemias

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    Alberto Arencibia Núñez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó estudio analítico retrospectivo de casos controles en 62 episodios de neutropenia febril presentados por pacientes con hemopatías malignas admitidos en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología durante los años 2005 y 2006. Los episodios de neutropenia febril se dividieron en 2 grupos a partir de su evolución favorable (56 % o desfavorable (44 % y se compilaron los parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio en ambos grupos. Los factores que mayor asociación mostraron con la evolución desfavorable fueron la presencia de comorbilidad (sepsis, deshidratación, hipoxia, hipovolemia, mucositis severa, el diagnóstico de leucemia aguda no linfoblástica, el uso de quimioterapia en los 7 días previos al inicio de la fiebre, el compromiso del estado general, y el conteo absoluto de neutrófilos menor de 100 x mm³. Los pacientes con neutropenia febril de evolución desfavorable presentaron entre 3 y 5 factores de riesgo, mientras que los de evolución satisfactoria tuvieron menos de 2 factores de mal pronóstico. El valor predictivo positivo del modelo pronóstico fue del 91,4 % y el negativo del 92,6 %, con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 94,1 % y 89,3 %, respectivamente.A retrospective and analytical control cases study was carried out in 62 episodes of febrile neutropenia present in patients with malignant blood disease admitted in Hematology and Immunology Institute during 2005 and 2006. Above episodes were divided in 2 groups from its favorable course (56% or unfavorable (44% as well as the laboratory and clinical parameters compiled in both groups. Factors with higher association related to unfavorable course were the comorbidities presence (sepsis, dehydration, hypoxia, hypovolemia and severe mucositis, diagnosis of non-lymphoblastic, use of chemotherapy during the 7 previous days to fever onset, general status involvement, and the neutrophil absolute count lower than 100 x mm³. Patients presenting with a unfavorable course

  11. Prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia with pegfilgrastim in Italy: a budget impact analysis

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    Giovanni Rosti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF is indicated for reduction in the duration of neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy.
Objective: to evaluate the budgetary impact for the Italian NHS.
Design: a decision-analytic model has been developed to analyze the budget impact from the national health care system perspective. Costs include direct healthcare costs to the public payer of G-CSFs as well as their administration costs and costs of FN-related events. The comparison has been done using prophylaxis with G‑CSF (filgrastim for 11 days, pegfilgrastim, lenograstim for 11 days and antibiotics.
Patients and participants: The population of interest for the analysis were patients with breast cancer in stage II and III and patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL.
Main outcome measures and results: for all the three patients group (NHL, Breast II and III, and for all the chemotherapy regimens (CHOP 21 and R-CHOP 21 for NHL, AC-T, TAC and TC for Breast stage II and III the budget impact analyses shows a cost reduction for the Italian NHS, as a result of an increase of the use of pegfilgrastim.
Conclusions: in Italy, a treatment strategy including pegfilgrastim as either primary or secondary prophylaxis provides value for money.


  12. Economic costs of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia among patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in European and Australian clinical practice

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    Weycker Derek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic implications of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN in European and Australian clinical practice are largely unknown. Methods Data were obtained from a European (97% and Australian (3% observational study of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL receiving CHOP (±rituximab chemotherapy. For each patient, each cycle of chemotherapy within the course, and each occurrence of FN within cycles, was identified. Patients developing FN in a given cycle (“FN patients”, starting with the first, were matched to those who did not develop FN in that cycle (“comparison patients”, irrespective of subsequent FN events. FN-related healthcare costs (£2010 were tallied for the initial FN event as well as follow-on care and FN events in subsequent cycles. Results Mean total cost was £5776 (95%CI £4928-£6713 higher for FN patients (n = 295 versus comparison patients, comprising £4051 (£3633-£4485 for the initial event and a difference of £1725 (£978-£2498 in subsequent cycles. Among FN patients requiring inpatient care (76% of all FN patients, mean total cost was higher by £7259 (£6327-£8205, comprising £5281 (£4810-£5774 for the initial hospitalization and a difference of £1978 (£1262-£2801 in subsequent cycles. Conclusions Cost of chemotherapy-induced FN among NHL patients in European and Australian clinical practice is substantial; a sizable percentage is attributable to follow-on care and subsequent FN events.

  13. Comparison the efficacy of ceftazidime and imipenem in treatment of neutropenic febrile due to chemotherapy in cancer patients

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    Zahra fotokian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In cancer patients various infections were developed due to severe neutropeniaresulted from chemotherapy. There is controversy between initial monotherapy or multidrugprescription. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ceftazidime and imipenem incontrol of fever in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.Materials ands Methods: 40 patients with cancer, fever and neutropenia (PMN<500, withoutrecognized source of infection, were selected using the convenience and consecutive method. Using arandom sampling, twenty patients were treated with imipenem (500mg Iv/Q8hr and others withceftazidime (2mg Iv/Q8hr. The criteria for positive response to the drugs were: fever disappearanceduring maximally 72 hours lasted for up to 24 hours, and increased neutrophil counts more than500/ml.Results: Our results show that 60% and 55% patients with ceftazidime and imipenem were cured,respectively. 40% patients treated with ceftazidime and 45% patients treated with imipenem neededanother antibiotic therapy at the same time. No significant relationship was found between differenttypes of drug regime among the groups.Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that ceftazidime and imipenem have similar efficacy intreatment of febrile neutropenic patients. Due to more availability and lower cost of ceftazidime thanimipenem, ceftazidime is suggested as first line treatment in febrile neutropenia.

  14. Predictors of Outcome and Severity in Adult Filipino Patients with Febrile Neutropenia

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    Marc Gregory Y. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study aimed to describe the profile of Filipino febrile neutropenia patients and to determine parameters associated with severe outcomes. Methods. This is a retrospective study of Filipino febrile neutropenia patients admitted to the Philippine General Hospital. Patients were described in terms of clinical presentation and stratified according to the presence or absence of severe outcomes. Prognostic factors were then identified using regression analysis. Results. 115 febrile episodes in 102 patients were identified. Regression analysis yielded prolonged fever >7 days prior to admission (OR 2.43; 95% CI, 0.77–7.74, isolation of a pathogen on cultures (OR 2.69; 95% CI, 1.04–6.98, and nadir absolute neutrophil count (ANC 7 days prior to admission, positive pathogen on cultures, and nadir ANC < 100 during admission predicted severe outcomes, whereas G-CSF use and complete antibiotic therapy were associated with better outcomes. These prognostic variables might be useful in identifying patients that need more intensive treatment and monitoring.

  15. Efficacy and safety of ior® LeukoCIM (G-CSF in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy

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    Leslie Pérez Ruiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutropenia and infections are the most restrictive side effects during chemotherapy application. The granulocytic colonies stimulating factor activates the neutrophils, shortens the neutropenic period and can be effective against the potential risk of infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LeukoCIM® (CIMAB, Havana. A retrospective observational study was carried out with data from the patients with neutropenic episodes enrolled in the open-label, non-randomized, multicenter, phase IV clinical trial. These patients were from Gustavo Aldereguía Lima hospital. They had been evaluated for one year. Demographic information, clinical data and side effects were analyzed. As prophylaxis indication LeukoCIM® was administrated 24-72 h after the last chemotherapy dose and as treatment when neutropenia was diagnosed. In both cases, a daily single 300 µg dose was administrated subcutaneously. The application of the next chemotherapy cycle on time was the main variable of response and the product safety was assessed by measuring the side effects. Forty seven patients with 95 neutropenic episodes were enrolled. The 82.1 % of episodes received their next chemotherapy cycle on time. The most frequent side effects were: bone pain and fever (11.2 % respectively, hyperuricemia (9.2 %, leukocytosis and neutrophilia (7.1 % and increased LDH (6.1 %. LeukoCIM® was effective in patients receiving chemotherapy, because it accelerated neutrophil recovery, decreased the incidence of febrile neutropenia and improved delivery of protocol doses of chemotherapy on time. Additionally, this product was considered safe for the studied patients since just known adverse events were reported.

  16. Results of high-risk neutropenia therapy of hematology-oncology patients in a university hospital in Uruguay

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    Matilde Boada Burutaran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hematology-oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. The management of febrile neutropenia is typically algorithm-driven. The aim of this study was to assess the results of a standardized protocol for the treatment of febrile neutropenia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study (2011-2012 was conducted of patients with high-risk neutropenia in a hematology-oncology service. Results: Forty-four episodes of 17 patients with a median age of 48 years (range: 18-78 years were included. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 61.4%. The presence of febrile neutropenia was associated with both the duration and severity of neutropenia. Microbiological agents were isolated from different sources in 59.3% of the episodes with bacteremia iso- lated from blood being the most prevalent (81.3%. Multiple drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli were isolated in 62.5% of all microbiologically documented infections. Treatment of 63% of the episodes in which the initial treatment was piperacillin/tazobactam needed to be escalated to meropenem. The mortality rate due to febrile neutropenia episodes was 18.5%. Conclusion: The high rate of gram-negative bacilli resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam (frontline antibiotics in our protocol and the early need to escalate to carbapenems raises the question as to whether it is necessary to change the current protocol.

  17. Evaluation of malnutrition as a predictor of adverse outcomes in febrile neutropenia associated with paediatric haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jasodhara; Biswas, Tamoghna; Datta, Jyotishka; Sabui, Tapas Kumar; Chatterjee, Sukanta; Ray, Somosri; Raychaudhuri, Dibyendu; Mandal, Kalyanbrata; Chatterjee, Kaushani; Chakraborty, Swapna

    2016-07-01

    Malnutrition has been reported in the literature to be adversely associated with outcomes in paediatric malignancies. Our objective in this paper was to evaluate malnutrition as a potential predictor for adverse outcomes in febrile neutropenia associated with haematological malignancies. A prospective observational study was performed in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kolkata, India. Forty-eight participants, suffering from haematological malignancy, were included. Participants were included if they experienced at least one episode of febrile neutropenia. For children aged malnutrition, while body mass index for age was used in children ≥5 years. A total of 162 episodes of febrile neutropenia were studied. Thirty patients (30/48, 62.5%) included in the study had malnutrition. In bivariate analyses at patient level, there is a strong association between malnutrition and death (odds ratio (OR) 7.286, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.838-63.345, one-tailed P = 0.044), and life-threatening complications show a moderate trend towards significance (OR 3.333, 95% CI 0.791-14.052, one-tailed P = 0.084). Survival functions were significantly different between malnourished and non-malnourished children (log rank test χ(2)  = 4.609, degree of freedom = 1, P = 0.032). Wasting was associated with life-threatening complications in children aged malnutrition was not. Malnutrition may be a potential predictor of mortality in febrile neutropenia. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Neutropenia: occurrence and management in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy

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    Talita Garcia do Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the prevalence, and describe the management of, neutropenia throughout the chemotherapy treatment among women with breast cancer.METHODS: observational study, cycles of chemotherapy. 116 neutropenic events were recorded, and 63.3% of the patients presented neutropenia at some point of their treatment, 46.5% of these presenting grade II. The management used was temporary suspension between the cycles and the mean number of delays was 6 days. The study was prospective and longitudinal, where the evaluation of the hematological toxicities was undertaken at each cycle of chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or adjuvant.RESULTS: 79 women were included, who received 572 cycles. However, the reasons for the suspensions were the lack of a space in the chemotherapy center, followed by neutropenia.CONCLUSION: neutropenia is one of the most common and serious adverse events observed during the chemotherapy. Nursing must invest in research regarding this adverse event and in management strategies for organizing the public health system, so as to offer quality care.

  19. Medical visits for chemotherapy and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: a survey of the impact on patient time and activities

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    Moore Kelley

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with cancer must make frequent visits to the clinic not only for chemotherapy but also for the management of treatment-related adverse effects. Neutropenia, the most common dose-limiting toxicity of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, has substantial clinical and economic consequences. Colony-stimulating factors such as filgrastim and pegfilgrastim can reduce the incidence of neutropenia, but the clinic visits for these treatments can disrupt patients' routines and activities. Methods We surveyed patients to assess how clinic visits for treatment with chemotherapy and the management of neutropenia affect their time and activities. Results The mean amounts of time affected by these visits ranged from approximately 109 hours (hospitalization for neutropenia and 8 hours (physician and chemotherapy to less than 3 hours (laboratory and treatment with filgrastim or pegfilgrastim. The visits for filgrastim or pegfilgrastim were comparable in length, but treatment with filgrastim requires several visits per chemotherapy cycle and treatment with pegfilgrastim requires only 1 visit. Conclusions This study provides useful information for future modelling of additional factors such as disease status and chemotherapy schedule and provides information that should be considered in managing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

  20. Ciprofloxacin reduces occurrence of fever in children with acute leukemia who develop neutropenia during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Khwanna, Thida; Suwankeeree, Pussayaban; Sujjanunt, Tipwan; Tunyapanit, Wanutsanun; Chelae, Sureerat

    2013-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones reduce occurrence of fever in adult cancer patients who develop neutropenia, but there has been no randomized controlled trial in children, and there are only a few studies considering resistance in intestinal floral after ciprofloxacin has been used. Children younger than 18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma scheduled to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to receive oral ciprofloxacin 20mg/kg/day or placebo from the beginning of their chemotherapy. Rectal swab cultures were taken before and at 1 and/or 2 weeks after the intervention. Of the total of 95 patients, 45 and 50 patients received ciprofloxacin and placebo, respectively. Of the 71 patients who developed neutropenia, the proportion of children who developed fever was significantly lower in the ciprofloxacin group than in the placebo group (17/34 [50.0%] versus 27/37 [73.0%]; absolute difference in risk, -23.0%; 95% confidence interval: -45.0% to -0.9%; P = 0.046). Ciprofloxacin significantly reduced the occurrence of febrile episodes in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the induction phase of chemotherapy, but not in patients with lymphoma or in the consolidation phase of chemotherapy. Adverse effects were not different between the groups. After intervention, the percentages of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae susceptible to ciprofloxacin were significantly lower in the ciprofloxacin group. Ciprofloxacin can prevent fever in neutropenic patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during the induction phase of chemotherapy with good tolerance and no serious side effects. Due to the selective pressure of intestinal flora resistance to ciprofloxacin, the long-term effectiveness needs further investigation.

  1. Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis during the first two cycles only or throughout all chemotherapy cycles in patients with breast cancer at risk for febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Maureen J; Peters, Frank P; Mandigers, Caroline M; Dercksen, M Wouter; Stouthard, Jacqueline M; Nortier, Hans J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W; van Warmerdam, Laurence J; van de Wouw, Agnes J; Jacobs, Esther M; Mattijssen, Vera; van der Rijt, Carin C; Smilde, Tineke J; van der Velden, Annette W; Temizkan, Mehmet; Batman, Erdogan; Muller, Erik W; van Gastel, Saskia M; Borm, George F; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2013-12-01

    Early breast cancer is commonly treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. However, combining these drugs increases the risk of myelotoxicity and may require granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support. The highest incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and largest benefit of G-CSF during the first cycles of chemotherapy lead to questions about the effectiveness of continued use of G-CSF throughout later cycles of chemotherapy. In a multicenter study, patients with breast cancer who were considered fit enough to receive 3-weekly polychemotherapy, but also had > 20% risk for FN, were randomly assigned to primary G-CSF prophylaxis during the first two chemotherapy cycles only (experimental arm) or to primary G-CSF prophylaxis throughout all chemotherapy cycles (standard arm). The noninferiority hypothesis was that the incidence of FN would be maximally 7.5% higher in the experimental compared with the standard arm. After inclusion of 167 eligible patients, the independent data monitoring committee advised premature study closure. Of 84 patients randomly assigned to G-CSF throughout all chemotherapy cycles, eight (10%) experienced an episode of FN. In contrast, of 83 patients randomly assigned to G-CSF during the first two cycles only, 30 (36%) had an FN episode (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.54), with a peak incidence of 24% in the third cycle (ie, first cycle without G-CSF prophylaxis). In patients with early breast cancer at high risk for FN, continued use of primary G-CSF prophylaxis during all chemotherapy cycles is of clinical relevance and thus cannot be abandoned.

  2. Evaluation of febrile neutropenia in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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    Shahideh Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and causes of fever as a major problem contributing to transplantation related mortality among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT and evaluation of antibiotic use, according to reliable guidelines.We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of 195 adult patients who underwent HSCT between 2009-2011 at hematology-oncology and bone marrow transplantation research center. Baseline information and also data related to fever and neutropenia, patient's outcomes, duration of hospitalization and antibiotic use pattern were documented.A total of 195 patients were analyzed and a total of 268 febrile episodes in 180 patients were recorded (mean 1.5 episodes per patient. About 222 episodes (82% were associated with neutropenia which one-fourth of them were without any documented infection sources. Microbiologic documents showed that the relative frequencies of gram positive and gram negative bacteria were 62.5% and 37.5%, respectively. The hospital stay duration was directly related to the numbers of fever episodes (P<0.0001.The rate of febrile episodes in autologous stem cell transplantation was significantly higher compared to allogeneic type (P<0.05.It is necessary to determine not only the local profile of microbiologic pattern, but also antibiotic sensitivities in febrile neutropenic patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and reassess response to antibiotic treatment to establish any necessity for modifications to treatment guidelines in order to prevent any fatal complications from infection.

  3. Miliaria-rash after neutropenic fever and induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia Miliária 'rash' após neutropenia febril e quimioterapia de indução para a leucemia mielóide aguda

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    Tuyet A Nguyen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Miliaria is a disorder of the eccrine sweat glands which occurs in conditions of increased heat and humidity. It can be associated with persistent febrile states as well as with certain drugs. We presented a 40 year-old female with myelodysplastic syndrome and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia who was admitted to the hospital for chemotherapy induction. The patient was treated with idarubicin and cytarabine. She became pancytopenic and developed neutropenic fever and was started on vancomycin and cefepime, but was persistently febrile with night sweats. Five days into her fevers, she developed diffuse, nonpruritic and fragile vesicles together with drenching nightsweats. The patient's exanthem was diagnosed as Miliaria crystallina, most probably induced by neutropenic fever and idarubucin exposureMiliária é uma desordem das glândulas sudoríparas écrinas, que ocorre em condições de aumento de calor e umidade. Miliária pode ser associada com estados febris persistentes bem como com certos medicamentos. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 40 anos com síndrome mielodisplásica e progressão para leucemia mielóide aguda que foi admitida no hospital para quimioterapia de indução. A paciente foi tratada com idarrubicina e citarabina. Ela se tornou pancitopênica e desenvolveu neutropenia febril. Iniciou tratamento com vancomicina e cefepime, mas a febre com sudorese noturna continou. Cinco dias depois a paciente desenvolveu vesículas difusas, não pruríticas e frágeis juntamente com a persistência de sudorese noturna. O exantema do paciente foi diagnosticado como Miliária cristalina, provavelmente induzida por neutropenia febril e exposição a idarubucin

  4. Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis during the first two cycles only or throughout all chemotherapy cycles in patients with breast cancer at risk for febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Peters, F.P.; Mandigers, C.M.P.W.; Dercksen, M.W.; Stouthard, J.M.; Nortier, H.J.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Warmerdam, L.J. van; Wouw, A.J. van de; Jacobs, E.M.G.; Mattijssen, V.; Rijt, C.C. van der; Smilde, T.J.; Velden, A.W. van der; Temizkan, M.; Batman, E.; Muller, E.W.; Gastel, S.M. van; Borm, G.F.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early breast cancer is commonly treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. However, combining these drugs increases the risk of myelotoxicity and may require granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support. The highest incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and largest benefit of G-CSF

  5. Primary Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Prophylaxis During the First Two Cycles Only or Throughout All Chemotherapy Cycles in Patients With Breast Cancer at Risk for Febrile Neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Maureen J.; Peters, Frank P.; Mandigers, Caroline M.; Dercksen, M. Wouter; Stouthard, Jacqueline M.; Nortier, Hans J.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W.; van Warmerdam, Laurence J.; van de Wouw, Agnes J.; Jacobs, Esther M.; Mattijssen, Vera; van der Rijt, Carin C.; Smilde, Tineke J.; van der Velden, Annette W.; Temizkan, Mehmet; Batman, Erdogan; Muller, Erik W.; van Gastel, Saskia M.; Borm, George F.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early breast cancer is commonly treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. However, combining these drugs increases the risk of myelotoxicity and may require granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support. The highest incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and largest benefit of G-CSF

  6. 2010 update of EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aapro, M S; Bohlius, J; Cameron, D A; Dal Lago, Lissandra; Donnelly, J Peter; Kearney, N; Lyman, G H; Pettengell, R; Tjan-Heijnen, V C; Walewski, J; Weber, Damien C; Zielinski, C

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major risk factor for infection-related morbidity and mortality and also a significant dose-limiting toxicity in cancer treatment. Patients developing severe (grade 3/4) or febrile neutropenia (FN) during chemotherapy frequently receive dose reductions and/or delays to their chemotherapy. This may impact the success of treatment, particularly when treatment intent is either curative or to prolong survival. In Europe, prophylactic treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs), such as filgrastim (including approved biosimilars), lenograstim or pegfilgrastim is available to reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, the use of G-CSF prophylactic treatment varies widely in clinical practice, both in the timing of therapy and in the patients to whom it is offered. The need for generally applicable, European-focused guidelines led to the formation of a European Guidelines Working Party by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the publication in 2006 of guidelines for the use of G-CSF in adult cancer patients at risk of chemotherapy-induced FN. A new systematic literature review has been undertaken to ensure that recommendations are current and provide guidance on clinical practice in Europe. We recommend that patient-related adverse risk factors, such as elderly age (≥65 years) and neutrophil count be evaluated in the overall assessment of FN risk before administering each cycle of chemotherapy. It is important that after a previous episode of FN, patients receive prophylactic administration of G-CSF in subsequent cycles. We provide an expanded list of common chemotherapy regimens considered to have a high (≥20%) or intermediate (10-20%) risk of FN. Prophylactic G-CSF continues to be recommended in patients receiving a chemotherapy regimen with high risk of FN. When using a chemotherapy regimen associated with FN in 10-20% of patients, particular attention

  7. Efficacy and safety of ior® LeukoCIM (G-CSF in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy Eficacia y seguridad del ior® LeukoCIM (FEC-G en pacientes con neutropenia posquimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Pérez Ruiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutropenia and infections are the most restrictive side effects during chemotherapy application. The granulocytic colonies stimulating factor activates the neutrophils, shortens the neutropenic period and can be effective against the potential risk of infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LeukoCIM® (CIMAB, Havana. A retrospective observational study was carried out with data from the patients with neutropenic episodes enrolled in the open-label, non-randomized, multicenter, phase IV clinical trial. These patients were from Gustavo Aldereguía Lima hospital. They had been evaluated for one year. Demographic information, clinical data and side effects were analyzed. As prophylaxis indication LeukoCIM® was administrated 24-72 h after the last chemotherapy dose and as treatment when neutropenia was diagnosed. In both cases, a daily single 300 µg dose was administrated subcutaneously. The application of the next chemotherapy cycle on time was the main variable of response and the product safety was assessed by measuring the side effects. Forty seven patients with 95 neutropenic episodes were enrolled. The 82.1 % of episodes received their next chemotherapy cycle on time. The most frequent side effects were: bone pain and fever (11.2 % respectively, hyperuricemia (9.2 %, leukocytosis and neutrophilia (7.1 % and increased LDH (6.1 %. LeukoCIM® was effective in patients receiving chemotherapy, because it accelerated neutrophil recovery, decreased the incidence of febrile neutropenia and improved delivery of protocol doses of chemotherapy on time. Additionally, this product was considered safe for the studied patients since just known adverse events were reported.La neutropenia y las infecciones constituyen los eventos adversos más limitantes en la aplicación de quimioterapia. Los factores estimulantes de colonias de granulocitos activan los neutrófilos, acortan el periodo neutropénico y pueden ser

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for diagnosing infectious complications in patients with severe neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy for haematological malignancy or stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Fidel J.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Donnelly, J.P.; Blijlevens, Nicole M.A. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Hematology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Between 30 and 50% of febrile neutropenic episodes are accounted for by infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific parameter for infection and inflammation but might be employed as a trigger for diagnosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be used to detect inflammatory foci in neutropenic patients with elevated CRP and whether it helps to direct treatment. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with neutropenia as a result of intensive chemotherapy for haematological malignancies or myeloablative therapy for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was added to the regular diagnostic workup once the CRP level rose above 50 mg/l. Pathological FDG uptake was found in 26 of 28 cases despite peripheral neutrophil counts less than 0.1 x 10{sup -9}/l in 26 patients: in the digestive tract in 18 cases, around the tract of the central venous catheter (CVC) in 9 and in the lungs in 7 cases. FDG uptake in the CVC tract was associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteraemia (p < 0.001) and deep venous thrombosis (p = 0.002). The number of patients having Streptococcus mitis bacteraemia appeared to be higher in patients with grade 3 oesophageal FDG uptake (p = 0.08). Pulmonary FDG uptake was associated with the presence of invasive fungal disease (p = 0.04). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning during chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia and increased CRP is able to detect localized foci of infection and inflammation despite the absence of circulating neutrophils. Besides its potential role in detecting CVC-related infection during febrile neutropenia, the high negative predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is important for avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and therapy. (orig.)

  9. Time trends in utilization of G-CSF prophylaxis and risk of febrile neutropenia in a Medicare population receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ravi K; Tzivelekis, Spiros; Rothman, Kenneth J; Candrilli, Sean D; Kaye, James A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess temporal trends in the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis and risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) among older women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Women aged ≥ 66 years with diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer who initiated selected adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were identified using the SEER-Medicare data from 2002 to 2012. Adjusted, calendar-year-specific proportions were estimated for use of G-CSF primary prophylaxis (PP) and secondary prophylaxis and FN risk in the first and the second/subsequent cycles during the first course of chemotherapy, using logistic regression models. calendar-year-specific mean probabilities were estimated with covariates set to modal values. Among 11,107 eligible patients (mean age 71.7 years), 74% received G-CSF in the first course of chemotherapy. Of all patients, 5819 (52%) received G-CSF PP, and among those not receiving G-CSF PP, only 5% received G-CSF secondary prophylaxis. The adjusted proportion using G-CSF PP increased from 6% in 2002 to 71% in 2012. During the same period, the adjusted risk of FN in the first cycle increased from 2% to 3%; the adjusted risk increased from 1.5% to 2.9% among those receiving G-CSF PP and from 2.3% to 3.5% among those not receiving G-CSF PP. The use of G-CSF PP increased substantially during the study period. Although channeling of higher-risk patients to treatment with G-CSF PP is expected, the adjusted risk of FN among patients treated with G-CSF PP tended to be lower than among those not receiving G-CSF PP.

  10. Piperacillin-tazobactam vs. imipenem-cilastatin as empirical therapy in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yu; Li, Jian; Yuan, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanshun; Yu, Li; Zhou, Daobin; Huang, Wenrong

    2016-03-01

    This randomized, dual-center study compared the efficacy and safety of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and imipenem-cilastatin (IMP) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients with febrile neutropenia. HSCT recipients with febrile neutropenia were randomized into two groups receiving either PTZ or IMP as initial empiric antibiotic. Endpoints were defervescence rate after empiric antibiotic for 48 h, success at end of therapy, and side effects. Defervescence within 48 h after empiric antibiotic was observed in 46 patients with PTZ (75.4%) and 59 patients with IMP (95.2%) (p = 0.002). Ten patients (10/46) in the PTZ group and two patients (2/59) in the IMP group switched empiric antibiotics due to recurrent fever (p = 0.005). Success of initial antibiotic with modification was achieved in 34 patients with PTZ (55.7%) and 53 patients with IMP (85.5%) at the end of therapy (p = 0.001). To treat the bacteremia, seven of 10 patients in the PTZ group and one of eight patients in the IMP group needed to switch the empiric antibiotic (p = 0.025). Compared with PTZ, IMP had more gastrointestinal adverse events (p = 0.045). This study demonstrates that IMP had better efficacy than PTZ as an empiric antibiotic for febrile neutropenia in the HSCT setting, but with more gastrointestinal side reactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Study design: two long-term observational studies of the biosimilar filgrastim Nivestim™ (Hospira filgrastim) in the treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamioner, Didier; Fruehauf, Stefan; Maloisel, Fréderic; Cals, Laurent; Lepretre, Stéphane; Berthou, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nivestim™ (filgrastim) is a follow-on biologic agent licensed in the EU for the treatment of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia induced by myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Nivestim™ has been studied in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials where its efficacy and safety was found to be similar to its reference product, Neupogen ® . Follow-on biologics continue to be scrutinised for safety. We present a design for two observational phase IV studies that are evaluating the safety profile of Nivestim™ for the prevention and treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy in general clinical practice. The NEXT (Tolérance de Nivestim chez les patiEnts traités par une chimiothérapie anticancéreuse cytotoXique en praTique courante) and VENICE (VErträglichkeit von NIvestim unter zytotoxischer Chemotherapie in der Behandlung malinger Erkrankungen) trials are multicentre, prospective, longitudinal, observational studies evaluating the safety profile of Nivestim™ in 'real-world’ clinical practice. Inclusion criteria include patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy and receiving Nivestim as primary or secondary prophylaxis (NEXT and VENICE), or as treatment for ongoing FN (NEXT only). In accordance with European Union pharmacovigilance guidelines, the primary objective is to evaluate the safety of Nivestim™ by gathering data on adverse events in all system organ classes. Secondary objectives include obtaining information on patient characteristics, efficacy of Nivestim™ therapy (including chemotherapy dose intensity), patterns of use of Nivestim™, and physician knowledge regarding filgrastim prescription and the reasons for choosing Nivestim™. Data will be gathered at three visits: 1. At the initial inclusion visit, 2. At a 1-month follow-up visit, and 3. At the end of chemotherapy. Recruitment for VENICE commenced in July 2011 and in November 2011 for NEXT. VENICE completed recruitment in July 2013 with

  12. Is the addition of aminoglycosides to beta-lactams in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Contreras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En pacientes con cáncer que se presentan con neutropenia febril existe controversia sobre si es mejor utilizar una combinación de antibióticos betalactámicos y aminoglicósidos o si bastaría la monoterapia con betalactámicos de amplio espectro como tratamiento empírico inicial. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 14 estudios aleatorizados pertinentes a esta pregunta. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que adicionar aminoglicósidos a los betalactámicos en el tratamiento de la neutropenia febril en pacientes con cáncer aumenta la nefrotoxicidad y podría aumentar la mortalidad en comparación con la monoterapia con betalactámicos.

  13. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril prolongada conlleva un alto riesgo de desarrollar infecciones fúngicas invasoras, por lo que habitualmente se administra terapia antifúngica empírica en estos casos. Sin embargo, esta se asocia a importantes efectos adversos, por lo que se ha propuesto como alternativa la estrategia "preemptive" o anticipada, es decir, la indicación de antifúngicos sólo ante la evidencia indirecta de infección fúngica invasora. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen doce estudios. Cuatro estudios aleatorizados evaluaron la pregunta abordada en este artículo. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que no está claro si la estrategia "preemptive" tiene algún efecto sobre la mortalidad porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja, pero podría disminuir levemente el uso de antifúngicos en pacientes con neutropenia febril prolongada.

  14. Febrile neutropenia in paediatric peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, in vitro sensitivity data and clinical response to empirical antibiotic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, S.H.; Nasim, S.; Ahmed, A.; Irfan, M.; Ishaque, A.; Farzana, T.; Panjwani, V.K.; Taj, M.; Shamsi, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    To find the in-vitro sensitivity data and clinical response in order to determine the changes required in empiric antibiotic therapy for management of febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated according to institutional protocol for febrile neutropenia. Empirical antibiotics include Ceftriaxone and Amikacin. In non-responders, changes made included Imipenem and Amikacin, Piperacillin Tazobactum/Tiecoplanin or Vancomycin/Cloxacilin/Ceftazidime. In non-responders, amphotaracin was added until recovery. Out of 52 patients, 5 did not develop any fever; in the remaining 47 patients there were 57 episodes of febrile neutropenia. The mean days of febrile episodes were 4.71 (range 3-8). Fever of unknown origin (FUO) occurred in 31 (54.3%) episodes. Microbiologically documented infection (MDI) occurred in 17 (29.8%) episodes of fever. Clinically documented infection (CDI) occurred in 9 (15.7%) episodes. Gram-negative organisms were isolated in 10 while gram-positive organisms in 7. Klebseilla, S. aureus were the most common isolates. Empirical therapy was effective in 12 of the 33 (36%) episodes. Out of 28, 26 (92%) responded to Imipenem/Amikacin as second line therapy while those who received any other second line combination, only 11 out of 22 (50%) showed response. Systemic Amphotericin was used in 4 patients, 2 responded. Infection related mortality rate was 4%. (author)

  15. Novas diretrizes na abordagem clínica da neutropenia febril e da sepse em oncologia pediátrica New guidelines for the clinical management of febrile neutropenia and sepsis in pediatric oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Verena Almeida Mendes

    2007-05-01

    precoce são fundamentais para a melhora da sobrevida.OBJECTIVES: To provide a foundation for the diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic management of febrile neutropenia and sepsis in children with oncological diseases, with special attention to new protocols and guidelines. SOURCES: A review of the scientific literature utilizing an electronic bibliographic search on MEDLINE, Medscape, SciELO, Google, Cochrane and PubMED using the keywords febrile, neutropenic, cancer, children, sepsis, intensive, care. Articles published between 1987 and 2007 were selected, with preference given to review articles, protocols, systematic reviews, epidemiological studies, task force recommendations and phase III clinical trials. Consensus documents published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Center for Diseases Control and the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology, in addition to the recommendations of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies and Society of Critical Care Medicine, were also reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The use of aggressive chemotherapy regimens, bone marrow transplantation and intensive care resources have increased the survival rates of children with cancer and also their infectious morbidity, with septic complications as the principal cause of mortality. Several risk factors have been identified, such as neutropenia, oncology type, clinical signs and inflammatory response markers (polymerase chain reaction, procalcitonin and also increased resistance to antimicrobials and antifungal agents. Protocols for risk classification, diagnosis and treatment should be established at each service, taking into account the microbiological flora of each population. Pediatric intensive care has increased the short and long-term survival of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Oncology patients are particularly vulnerable to infectious complications. Early identification and treatment are

  16. Is the addition of aminoglycosides to beta-lactams in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Valeria; Sepúlveda, Sebastián; Heredia, Ana

    2016-02-24

    It is still controversial if the combined use of beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides has advantages over broad-spectrum beta-lactam monotherapy for the empirical treatment of cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including 14 pertinent randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides probably does not lead to a reduced mortality in febrile neutropenic cancer patients and it might increase nephrotoxicity.

  17. Febrile Neutropenia Risk Assessment and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Support in Patients with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Receiving R-CHOP Regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salar, Antonio; Haioun, Corinne; Rossi, Francesca Gaia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ASCO and EORTC guidelines recommend granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) primary prophylaxis for cancer patients with a ≥20% overall risk of febrile neutropenia (FN), and to support delivery of dose-dense regimens. CHOP-like regimens (with rituximab [R]) are the current...... standard of care for the management of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but they are often associated with significant myelosuppression. Neutropenic events, particularly febrile neutropenia (FN), can be life-threatening and may lead to dose delays or reductions that compromise the efficacy......-CSF primary prophylaxis. Across all cycles, 29% of R-CHOP-21 patients had an unplanned hospitalization, with neutropenia/FN being the main reason. Subsequently, 67% of patients achieved a relative dose intensity (RDI) of ≥90% of their planned treatment (with respect to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin...

  18. The Importance of Serum Cytokine Levels in Febrile Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Buyukberber

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important evaluation of the neutropenic patients is to determine the risk group. The desired approach to patients with low risks should be either not to hospitalize or to hospitalize for a short period of time which both decreases the cost and exposure to the resistant flora. The early diagnosis of sepsis in patients with high risk may be life saving. Recently, the determination of low and high-risk groups only by the clinical variables is not found to be a reliable method. The laboratory parameters supported by the clinical variables may be more practical. The determination of serum cytokines levels in febrile neutropenia may be helpful for the early risk diagnosis, new treatment approaches, and prognosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(1.000: 12-19

  19. Cost effectiveness of primary pegfilgrastim prophylaxis in patients with breast cancer at risk of febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Maureen J; Grutters, Janneke P; Peters, Frank P; Mandigers, Caroline M; Dercksen, M Wouter; Stouthard, Jacqueline M; Nortier, Hans J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W; van Warmerdam, Laurence J; van de Wouw, Agnes J; Jacobs, Esther M; Mattijssen, Vera; van der Rijt, Carin C; Smilde, Tineke J; van der Velden, Annette W; Temizkan, Mehmet; Batman, Erdogan; Muller, Erik W; van Gastel, Saskia M; Joore, Manuela A; Borm, George F; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines advise primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis during chemotherapy if risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) is more than 20%, but this comes with considerable costs. We investigated the incremental costs and effects between two treatment strategies of primary pegfilgrastim prophylaxis. Our economic evaluation used a health care perspective and was based on a randomized study in patients with breast cancer with increased risk of FN, comparing primary G-CSF prophylaxis throughout all chemotherapy cycles (G-CSF 1-6 cycles) with prophylaxis during the first two cycles only (G-CSF 1-2 cycles). Primary outcome was cost effectiveness expressed as costs per patient with episodes of FN prevented. The incidence of FN increased from 10% in the G-CSF 1 to 6 cycles study arm (eight of 84 patients) to 36% in the G-CSF 1 to 2 cycles study arm (30 of 83 patients), whereas the mean total costs decreased from € 20,658 (95% CI, € 20,049 to € 21,247) to € 17,168 (95% CI € 16,239 to € 18,029) per patient, respectively. Chemotherapy and G-CSF determined 80% of the total costs. As expected, FN-related costs were higher in the G-CSF 1 to 2 cycles arm. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for the G-CSF 1 to 6 cycles arm compared with the G-CSF 1 to 2 cycles arm was € 13,112 per patient with episodes of FN prevented. We conclude that G-CSF prophylaxis throughout all chemotherapy cycles is more effective, but more costly, compared with prophylaxis limited to the first two cycles. Whether G-CSF prophylaxis throughout all chemotherapy cycles is considered cost effective depends on the willingness to pay per patient with episodes of FN prevented.

  20. Microbiology and mortality of pediatric febrile neutropenia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Bonilla, Miguel; Gamero, Mario; Fuentes, Soad L; Caniza, Miguela; Sung, Lillian

    2011-05-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and infection-related mortality are major problems for children with cancer in low-income countries. Identifying predictors for adverse outcome of FN in low-income countries permits targeted interventions. We describe the nature and predictors of microbiologically documented infection (MDI) and mortality of FN in children with cancer in El Salvador. We examined Salvadoran pediatric oncology patients admitted with FN over a 1-year period. Data were collected prospectively. Demographic, treatment, and admission-related variables were examined as predictors of outcomes. Hundred six FN episodes among 85 patients were included. Twenty-three of 106 episodes (22%) were microbiologically documented; 13 of 106 episodes (12%) resulted in death. Gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated in 14 of 23 and 11 of 23 specimens; polymicrobial infections were common (11 of 23 episodes of MDI). Older age decreased the MDI risk [odds ratio (OR) per year=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.99; P=0.04] while increasing number of days since the last chemotherapy increased the risk (OR=1.03 per day, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.002). Pneumonia diagnosed either clinically (OR=6.6, 95% CI, 1.8-30.0; P=0.005) or radiographically (OR=5.5, 95% CI, 1.7-18.1; P=0.005) was the only predictor of mortality. In El Salvador, polymicrobial infections were common. Pneumonia at admission identified children with FN at high risk of death; these children may benefit from targeted interventions.

  1. Management of acute colorectal diseases in febrile neutropenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Perazzoli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hematologic malignancies are susceptible to serious complications due to immunosuppression. Neutropenic-related infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in this group of diseases. Febrile neutropenia is a common complication of the hematologic neoplasm itself or chemotherapy, and has worse prognosis if prolonged (lasting more than 7 days or severe (neutrophil count below 500 cells per μL. Among the usual sites of infection, we highlight the neutropenic enterocolitis and perianal infection as gastrointestinal complications of greater interest to the colorectal surgeon. Although most cases respond to conservative treatment, a portion of patients will need surgery for complete recovery. Resumo: Os pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas estão sujeitos a uma séria de complicações devido à imunossupressão. Infecção é umas das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade nesse grupo de doenças. A neutropenia febril é uma complicação frequente da própria doença onco-hematológica ou da quimioterapia, e apresenta pior prognóstico se prolongada (duração acima de 7 dias ou severa (contagem de neutrófilos inferior a 500 células por microlitro. Dentre os focos de infecção mais comuns destacamos a enterocolite neutropênica e a infecção perianal como complicações de maior interesse para o cirurgião colorretal. Apesar de grande parte dos casos apresentar boa resposta ao tratamento conservador, uma parcela de pacientes necessitará de cirurgia para completa recuperação. Keywords: Febrile neutropenia, Typhlitis, Anal canal, Palavras-chave: Neutropenia febril, Tiflite, Canal anal

  2. Could Neutrophil CD64 Expression Be Used as a Diagnostic Parameter of Bacteremia in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Efe İris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if neutrophil CD64 expression in febrile neutropenia patients could be used as an early indicator of bacteremia. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients older than 18 years of age who had developed febrile neutropenia episodes due to hematological malignancies were included in the study. Those patients who had significant growth in their blood cultures constituted the case group, while those who had febrile neutropenia without any growth in their cultures and who did not have any documented infections formed the control group. Blood culture bottles were incubated in the Bact ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France, identification and susceptibility testing were performed using an automated broth microdilution method (VITEK 2, bioMerieux, and CD64 expression analysis was performed by the flow cytometry method. C-reactive protein (CRP was measured by turbidimetric methods (Biosystems, Spain and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was measured by the Wintrobe method. Results: In total, we prospectively evaluated 31 febrile episodes. The case group consisted of 17 patients while the control group included 14 patients. CD64 was found on neutrophils of the case group patients with a mean count of 8006 molecules/cell and of control group with a mean count of 2786 molecules/cell. CD64 levels of the case group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p=0.005. In the differentiation of the case group from the control group, a 2500 cut-off value for CD64 had significant [AUC=0.792 (0.619-0.965] predictive value (p=0.001. In the prediction of patients with a 2500 cut-off value for CD64, sensitivity was 94.1%, positive predictive value was 76.2%, specificity was 64.3%, and negative predictive value was 90.0%. CRP levels and ESR values did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.005. Conclusion: Neutrophil CD64 expression could be a good predictor as an immune parameter with

  3. Clinical efficacy of cycling empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Koga, Yuhki; Nishio, Hisanori; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Kentaro; Takada, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study. Retrospective and prospective data collection were performed before and after antibiotic cycling, respectively. Between September 2011 and November 2012 (before antibiotic cycling was implemented), intravenous cefpirome was used as the empirical therapy for FN. Between December 2012 and February 2014 (after antibiotic cycling was implemented), the monthly antibiotic cycling involved intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ), intravenous meropenem or ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and intravenous cefepime in that order. For children aged ≥13 years, the monthly cycling involved intravenous PIPC/TAZ, and CPFX was administered. The detection rates for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in blood and stool culture samples decreased significantly after the implementation of antibiotic cycling (0.33/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p = 0.03; 1.00/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p Antibiotic cycling was associated with a decreased emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia with pegfilgrastim: pharmacokinetics and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Bing; Savin, Michael A; Green, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy are at risk for developing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN). Filgrastim, a recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) that stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and function of neutrophils, is approved for the prevention of CIN. To eliminate the burden of daily filgrastim injection, pegfilgrastim, a long-acting form of filgrastim, was developed by covalently attaching a 20-kDa polyethylene glycol molecule to filgrastim to increase molecular size and thus reduce renal elimination. Consequently, neutrophil-mediated clearance is the primary mechanism for pegfilgrastim elimination. Therefore, after a single pegfilgrastim injection following chemotherapy treatment, pegfilgrastim concentration is sustained during neutropenia and decreases with neutrophil recovery. Pegfilgrastim has received marketing authorization approval from many regions to reduce the incidence of CIN based on the similar efficacy and safety of a single injection of 6 mg of pegfilgrastim administered once per chemotherapy cycle and 10 to 11 daily injections of filgrastim at 5 µg/kg. The efficient self-regulating clearance of pegfilgrastim allows administration once per chemotherapy cycle, thereby providing a more convenient treatment regimen than filgrastim. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network on the use of myeloid growth factors with cancer chemotherapy: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Gary H

    2005-07-01

    The prophylactic use of myeloid growth factors reduces the risk of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications, including febrile neutropenia and infection-related mortality. Perhaps most importantly, the prophylactic use of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) has been shown to reduce the need for chemotherapy dose reductions and delays that may limit chemotherapy dose intensity, thereby increasing the potential for prolonged disease-free and overall survival in the curative setting. National surveys have shown that the majority of patients with potentially curable breast cancer or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) do not receive prophylactic CSF support. In this issue, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network presents guidelines for the use of myeloid growth factors in patients with cancer. These guidelines recommend a balanced clinical evaluation of the potential benefits and harms associated with chemotherapy to define the treatment intention, followed by a careful assessment of the individual patient's risk for febrile neutropenia and its complications. The decision to use prophylactic CSFs is then based on the patient's risk and potential benefit from such treatment. The routine prophylactic use of CSFs in patients receiving systemic chemotherapy is recommended in patients at high risk (>20%) of developing febrile neutropenia or related complications that may compromise treatment. Where compelling clinical indications are absent, the potential for CSF prophylaxis to reduce or offset costs by preventing hospitalization for FN should be considered. The clinical, economic, and quality of life data in support of these recommendations are reviewed, and important areas of ongoing research are highlighted.

  6. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of empirical teicoplanin in febrile neutropenia with persistent fever after imipenem monotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erjavec, Z; de Vries-Hospers, HG; Halie, RM; Daenen, S

    Glycopeptide antibiotics are used extensively in the empirical treatment of febrile patients with neutropenia. To come to a more rational and restricted application of these expensive drugs and to reduce the risk of emergence of resistance, we carried out a prospective, double-blinded,

  7. Canadian supportive care recommendations for the management of neutropenia in patients with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kouroukis, C.T.; Chia, S.; Verma, S.; Robson, D.; Desbiens, C.; Cripps, C.; Mikhael, J.

    2008-01-01

    Hematologic toxicities of cancer chemotherapy are common and often limit the ability to provide treatment in a timely and dose-intensive manner. These limitations may be of utmost importance in the adjuvant and curative intent settings. Hematologic toxicities may result in febrile neutropenia, infections, fatigue, and bleeding, all of which may lead to additional complications and prolonged hospitalization. The older cancer patient and patients with significant comorbidities may be at highest...

  8. Prediction of serious complications in patients with seemingly stable febrile neutropenia: validation of the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia in a prospective cohort of patients from the FINITE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Virizuela Echaburu, Juan; Antonio, Maite; Font, Carme; Biosca, Mercè; Ramchandani, Avinash; Martínez, Jerónimo; Hernando Cubero, Jorge; Espinosa, Javier; Martínez de Castro, Eva; Ghanem, Ismael; Beato, Carmen; Blasco, Ana; Garrido, Marcelo; Bonilla, Yaiza; Mondéjar, Rebeca; Arcusa Lanza, María Ángeles; Aragón Manrique, Isabel; Manzano, Aránzazu; Sevillano, Elena; Castañón, Eduardo; Cardona, Mercé; Gallardo Martín, Elena; Pérez Armillas, Quionia; Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco

    2015-02-10

    To validate a prognostic score predicting major complications in patients with solid tumors and seemingly stable episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN). The definition of clinical stability implies the absence of organ dysfunction, abnormalities in vital signs, and major infections. We developed the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE), with six explanatory variables associated with serious complications: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2 (2 points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1 point), chronic cardiovascular disease (1 point), mucositis of grade ≥ 2 (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria; 1 point), monocytes < 200 per μL (1 point), and stress-induced hyperglycemia (2 points). We integrated these factors into a score ranging from 0 to 8, which classifies patients into three prognostic classes: low (0 points), intermediate (1 to 2 points), and high risk (≥ 3 points). We present a multicenter validation of CISNE. We prospectively recruited 1,133 patients with seemingly stable FN from 25 hospitals. Complication rates in the training and validation subsets, respectively, were 1.1% and 1.1% in low-, 6.1% and 6.2% in intermediate-, and 32.5% and 36% in high-risk patients; mortality rates within each class were 0% in low-, 1.6% and 0% in intermediate-, and 4.3% and 3.1% in high-risk patients. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves in the validation subset were 0.652 (95% CI, 0.598 to 0.703) for Talcott, 0.721 (95% CI, 0.669 to 0.768) for Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), and 0.868 (95% CI, 0.827 to 0.903) for CISNE (P = .002 for comparison between CISNE and MASCC). CISNE is a valid model for accurately classifying patients with cancer with seemingly stable FN episodes. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of voriconazole vs. caspofungin in the empirical antifungal therapy of febrile neutropenia in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Liew, Danny; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2012-05-01

    In two major clinical trials, voriconazole and caspofungin were recommended as alternatives to liposomal amphotericin B for empirical use in febrile neutropenia. This study investigated the health economic impact of using voriconazole vs. caspofungin in patients with febrile neutropenia. A decision analytic model was developed to measure downstream consequences of empirical antifungal therapy. Clinical outcomes measured were success, breakthrough infection, persistent base-line infection, persistent fever, premature discontinuation and death. Treatment transition probabilities and patterns were directly derived from data in two relevant randomised controlled trials. Resource use was estimated using an expert clinical panel. Cost inputs were obtained from latest Australian sources. The analysis adopted the perspective of the Australian hospital system. The use of caspofungin led to a lower expected mean cost per patient than voriconazole (AU$40,558 vs. AU$41,356), with a net cost saving of AU$798 (1.9%) per patient. Results were most sensitive to the duration of therapy and the alternative therapy used post-discontinuation. In uncertainty analysis, the cost associated with caspofungin is less than that with voriconazole in 65.5% of cases. This is the first economic evaluation of voriconazole vs. caspofungin for empirical therapy. Caspofungin appears to have a higher probability of having cost-savings than voriconazole for empirical therapy. The difference between the two medications does not seem to be statistically significant however. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Is the addition of aminoglycosides to beta-lactams in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia needed?

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Contreras; Sebastián Sepúlveda; Ana Heredia

    2016-01-01

    En pacientes con cáncer que se presentan con neutropenia febril existe controversia sobre si es mejor utilizar una combinación de antibióticos betalactámicos y aminoglicósidos o si bastaría la monoterapia con betalactámicos de amplio espectro como tratamiento empírico inicial. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 14 estudios aleatorizados pertinentes a esta p...

  11. The time has come for new models in febrile neutropenia: a practical demonstration of the inadequacy of the MASCC score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Bayonas, A; Jiménez-Fonseca, P; Virizuela Echaburu, J; Sánchez Cánovas, M; Ayala de la Peña, F

    2017-09-01

    Since its publication more than 15 years ago, the MASCC score has been internationally validated any number of times and recommended by most clinical practice guidelines for the management of febrile neutropenia (FN) around the world. We have used an empirical data-supported simulated scenario to demonstrate that, despite everything, the MASCC score is impractical as a basis for decision-making. A detailed analysis of reasons supporting the clinical irrelevance of this model is performed. First, seven of its eight variables are "innocent bystanders" that contribute little to selecting low-risk candidates for ambulatory management. Secondly, the training series was hardly representative of outpatients with solid tumors and low-risk FN. Finally, the simultaneous inclusion of key variables both in the model and in the outcome explains its successful validation in various series of patients. Alternative methods of prognostic classification, such as the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia, have been specifically validated for patients with solid tumors and should replace the MASCC model in situations of clinical uncertainty.

  12. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in HIV-infected and uninfected patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Ngidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN can result in poor tolerance of chemotherapy, leading to dose reductions, delays in therapy schedules, morbidity and mortality. Actively identifying predisposing risk factors before treatment is of paramount importance. We hypothesised that chemotherapy is associated with a greater increase in CIN and its complications in HIV-infected patients than in those who are not infected. Objective. To establish the incidence of CIN in HIV-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods. A retrospective chart review and analysis was conducted in the oncology departments at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital and Addington Hospital, Durban, South Africa. The study population consisted of 65 previously untreated women of all ages with stage II - IV breast cancer and known HIV status treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from January 2012 to December 2015. Results. HIV-infected patients formed 32.3% of the group, and 95.2% of them were on antiretroviral therapy. The mean age (standard deviation (SD of the cohort was 48.5 (13.2 years (40.6 (9.6 years for the HIV-infected group v. 52.0 (13.1 years for the uninfected group; p<0.001. Ninety-five neutropenia episodes were observed (rate 0.85 per 1 year of follow-up time. Following multivariate adjustment, patients with HIV infection were almost two times more likely to develop CIN (hazard ratio (HR 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06 - 2.92; p=0.029. A high baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 - 0.95; p=0.005 remained significantly associated with protection against CIN. Conclusions. HIV-infected patients were younger than those who were not infected, and presented at a more locally advanced stage of disease. HIV infection was an independent predictor for CIN. HIV-infected patients had an almost two-fold increased risk of developing CIN and developed neutropenia at a much faster rate. A high baseline white cell

  13. Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena

    2017-01-01

    show for the first time that bismuth significantly reduces grade 2 stomatitis, febrile neutropenia and infections caused by melphalan in multiple myeloma, where adverse effects also were significantly linked to gender. In lymphoma patients, bismuth significantly reduces diarrhoea relative to placebo......PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis in chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia among breast cancer and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients under Taiwan's national health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tsun-Jen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Chien, Chun-Ru; Chiang, Shao-Chin; Hsu, William Wei-Yuan; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The beneficial effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis on reducing the risk of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (CIFN) were well documented throughout the literature. However, existing data regarding its cost-effectiveness were conflicting. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of G-CSF prophylaxis in CIFN under Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) system. Data on clinical outcomes and direct medical costs were derived for 5179 newly diagnosed breast cancer and 629 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients from the NHI claims database. Patients were further categorized into three subgroups as "primary-", "secondary-" and "no -" prophylaxis based on their patterns of G-CSF use. Generalized estimating equations were applied to estimate the impact of G-CSF use on the incidence of CIFN. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of primary and secondary prophylactic G-CSF use were calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed. Primary prophylaxis of G-CSF decreased the incidence of CIFN by 27% and 83%, while secondary prophylaxis by 34% and 22% in breast cancer and NHL patients, respectively. Compared with those with no prophylaxis, the incremental cost per CIFN reduced in primary prophylaxis is $931 and $52 among patients with breast cancer and NHL, respectively. In contrast, secondary prophylaxis is dominated by no prophylaxis and primary prophylaxis in both cancer patients. Primary but not secondary prophylactic use of G-CSF was cost-effective in CIFN in breast cancer and NHL patients under Taiwan's NHI system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Distribution of pathogens in central line-associated bloodstream infections among patients with and without neutropenia following chemotherapy: evidence for a proposed modification to the current surveillance definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, James P; Robichaux, Chad; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Reyes, Mary Dent; Jacob, Jesse T

    2013-02-01

    Many bloodstream infections (BSIs) occurring in patients with febrile neutropenia following cytotoxic chemotherapy are due to translocation of intestinal microbiota. However, these infections meet the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition of central line-associated BSIs (CLABSIs). We sought to determine the differences in the microbiology of NHSN-defined CLABSIs in patients with and without neutropenia and, using these data, to propose a modification of the CLABSI definition. Retrospective review. Two large university hospitals over 18 months. All hospital-acquired BSIs occurring in patients with central venous catheters in place were classified using the NHSN CLABSI definition. Patients with postchemotherapy neutropenia (500 neutrophils/mm(3) or lower) at the time of blood culture were considered neutropenic. Pathogens overrepresented in the neutropenic group were identified to inform development of a modified CLABSI definition. Organisms that were more commonly observed in the neutropenic group compared with the nonneutropenic group included Escherichia coli (22.7% vs 2.5%; P definition (removing BSI with enterococci, streptococci, or E. coli) excluded 33 of 66 neutropenic CLABSIs and decreased the CLABSI rate in one study hospital with large transplant and oncology populations from 2.12 to 1.79 cases per 1,000 line-days. Common gastrointestinal organisms were more common in the neutropenia group, suggesting that many BSIs meeting the NHSN criteria for CLABSI in the setting of neutropenia may represent translocation of gut organisms. These findings support modification of the NHSN CLABSI definition.

  16. Management of Infection and Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Solid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, José María; Cruz, Juan Jesús; Virizuela, Juan Antonio; Aguilar, Manuela; Carmona, Alberto; Cassinello, Javier; Gudiol, Carlota; Jiménez Fonseca, Paula; Lizasoain, Manuel; Marco, Francesc; Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz, Maribel; Salavert, Miguel; Vicente, David; Carratalà, Jordi

    A group of experts from the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) have reviewed in this paper the main aspects to be considered in the evaluation of patients with solid cancer and infectious diseases. They have established a series of recommendations on the prevention of the most prevalent infections in these patients, the use of vaccines, the control measures of vascular catheter infection and prevention of infections before certain surgical procedures. Also the criteria for management of febrile neutropenia and the use of colony-stimulating factors were revised. Finally they provide a series of recommendations for the treatment of cancer patients with severe infection. The document is completed with a series of measures for the control of hospital infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Family caring strategies in neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Sandra K; Krumwiede, Norma; Meiers, Sonja J; Bliesmer, Mary; Earle, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Aggressive chemotherapy protocols result in neutropenia in approximately half of all patients receiving chemotherapy. Thus, neutropenia continues to be a significant and potentially life-threatening side effect of treatment, even with use of colony-stimulating factors. Families of patients with neutropenia often provide the primary healing environment because most chemotherapy protocols are managed on an outpatient basis. To learn about the family's experience of managing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN), a grounded-theory methodology was used to analyze data from seven families. The central theme revealed by these families was "turbulent waiting with intensified connections." This meant that when families had a sense of greater vulnerability in response to the waiting after diagnosis of CIN, they connected intensely with each other and healthcare providers. Families reported that connections with nurses became more significant when neutropenia interrupted chemotherapy. Families also developed family caring strategies to manage this period of waiting for the chemotherapy to resume. These strategies included family inquiry, family vigilance, and family balancing. Nurses need to be aware of approaches to support the family's ability to manage CIN. Interventions and approaches constructed from the perspective of a family-professional partnership will enhance the family cancer experience as well as ongoing family growth and function.

  18. [Clinical Investigation of the Effects of Filgrastim BS1 on Neutropenia Following Oral Cancer Chemotherapy (TPF Therapy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kimio; Yamada, Manabu; Tamate, Shusuke; Iwasaki, Konomi; Mitomo, Keisuke; Nakayama, Seiichi

    2015-09-01

    The time for the neutrophil count to recover after subcutaneous injection of filgrastim BS1 or lenograstim was studied in patients suffering from neutropenia following preoperative combined chemotherapy using docetaxel, nedaplatin, or cisplatin (in divided doses for 5 days)and 5-fluorouracil for oral cancer. 1. There was no significant difference in the minimum leukocyte and neutrophil counts after chemotherapy. 2. There was no significant difference in the maximum leukocyte and neutrophil counts after chemotherapy. 3. Time for leukocytes to recover from their minimum count(>4,000/mm3)or for neutrophils to recover from their minimum count(>2,000/mm3)and the number of days on which treatment was administered tended to be shorter in the filgrastim BS1 group. Thus, it was concluded that filgrastim BS1 is just as effective as other prior G-CSF agents in treating patients suffering from neutropenia following chemotherapy(TPF therapy).

  19. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Ishihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  20. Clinical Assessment of Sarcopenia and Changes in Body Composition During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Ohue, Masayuki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Tomokuni, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yano, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and investigate whether chemotherapy-related toxicities affect body composition in patients with esophageal cancer. In ninety-four patients who underwent NAC for esophageal cancer, body composition was assessed before and after NAC. Associations between the incidence of toxicities and change in body composition during NAC were investigated. Forty-four (46.8%) and 50 (53.2%) out of 94 patients were defined as having sarcopenia before and after NAC, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any toxicity pre-treatment between patients with sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia. No significant reduction in skeletal muscle mass or fat mass was observed in the patients during NAC (p=0.501 and p=0.072). However, patients who experienced grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia during NAC showed a significantly larger decrease in change of skeletal muscle mass compared to patients who did not experience those toxicities (p=0.013 and 0.036, respectively). The incidence of serious adverse events such as febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia is associated with a significant reduction of skeletal muscle mass during NAC. We should make an effort to reduce the incidence of adverse events in order to maintain an appropriate body composition during NAC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia on quality of life: a prospective pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Barry V; Schwartzberg, Lee; Tauer, Kurt; Houts, Arthur C; Hackett, James; Stolshek, Brad S

    2005-07-01

    In this exploratory, prospective study evaluated quality of life (QoL) changes in patients with diverse cancers during the first cycle of myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Of 80 patients enrolled, 71 were observed during one of five chemotherapy regimens: docetaxel; CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone); carboplatin-paclitaxel; carboplatin-docetaxel; and carboplatin-gemcitabine. Complete blood counts were taken weekly. QoL and symptom burden measures were administered at baseline and throughout the cycle, and included SF-36, Cancer Care Monitor (CCM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS). Using generalized estimating equations, we modeled the change in each measure from baseline to the end of each week using the following covariates: baseline QoL measure, baseline SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary scores, sex, age, cycle week, grade 4 neutropenia any time in the past 7 days (yes/no), and the interaction of the latter two covariates. Of the 71 patients observed, 33 developed grade 4 neutropenia during the first 2 weeks. Changes from baseline in SF-36 Bodily Pain, HADS Anxiety, and PAIS Social Environment scores were significantly less favorable (P<0.05) when patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia any time in the past 7 days compared to when they did not (grade 0-3). A similar, but non-significant, trend was also observed for 12 other QoL measures. QoL may be adversely affected up to 7 days after patients experience grade 4 (versus grade 0-3) neutropenia. Such findings need to be examined further in studies with adequate statistical power to test a priori hypotheses regarding specific QoL measures.

  2. Risk Adapted Management of Febrile Neutrepenia and Early Cessation of Empirical Antibiotherapy in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hakan Kaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment option for many haematological disorders. Infection following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is one of the major causes of mortality. Aims: To investigate the outcomes of early cessation of empirical antibiotic treatment per protocol in febrile neutropenia patients who have undergone haematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our clinic. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The present study retrospectively evaluated febrile neutropenia attacks in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients during the period June 2014 - January 2015 at our haematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinic. Results: A total of 72 febrile neutropenia attacks were evaluated in 53 patients. In 46 febrile neutropenia attacks, microbiologic cultures revealed positive results. In culture-positive febrile neutropenia episodes a single bacterium was isolated in 32 cases and multiple strains were isolated in 14. In 15 patients, empirical antibiotic therapy was discontinued after 72 hours. These patients were clinically stable, without evident focus of infection and had negative culture results. Only 4 recurrent episodes were observed (27% after cessation of antibiotherapy. No patient died as a result of recurrent infection. The 30-day and 100-day post-transplantation mortality rates of patients with febrile neutropenia episodes were 11.3% (6/53 and 3.8% (2/53, respectively. Infection-related 30-day and 100-day mortality rates were 7.5% (4/53 and 0% (0/53, respectively. Conclusion: The main message of our study is that early cessation of empirical antibiotherapy seems to be feasible in eligible patients without increasing febrile neutropenia mortality rates

  3. Management of infection during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based survey by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Hosono, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Hatsumi, Naoko; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Miyatake, Junichi; Handa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Nobu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Minoru; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The results were compared to those of previous surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007, and also to the recommendations described in the guidelines. Usable responses were received from 141 out of 222 (63.5%) institutions. Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia was performed in protective environment in 90% of the institutions, which increased compared to previous survey (76%). Fluoroquinolones and fluconazole were the most commonly used antimicrobial agents for antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis, followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and itraconazole, respectively. In empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, monotherapy with β-lactum antibiotics was the first-line therapy in most of the institutions. While empirical antifungal therapy was adopted for persistent fever in more than half of the institutions, preemptive/presumptive therapy was also used in approximately 40% of the institutions. Most of the clinicians were reluctant to use granulocyte-colony stimulating factor routinely in chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. This study clarified the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia and would provide important information for the development of a suitable guideline in Japan.

  4. Fatal Candida septic shock during systemic chemotherapy in lung cancer patient receiving corticosteroid replacement therapy for hypopituitarism. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morichika, Daisuke; Sato-Hisamoto, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis has increased as nosocomial infection recently in cancer patients who receive systemic chemotherapy, and the timely risk assessment for developing such specific infection is crucial. Especially in those concomitantly with hypopituitarism, febrile neutropenia with candidiasis can cause severe stress and lead potentially to sudden fatal outcome when the temporal steroid coverage for the adrenal insufficiency is not fully administered. We report a 72-year-old male case diagnosed as non-small-cell lung cancer, Stage 3A. He had received a steroid replacement therapy for the prior history of hypophysectomy due to pituitary adenoma with hydrocortisone of 3.3 mg/day, equivalent to prednisolone of 0.8 mg/day. This very small dosage of steroid was hardly supposed to weaken his immune system, but rather potentially led to an inappropriate supplementation of his adrenal function, assuming that the serum sodium and chlorine levels decreased. On Day 6 of second cycle of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, he developed sudden febrile neutropenia, septic shock and ileus, leading to death. After his death, the venous blood culture on Day 7 detected Candida albicans. Autopsy findings showed a massive necrotizing enterocolitis with extensive Candida invasion into submucous tissue. In conclusion, this case may suggest that (1) immediate initiation of antifungal therapy soon after the careful risk assessment of Candida infection and (2) adequate administration of both basal steroid replacement therapy and temporal steroid coverage for febrile neutropenia might have improved his fatal outcome. (author)

  5. Tratamiento antibiótico oral versus intravenosopara la neutropenia febril en pacientes con cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Conclusiones de los autores: Según los datos actuales, el tratamiento oral es una opción aceptable al tratamiento con antibióticos intravenosos en los pacientes con cáncer con neutropenia febril (se excluye a los pacientes con leucemia aguda hemodinámicamente estables, sin insuficiencia orgánica y sin neumonía, infección de una vía central o infección grave de partes blandas. El IC amplio en la mortalidad permite el uso actual del tratamiento oral en grupos de pacientes con bajo riesgo de mortalidad esperado y los estudios de investigación adicionales deben tener como objetivo aclarar la definición de pacientes con bajo riesgo.

  6. Microorganisms isolated from cultures and infection focus and antibiotic treatments in febrile neutropenic children from Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Z Canan; Koç, Ahmet; Ayçiçek, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia predisposes patients to life threatening infections. We aimed to determine the causative microorganisms, infection focus and antibiotic treatment success in febrile neutropenic children with leukemia. A total of 136 febrile neutropenic episodes in 48 leukemic children were reviewed retrospectively from records. Among 136 febrile neutropenic episodes, 68 (50%) episodes were microbiologically documented. Methicillin sensitive coagulase (-) Staphylococcus aureus were the most common isolates from hemoculture (20.5%). The most frequently documented infection focus was mucositis (31.9%). Ceftazidime plus amikacin was the most commonly used antimicrobial treatment for the empirical therapy (52.9%). The overall response rates were 70.5%, 86.9%, and 66.6% of first line, second line and third line therapies, respectively. The spectrum of isolates among febrile neutropenic children in our hematology clinic appears to be gram positive pathogens which are the most common agents. Therefore the, documentation of the flora in each unit could help to decide appropriate empirical therapy which is life saving.

  7. Bacteriemia asociada a neutropenia febril en pacientes hemato-oncológicos, su espectro bacteriano y patrón de susceptibilidad antibiótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Johanna Hinojosa-Andía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes y de mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en los pacientes hematológicos. Su documentación microbiológica es una herramienta invaluable para el manejo; sin embargo, la cambiante tendencia en etiología de la bacteriemia y el patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana comprometen la tasa de respuesta a los esquemas de tratamiento empírico. Objetivo: Determinar la etiología de bacteriemia en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas y neutropenia febril, su patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y el grado de resistencia vigente a los medicamentos comúnmente utilizados en esquemas empíricos de manejo. Material y métodos: Se revisaron datos microbiológicos de las historias clínicas de pacientes hematológicos, hospitalizados en el HNERM entre diciembre 2010 y marzo 2012; que habían presentado neutropenia febril y bacteriemia concurrente. La información se analizó con el paquete estadístico STATA v. 10 y se empleó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: La bacteriemia fue predominantemente por bacterias gram negativas (75,9% y post consolidación de LMA con Ara-C por gram positivas (63,6%. La mortalidad de pacientes post reinducción con bacteriemia fue 75% y se asoció a Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE+ en 31,2%. Conclusiones: Gérmenes gram negativos fueron la etiología más frecuente de bacteriemia en la población estudiada, particularmente en pacientes que recibieron quimioterapia de reinducción, donde se vio la mayor frecuencia de bacteriemia con mayor resistencia y asociados a mayor mortalidad. Posterior a quimioterapia de consolidación con Citarabina en altas dosis para LMA, resultó más frecuente la bacteriemia a gram positivos. Carbapenems y Amoxicilina/Clavulánico mostraron considerable menor resistencia que cefalosporinas y fluoroquinolonas.

  8. Central line-associated bloodstream infections in adult hematology patients with febrile neutropenia: an evaluation of surveillance definitions using differential time to blood culture positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua T; Elinder-Camburn, Anna; McClymont, Catherine; Anderson, Deverick J; Bilkey, Mary; Williamson, Deborah A; Berkahn, Leanne; Roberts, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    We used differential time to positivity between central and peripheral blood cultures to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) surveillance definition among hematology patients with febrile neutropenia. The PPV was 27.7%, which suggests that, when the definition is applied to this population, CLABSI rates will be substantially overestimated.

  9. [Cytokines in cancer chemotherapy: present state and problems in use of G- and GM-CSF for solid tumors in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, M

    1998-01-01

    The present state and the problems of G and GM-CSF in cancer chemotherapy, especially for solid tumors in Japan, were reviewed. One of the problems is that adaptation is restricted to several tumors, and the other that recommended doses are about half or one-fourth as much as in North America or Europe. With G-CSF after dose-intensive chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer, three studies showed G-CSF shortened the duration of neutropenia, and reduced the incidence of neutropenic fever, use of antibiotics and hospitalization, while they showed no advantages in terms of response rate and the incidence of infection-related death. Moreover, the effect on survival has not been proved. In afebrile neutropenic patients, G-CSF could accelerate recovery from neutropenia, but did not reduce the incidence of neutropenic fever. In febrile neutropenic patients with antibiotics, it could also accelerate recovery from neutropenia, but did not reduce neutropenic fever compared with no CSF except in some subsets. Our retrospective study showed the effects of G-CSF in grade 4 neutropenia were comparable with grade 3 neutropenia. The functions of neutrophils with G-CSF after chemotherapy were reported to be increased or maintained. Clinical benefits were only obtained in certain dose-intensive chemotherapy or in limited subsets. Additional clinical trials and a guideline like ASCO's should be planned.

  10. Long-term epidemiology of bacterial susceptibility profiles in adults suffering from febrile neutropenia with hematologic malignancy after antibiotic change

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    J Mebis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available J Mebis1,2, H Jansens3, G Minalu4, G Molenberghs4, WA Schroyens1, AP Gadisseur1, A van de Velde1, I Vrelust1, H Goossens3, ZN Berneman11Division of Hematology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, 2Division of Medical Oncology, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, 3Division of Microbiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, 4Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Hasselt University, Hasselt, BelgiumObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and antibiotic ­susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial organisms in relation to empiric treatment of neutropenic fever over a 15-year period.Methods: All patients with or at risk febrile neutropenia and treated in the hematology ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during 1994–2008 were prospectively included. Skin, blood, and urine cultures were taken. Oral quinolone prophylaxis was started in patients with neutropenia without fever. Empiric starting therapy consisted of amikacin in combination with cefepime.Results: A total of 3624 bacteria were isolated. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (46%, followed by Escherichia coli (25%, Enterobacteriaceae (15.6%, Staphylococcus aureus (7.2%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.8%. The balance between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria remained stable, with a majority of Gram-positive bacteria. A shift from oxacillin-sensitive to oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci was observed. Regarding susceptibility patterns, no vancomycin resistance was detected in coagulase-negative Staphylococci or in S. aureus. The E. coli susceptibility rates remained stable. However, 66% of bloodstream infections were ciprofloxacin-resistant. A reduced susceptibility of P. aeruginosa strains to meropenem was noticed.Conclusions: Improvement in antibiotic susceptibility of inducible Enterobacteriaceae ­following a switch of empiric antibiotic therapy was maintained 15 years

  11. Performance of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 serum levels in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever for the assessment of low-risk

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    Kontny Udo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and fever are usually hospitalized and treated on empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early diagnosis of sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia remains difficult due to non-specific clinical and laboratory signs of infection. We aimed to analyze whether IL-6 and IL-8 could define a group of patients at low risk of septicemia. Methods A prospective study was performed to assess the potential value of IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein serum levels to predict severe bacterial infection or bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children with cancer during chemotherapy. Statistical test used: Friedman test, Wilcoxon-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Receiver Operating Characteristics. Results The analysis of cytokine levels measured at the onset of fever indicated that IL-6 and IL-8 are useful to define a possible group of patients with low risk of sepsis. In predicting bacteremia or severe bacterial infection, IL-6 was the best predictor with the optimum IL-6 cut-off level of 42 pg/ml showing a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (85%. Conclusion These findings may have clinical implications for risk-based antimicrobial treatment strategies.

  12. Co-administration of dexamethasone increases severity and accelerates onset day of neutropenia in bladder cancer patients on methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin chemotherapy: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shingo; Suga, Yukio; Hara, Yusuke; Izumi, Kouji; Maeda, Yuji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ishizaki, Junko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Mizokami, Atsushi; Sai, Yoshimichi

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer patients receiving methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin (MVAC) chemotherapy are co-administered with dexamethasone as an anti-emetic. We examined whether or not dexamethasone affects the severity and onset day of MVAC-induced severe neutropenia. This was a retrospective study of bladder cancer patients treated with MVAC chemotherapy with or without dexamethasone as an antiemetic at Kanazawa University Hospital during January 2005 - December 2009. Patients were categorized into three groups; no dexamethasone use (Dex (-)), dexamethasone on day 2 (Dex 1 day), and dexamethasone on days 2, 3 and 4 (Dex multiday). We evaluated the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia and the day of onset of first severe neutropenic episode during the first course of MVAC chemotherapy. Logistic regression was used to investigate whether co-administration of dexamethasone was a risk factor for severe neutropenia. Episodes of grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 3 out of 6 (50.0%), 11 out of 12 (91.7%) and 6 out of 6 (100%) patients in the Dex (-), Dex 1 day, and Dex multiday groups, respectively. The appearance day of first severe neutropenia in the Dex multiday group (13.2 ± 1.0) was significantly accelerated compared to the Dex (-) group (17.7 ± 2.1). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that dexamethasone is a risk factor for severe neutropenia (OR 17.0; 95%CI: 1.3-223.1). Co-administration of dexamethasone for anti-emesis brings forward the first appearance of neutropenia, and increases the severity of neutropenia, in bladder cancer patients receiving MVAC chemotherapy.

  13. Folate deficiency in north Indian children undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia-Implications and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Moulik, Nirmalya; Kumar, Archana; Agrawal, Suraksha; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2018-01-01

    Treatment-related toxicity and mortality are not uncommon during maintenance chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are commonly seen in children from LMICs undergoing treatment for ALL. The present study examines the prevalence and clinical implications of folate deficiency in north Indian children with ALL during the maintenance phase of treatment in view of prolonged antifolate treatment and high population prevalence of folate deficiency. Pre-cycle folate levels/deficiency as well as weight for age z-score and serum albumin level were determined and correlated with complications of treatment and mortality encountered during the maintenance phase of treatment. Twenty-nine of 52 children enrolled in the study had folate deficiency at some point during maintenance chemotherapy. Neutropenia (18 of 29 vs. 4 of 23; P = 0.002), thrombocytopenia (17 of 29 vs. 4 of 23; P = 0.005), febrile neutropenia (17 of 29 vs. 4 of 23; P = 0.005), and need for chemotherapy dose reduction (20 of 29 vs. 7 of 21; P = 0.01) were more common in folate-deficient children. Maintenance deaths were higher (8 of 29 vs. 1 of 23; P = 0.03) and survival lower (P = 0.02) in deficient children. In multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia (P = 0.02) and folate deficiency (P = 0.01) were associated with febrile neutropenia, and folate deficiency with maintenance deaths (P = 0.03). Folate deficiency was associated with treatment-related complications and adverse outcome in our patients. The risks and benefits of folate supplementation in deficient children during maintenance chemotherapy need to be explored with properly designed randomized studies in similar settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negatives isolated from bacteremia in children with cancer. Implications for empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Caviglia, Ilaria; Pescetto, Luisa; Bagnasco, Francesca; Haupt, Riccardo; Bandettini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Monotherapy is recommended as the first choice for initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia, but local epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility data are now considered pivotal to design a correct management strategy. To evaluate the proportion of Gram-negative rods isolated in bloodstream infections in children with cancer resistant to antibiotics recommended for this indication. The in vitro susceptibility to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem and amikacin of Gram-negatives isolated in bacteremic episodes in children with cancer followed at the Istituto "Giannina Gaslini", Genoa, Italy in the period of 2001-2013 was retrospectively analyzed using the definitions recommended by EUCAST in 2014. Data were analyzed for any single drug and to the combination of amikacin with each β-lactam. The combination was considered effective in absence of concomitant resistance to both drugs, and not evaluated by means of in vitro analysis of antibiotic combinations (e.g., checkerboard). A total of 263 strains were evaluated: 27% were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, 23% to ceftazidime, 12% to meropenem and 13% to amikacin. Concomitant resistance to β-lactam and amikacin was detected in 6% of strains for piperacillin-tazobactam, 5% for ceftazidime and 5% for meropenem. During the study period there was a nonsignificant increase in the proportions of strains resistant to β-lactams indicated for monotherapy, and also increase in the resistance to combined therapies. in an era of increasing resistance to antibiotics guideline-recommended monotherapy could be not appropriate for initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia. Strict local survey on etiology and antibiotic susceptibility is mandatory for a correct management of this complication in cancer patients.

  15. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

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    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  16. Gene polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia in acute leukemia--no association with IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RA, but the MBL-2, ACE, and TLR-4 are associated with the disease in Turkish patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Mustafa; Sahin, Handan Haydaroğlu; Ozdilli, Kurşat; Onay, Hüseyin; Ozcan, Ali; Ozkinay, Ferda; Pehlivan, Sacide

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL-2), interleukin (IL)-4, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) gene polymorphisms (GPs) in acute leukemias (ALs) and to evaluate their roles in febrile neutropenia (FN) resulting from chemotherapy. The study included 60 AL patients hospitalized between the period of July 2001 and August 2006. Polymorphisms for the genes ACE(I/D), CCR-5, IL-1RA, MBL-2, TLR-4, and IL-4 were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymerase. Genotype frequencies for these genes were compared in the patient and control groups. The relationships between the genotypes and the body distribution of infections, pathogens, the duration of neutropenia, and febrile episodes in AL patients were evaluated. No significant differences in either the genotype distribution or the allelic frequencies of TLR-4, IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RN GPs were observed between patients and healthy controls. The AB/BB genotype (53.3%) in the MBL-2 gene was found to be significantly higher in the AL patients compared with control groups. There were correlations between the presence of MBL-2, TLR-4, and ACE polymorphisms and clinical parameters due to FN. Overall, bacteremia was more common in MBL BB and ACE DD. Gram-positive bacteremia was more common in ACE for ID versus DD genotype. Gram-negative bacteremia was more common for both the MBL-2 AB/BB genotype and TLR-4 AG genotype. Median durations of febrile episodes were significantly shorter in ACE DD and MBL AB/BB. Although TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 GPs have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs. As a conclusion, TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 genes might play roles in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs.

  17. High-risk febrile neutropenia in Auckland 2003-2004: the influence of the microbiology laboratory on patient treatment and the use of pathogen-specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S; Palmer, S; Ellis-Pegler, R

    2007-01-01

    International guidelines recommend routine microbiological assessment of patients with febrile neutropenia, but do not recommend a change from broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy to pathogen-specific therapy when a clinically relevant organism has been isolated. The aim of the study was to determine the aetiology of febrile neutropenia in adult haematology patients at Auckland City Hospital, to document the changes in treatment made following isolation of a clinically relevant organism and to assess adverse outcomes in any patient who received pathogen-specific therapy after a positive culture result. The results of all microbiological tests together with antibiotic therapy were recorded from consecutive patients with fever and a neutrophil count cultures in 40 episodes: Gram-positive cocci accounted for 46% of isolates and Gram-negative bacilli for 35%. Isolation of a pathogen from blood cultures resulted in a change of treatment in 25 of 40 (62.5%, 95%CI 46-77%) episodes. In 12 of these episodes, antibiotic therapy was optimized to a single pathogen-specific agent. No adverse events or subsequent changes in antibiotic therapy occurred in any of these 12 patients. Isolation of a pathogen from specimens other than blood seldom led to a change in therapy. Isolation of a pathogen from blood cultures often allows antibiotic therapy to be simplified to a pathogen-specific regimen. Further study of this approach is warranted.

  18. [A multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase Ⅳ clinical study of PEG-rhG-CSF for preventing chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z F; Xu, F R; Fan, J; Li, B J; Gao, J N; Hu, J W; Wang, X J; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J H; Li, F; Liu, Q; Liu, Y H; Wang, S; Wang, Y S; Ouyang, Q C; Hu, B; Sun, G P; Zhang, Y; Zang, A M; Fan, P Z; Wu, C P; Liu, J; Zhang, H W; Wang, W; Hu, X C; Tang, L L; Zhang, J; Bao, Y Y; Geng, C Z; Sun, Q; Zhang, F; Yin, Y M; Jiang, H C; An, Y H

    2018-04-24

    Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycal recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) in preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patiens with breast cancer. Methods: There were two parts in the present phase Ⅳ clinical study. One was a randomized, controlled clinical study. Patients in this study received PEG-rhG-CSF or rhG-CSF in the first cycle and followed with both PEG-rhG-CSF in the rest of 3 cycles. The other one was a single arm study. Patients who developed Ⅲ/Ⅳ grade neutropenia in the screening cycle received PEG-rhG-CSF in the rest of 3 cycles chemotherapy. Results: In the first cycle of randomized, controlled study, the incidence of Ⅳ grade neutropenia are 31.48% and 35.58% respectively in PEG-rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF group, with no statistically significant differences ( P =0.527 6). The duration of Ⅳ grade neutropenia respectively are 2.22±1.58 and 3.00±1.59 days, with a statistically significant difference ( P =0.016 6). In the single arm study, the incidence of Ⅳ grade neutropenia was 57.76% in screening cycle. And the incidence decreased to 16.35%, 10%, and 8.57% in the followed 3 cycle after the use of PEG-rhG-CSF. The incidence of adverse effects was 5.06%, and the major adverse effect was bone pain which with an incidence of 2.8%. Conclusion: The fixed 6mg dose of PEG-rhG-CSF can effectively prevent neutropenia in patients with breast cancer in multicycle chemotherapy and it has a low incidence of adverse events and mild adverse reaction.

  19. Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

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    Wilfried Tröger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF. A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30 vs. control (n = 31. Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30. Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/µl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle.Results: In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02 and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182.Conclusions: This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group.

  20. Factores de mal pronóstico en pacientes internados con Neutropenia al inicio del episodio febril Prognostic risk factors for serious complications in an inpatient population with neutropenia at the onset of a febrile episode

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    Carlos Gómez Roca

    2006-10-01

    and 4% were not associated with chemotherapy. Sixty seven adverse events were registered (46% renal insufficiency, 27% refractory hypotension, 15% respiratory insufficiency and 12% major bleeding. Significant differences were found in presence of current co-morbidities, body temperature >39 °C, heart rate >120 beats per minute, respiratory rate >24 per minute, systolic blood pressure 24 per minute (OR=2.8, p=0.01, and the presence of a clinical site of infection (OR=2.1, p=0.03. The presence of systolic hypotension, high respiratory rate, current co-morbidities and a clinical site of infection at the time of admission were identified predictors of subsequent serious complications in patients admitted with fever and neutropenia in a general ward.

  1. Efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim: a randomized, multicenter, active-control phase 3 trial in patients with breast cancer receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, Igor; Gladkov, Oleg A; Elsaesser, Reiner; Buchner, Anton; Bias, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Lipegfilgrastim is a novel glyco-pegylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in development for neutropenia prophylaxis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This phase III, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy and safety of lipegfilgrastim versus pegfilgrastim in chemotherapy-naïve breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy. Patients with high-risk stage II, III, or IV breast cancer and an absolute neutrophil count ≥1.5 × 10 9 cells/L were randomized to a single 6-mg subcutaneous injection of lipegfilgrastim (n = 101) or pegfilgrastim (n = 101) on day 2 of each 21-day chemotherapy cycle (4 cycles maximum). The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia during cycle 1. Cycle 1: The mean duration of severe neutropenia for the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups was 0.7 and 0.8 days, respectively (λ = −0.218 [95% confidence interval: –0.498%, 0.062%], p = 0.126), and no severe neutropenia was observed in 56% and 49% of patients in the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. All cycles: In the efficacy population, febrile neutropenia occurred in three pegfilgrastim-treated patients (all in cycle 1) and zero lipegfilgrastim-treated patients. Drug-related adverse events in the safety population were reported in 28% and 26% of patients i006E the lipegfilgrastim and pegfilgrastim groups, respectively. This study demonstrates that lipegfilgrastim 6 mg is as effective as pegfilgrastim in reducing neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Eudra https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query The study protocol, two global amendments (Nos. 1 and 2), informed consent documents, and other appropriate study-related documents were reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine Central Ethics Committee and local independent ethics committees (IECs)

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Pegfilgrastim When Given Less Than 14 Days Before the Next Chemotherapy Cycle: Review of Every 14-Day Chemotherapy Regimen Containing 5-FU Continuous Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Kofi N; Selim, Julie H; Waworuntu, Ariani; Lewis, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Pegfilgrastim should not be given days from the next chemotherapy because of concerns for cytopenias. Some clinicians are prescribing pegfilgrastim to be given days in patients receiving 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion (5-FUCI) regimens. To determine the effectiveness and safety of pegfilgrastim administered days from the next chemotherapy in patients receiving 5-FUCI administered >46 hours. Single-institution retrospective cohort study of patients who received 5-FUCI administered >46 hours from June 2013 to December 2015. The unit of measurement was chemotherapy cycles. End points included the safety and efficacy of giving pegfilgrastim days from the next chemotherapy (Pegfilgrastim-Less-Than-14-Days-Group) and comparing that to pegfilgrastim given ≥14 days (Pegfilgrastim-More-Than-14-Days-Group), filgrastim only (Filgrastim-Group), and no colony stimulating factors (No-CSF-Group). Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to compare mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and white blood cell count (WBC). Poisson regression models with GEE were used to estimate relative risk (RR) for neutropenia. There were no incidences of neutropenia, febrile neutropenia (FN), or hospitalizations for FN with the Pegfilgrastim-Less-Than-14-Days-Group. There was also a high mean ANC of 9.9 (5.7) × 10 9 /L. Mean ANC and WBC were statistically significantly less with the Filgrastim-Group, No-CSF-Group, and Pegfilgrastim-More-Than-14-Days-Group compared with the Pegfilgrastim-Less-Than-14-Days-Group. The Filgrastim-Group and the No-CSF-Group had a 32% (1.10-1.56, P = 0.002) and 8% (1.04-1.12, P Days-Group. The risk of incidence of neutropenia was the same with the Pegfilgrastim-More-Than-14-Days-Group and Pegfilgrastim-Less-Than-14-Days-Group (0.95-1.04, P = 0.821). This study shows a promising possibility that administering pegfilgrastim days from the next chemotherapy cycle could be a safe and effective practice. However, better controlled clinical trials are needed.

  3. Role of biosimilars in neutropenia prevention in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ptushkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the neutrophils count in peripheral blood after intensive chemotherapy (CT dramatically increases the risk of infectious complications.As a consequence, treatment costs significantly increased and patients quality of life reduced. Correction of neutropenia is possible with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF – a human protein produced by recombinant technology and is able to support the survival and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. Pharmacoeconomic studies have shown that G-CSF reduces the frequency of hospitalization and antibiotics using, which can reduce the treatment cost. The use of G-CSF allows to reduce early and infection mortality after chemotherapy, providing background to prolonging life especially for the elderly (over 65 years and debilitated patients. The drug is included in all international recommendations. However, its use in Russia is limited due to high cost.Part of the policy aimed to reducing protein drugs cost and increase their availability is the creation of biosimilars protein drugs with proven effective. At the same time biosimilars as the original protein molecules are living cells products, causing serious difficulties in achieving their identity. To eliminate the risk of reducing the effectiveness or increase the toxicity, the European Union established regulations for the determination the bioproducts quality, a detailed description of the requirements for pre-clinical and clinical research, as well as the requirements for pharmacovigilance. Registered in the EEC countries G-CSF biosimilars have been first studied in healthy volunteers, and then in controlled clinical trials in comparison with the reference drug. High efficacy of one such G-CSF biosimilars (Zarsio® was shown in controlled clinical trials of 170 patients with breast cancer receiving intensive chemotherapy with Docetaxel and Doxorubicin. Total in the study only 6 % cases of febrile neutropenia (FN was

  4. Role of biosimilars in neutropenia prevention in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ptushkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the neutrophils count in peripheral blood after intensive chemotherapy (CT dramatically increases the risk of infectious complications.As a consequence, treatment costs significantly increased and patients quality of life reduced. Correction of neutropenia is possible with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF – a human protein produced by recombinant technology and is able to support the survival and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. Pharmacoeconomic studies have shown that G-CSF reduces the frequency of hospitalization and antibiotics using, which can reduce the treatment cost. The use of G-CSF allows to reduce early and infection mortality after chemotherapy, providing background to prolonging life especially for the elderly (over 65 years and debilitated patients. The drug is included in all international recommendations. However, its use in Russia is limited due to high cost.Part of the policy aimed to reducing protein drugs cost and increase their availability is the creation of biosimilars protein drugs with proven effective. At the same time biosimilars as the original protein molecules are living cells products, causing serious difficulties in achieving their identity. To eliminate the risk of reducing the effectiveness or increase the toxicity, the European Union established regulations for the determination the bioproducts quality, a detailed description of the requirements for pre-clinical and clinical research, as well as the requirements for pharmacovigilance. Registered in the EEC countries G-CSF biosimilars have been first studied in healthy volunteers, and then in controlled clinical trials in comparison with the reference drug. High efficacy of one such G-CSF biosimilars (Zarsio® was shown in controlled clinical trials of 170 patients with breast cancer receiving intensive chemotherapy with Docetaxel and Doxorubicin. Total in the study only 6 % cases of febrile neutropenia (FN was

  5. Evaluation of serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay at two different cut-offs for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia

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    Ritin Mohindra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive aspergillosis (IA is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Mycoses Study Group (EORTC–MSG criteria at two different optical density (OD cut-offs of 0.5 and 1.0. Setting: This prospective study was conducted in Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Methods: GEI testing was performed in adult patients of febrile neutropenia with evidence of IA. Results at two different OD indices (ODIs of 0.5 and 1.0 were analysed. The evaluation of the diagnostic parameter, that is, GEI was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value and was validated with the revised (2008 EORTC–MSG diagnostic criteria of IA. Results: One hundred and eleven patients had evidence of IA, of which 79 patients were GEI positive when cut-off ODI was 0.5, whereas with cut-off ODI 1.0, 55 patients were GEI positive. Conclusion: ODI of 1.0 should be considered as positive while in patients with OD between 0.5 and 1.0, repeat sampling from the patient is recommended.

  6. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis and therapeutic decision for respiratory infections in hematological febrile neutropenic patients

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    Luiza Bento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile neutropenia is a common complication in patients undergoing chemotherapy or hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been used to aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. However, there is no consensus regarding the benefit of the exam in establishing diagnosis and in changing the treatment of lung disease in this context. Previous retrospective studies, quite heterogeneous and with non-HIV immunocompromised patients, showed that the yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in establishing etiology ranges from 13% to 81%, and in changing therapy, from 5% to 51%. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and the procedure-related risk for neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancy. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of patients with hematologic malignancy with febrile neutropenia who had undergone diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy between January 2011 and December 2012 at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Results: A total of 45 patients were included: 18 (36% tested positive for bronchoalveolar lavage, with change in therapeutic management occurring for 95% of them. The procedure-related risk was 2.2%, with one patient showing desaturation immediately after the procedure. Conclusion:  Despite the limited number of patients, our findings indicate that fiberoptic bronchoscopy in neutropenic patients is safe, and the results are similar to those previously reported.

  7. Use of FDG PET/CT for investigation of febrile neutropenia: evaluation in high-risk cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, Stephen D.; Tramontana, Adrian R.; Worth, Leon J.; Thursky, Karin A.; Slavin, Monica A.; Lau, Eddie; Hicks, Rodney J.; Seymour, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a frequent complication of cancer care and evaluation often fails to identify a cause. [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT has the potential to identify inflammatory and infectious foci, but its potential role as an investigation for persistent FNP has not previously been explored. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in patients with cancer and severe neutropenia and five or more days of persistent fever despite antibiotic therapy. Adult patients with a diagnosis of an underlying malignancy and persistent FNP (temperature ≥38 C and neutrophil count <500 cells/μl for 5 days) underwent FDG PET/CT as an adjunct to conventional evaluation and management. The study group comprised 20 patients with FNP who fulfilled the eligibility criteria and underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to conventional evaluation. The median neutrophil count on the day of the FDG PET/CT scan was 30 cells/μl (range 0-730 cells/μl). Conventional evaluation identified 14 distinct sites of infection, 13 (93 %) of which were also identified by FDG PET/CT, including all deep tissue infections. FDG PET/CT identified 9 additional likely infection sites, 8 of which were subsequently confirmed as ''true positives'' by further investigations. FDG PET/CT was deemed to be of 'high' clinical impact in 15 of the 20 patients (75 %). This study supports the utility of FDG PET/CT scanning in severely neutropenic patients with five or more days of fever. Further evaluation of the contribution of FDG PET/CT in the management of FNP across a range of underlying malignancies is required. (orig.)

  8. Use of FDG PET/CT for investigation of febrile neutropenia: evaluation in high-risk cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Stephen D.; Tramontana, Adrian R. [Western Health, Department of Infectious Diseases, Private Bag, Footscray, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Worth, Leon J.; Thursky, Karin A.; Slavin, Monica A. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Eddie; Hicks, Rodney J. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Seymour, John F. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Haematology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a frequent complication of cancer care and evaluation often fails to identify a cause. [{sup 18} F]FDG PET/CT has the potential to identify inflammatory and infectious foci, but its potential role as an investigation for persistent FNP has not previously been explored. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in patients with cancer and severe neutropenia and five or more days of persistent fever despite antibiotic therapy. Adult patients with a diagnosis of an underlying malignancy and persistent FNP (temperature {>=}38 C and neutrophil count <500 cells/{mu}l for 5 days) underwent FDG PET/CT as an adjunct to conventional evaluation and management. The study group comprised 20 patients with FNP who fulfilled the eligibility criteria and underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to conventional evaluation. The median neutrophil count on the day of the FDG PET/CT scan was 30 cells/{mu}l (range 0-730 cells/{mu}l). Conventional evaluation identified 14 distinct sites of infection, 13 (93 %) of which were also identified by FDG PET/CT, including all deep tissue infections. FDG PET/CT identified 9 additional likely infection sites, 8 of which were subsequently confirmed as ''true positives'' by further investigations. FDG PET/CT was deemed to be of 'high' clinical impact in 15 of the 20 patients (75 %). This study supports the utility of FDG PET/CT scanning in severely neutropenic patients with five or more days of fever. Further evaluation of the contribution of FDG PET/CT in the management of FNP across a range of underlying malignancies is required. (orig.)

  9. Neutropenia febril en el trópico: una descripción de los hallazgos clínicos y microbiológicos y el impacto de la terapia inapropiada que utilizan en un centro de referencia oncológica en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Cortés

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La neutropenia febril es una complicación frecuente de la quimioterapia para las neoplasias hematológicas. Se dispone de escasa información de sus complicaciones infecciosas en nuestro medio. Objetivo. Evaluar las características clínicas y microbiológicas de pacientes con neutropenia febril, así como su resultado clínico en una institución de referencia oncológica en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se conformó prospectivamente una serie de casos con pacientes con enfermedad oncológica confirmada, que consultaron o presentaron neutropenia febril durante la hospitalización. Se excluyeron aquellos con enfermedad hematológica benigna. Se recolectaron datos sobre variables demográficas, microbiológicas, clínicas, de tratamiento y de resultado de los pacientes. Se llevaron a cabo un análisis univariado y uno multivariado, con la mortalidad como resultado. Resultados. Se identificaron 130 episodios de neutropenia febril en 104 pacientes, con una edad media de 19 años y 53 % masculinos. El 86 % de los episodios ocurrieron en pacientes con alteraciones hematológicas. Se demostró infección en 65 % de los casos: 41 % con un foco infeccioso localizado y 27,7 % con bacteriemia. Los principales focos infecciosos se localizaron en el torrente sanguíneo, el aparato urinario, el sistema gastrointestinal, la piel y los tejidos blandos. De los aislamientos microbiológicos, 46,4 % fueron bacilos Gram negativos, 38,4 %, cocos Gram positivos, 9 %, hongos y, 7,1%, parásitos. La mortalidad global fue de 7,7 %. En el análisis multivariado la utilización de un tratamiento empírico apropiado se correlacionó con una menor mortalidad, de forma independiente (OR=0,17; IC95% 0,034-0,9; p=0,037. Conclusiones. La tasa de mortalidad fue relativamente baja y fue comparable con lo reportado en países desarrollados. El tratamiento antimicrobiano inapropiado fue el principal factor asociado con mortalidad.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10

  10. Multisite external validation of a risk prediction model for the diagnosis of blood stream infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Zhao, Zhiguo; Aftandilian, Catherine; Saab, Raya; Wattier, Rachel L; Beauchemin, Melissa; Miller, Tamara P; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Kelly, Michael J; Fernbach, Alison; Jeng, Michael; Schwartz, Cindy L; Dvorak, Christopher C; Shyr, Yu; Moons, Karl G M; Sulis, Maria-Luisa; Friedman, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness. A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables. From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI. The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. A phase I study of different doses and frequencies of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG rhG-CSF) in patients with standard-dose chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Han, Xiaohong; Wang, Lin; Du, Ping; Yao, Jiarui; Wu, Di; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Tang, Le; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-10-01

    The recommended dose of prophylactic pegylated recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG rhG-CSF) is 100 μg/kg once per cycle for patients receiving intense-dose chemotherapy. However, few data are available on the proper dose for patients receiving less-intense chemotherapy. The aim of this phase I study is to explore the proper dose and administration schedule of PEG rhG-CSF for patients receiving standard-dose chemotherapy. Eligible patients received 3-cycle chemotherapy every 3 weeks. No PEG rhG-CSF was given in the first cycle. Patients experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia would then enter the cycle 2 and 3. In cycle 2, patients received a single subcutaneous injection of prophylactic PEG rhG-CSF on d 3, and received half-dose subcutaneous injection in cycle 3 on d 3 and d 5, respectively. Escalating doses (30, 60, 100 and 200 μg/kg) of PEG rhG-CSF were investigated. A total of 26 patients were enrolled and received chemotherapy, in which 24 and 18 patients entered cycle 2 and cycle 3 treatment, respectively. In cycle 2, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia for patients receiving single-dose PEG rhG-CSF of 30, 60, 100 and 200 μg/kg was 66.67%, 33.33%, 22.22% and 0, respectively, with a median duration less than 1 (0-2) d. No grade 3 or higher neutropenia was noted in cycle 3 in all dose cohorts. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of PEG rhG-CSF used in cancer patients were similar to those reported, as well as the safety. Double half dose administration model showed better efficacy result than a single dose model in terms of grade 3 neutropenia and above. The single dose of 60 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg and double half dose of 30 μg/kg were recommended to the phase II study, hoping to find a preferable method for neutropenia treatment.

  12. Rationalizing the approach to children with fever in neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammann, Roland A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Phillips, Bob

    Purpose of review Fever in neutropenia is the most frequent potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapy in children and adolescents with cancer. This review summarizes recent studies that refine our knowledge of how to manage pediatric fever in neutropenia, and their implications for

  13. Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahkovic-Hergouth, Ksenija; Novakovic, Barbara Jezersek; Seruga, Bostjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed all adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infection, who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at our cancer center between 2000 and 2011. The outcome of interest was 30-day in-hospital mortality rate. Association between the febrile status and in-hospital mortality rate was evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test. Results We identified 69 episodes of severe neutropenic infections in 65 cancer patients. Among these, 9 (13%) episodes were afebrile. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection presented with hypotension, severe fatigue with inappetence, shaking chills, altered mental state or cough and all of them eventually deteriorated to severe sepsis or septic shock. Overall 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 55.1%. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection had a trend for a higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rate as compared to patients with febrile neutropenic infection (78% vs. 52%, p = 0.17). Conclusions Afebrile cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infections might have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients should be informed that severe neutropenic infection without fever can occasionally occur during cancer treatment with chemotherapy. PMID:27904453

  14. The Role Of Multidetector Computed Tomography In The Early Diagnosis Of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergıllosis In Patients With Febrile Neutropenia Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Çiledağ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the vessel involvement and the role of multidedector computed tomograpy (MDCT in the early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA at MDCT in autologous bone morrow transplantation patients with febrile neutropenia and antibiotic-resistant fever of unknown origin with clinically suspected IPA. METHODS: 74 pulmonary MDCT examinations of 37 consecutive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients with febrile neutropenia with clinically suspected IPA were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: The diagnosis of IPA was made according to according to the Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Consensus Group criteria and 0, 14, 11 patients were diagnosed as proven, probable, possible IPA, respectively. Among 25 cases accepted as probable and possible IPA, all patients had pulmonary MDCT findings consistent with IPA. Remaining 12 patients were accepted as having fever of unknown origin (FUO and in these 12, MDCT showed patent vessel. In patients with probable/possible IPA, 72 focal pulmonary lesions were detected. In 41 of 72 (57%, vascular occlusion was detected. The CT halo sign was present in 25 of 41 (61% lesions. A clinical improvement, resolution of fever was observed following antifungal therapy in 19 (76% of 25 patients with probable/possible IPA. Six (25% patients diagnosed as IPA died during follow-up. Transplant related mortality at day 100 in patients with IPA and FUO were found to be 24% and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MDCT has a potential role in early diagnosis of IPA by detection of vessel occlusion.

  15. Evaluation of febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in a hematology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücahit Görük

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Febrile neutropenia is still a problem in patients with hematological malignancies. The documentation of the flora and detection of causative agents of infections in each unit would help to decide appropriate empirical therapy. Infection control procedures should be applied for preventing infections and transmissions.

  16. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the prognosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, XiangZhou; Wen, QiaoCheng; Wang, Ran; Chen, ZhiKang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, there has been a controversial discussion about the prognostic value of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) in colorectal cancer patients. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between CIN and the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases to identify studies evaluating the association between CIN and colorectal cancer prognosis. Pooled random/fixed effect models were used to calculate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association. Eight studies were selected for the meta-analysis, for a total of 2,745 patients. There was significant improved survival among colorectal cancer patients with CIN (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.47-0.76). However, significant heterogeneity was found (p = 0.000, Ι 2  = 75.0%). Through subgroup analysis, we could greatly eliminate the heterogeneity and found that neutropenia was associated with better survival in stage IV colorectal cancer patients, no matter the HR calculated by overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS). Meanwhile, the prognostic value of neutropenia in stage II/III colorectal cancer can be found when the HR is calculated by disease-free survival (DFS). Additionally, we observed significant differences after stratification according to various tumor stages, endpoints, and the use of G-CSF. Our results which, based on a cohort study, indicate that CIN is associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted.

  17. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in a rat model by using multiple daily doses of oral administration of G-CSF-containing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fang-Yi; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Lin, Po-Yen; Chou, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Mi, Fwu-Long; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia often increases the likelihood of life-threatening infections. In this study, a nanoparticle (NP) system composed of chitosan and poly(γ-glutamic acid) conjugated with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (γPGA-DTPA) was prepared for oral delivery of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor. The therapeutic potential of this NP system for daily administration of G-CSF to treat neutropenia associated with chemotherapy was evaluated in a rat model. In vitro results indicate that the procedures of NP loading and release preserved the structural integrity and bioactivity of the G-CSF molecules adequately. Those results further demonstrated the enzymatic inhibition activity of γPGA-DTPA towards G-CSF against intestinal proteases. Additionally, the in vivo biodistribution study clearly identified accumulations of G-CSF in the heart, liver, bone marrow, and urinary bladder, an indication of systemic absorption of G-CSF; its relative bioavailability was approximately 13.6%. Moreover, significant glucose uptake was observed in bone marrow during G-CSF treatment, suggesting increased bone marrow metabolism and neutrophil production. Consequently, neutrophil count in the blood increased in a sustained manner; this fact may help a patient's immune system recover from the side effects of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation-induced oesophagitis in lung cancer patients. Is susceptibility for neutropenia a risk factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruysscher, D. de [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Meerbeeck, J. van [Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Respiratory Medicine; Vandecasteele, K. [Ghent Univ. Hospital (BE). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] (and others)

    2012-07-15

    Background: Radiation-induced oesophagitis is a major side effect of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A strong association between neutropenia and oesophagitis was previously shown, but external validation and further elucidation of the possible mechanisms are lacking. Methods and patients: A total of 119 patients were included at two institutions. The concurrent group comprised 34 SCLC patients treated with concurrent carboplatin and etoposide, and concurrent chest irradiation, and 36 NSCLC patients with concurrent cisplatin and etoposide, and concurrent radiotherapy, while the sequential group comprised 49 NSCLC patients received sequential cisplatin and gemcitabine, and radiotherapy. Results: Severe neutropenia was very frequent during concurrent chemoradiation (grade: 4 41.4%) and during induction chemotherapy in sequentially treated patients (grade 4: 30.6%), but not during radiotherapy (only 4% grade 1). In the concurrent group, the odds ratios of grade 3 oesophagitis vs. neutropenia were the following: grade 2 vs. grade 0/1: 5.60 (95% CI 1.55-20.26), p = 0.009; grade 3 vs. grade 0/1: 10.40 (95% CI 3.19-33.95); p = 0.0001; grade 4 vs. grade 0/1: 12.60 (95% CI 4.36-36.43); p < 0.00001. There was no correlation between the occurrence of neutropenia during induction chemotherapy and acute oesophagitis during or after radiotherapy alone. In the univariate analysis, total radiation dose (p < 0.001), overall treatment time of radiotherapy (p < 0.001), mean oesophageal dose (p = 0.038) and neutropenia (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the development of oesophagitis. In a multivariate analysis, only neutropenia remained significant (p = 0.023). Conclusion: We confirm that neutropenia is independently correlated with oesophagitis in concurrent chemoradiation, but that the susceptibility for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is not associated with radiation-induced oesophagitis. Further studies focusing on the underlying mechanisms are thus

  19. Radiation-induced oesophagitis in lung cancer patients. Is susceptibility for neutropenia a risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruysscher, D. de; Meerbeeck, J. van; Vandecasteele, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced oesophagitis is a major side effect of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A strong association between neutropenia and oesophagitis was previously shown, but external validation and further elucidation of the possible mechanisms are lacking. Methods and patients: A total of 119 patients were included at two institutions. The concurrent group comprised 34 SCLC patients treated with concurrent carboplatin and etoposide, and concurrent chest irradiation, and 36 NSCLC patients with concurrent cisplatin and etoposide, and concurrent radiotherapy, while the sequential group comprised 49 NSCLC patients received sequential cisplatin and gemcitabine, and radiotherapy. Results: Severe neutropenia was very frequent during concurrent chemoradiation (grade: 4 41.4%) and during induction chemotherapy in sequentially treated patients (grade 4: 30.6%), but not during radiotherapy (only 4% grade 1). In the concurrent group, the odds ratios of grade 3 oesophagitis vs. neutropenia were the following: grade 2 vs. grade 0/1: 5.60 (95% CI 1.55-20.26), p = 0.009; grade 3 vs. grade 0/1: 10.40 (95% CI 3.19-33.95); p = 0.0001; grade 4 vs. grade 0/1: 12.60 (95% CI 4.36-36.43); p < 0.00001. There was no correlation between the occurrence of neutropenia during induction chemotherapy and acute oesophagitis during or after radiotherapy alone. In the univariate analysis, total radiation dose (p < 0.001), overall treatment time of radiotherapy (p < 0.001), mean oesophageal dose (p = 0.038) and neutropenia (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the development of oesophagitis. In a multivariate analysis, only neutropenia remained significant (p = 0.023). Conclusion: We confirm that neutropenia is independently correlated with oesophagitis in concurrent chemoradiation, but that the susceptibility for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is not associated with radiation-induced oesophagitis. Further studies focusing on the underlying mechanisms are thus

  20. The use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and management of chemotherapy delivery during adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer--further observations from the IMPACT solid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Johanna; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Erdkamp, Frans; Trojan, Andreas; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof; Lindman, Henrik; Bendall, Kate; Vogl, Florian D; Verma, Shailendra

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the use and impact of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) on chemotherapy delivery and neutropenia management in breast cancer in a clinical practice setting. IMPACT Solid was an international, prospective observational study in patients with a physician-assessed febrile neutropenia (FN) risk of ≥20%. This analysis focused on stages I-III breast cancer patients who received a standard chemotherapy regimen for which the FN risk was published. Chemotherapy delivery and neutropenia-related outcomes were reported according to the FN risk of the regimen and intent of G-CSF use. 690 patients received a standard chemotherapy regimen; 483 received the textbook dose/schedule with a majority of these regimens (84%) having a FN risk ≥10%. Patients receiving a regimen with a FN risk ≥10% were younger with better performance status than those receiving a regimen with a FN risk <10%. Patients who received higher-risk regimens were more likely to receive G-CSF primary prophylaxis (48% vs 22%), complete their planned chemotherapy (97% vs 88%) and achieve relative dose intensity ≥85% (93% vs 86%) than those receiving lower-risk regimens. Most first FN events (56%) occurred in cycles not supported with G-CSF primary prophylaxis. Physicians generally recommend standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimens and were more likely to follow G-CSF guidelines for younger, good performance status patients in the curative setting, and often modify standard regimens in more compromised patients. However, G-CSF support is not optimal, indicated by G-CSF primary prophylaxis use in <50% of high-risk patients and observation of FN without G-CSF support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibioticoterapia oral versus endovenosa em crianças neutropênicas febris recebendo quimioterapia Oral vs. intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenic patients receiving childhood cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rech Cagol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso de antibioticoterapia endovenosa versus oral. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas todas as crianças e adolescentes neutropênicos com idade inferior a 18 anos classificados como baixo risco para complicações e recebendo quimioterapia. O estudo ocorreu entre 2002 e 2005 na Unidade de Oncologia Pediátrica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre (RS. Os pacientes, divididos em grupo A e grupo B, eram randomizados para receber terapia oral ou endovenosa. O tratamento utilizado para o grupo A foi ciprofloxacina e amoxicilina/clavulanato via oral e placebo endovenoso e, para o grupo B, cefepime e placebo oral. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 91 episódios consecutivos de neutropenia febril em 58 crianças. Para os pacientes do grupo A, a taxa de falência foi de 51,2% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 8 dias (variação de 2-10. Para os pacientes tratados com antibioticoterapia endovenosa, a taxa de falência foi de 45,8% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 7 dias (variação de 3-10. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo não houve diferenças entre a antibioticoterapia oral versus a terapia endovenosa. Estudos randomizados com maior número de pacientes são necessários antes de padronizar a terapêutica oral como tratamento para esta população de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of intravenous vs. oral antibiotic therapy. METHODS: All febrile neutropenic patients younger than 18 years old with low risk of complications and receiving chemotherapy were selected. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were divided into group A and group B and were randomly assigned to receive oral or intravenous therapy. The empirical antimicrobial treatment used for group A consisted in oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate and intravenous placebo, and group B received cefepime and oral placebo

  2. A nomogram for predicting complications in patients with solid tumours and seemingly stable febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Paula Jiménez; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; García, Ignacio Matos; Marcos, Rosana; Castañón, Eduardo; Antonio, Maite; Font, Carme; Biosca, Mercè; Blasco, Ana; Lozano, Rebeca; Ramchandani, Avinash; Beato, Carmen; de Castro, Eva Martínez; Espinosa, Javier; Martínez-García, Jerónimo; Ghanem, Ismael; Cubero, Jorge Hernando; Manrique, Isabel Aragón; Navalón, Francisco García; Sevillano, Elena; Manzano, Aránzazu; Virizuela, Juan; Garrido, Marcelo; Mondéjar, Rebeca; Arcusa, María Ángeles; Bonilla, Yaiza; Pérez, Quionia; Gallardo, Elena; Del Carmen Soriano, Maria; Cardona, Mercè; Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Cruz, Juan Jesús; Ayala, Francisco

    2016-05-24

    We sought to develop and externally validate a nomogram and web-based calculator to individually predict the development of serious complications in seemingly stable adult patients with solid tumours and episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN). The data from the FINITE study (n=1133) and University of Salamanca Hospital (USH) FN registry (n=296) were used to develop and validate this tool. The main eligibility criterion was the presence of apparent clinical stability, defined as events without acute organ dysfunction, abnormal vital signs, or major infections. Discriminatory ability was measured as the concordance index and stratification into risk groups. The rate of infection-related complications in the FINITE and USH series was 13.4% and 18.6%, respectively. The nomogram used the following covariates: Eastern Cooperative Group (ECOG) Performance Status ⩾2, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic cardiovascular disease, mucositis of grade ⩾2 (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria), monocytes 0.1). The concordance index was 0.855 and 0.831 in each series. Risk group stratification revealed a significant distinction in the proportion of complications. With a ⩾116-point cutoff, the nomogram yielded the following prognostic indices in the USH registry validation series: 66% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 3.88 positive likelihood ratio, 48% positive predictive value, and 91% negative predictive value. We have developed and externally validated a nomogram and web calculator to predict serious complications that can potentially impact decision-making in patients with seemingly stable FN.

  3. Advantages with prophylactic PEG-rhG-CSF versus rhG-CSF in breast cancer patients receiving multiple cycles of myelosuppressive chemotherapy: an open-label, randomized, multicenter phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Cao, Jun; Wang, Jing-Fen; Zhang, Bai-Hong; Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Yang; Cai, Li; Wu, Yu-Dong; Yao, Qiang; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Mao, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Ai-Mei; Chen, Shao-Shui; Yang, Shun-E; Wang, Shu-Sen; Wang, Jian-Hong; Pan, Yue-Yin; Ren, Bi-Yong; Chen, Yan-Ju; Ouyang, Li-Zhi; Lei, Kai-Jian; Gao, Jing-Hua; Huang, Wen-He; Huang, Zhan; Shou, Tao; He, Yan-Ling; Cheng, Jing; Sun, Yang; Li, Wei-Ming; Cui, Shu-de; Wang, Xin; Rao, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Hu; Liu, Wei; Wu, Xue-Yong; Shen, Wei-Xi; Cao, Fei-Lin; Xiao, Ze-Min; Wu, Biao; Tian, Shu-Yan; Meng, Dong; Shen, Peng; Wang, Bi-Yun; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Leiping; Hu, Xi-Chun

    2018-04-01

    PEG-rhG-CSF reduces neutropenia and improves chemotherapy safety. In China's registration trial (CFDA: 2006L01305), we assessed its efficacy and safety against rhG-CSF, and prospectively explored its value over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. In this open-label, randomized, multicenter phase 3 study, breast cancer patients (n = 569) were randomized to receive PEG-rhG-CSF 100 µg/kg, PEG-rhG-CSF 6 mg, or rhG-CSF 5 µg/kg/d after chemotherapy. The primary endpoints were the incidence and duration of grade 3/4 neutropenia during cycle 1. Secondary endpoints included the incidence and duration of grade 3/4 neutropenia during cycles 2-4, the incidence of febrile neutropenia, and the safety. A once-per-cycle PEG-rhG-CSF at either 100 µg/kg or 6 mg was not different from daily injections of rhG-CSF for either incidence or duration of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Interestingly, a substantial difference was noted during cycle 2, and the difference became bigger over cycles 3-4, reaching a statistical significance at cycle 4 in either incidence (P = 0.0309) or duration (P = 0.0289) favoring PEG-rhG-CSF. A significant trend toward a lower incidence of all-grade adverse events was noted at 129 (68.98%), 142 (75.53%), and 160 (82.47%) in the PEG-rhG-CSF 100 µg/kg and 6 mg and rhG-CSF groups, respectively (P = 0.0085). The corresponding incidence of grade 3/4 drug-related adverse events was 2/187 (1.07%), 1/188 (0.53%), and 8/194 (4.12%), respectively (P = 0.0477). Additionally, PFS in metastatic patients preferred PEG-rhG-CSF to rhG-CSF despite no significance observed by Kaplan-Meier analysis (n = 49, P = 0.153). PEG-rhG-CSF is a more convenient and safe formulation and a more effective prophylactic measure in breast cancer patients receiving multiple cycles of chemotherapy.

  4. CLPB Variants Associated with Autosomal-Recessive Mitochondrial Disorder with Cataract, Neutropenia, Epilepsy, and Methylglutaconic Aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Carol; Smith, Laurie; Wibrand, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    of type IV 3-MGA-uria characterized by cataracts, severe psychomotor regression during febrile episodes, epilepsy, neutropenia with frequent infections, and death in early childhood. Four of the individuals were of Greenlandic descent, and one was North American, of Northern European and Asian descent...

  5. Correlation Between Body Weight and Mitoxantrone-Associated Neutropenia in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Danielle; Poirier, Valerie J; Matsuyama, Arata; Calvalido, Jerome

    Thirty-seven dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed malignant tumors treated with single-agent mitoxantrone at 5 mg/m 2 were evaluated in a retrospective study assessing the correlation between body weight and neutropenia associated with a single dose of mitoxantrone in dogs. Overall, eight dogs (21%) experienced grade 3 neutropenia and five dogs (14%) experienced grade 4 neutropenia on day 7 following mitoxantrone chemotherapy. Dogs ≤10 kg body weight were significantly more likely to develop grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (5.8 relative risk; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-12.9; P 10 kg. Dogs ≤15 kg body weight were significantly more likely to develop grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (8.1 relative risk; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-31.3; P 15 kg. Of the 13 patients who developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, 6 (46%) were hospitalized for clinical signs related to neutropenia. Based on the severity of neutropenia and the resulting hospitalization seen in dogs ≤10 kg, a dose reduction could be considered for the initial dose of mitoxantrone, and clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of neutropenia in patients 10.1 to ≤15 kg.

  6. PROCALCITONIN AND INTERLEUKIN-6 AS MARKERS OF SEVERE INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kitanovski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The results of the study conducted to determine whether procalcitonin (PCT and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are more sensitive and specific markers of severe infection in children with febrile neutropenia (FN than routinelly used C-reactive protein (CRP are presented in the article. 68 episodes of FN experienced by 32 patients were divided into three groups according to the site of infection. Group 1: episodes of bacteraemia and/or clinical sepsis (n = 16, group 2: episodes of focal infection (n = 16 and group 3: episodes of fever of unknown origin (FUO (n = 36. Blood samples for further PCT and IL-6 determination were collected on three consecutive days. CRP concentrations were measured daily in each patient until the resolution of fever. PCT, IL-6 and CRP concentrations were measured on one occassion in each of the 18 afebrile patients with malignant disase forming the reference group. Serum PCT and IL-6 concentrations were measured by immunochemiluminometric and immunoenzymatic assay. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine optimum sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of the studied parameters.Conclusions. PCT and IL-6 were found to be earlier and more sensitive markers of severe infection in neutropenic patients than CRP. The erliest one was IL-6, followed by PCT and CRP. Sequential determination of PCT up to 72 hours improved its diagnostic value, which was not the case for IL-6.In patients with gramnegative bacteraemias PCT concentracions were 3–5 times higher comparing to grampositive, whereas IL-6 concentrations were comparable in both groups.

  7. Chemotherapy related toxicity in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Amit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For inoperable non-small cell lung cancer combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy plays an important role as a therapeutic modality. The aim of the present study was to analyze neoadjuvant chemotherapy related acute toxicity in locally advanced lung cancer (stage IIIA and IIIB in Indian patients using Cisplatin and Etoposide combination chemotherapy. Material and methods: Forty patients of locally advanced Non small cell lung cancer received three cycles neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Injection Cisplatin and Etoposide. The patients were taken for Radical radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray over 30 fractions in conventional fractionation after completing chemotherapy. Chemotherapy associated toxicity was assessed using common toxicity criteria (CTC v2.0 Results: Forty patients were available for final evaluation. Median age of presentation of patients was fifty-six years. Thirteen patients had Non small cell lung cancer stage IIIA while twenty-seven patients had Stage IIIB disease. Anemia was the most common hematological toxicity observed (seen in 81% of patients. Nausea and vomiting were the most common non -hematological toxicity seen. Sensory neuropathy was seen in 38%of patients. 88% patients developed alopecia. Seven patients developed febrile neutropenias. Conclusion: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy using Cisplatin and Etoposide continues to be a basic regimen in the Indian set up despite availability of higher molecules, since it is cost effective, well tolerated and therapeutically effective. Blood transfusions, growth factors and supportive care can be used effectively to over come toxicity associated with this regimen.

  8. Complication-related removal of totally implantable venous access port systems: Does the interval between placement and first use and the neutropenia-inducing potential of chemotherapy regimens influence their incidence? A four-year prospective study of 4045 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkos, A; Bresson, L; Hudry, D; Cousin, S; Lervat, C; Bogart, E; Meurant, J P; El Bedoui, S; Decanter, G; Hannebicque, K; Regis, C; Hamdani, A; Penel, N; Tresch-Bruneel, E; Narducci, F

    2017-04-01

    Totally implantable venous access port systems are widely used in oncology, with frequent complications that sometimes necessitate device removal. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the time interval between port placement and initiation of chemotherapy and the neutropenia-inducing potential of the chemotherapy administered upon complication-related port removal. Between January 2010 and December 2013, 4045 consecutive patients were included in this observational, single-center prospective study. The chemotherapy regimens were classified as having a low (20%) risk for inducing neutropenia. The overall removal rate due to complications was 7.2%. Among them, port-related infection (2.5%) and port expulsion (1%) were the most frequent. The interval between port insertion and its first use was shown to be a predictive factor for complication-related removal rates. A cut-off of 6 days was statistically significant (p = 0.008), as the removal rate for complications was 9.4% when this interval was 0-5 days and 5.7% when it was ≥6 days. Another factor associated with port complication rate was the neutropenia-inducing potential of the chemotherapy regimens used, with removal for complications involved in 5.5% of low-risk regimens versus 9.4% for the intermediate- and high-risk regimens (p = 0.003). An interval of 6 days between placement and first use of the port reduces the removal rate from complications. The intermediate- and high-risk for neutropenia chemotherapy regimens are related to higher port removal rates from complications than low-risk regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in adult febrile neutropenic patients: a comparison between two time periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, K.F.; Hafeez, H.; Afzal, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study trends in bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in adult febrile neutropenic patients during two time periods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 379 adult oncology patients admitted with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia at our institute during years 2003 and 2006. A total of 151 organisms were isolated during the two calendar years. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 57.6% of organisms, while gram positive organisms accounted for 42.3% of the total isolates. The most common organisms were: Escherichia coli (23.1%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.9%). The number of gram positive isolates showed an increase from 35% in 2003 to 47.2% in 2006 (p=0.13). During each calendar year, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were 100% susceptible to vancomycin and 33% strains of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were highly sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin during both time periods. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to ciprofloxacin increased from 0% in 2003 to 50% in 2006 (p=0.03). Gram negative organisms are the predominant organisms in adult febrile neutropenic patients at our institute. Initial empirical therapy with piperacillin/tazobactam seems appropriate to cover most gram negative pathogens while vancomycin to be added for suspected gram positive infections. During the two calendar years resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to ciprofloxacin has significantly increased. (author)

  10. Efficacy and safety of casopitant mesylate, a neurokinin 1 (NK1)-receptor antagonist, in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven M; Rolski, Janusz; Strausz, Janos

    2009-01-01

    in the control group. The most common serious adverse events were neutropenia (n=5 [3%] in the control group, n=3 [1%] in the single-dose oral casopitant mesylate group, and n=11 [4%] in the 3-day intravenous plus oral casopitant mesylate group), febrile neutropenia (n=1 [

  11. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  12. Identifying, Understanding, and Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-15

    B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Chemotherapy-Related Nausea and/or Vomiting; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Neoplasm; Febrile Neutropenia; Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. as a cause of acute-onset febrile illness in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Breitschwerdt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary At different time points spanning 6 months, three adopted feral flea-infested cats, residing in the household of a veterinary technician, became acutely anorexic, lethargic and febrile. Enrichment blood culture/PCR using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM confirmed initial infection with the same Bartonella henselae genotype in all three cases. With the exception of anemia and neutropenia, complete blood counts, serum biochemical profiles and urinalysis results were within reference intervals. Also, tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline coronavirus antibodies were negative. Serial daily temperature monitoring in one case confirmed a cyclic, relapsing febrile temperature pattern during 1 month, with resolution during and after treatment with azithromycin. Bartonella henselae Western immunoblot (WB results did not consistently correlate with BAPGM enrichment blood culture/PCR results or B henselae indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA titers, and WB titration results were not informative for establishing antibiotic treatment failure. During the respective follow-up periods, no illnesses or additional febrile episodes were reported, despite repeat documentation of B henselae bacteremia in two cats available for follow-up (one with the same genotype and the other with a different B henselae genotype; one cat was, unfortunately, killed by dogs before follow-up testing. Relevance and novel information We conclude that microbiological diagnosis and treatment of B henselae infection in cats can be challenging, that antibody titration results and resolution of clinical abnormalities may not correlate with a therapeutic cure, and that fever and potentially neutropenia should be differential diagnostic considerations for young cats with suspected bartonellosis.

  14. Chicken pox infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy: A retrospective analysis from a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Noronha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There is paucity of data on the incidence, severity and management of chicken pox in patients receiving active chemotherapy for cancer.From October 2010 to October 2011, patients were included in this study if they developed a chicken pox infection during their chemotherapy. The details of patients’ cancer diagnosis and treatment along with clinical and epidemiological data of the chicken pox infections were assessed from a prospectively maintained database.Twenty-four patients had a chicken pox infection while receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The median age of the patients was 21 years, and two-thirds of the patients had solid tumor malignancies.Overall, eight (33% patients had complications, six (25% patients had febrile neutropenia, four (17% had diarrhea/mucositis, and four (17% had pneumonia. The median time for recovery of the infection and complications in the patients was 9.5 days (5–29 days, whereas for neutropenic patients, it was 6.5 days (3–14 days. The median time for recovery from chicken pox infections in neutropenic patients was 10 days (5–21 days, compared with 8.5 days (0–29 days in non-neutropenic patients (P = 0.84. The median time for recovery from infections was 8.5 days in patients with comorbidities (N = 4, which was the same for patients with no comorbidities.The clinical presentation and complication rates of chicken pox in cancer patients, who were on active chemotherapy, are similar to the normal population. The recovery from a varicella infection and complications may be delayed in patients with neutropenia. The varicella infection causes a therapy delay in 70% of patients. Aggressive antiviral therapy, supportive care and isolation of the index cases remain the backbone of treatment. Keywords: Chicken pox, Chemotherapy, Solid tumor cancers

  15. The outcome of non-carbapenem-based empirical antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is generally a complication of cancer chemotherapy. Objective: ... Furthermore, non-carbapenem-based empirical therapy provides benefit in regard to cost-effectiveness and antimicrobial stewardship when local antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria are considered.

  16. Compatibility of Biosimilar Filgrastim with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy during the Treatment of Malignant Diseases (VENICE): A Prospective, Multicenter, Non-Interventional, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruehauf, Stefan; Otremba, Burkhard; Stötzer, Oliver; Rudolph, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a serious and frequent complication of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Biosimilar filgrastim (Nivestim™, Hospira Inc, A Pfizer Company, Lake Forest, IL, USA) is a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor licensed for the treatment of neutropenia and FN induced by myelosuppressive chemotherapy. The primary goal of this VENICE study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01627990) was to observe the tolerability, safety and efficacy of biosimilar filgrastim in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. This was a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Consenting adult patients with solid tumors or hematologic malignancies for whom cytotoxic chemotherapy and treatment with biosimilar filgrastim was planned were enrolled. Among the enrolled patients (N = 386), 81% were female, with a median age (range) of 61 (22-92) years, with 39% >65 years old. Most patients (n = 338; 88%) had solid tumors and the remainder (n = 49; 13%) had hematological malignancies. The majority of the patients (64%) received biosimilar filgrastim as primary prophylaxis and 36% as secondary prophylaxis. At the follow-up visits, for the majority of patients (95.6%) there had been no change in chemotherapy dose due to FN. For two patients (0.5%) the chemotherapy was discontinued due to FN and for four patients (1.0%) the chemotherapy dose was reduced due to FN. For the majority of patients (96.9%) the chemotherapy cycle following the first biosimilar filgrastim treatment was not delayed due to FN. For 3 patients (0.8%), the chemotherapy was delayed following the first biosimilar filgrastim treatment. Less than one-third (29.8%) of the patients experienced ≥1 adverse event that was at least potentially related to biosimilar filgrastim treatment. Biosimilar filgrastim was effective and well-tolerated in both the primary and secondary prophylactic setting in patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Clinical

  17. Switch maintenance chemotherapy using S-1 with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niho, Seiji; Ohe, Yuichiro; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Umemura, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this single-institute; prospective, non-randomized parallel two-arm phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of switch maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 after induction therapy with a platinum-based regimen in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients not showing disease progression after induction platinum-based chemotherapy received S-1 at the dose of 40mg/m 2 twice daily for 14 consecutive days, every three weeks, with or without bevacizumab (Bev) at the dose of 15mg/kg. In cases where the induction chemotherapy regimen contained Bev, Bev was used as continuation maintenance chemotherapy where appropriate. The efficacy/toxicity of switch maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 and S-1+Bev was evaluated separately. The primary end point of this study was the treatment success rate at three months after the start of S-1 treatment. Between July 2010 and January 2014, 79 patients were enrolled, of which 78 were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. The treatment success rate at three months was 28.2% (90% confidence interval (CI), 7.1-17.1%) in the S-1 group and 64.1% (90% CI, 50.0-76.8%) in the S-1+Bev group. The primary endpoint was met in the S-1+Bev group. The median PFS and OS were 2.6 months and 11.0 months in the S-1 group, and 4.6 months and 19.9 months in the S-1+Bev group, respectively. The most common grade three toxicity was neutropenia (10% incidence in the S-1+Bev group). There were no cases of febrile neutropenia. Switch maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 in combination with continuation maintenance chemotherapy with bevacizumab yielded modest efficacy with mild and acceptable toxicities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The safety and clinical efficacy of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor injection for colon cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate safety and efficacy of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF injection and whether this regimen could reduce the incidence of adverse events caused by chemotherapy. Method: A total of 100 patients with colon cancer who were treated with chemotherapy in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2014 were randomly divided into two groups, with 50 patients in each group. The patients in the treatment group received G-CSF 24 hours after chemotherapy for consecutive three days; the patients in the control group received the same dose of normal saline. Routine blood tests were performed 7 days and 14 days after chemotherapy. Results: Compared with the control group, the incidences of febrile neutropenia and leukocytopenia in the treatment group were significantly lower (p<0.05. In addition, the incidence of liver dysfunction in the treatment group was lower than that of the control group, without statistical significance. The incidence of myalgia in the treatment was higher than that of the control group without statistical significance. Conclusion: The present study indicated that G-CSF injection after chemotherapy is safe and effective for preventing adverse events in colon cancer patients with chemotherapy.

  19. Chemotherapy for isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (CALOR): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Stefan; Gelber, Shari; Anderson, Stewart J; Láng, István; Robidoux, André; Martín, Miguel; Nortier, Johan W R; Paterson, Alexander H G; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Cañada, José Manuel Baena; Thürlimann, Beat; Murray, Elizabeth; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Geyer, Charles E; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Rastogi, Priya; Wolmark, Norman; Wapnir, Irene L

    2014-02-01

    received chemotherapy, 12 (15%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and intestinal infection. Adjuvant chemotherapy should be recommended for patients with completely resected ILRR of breast cancer, especially if the recurrence is oestrogen-receptor negative. US Department of Health and Human Services, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK), Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation, Australian and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group, Swedish Cancer Society, Oncosuisse, Cancer Association of South Africa, Foundation for Clinical Research of Eastern Switzerland (OSKK), Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama (GEICAM), and the Dutch Breast Cancer Trialists' Group (BOOG). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chicken pox infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy: A retrospective analysis from a tertiary care center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Vanita; Ostwal, Vikas; Ramaswamy, Anant; Joshi, Amit; Nair, Reena; Banavali, Shripad D; Prabhash, Kumar

    There is paucity of data on the incidence, severity and management of chicken pox in patients receiving active chemotherapy for cancer. From October 2010 to October 2011, patients were included in this study if they developed a chicken pox infection during their chemotherapy. The details of patients' cancer diagnosis and treatment along with clinical and epidemiological data of the chicken pox infections were assessed from a prospectively maintained database. Twenty-four patients had a chicken pox infection while receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The median age of the patients was 21 years, and two-thirds of the patients had solid tumor malignancies. Overall, eight (33%) patients had complications, six (25%) patients had febrile neutropenia, four (17%) had diarrhea/mucositis, and four (17%) had pneumonia. The median time for recovery of the infection and complications in the patients was 9.5 days (5-29 days), whereas for neutropenic patients, it was 6.5 days (3-14 days). The median time for recovery from chicken pox infections in neutropenic patients was 10 days (5-21 days), compared with 8.5 days (0-29 days) in non-neutropenic patients (P=0.84). The median time for recovery from infections was 8.5 days in patients with comorbidities (N=4), which was the same for patients with no comorbidities. The clinical presentation and complication rates of chicken pox in cancer patients, who were on active chemotherapy, are similar to the normal population. The recovery from a varicella infection and complications may be delayed in patients with neutropenia. The varicella infection causes a therapy delay in 70% of patients. Aggressive antiviral therapy, supportive care and isolation of the index cases remain the backbone of treatment. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mucositis and oral infections secondary to gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy M. Sampson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged neutropenia are at risk for a variety of complications and infections including the development of mucositis and oral ulcers. The changes in oral flora during chemotherapy and its effects on the development of infections of the oral cavity have been studied with inconsistent results. However, there is evidence that supports the colonization of gram negative rods in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this report, we present two leukemic patients who developed oral ulcers secondary to multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is important to suspect multi-drug resistant gram negative rods in patients with prolonged neutropenia who develop gum infections despite appropriate antibiotic coverage.

  2. Evaluación del desenlace y características clínicas de una serie de niños con neutropenia febril sin foco en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, Colombia, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adelaida Aristizábal Gil

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la neutropenia febril (NF se asocia a infección en 48-60% de los casos y es la segunda causa de ingreso hospitalario al servicio de oncología pediátrica. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el desenlace de una serie de niños, que recibían tratamiento para neutropenia febril sin foco aparente, según un protocolo preestablecido en el Servicio de Hematooncología infantil del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se incluyeron retrospectivamente historias clínicas de pacientes menores de 15 años con diagnóstico nuevo de neoplasia maligna y neutropenia febril sin foco, hospitalizados en un lapso de 5 años. Los datos se registraron en un formato preestablecido. RESULTADOS: se incluyeron 103 historias clínicas con 182 episodios de NF; 34,1% fueron pacientes con leucemia linfoblástica riesgo estándar (LLA, 19,8% LLA de alto riesgo y 13,7%, linfoma no Hodking. 68,1% tuvieron NF grave y en 94,5% se había aplicado quimioterapia previa (79,7% intensiva. La infección se documentó clínicamente en 38,4% y microbiológicamente en 25,2% de los episodios; hubo bacteriemia en 15,4% de los episodios, 3,3% con urocultivo positivo y 6,5% con aislamiento del invasor en otros sitios. Los microorganismos más frecuentes fueron Escherichia coli (24% y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%. Hubo mayor resistencia a ceftriazona y cefatzidime tanto de gérmenes grampositivos como de gramnegativos y producción de betalactamasas en 9% durante un año de evaluación; 50% de los aislamientos de S. aureus coagulasa negativo fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En 37 episodios hubo complicaciones (20,2%, la más frecuente de las cuales fue la afectación cardiopulmonar; en 25,2% fracasó el tratamiento, en 21,4% hubo respuesta parcial y 7 pacientes (3,8% fallecieron. CONCLUSIONES: los hallazgos son similares a los reportados por otros autores; predominan en nuestra unidad los microorganismos gramnegativos como causa importante de

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Muiriosa Foundation, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morris, Patrick G

    2008-09-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) causes considerable morbidity in patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, there has been a trend towards fewer Gram-negative and more Gram-positive infections with increasing antibiotic resistance. To assess these patterns, data from a supra-regional cancer centre in Ireland were reviewed.

  4. Hurtig identifikation af patienter med neutropeni og feber bedrer prognosen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofia; Jensen, Lars Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the management of febrile neutropenia in the medical emergency room. Symptoms and signs of inflammation in patients receiving chemotherapy may be blunted or absent and fever may be the only sign of severe infection. Early initiation of empirical...

  5. Hurtig identifikation af patienter med neutropeni og feber bedrer prognosen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofia; Jensen, Lars Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the management of febrile neutropenia in the medical emergency room. Symptoms and signs of inflammation in patients receiving chemotherapy may be blunted or absent and fever may be the only sign of severe infection. Early initiation of empirical...

  6. Interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels obtained within 24-h of admission do not predict high-risk infection in children with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biomarkers that can predict the severity of febrile neutropenia (FN are potential tools for clinical practice. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of plasma interleukin (IL levels as indicators of high-risk FN. Materials and Methods: Children with haematological malignancies and FN were enrolled prospectively. A blood sample was obtained within 24-h of admission for estimation of IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were stratified into three groups. Group I (low-risk: No focus of infection; Group II: Clinical/radiological focus of infection; Group III: Microbiologically proven infection or FN related mortality. Groups II and III were analysed as high-risk. The cytokines were assessed at three different cut-off levels. Results: A total of 52 episodes of FN in 48 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 6 years (range: 2-13. Primary diagnosis included acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (82%, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (13% and acute myeloid leukaemia (5%. Absolute neutrophil count was < 200 cells/μl in half and 200-500 in 23%. Majority were categorised as Group I (69%, followed by Group II (16% and III (15%. The range of IL-5 was too narrow and similar in the two risk-groups to be of any relevance. The best sensitivity of TNF-α and IL-6 for high-risk group was 78% and 70%, respectively. The highest specificity observed was 35%. The negative predictive value of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α exceeded 80%. Conclusion: IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α failed as predictors of clinically localised or microbiologically documented infection in children with chemotherapy induced FN. However, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α could be useful in excluding the possibility of high-risk infection.

  7. Vinorelbine and paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Acuña, L; Langhi, M; Pérez, J; Romero Acuña, J; Machiavelli, M; Lacava, J; Vallejo, C; Romero, A; Fasce, H; Ortiz, E; Grasso, S; Amato, S; Rodríguez, R; Barbieri, M; Leone, B

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of vinorelbine (VNB) and paclitaxel (PTX) as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC). Between August 1995 and August 1997, 49 patients with untreated MBC received a regimen that consisted of VNB 30 mg/m2 in a 20-minute intravenous (IV) infusion on days 1 and 8 and PTX 135 mg/m2 in a 3-hour IV infusion (starting 1 hour after VNB) on day 1. Cycles were repeated every 28 days. The median age of the patients was 52 years, and 59% of patients were postmenopausal. Median performance status was 1. Dominant sites of disease were soft tissue in 6%, bone in 29%, and viscera in 65%. Objective responses were recorded in 27 of 45 assessable patients (60%; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 74%). Complete remissions occurred in three patients (7%), and partial remissions occurred in 24 patients (53%). No change was recorded in 12 patients (27%), and progressive disease occurred in six patients (13%). The median time to treatment failure was 7 months, and median survival duration was 17 months. The limiting toxicity was myelosuppression, mainly leukopenia in 49 patients (100%) (grade 1 to grade 2, four patients; grade 3, 30 patients; and grade 4, 15 patients). Neutropenia was observed in 100% of patients (grade 1 to grade 2, three patients; grade 3, 11 patients; grade 4, 35 patients). Two treatment-related deaths due to febrile neutropenia were observed in patients with massive liver involvement. Peripheral neurotoxicity developed in 33 patients (67%) (grade 1, 25 patients; grade 2, eight patients); there were no grade 3 or grade 4 episodes. The combination of VNB-PTX showed significant activity as first-line chemotherapy for patients with MBC. Myelosuppression was the dose-limiting side effect, whereas neurotoxicity was mild to moderate.

  8. Análisis de Costo Efectividad de Estrategias de Tratamiento Antimicótico en Pacientes con Neutropenia Febril Persistente y Tratamiento Antibiótico de Amplio Espectro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa Garay, Oscar Andrés; Fuentes Pachón, Juan Camilo; Cuervo Maldonado, Sonia Isabel; Gómez Rincón, Julio Cesar; Castillo Londoño, Juan Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    To assess cost-effectiveness of antifungal treatment on patients with persistent fever neutropenia: empiric antifungal therapy (EAT) vs. anticipated antifungal therapy (AAT). A decision model was performed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antifungal treatment strategies in patients with febrile neutropenia not responding to a broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. The strategies included were: 1) EAT with amphotericin B deoxycholate; 2) EAT with liposomal amphotericin B; 3) EAT with caspofungin; and 4) AAT with voriconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate or liposomal amphotericin B or caspofungin in patients who initiate treatment despite having negative CT scan and galactomannan or fail to voriconazole. Effectiveness was measured as the number of deaths averted. Cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyzes were performed. EAT with Amphotericin B deoxycholate was the least expensive and least effective strategy. The EAT with caspofungin was the most effective. The cost per death averted for caspofungin when compared with amphotericin B deoxycholate was $17,011,073.83, which would indicate that this strategy would be cost-effective for the country if the willingness to pay per death averted is equal to or greater than this value. EAT with liposomal amphotericin B and AAT with voriconazole were dominated by AET with caspofungin, which is less costly and more effective. EAT with caspofungin would be cost-effective for Colombia if the threshold per death averted is greater to $18.000.000. If the threshold is lesser the EAT with amphotericin B deoxycholate would be the election. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodology for clinical trials involving patients with cancer who have febrile neutropenia: updated guidelines of the Immunocompromised Host Society/Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer, with emphasis on outpatient studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Ronald; Paesmans, Marianne; Freifeld, Alison G; Klastersky, Jean; Pizzo, Philip A; Rolston, Kenneth V I; Rubenstein, Edward; Talcott, James A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2002-12-15

    Two multinational organizations, the Immunocompromised Host Society and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer, have produced for investigators and regulatory bodies a set of guidelines on methodology for clinical trials involving patients with febrile neutropenia. The guidelines suggest that response (i.e., success of initial empirical antibiotic therapy without any modification) be determined at 72 h and again on day 5, and the reasons for modification should be stated. Blinding and stratification are to be encouraged, as should statistical consideration of trials specifically designed for showing equivalence. Patients enrolled in outpatient studies should be selected by use of a validated risk model, and patients should be carefully monitored after discharge from the hospital. Response and safety parameters should be recorded along with readmission rates. If studies use these guidelines, comparisons between studies will be simpler and will lead to further improvements in patient therapy.

  10. Full dose CHOP chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shinichi; Kondo, Makoto; Ando, Yutaka; Yamashita, Shoji; Uematsu, Minoru; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nishiguchi, Iku; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1985-01-01

    Since 1982, we have performed 125 courses of CHOP chemotherapy for 27 patients of malignancy, adhering to the original regimen as strictly as possible. CHOP chemotherapy consisted of Cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m 2 , iv, on day 1; Adriamycin 50 mg/m 2 , iv, on day 1; Vincristine 1.4 mg/m 2 , iv, on day 1 (maximum single dose 2.0 mg) and Prednisolone 50 mg/m 2 , po, day 1 through 5. The cycle was repeated every 21 days. As side effects, myelosuppression, hair loss, fever, nausea, vomiting, liver dysfunction, stomatitis, neuropathy, herpes zoster, arrhythmia and hemorrhagic cystitis were seen. Due to myelosuppression, twenty patients experienced febrile episodes at each nadir of WBC counts on 40 courses. However, any febrile patient did not have life threatening infection. Other side effects were also reversible. The radiotherapy of most patients was carried out as initially scheduled, except for 3 patients in whom irradiation was interrupted due to severe stomatitis or herpes zoster. We consider that CHOP chemotherapy is excellent in feasibility even when combined with radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Risk assessment in fever and neutropenia in children with cancer : What did we learn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poele, Esther M. te; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Kamps, Willem A.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer treated with chemotherapy are susceptible to bacterial infections and serious infectious complications. However, fever and neutropenia can also result from other causes, for which no antibiotic treatment is needed. In the past decades attempts have been made to stratify the

  12. Filgrastim use in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer-a survey of physicians and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John; Vandermeer, Lisa; Sienkiewicz, Marta; Mazzarello, Sasha; Hutton, Brian; Stober, Carol; Fergusson, Dean; Blanchette, Phillip; Joy, Anil A; Brianne Bota, A; Clemons, Mark

    2018-07-01

    Despite its widespread use as primary febrile neutropenia (FN) prophylaxis during chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, the optimal duration of daily filgrastim is unknown. Using the minimum effective duration may improve patient comfort and acceptability while reducing costs. Yet, suboptimal dosing may also negatively impact patient care. A survey was performed to obtain information regarding current practices for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) use. Canadian oncologists involved in the treatment of breast cancer patients, as well as patients who had received neo/adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, were surveyed. Standardized surveys were designed to collect information on perceived reasons for G-CSF use and current practices. The surveys were completed by 38/50 (76%) physicians and 95/97 (98%) patients. For physicians, there was variability in the choice of chemotherapy regimens that required G-CSF support, the dose of filgrastim prescribed and the number of days prescribed. The majority of physicians reported using 5 (31.6%), 7 (47.4%), or 10 (13.2%) days of therapy. Nearly half of the patients (46.3%) recalled having experienced at least one of the chemotherapy-related complications including chemotherapy delays, dose reductions, and FN. While on filgrastim, 66.3% of patients reported myalgia and bone pain. Both physicians and patients expressed interest in participating in clinical trials designed to optimize the duration of filgrastim administration. Significant variability in practice exists with respect to filgrastim administration. Definitive studies are therefore required to standardize and improve care, as this has the potential to impact treatment outcomes, patient quality of life, and cost savings.

  13. Is there still an indication for nursing patients with prolonged neutropenia in protective isolation? An evidence-based nursing and medical study of 4 years experience for nursing patients with neutropenia without isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mank, Arno; van der Lelie, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Patients with severe neutropenia due to high-dose chemotherapy and/or total-body irradiation are at risk of serious infections and are frequently nursed in strict protective isolation. This is a costly procedure and results in a psychological burden for the patient and its significance has been

  14. Attitudes and practice patterns for maintaining relative dose intensity of chemotherapy in outpatient clinics: results of a Japanese web-based survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitomi; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Kadokura, Genmu

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was undertaken to evaluate the practice patterns of Japanese physicians regarding curative-intent chemotherapy, especially in outpatient settings, and to define factors negatively affecting the maintenance of relative dose intensity (RDI). We performed a web-based questionnaire survey of Japanese physicians involved in malignant lymphoma chemotherapy (Group ML) or in breast cancer chemotherapy (Group BC). The questionnaire inquired how they manage low-risk febrile neutropenia (FN) caused by initial chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) or by adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in an outpatient setting. Valid responses were obtained from 185 physicians in Group ML and 160 in Group BC. In Group ML, 76 % (n = 141) of the physicians were board-certified hematologists, while 82 % (n = 131) of the physicians in Group BC were board-certified surgeons. A significantly higher proportion of physicians in Group ML responded that “dose reduction is not required for the subsequent course of chemotherapy after the first episode of FN” than in Group BC (ML versus BC; 77 % versus 31 %; P < 0.001). Significantly higher proportions of physicians in Group ML were more likely to prophylactically administer antibiotics or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; ML versus BC; antibiotics: 36 % versus 26 %, P = 0.049; G-CSF: 25 % versus 16 %, P = 0.047). Eighty six percent (n = 159) of Group ML and 70 % (n = 112) of Group BC responded that “emergency outpatient unit is open at all hours”. Japanese physicians are more likely to administer reduced doses of chemotherapy to patients with breast cancer than to patients with malignant lymphoma. Supportive infrastructures should be improved to ensure the provision of adequate chemotherapy to all cancer patients

  15. Customized chemotherapy based on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shiro; Mio, Tadashi; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Masago, Katsuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Tomii, Keisuke; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Hirabayashi, Masataka; Kunimasa, Kei; Morizane, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Elderly patients are more vulnerable to toxicity from chemotherapy. Activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are associated with enhanced response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We studied patients with advanced NSCLC for whom treatment was customized based on EGFR mutation status. We screened 57 chemotherapy-naïve patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC, stage IIIB or IV, aged 70 years or older, and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, for EGFR exon 19 codon 746–750 deletion and exon 21 L858R mutation. Twenty-two patients with EGFR mutations received gefitinib; 32 patients without mutations received vinorelbine or gemcitabine. The primary endpoint was the response rate. The response rate was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.4%, 67.8%) in patients with EGFR mutations and 18.8% (95% CI: 7.2%, 36.4%) in patients without EGFR mutations. The median overall survival was 27.9 months (95%CI: 24.4 months, undeterminable months) in patients with EGFR mutations and 14.9 months (95%CI: 11.0 months, 22.4 months) in patients without EGFR mutations. In the gefitinib group, grade 3/4 hepatic dysfunction and dermatitis occurred in 23% and 5% of patients, respectively. In patients treated with vinorelbine or gemcitabine, the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (47%; four had febrile neutropenia), anemia (13%), and anorexia (9%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Treatment customization based on EGFR mutation status deserves consideration, particularly for elderly patients who often cannot receive second-line chemotherapy due to poor organ function or comorbidities. This trial is registered at University hospital Medical Information Network-clinical trial registration (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm) with the registration identification number C000000436

  16. Impact of liposomal doxorubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy on autonomy in women over 70 with hormone-receptor-negative breast carcinoma: A French Geriatric Oncology Group (GERICO) phase II multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Etienne G C; Mertens, Cécile; Girre, Véronique; Rousseau, Frédérique; Blot, Emmanuel; Abadie, Sophie; Uwer, Lionel; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle; Van Praagh-Doreau, Isabelle; Mourey, Loic; Kirscher, Sylvie; Laguerre, Brigitte; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Luneau, Sylvia; Genève, Jean; Debled, Marc

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of ageing. Functional independence in elderly patients, measured with the Katz activities of daily living (ADL) scale, predicts overall survival and the need for welfare support. Few prospective studies have examined the feasibility of adjuvant chemotherapy and its impact on autonomy in women over 70 years of age with high-risk breast cancer. This multicentre phase II trial was designed to assess the impact of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy on these patients' autonomy. In a two-stage Fleming design, women aged ≥70 years with histologically proven hormone-receptor-negative early breast cancer and a significant risk of recurrence (pN+ or "high risk" pN0) received 4 cycles of nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks postoperatively, on an outpatient basis. The primary endpoint was the change in the ADL score during chemotherapy. Secondary endpoints include comprehensive geriatric, quality-of-life and acceptability assessments, tolerability, and long-term outcome. The results for the primary endpoint and other scales at completion of adjuvant chemotherapy are reported here, while long-term follow-up is not yet complete. Forty patients (median age 75 [70-82]) were enrolled between February 2006 and November 2007. Chemotherapy had no deleterious impact on ADL, cognition, mental status, or the frequency of comorbidities. In contrast, the number of patients at risk of malnutrition, based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment, more than doubled between baseline and the end of chemotherapy, rising from 15% to 38%. Quality-of-life deteriorated in terms of social and role functioning, likely owing to fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Treatment acceptability was good. The main adverse effect was neutropenia, 15% of the patients experiencing febrile neutropenia. No cardiac toxicity or toxic deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an adjuvant chemotherapy

  17. Características clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes neutropénicos febriles con neoplasias hematológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Jaimes Barragán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva 441 historias clínicas en el período comprendido entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2005. De éstas, se identificaron las características de 117 episodios de neutropenia febril en 96 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue 34 años y el 56,4% de los episodios ocurrieron en hombres. Las más frecuentes neoplasias hematológicas relacionadas con neutropenia febril fueron leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA y leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA con 45 episodios de cada una, que corresponden al 76,9%. La mediana de duración de la neutropenia fue 8 días y el 60,7% de los casos entraron en la categoría de neutropenia grave. La mortalidad global fue del 32% y el 81,5% de estas muertes estuvieron asociadas directamente con la infección. Se obtuvo aislamiento microbiológico en el 51% de los eventos. Los bacilos gram negativos (BGN constituyeron el 59% de los aislamientos microbiológicos y los cocos gram positivos el 32%. El 14,3% de los BGN aislados fueron positivos para beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE y la resistencia global a ciprofloxacina alcanzó el 31,4%. El esquema antimicrobiano empírico más frecuentemente utilizado fue ciprofloxacina más ceftriaxona; la respuesta terapéutica fue desfavorable en 65% de los casos. En el Hospital San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín siguen primando los gérmenes gram negativos y son altas las tasas de resistencia a los antibióticos utilizados tradicionalmente como de primera línea, lo que sugiere la necesidad de reevaluar la pertinencia de estos esquemas.

  18. Two cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume stage II seminoma: results of a retrospective, single-center case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Stöhr, Brigitte; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    To report on the oncological outcome and toxicity of patients treated with 2 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume metastatic stage II seminoma. We retrospectively identified a case series of 15 patients with seminoma stage IIA (26.7%) and IIB (73.3%) who underwent chemotherapy consisting of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (PEB) (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, bleomycin 30 mg on days 1, 8 and 15) according to patient preference (refusing a 3rd cycle of PEB) or institutional practice in the last decades. Complete staging before chemotherapy was available in all patients. Patient age, the side and diameter of the primary tumor, the size of the lymph nodes before and after chemotherapy, acute and late toxicity of chemotherapy, the incidence of second malignancies, the relapse-free rate and cancer-specific mortality were recorded. Chemotherapy was well tolerated and no episode of febrile neutropenia occurred. Thrombocytopenia grade 4 was not seen in any patient, while leukopenia grade 4 was observed in 4 (26.6%) patients. The mean (range) lymph node size decreased significantly from 2.54 cm (1.1-4.0) before chemotherapy to 0.75 cm (0.4-2.2) after chemotherapy (p < 0.001). After a median (range) follow-up of 60 (13-185) months, no patient had relapsed, no patient had died as a result of seminoma and second malignancy was seen in only 1 (6.6%) patient. These excellent long-term results from a retrospective case series of 2 cycles of PEB in stage IIA/IIB seminoma patients represent a hint for further research with a view to reducing treatment burden. However, these incidental findings should be studied in prospective trials prior to drawing any conclusions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effects of mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van der Bol (Jessica); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); A. Sparreboom (Alex); M.A. van Fessem (Marianne); F.E. Geijn (Fleur); P.L.A. van Daele (Paul); J. Verweij (Jaap); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is important in the innate immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms affect MBL expression, and genotypes yielding low MBL levels have been associated with an elevated risk for infections in hematological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  20. O papel da neutropenia no prognóstico do doente oncológico com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade The role of neutropenia on outcomes of cancer patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Caeiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença infecciosa contribui para uma elevada morbilidade e mortalidade no doente oncológico, representando a pneumonia adquirida na comunidade a mais frequente. O desenvolvimento de PAC no doente neoplásico parece advir da modificação de mecanismos de defesa imunitária resultante, quer da patologia maligna, quer do tratamento oncológico. O risco de infecção relacionada com o tipo de neoplasia pode associar-se ao défice de imunidade humoral, celular ou do número de neutrófilos. As doenças hematológicas malignas podem predispor o doente às infecções devido à substituição da medula por células neoplásicas. Consequentemente, estes doentes têm neutropenia funcional, apesar de apresentarem, muitas vezes, um número normal ou aumentado de neutrófilos. Por outro lado, estes doentes podem ter neutropenia como efeito secundário da quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia (neutropenia absoluta. A gravidade da neutropenia foi considerada como principal factor de risco isolado no doente neoplásico, com particular relevância se o número de neutrófilos ≤500cel/mm³. A mortalidade global atribuída à neutropenia febril no doente neoplásico é de 30-50%. Nas últimas décadas, o tratamento das infecções na população oncológica foi direccionado, primariamente, para o manuseamento da neutropenia febril, devido ao facto de o local da infecção não ser determinado em 50-80% dos casos. As guidelines da American Thoracic Society de 2001 utilizavam a neutropenia para identificar os quadros mais graves de PAC nos doentes oncológicos. Os doen tes com patologia hematológica e neutropenia funcional ou indivíduos com qualquer tipo de neoplasia e neutropenia absoluta foram excluídos das referidas guidelines. A decisão de incluir doentes com tumores sólidos não neutropénicos foi baseada, apenas, na opinião de especialistas. Assim, os clínicos podiam sentir-se confiantes e tratar a PAC no doente oncológico não neutropénico como na

  1. Weekly Carboplatin Reduces Toxicity During Synchronous Chemoradiotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Dickie, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Keller, Jacqui; Tpcony, Lee; Rischin, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) combined with weekly carboplatin and adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide was prospectively assessed in a group of patients with high-risk Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. This regimen was compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study, which used identical eligibility criteria but carboplatin and etoposide every 3 weeks during RT. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible if they had disease localized to the primary site and lymph nodes, with high-risk features. RT was delivered to the primary site and lymph nodes to a dose of 50 Gy and weekly carboplatin (area under the curve of 2) was given during RT. This was followed by three cycles of carboplatin and etoposide. A total of 18 patients were entered into the study, and their data were compared with the data from 53 patients entered into the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 study. Results: Involved lymph nodes (Stage II) were present in 14 patients (77%). Treatment was completed as planned in 16 patients. The weekly carboplatin dose was delivered in 17 patients, and 15 were able to complete all three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide. Grade 3 and 4 neutrophil toxicity occurred in 7 patients, but no cases of febrile neutropenia developed. Compared with the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96:07 protocol (19 of 53 cases of febrile neutropenia), the reduction in the febrile neutropenia rate (p = 0.003) and decrease in Grade 3 skin toxicity (p = 0.006) were highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that weekly carboplatin at this dosage is a safe way to deliver synchronous chemotherapy during RT for MCC and results in a marked reduction of febrile neutropenia and Grade 3 skin toxicity compared with the three weekly regimen

  2. A Comparison of Proposed Biosimilar LA-EP2006 and Reference Pegfilgrastim for the Prevention of Neutropenia in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Adjuvant or Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2), a Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Kimberly; Donskih, Roman; Jones, C Michael; Nixon, Allen; Vidal, Maria J; Nakov, Roumen; Singh, Pritibha; Schaffar, Gregor; Gascón, Pere; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    Pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In highly regulated markets, there are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim. Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2) was a confirmatory efficacy and safety study designed to compare proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 with reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta, Amgen) in early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy. A total of 308 patients were randomized to LA-EP2006 or reference pegfilgrastim. Each patient received TAC (intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of each cycle, for six or more cycles. Pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006 or reference) was given subcutaneously (6 mg in 0.6 mL) on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) during cycle 1 (number of consecutive days with an absolute neutrophil count prevention of neutropenia in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving TAC. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Biosimilars are biologics with similar quality, safety, and efficacy to a reference product that may increase the affordability of treatment compared with their reference compounds. There are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim in highly regulated markets. No previous phase III studies have been performed with LA-EP2006. PROTECT-2 was conducted to confirm the similarity of the proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 to pegfilgrastim. Biosimilar pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006) may benefit oncology patients by offering increased access to biological treatments that may improve clinical outcomes. This means that patients could potentially be treated prophylactically with biologics rather than only after complications have occurred. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Farmacocinética y farmacodinamia de antimicrobianos: a propósito de pacientes con neutropenia y fiebre

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón, Javier R; Cuervo M, Sonia; Gómez R, Julio; Cortés, Jorge A

    2011-01-01

    La neutropenia febril es una complicación grave de la terapia antineoplásica que se presenta más frecuentemente en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas, asociada a tasas elevadas de mortalidad. Uno de los factores descritos como causa de fracasos terapéuticos de la terapia antimicrobiana es la inadecuada concentración tisular de los antimicrobianos que a su vez se correlaciona con bajas concentraciones en el líquido intersticial en el caso de los fármacos hidrofílicos. En pacientes críticam...

  4. A European survey relating to cancer therapy and neutropenic infections: Nurse and patient viewpoints.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Kay

    2011-09-25

    PURPOSE: Severe neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are the major causes of morbidity, treatment interruptions and dose reductions in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) conducted an European survey to evaluate nurse perspectives on prevention of infection and FN in this setting, and how much they educate their patients about this. A separate survey explored these issues in patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: 217 nurse participants were identified by EONS from the membership database and 473 cancer patients who were receiving\\/had received chemotherapy were identified through patient advocacy groups. Questionnaires were completed anonymously online for both surveys. RESULTS: More than 90% of the nurses agreed that preventing infections including FN is extremely\\/very important for a successful chemotherapy outcome and said that they, or other health professionals in their practice, advised patients about these issues. Most (90%) indicated that they favoured giving treatment to protect against FN and infections in chemotherapy patients at risk, rather than treating infection after it develops, but 82% expressed concern over patient concordance with measures employed. A substantial proportion of patients reported emergency room visits, hospitalization and\\/or chemotherapy delays or changes as a result of neutropenia, infection or FN. However, only 44% said that their infection risk was discussed with them before starting chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nurses recognise the importance of reducing the risk of infection and FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as the need to educate patients. However, results of the patient survey suggest a need for better patient education.

  5. Febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proper care. Occasionally, a provider will prescribe a medicine called diazepam to prevent or treat febrile seizures that occur more than once. However, no drug is completely effective in preventing febrile seizures. Alternative Names Seizure - fever induced; Febrile convulsions Patient Instructions ...

  6. Biosimilars in the management of neutropenia: focus on filgrastim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caselli D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Désirée Caselli,1 Simone Cesaro,2 Maurizio Aricò1 1Medical Department, Pediatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale Ragusa, Ragusa, 2Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, Italy Abstract: Advances in chemotherapy and surgery allows the majority of patients to survive cancer diseases. Yet, the price may be a proportion of patients dying of complications due to treatment-induced infectious complications, such as neutropenia. With the aim of decreasing morbidity and mortality related to infectious complications, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim, and pegylated filgrastim have been used to reduce time and degree of neutropenia. A biosimilar is a copy of an approved original biologic medicine whose data protection has expired. The patent for filgrastim expired in Europe in 2006 and in the US in 2013. This review analyses the available evidence to be considered in order to design a strategy of use of G-CSF and its biosimilars. The clinical and safety outcomes of biosimilars are well within the range of historically reported data for originator filgrastim. This underscores the clinical effectiveness and safety of biosimilar filgrastim in daily clinical practice. Biosimilars can play an important role by offering the opportunity to reduce costs, thus contributing to the financial sustainability of treatment programs. Keywords: neutropenia, filgrastim, biosimilars, G-CSF, fever, prophylaxis

  7. Efficacy, safety and proper dose analysis of PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as support for dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy in node positive Chinese breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fan; LingHu, RuiXia; Zhan, XingYang; Li, Ruisheng; Feng, Fan; Gao, Xudong; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Junlan

    2017-01-01

    For high-risk breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, dose-dense every-two-week epirubicin/cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (ddEC-P) regimen is the optimal postoperative adjuvant therapy. However, this regimen is limited by the grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN). There is an urgent need to explore the efficacy, safety and proper dosage of PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF) as support for ddEC-P in Chinese breast cancer patients with posit...

  8. Evaluation of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid versus ceftriaxone plus amikacin for fever and neutropenia in pediatric patients with leukemia and lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrilli Antonio Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The empirical use of antibiotic treatments is widely accepted as a means to treat cancer patients in chemotherapy who have fever and neutropenia. Intravenous monotherapy, with broad spectrum antibiotics, of patients with a high risk of complications is a possible alternative. METHODS: We conducted a prospective open-label, randomized study of patients with lymphoma or leukemia who had fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy. Patients received either monotherapy with ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (T or ceftriaxone plus amikacin (C+A. RESULTS: Seventy patients who presented 136 episodes were evaluated, 68 in each arm of the study. The mean neutrophil counts at admission were 217cells/mm³ (T and 201cells/mm³ (C+A. The mean duration of neutropenia was 8.7 days (T and 7.6 days (C+A. Treatment was successful without the need for modifications in 71% of the episodes in the T group and 81% in the C+A group (p=0.23. Treatment was considered to have failed because of death in two episodes (3% in the T group and three episodes (4% in the C+A group, and because of a change in the drug applied in one episode in the T group and two episodes in the C+A group. Overall success was 96% (T and 93% (C+A. Adverse events that occurred in group T were not related to the drugs used in this study. CONCLUSION: In pediatric and adolescent patients with leukemia or lymphoma, who presented with fever and neutropenia, during chemotherapy, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid was as successful as the combination of ceftriaxone plus amikacin. It should be considered an appropriate option for this group of patients at high risk for infections.

  9. Infection pattern of neutropenic patients in post-chemotherapy phase of acute leukemia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and x2 tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available.

  10. Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Results Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...

  11. Comparison of the MASCC and CISNE scores for identifying low-risk neutropenic fever patients: analysis of data from three emergency departments of cancer centers in three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Rice, Terry W; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Cooksley, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Patients with febrile neutropenia are a heterogeneous group with a minority developing serious medical complications. Outpatient management of low-risk febrile neutropenia has been shown to be safe and cost-effective. Scoring systems, such as the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score and Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE), have been developed and validated to identify low-risk patients. We aimed to compare the performance of these two scores in identifying low-risk febrile neutropenic patients. We performed a pooled analysis of patients presenting with febrile neutropenia to three tertiary cancer emergency centers in the USA, UK, and South Korea in 2015. The primary outcome measures were the occurrence of serious complications. Admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-day mortality were secondary outcomes. The predictive performance of each score was analyzed. Five hundred seventy-one patients presented with febrile neutropenia. With MASCC risk index, 508 (89.1%) were classified as low-risk febrile neutropenia, compared to 60 (10.5%) with CISNE classification. Overall, the MASCC score had a greater discriminatory power in the detection of low-risk patients than the CISNE score (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.726-0.819 vs. 0.681, 95% CI 0.626-0.737, p = 0.0024). Both MASCC and CISNE scores have reasonable discriminatory value in predicting patients with low-risk febrile neutropenia. Risk scores should be used in conjunction with clinical judgment for the identification of patients suitable for outpatient management of neutropenic fever. Developing more accurate scores, validated in prospective settings, will be useful in facilitating more patients being managed in an outpatient setting.

  12. Body weight, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count in patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy: A single-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Y.; Winarto, H.

    2017-08-01

    The side effects of chemotherapy, a treatment modality of ovarian cancer, can disrupt overall treatment. To date, the clinical and laboratory profiles of ovarian cancer patients during chemotherapy have not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, including body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). To generate these clinical and laboratory profiles, we collected secondary data from the medical records of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. We enrolled 23 patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of chemotherapy. Mean patient BMI before and after chemotherapy was 22.86 kg/m2 and 21.78 kg/m2, respectively. Hb levels before chemotherapy were 8-13 g/dl, with Hb chemotherapy. Mean ANC before chemotherapy was 3.5582 ± 3.3250. An average of 26.81% of patients had ANC chemotherapy; no patients had ANC chemotherapy initiation. After six cycles of chemotherapy, three patients (13.04%) had mild neutropenia, four patients (17.39%) had moderate neutropenia, and one patient (4.35%) had severe neutropenia. Of the 22 patients with Hb ≥ 10 g/dl before chemotherapy, 16 (72.72%) experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. Of the 20 patients (60.87%) with normal BMI or higher, 14 experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. The mean patient body weight decreased after six cycles of chemotherapy. Hb and ANC were persistently decreased in approximately a quarter of the 23 subjects. The decrease in ANC was not influenced by initial Hb and BMI.

  13. Febrile Seizure Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Cisneros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation session is appropriate for medical students, community physicians, or residents in emergency medicine, neurology, pediatrics, or family medicine. Introduction: Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures in childhood; they are thought to occur in 2-5% of all children.1-3 Febrile seizures are defined as a seizure in association with a febrile illness in children without a central nervous system infection, previous afebrile seizure, known brain disorder, or electrolyte abnormalities. 1,2 They typically occur between 6 months and 18 months of age though they can occur up to 5 years of age.3 Febrile seizures are categorized as: simple (generalized seizure lasting less than 15 minutes in a child aged 6 months to 5 years, and less than 1 in a 24 hour period or complex (a focal seizure or generalized seizure lasting greater than 15 minutes, or multiple seizures in a 24 hour period. 1,3 Treatment for febrile seizures is based on treating the underlying cause of the fever and giving reassurance and education to the parents.2 Mortality is extremely rare, and there is no difference in the patient’s cognitive abilities after a febrile seizure, even when the seizure is prolonged.1 Objectives: At the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 discuss the management of febrile seizures 2 discuss when placement of an advanced airway is indicated in the management of a febrile seizure 3 list the risk factors for febrile seizures 4 prepare a differential diagnosis for the causes of febrile seizures 5 educate family members on febrile seizures. Methods: This educational session is a high-fidelity simulation.

  14. Neutropenia in the Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW Review normal blood neutrophil concentrations and the clinical approach to neutropenia in the neonatal period. A literature search on neonatal neutropenia was performed using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus and the electronic archive of abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies. RECENT FINDINGS This review summarizes current knowledge on the causes of neutropenia in premature and critically-ill neonates, focusing on common causes such as maternal hypertension, neonatal sepsis, twin-twin transfusion, alloimmunization, and hemolytic disease. The article provides a rational approach to diagnosis and treatment of neonatal neutropenia, including current evidence on the role of recombinant hematopoietic growth factors. SUMMARY Neutrophil counts should be carefully evaluated in premature and critically-ill neonates. Although neutropenia is usually benign and runs a self-limited course in most neonates, it can be prolonged and constitute a serious deficiency in antimicrobial defense in some infants. PMID:24322487

  15. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in HIV-infected and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    show an increased incidence of breast cancer among HIV-infected ... on CIN in patients with breast cancer and HIV infection are scarce, ...... Crawford J. Pegfilgrastim for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenic complications, with.

  16. How I manage children with neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, David C

    2017-08-01

    Neutropenia, usually defined as a blood neutrophil count <1·5 × 10 9 /l, is a common medical problem for children and adults. There are many causes for neutropenia, and at each stage in life the clinical pattern of causes and consequences differs significantly. I recommend utilizing the age of the child and clinical observations for the preliminary diagnosis and primary management. In premature infants, neutropenia is quite common and contributes to the risk of sepsis with necrotizing enterocolitis. At birth and for the first few months of life, neutropenia is often attributable to isoimmune or alloimmune mechanisms and predisposes to the risk of severe bacterial infections. Thereafter when a child is discovered to have neutropenia, often associated with relatively minor symptoms, it is usually attributed to autoimmune disorder or viral infection. The congenital neutropenia syndromes are usually recognized when there are recurrent infections, the neutropenia is severe and there are congenital anomalies suggesting a genetic disorder. This review focuses on the key clinical finding and laboratory tests for diagnosis with commentaries on treatment, particularly the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to treat childhood neutropenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Survival benefit of adding docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma with nodal Stage N2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahira, Masahiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Onozawa, Yusuke; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Kamijo, Tomoyuki; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Yasui, Hirofumi

    2017-08-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (CCRT-AC) has been established as the standard of care in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). The survival benefit of induction chemotherapy (ICT) for LA-NPC remains controversial. We analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) ICT followed by CCRT for LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 LA-NPC patients with nodal Stage N2-3 receiving induction TPF followed by CCRT (TPF group; n = 12) or CCRT-AC (CCRT group; n = 16) between October 2006 and May 2016. The median follow-up periods were 36.4 (range 6.7-55.2) and 40.1 months (range 4.3-99.0) for the TPF and CCRT groups, respectively. One- and three-year overall survival for the TPF group vs. the CCRT group were 100% and 100% vs. 94% and 75%, respectively (P = 0.21). The cumulative one- and three-year incidences of locoregional recurrence or progression for the TPF group vs. the CCRT group were 10% and 21% vs. 16% and 32% (P = 0.49), and those of distant metastasis were 0% and 0% vs. 26% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.08). The common Grade 3-4 acute toxicities were neutropenia, anorexia, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis in the TPF group. The Grade 3-4 late toxicities did not differ significantly between the two groups. This study suggests that induction TPF followed by CCRT might reduce distant metastasis, so this combination may be feasible for the treatment of LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Analisi Costo-Efficacia di Amfotericina B Liposomiale (L-AmB versus Amfotericina B Complesso Lipidico (ABLC nel trattamento empirico della neutropenia febbrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Current international guidelines for the management of immuno-compromised patients with febrile neutropenia recommend a systemic antimicrobial therapy if fever hasn’t receded after three days of antibiotic treatment. Amphotericin B remains the gold standard because of its broad spectrum fungicidal action and minimal resistance development risk. Nonetheless, therapeutic use of the standard formulation, Amphotericin B deoxycholate, is limited by its toxicity, especially on the kidneys. To counteract this, amphotericin B has been encapsulated in liposomes, a process which reduces its toxicity and allows higher doses to be given. Three lipid formulations have been developed and are now available in most countries: amB colloidal dispersion (ABCD, amB lipid complex (ABLC, and liposomal amB (L-AmB. These lipid formulations differ in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and can’t therefore be considered interchangeable. Besides, they are more expensive than Amphotericin B deoxycholate. Aim of the study is to perform a cost/effectiveness analysis (CEA comparing L-AmB (3mg/kg/die or 5mg/kg/ die and ABLC (5mg/kg/die as first-line antimicrobial empirical treatments in immuno-compromised patients with febrile neutropenia resistant to broad spectrum antibiotics. Secondly, we present a cost-minimization analysis (CMA of the considered alternatives, assuming the same efficacy for all treatments. At the end we value the principal cost items from the point of view of the Italian Health Service, with a particular focus on the economic burden caused by adverse reactions.

  19. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  20. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftimos, Philippe G; Nasr, Elie A; Nasr, Dolly I; Noun, Roger J; Nasr, Fady L; Ghosn, Marwan G; El Helou, Joelle A; Chahine, Georges Y

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96%) had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy) was completed by 22 patients (91.7%). Only 7 patients (36.8%) completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%), 2 regional relapses (10%) and 2 distant relapses (10%) were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5%) died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8%) with 9 (36%) patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20%) suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17%) patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17%) and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the full planned courses of chemotherapy. This is due to

  1. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosn Marwan G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. Methods 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. Results This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96% had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy was completed by 22 patients (91.7%. Only 7 patients (36.8% completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%, 2 regional relapses (10% and 2 distant relapses (10% were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5% died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8% with 9 (36% patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20% suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17% patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17% and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Conclusions Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the

  2. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-06-30

    Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3-7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies.

  3. Multicenter Phase II Study Evaluating Two Cycles of Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Cetuximab as Induction Regimen Prior to Surgery in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with NSCLC Stage IB-IIIA (INN06-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hilbe

    Full Text Available Different strategies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage NSCLC have already been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a chemoimmunotherapy when limited to two cycles.Between 01/2007 and 03/2010 41 patients with primarily resectable NSCLC stage IB to IIIA were included. Treatment consisted of two cycles cisplatin (40 mg/m2 d1+2 and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 d1 q3 weeks, accompanied by the administration of cetuximab (400 mg/m2 d1, then 250 mg weekly. The primary endpoint was radiological response according to RECIST.40 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 39 for response. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were: neutropenia 25%, leucopenia 11%, febrile neutropenia 6%, nausea 8% and rash 8%. 20 patients achieved a partial response, 17 a stable disease, 2 were not evaluable. 37 patients (95% underwent surgery and in three of them a complete pathological response was achieved. At a median follow-up of 44.2 months, 41% of the patients had died, median progression-free survival was 22.5 months.Two cycles of cisplatin/ docetaxel/ cetuximab showed promising efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of early-stage NSCLC and rapid operation was possible in 95% of patients. Toxicities were manageable and as expected.EU Clinical Trials Register; Eudract-Nr: 2006-004639-31.

  4. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure <6 months,

  5. Accelerate Genomic Aging in Congenital Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...neutropenia; Shwachman Diamond syndrome; Cyclic neutropenia; Hematopoietic stem cells; Granulocyte colony- stimulating factor; Acute myeloid leukemia...high rate of leukemic transformation. For example, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) expression is induced by neutropenia and may increase

  6. Congenital neutropenia: diagnosis, molecular bases and patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelot Christine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term congenital neutropenia encompasses a family of neutropenic disorders, both permanent and intermittent, severe ( When neutropenia is detected, an attempt should be made to establish the etiology, distinguishing between acquired forms (the most frequent, including post viral neutropenia and auto immune neutropenia and congenital forms that may either be isolated or part of a complex genetic disease. Except for ethnic neutropenia, which is a frequent but mild congenital form, probably with polygenic inheritance, all other forms of congenital neutropenia are extremely rare and have monogenic inheritance, which may be X-linked or autosomal, recessive or dominant. About half the forms of congenital neutropenia with no extra-hematopoetic manifestations and normal adaptive immunity are due to neutrophil elastase (ELANE mutations. Some patients have severe permanent neutropenia and frequent infections early in life, while others have mild intermittent neutropenia. Congenital neutropenia may also be associated with a wide range of organ dysfunctions, as for example in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (associated with pancreatic insufficiency and glycogen storage disease type Ib (associated with a glycogen storage syndrome. So far, the molecular bases of 12 neutropenic disorders have been identified. Treatment of severe chronic neutropenia should focus on prevention of infections. It includes antimicrobial prophylaxis, generally with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and also granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF. G-CSF has considerably improved these patients' outlook. It is usually well tolerated, but potential adverse effects include thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis and osteoporosis. Long-term treatment with G-CSF, especially at high doses, augments the spontaneous risk of leukemia in patients with congenital neutropenia.

  7. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Irene Karpenko Lauren Tyrell Olivera Calukovic Gillian Hodes June Greenberg Jessica Campbell PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES Biostatistics...myelosuppression or need for >2 platelet (plt) transfusions, febrile neutropenia , or grade >2 non-heme toxicity following 177Lu- J591. PSA was assessed prior to...toxicity • Grade 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia > 14 days • Need for > 2 platelet transfusions or hemorrhage • Febrile neutropenia • > 3 week delay for

  8. A multicenter, non-randomized, phase II study of docetaxel and carboplatin administered every 3 weeks as second line chemotherapy in patients with first relapse of platinum sensitive epithelial ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Herrstedt, Jørn; Havsteen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    of 398 cycles were given. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was seen in 80% (59 of 74) patients with an incidence of febrile neutropenia of 16%. Grade 2/3 sensory peripheral neuropathy occurred in 7% of patients, but no grade 4 sensory peripheral neuropathy was observed. Sixty patients were evaluable for response...... of platinum-sensitive ovarian, peritoneal and Fallopian tube cancer. The major toxicity was neutropenia, while the frequency of peripheral neuropathy was low.......BACKGROUND: In patients with ovarian cancer relapsing at least 6 months after end of primary treatment, the addition of paclitaxel to platinum treatment has been shown to improve survival but at the cost of significant neuropathy. In the first line setting, the carboplatin-docetaxel combination...

  9. Randomized study of the clinical effects of ω-3 fatty acid-containing enteral nutrition support during neoadjuvant chemotherapy on chemotherapy-related toxicity in patients with esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiko; Yasuda, Takushi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Murakami, Kohei; Makino, Tomoki; Nishiki, Kohei; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Osamu; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids have potential positive effects during chemotherapy, such as body weight maintenance and muscle mass preservation. However, little is known about the effect this supplement might have on reducing chemotherapy-induced toxicities. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in the reduction of chemotherapy-related toxicities. Sixty-one patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer randomly received ω-3-rich enteral nutrition (EN; n = 31) or ω-3-poor EN support (n = 30) for 15 d during chemotherapy. The daily dosage of ω-3 fatty acids was 900 mg in the ω-3-rich group and 250 mg in the ω-3-poor group. The primary endpoint was the frequency of grade 3/4 neutropenia, and secondary endpoints included other chemotherapy-related adverse events, body weight, and inflammatory markers. The total and dietary intake calories during chemotherapy were equal in both groups. There was no significant difference in the body weight change after chemotherapy between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of grade 3/4 leukopenia and neutropenia (P > 0.05). However, stomatitis was significantly less frequent in the ω-3-rich group, than in the ω-3-poor group (P = 0.018). Grade 3/4 diarrhea occurred relatively less frequently in the ω-3-rich group than in the ω-3-poor group; however, this difference was not significant (16.1% versus 36.7%, respectively, P = 0.068). Increases in the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were seen significantly less frequently in the ω-3-rich group than in the ω-3-poor group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.015, respectively). ω-3-rich EN support decreased the frequency of chemotherapy-induced mucosal toxicities, such as stomatitis and diarrhea, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effect during chemotherapy, compared with the ω-3-poor EN support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Efficacy, safety and proper dose analysis of PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as support for dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy in node positive Chinese breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; LingHu, RuiXia; Zhan, XingYang; Li, Ruisheng; Feng, Fan; Gao, Xudong; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Junlan

    2017-10-03

    For high-risk breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, dose-dense every-two-week epirubicin/cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (ddEC-P) regimen is the optimal postoperative adjuvant therapy. However, this regimen is limited by the grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN). There is an urgent need to explore the efficacy, safety and proper dosage of PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF) as support for ddEC-P in Chinese breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Prospectively, 40 women with stage IIIA to IIIC breast cancer received ddEC-P ± trastuzumab as adjuvant treatment. PEG-G-CSF was injected subcutaneously in a dose of 6 mg or 3 mg on the 2 th day of each treatment cycle. With administration of PEG-G-CSF, all of the 40 patients completed 8 cycles of ddEC-P ± trastuzumab regimen without dose reductions or treatment delays. Moreover, no FN cases were observed. Further analysis showed that the proper dosage of PEG-G-CSF was 6 mg for ddEC treatment, and 3 mg for ddP treatment. PEG-G-CSF exhibits advantages compared with G-CSF in convenient of administration and tolerance for high risk Chinese breast cancer patients. More importantly, the proper dose of PEG-G-CSF for high risk Chinese breast cancer patients during ddEC-P chemotherapy may be 6 mg for ddEC treatment and 3 mg for ddP treatment.

  11. Efficacy of a diazepam suppository at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yu; Okumura, Akihisa; Kondo, Taiki; Magota, Miyuki; Kawabe, Shinji; Kando, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Natsume, Jun; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of diazepam suppositories at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness to determine how to treat children with a febrile seizure on presentation at the hospital. We studied 203 children with febrile seizures from December 2004 through March 2006. On admission between December 2004 and May 2005, a diazepam suppository was administered to the patients. Patients seen between June 2005 and March 2006 were not treated with antiepileptic drugs on admission. We saw a significant difference in the rate of recurrence of febrile seizures between children treated with diazepam and those who were not. Recurrences were observed in 2 (2.1%) of 95 children treated with diazepam and in 16 (14.8%) of 108 untreated children. For the 108 untreated patients, the median age was 22.8 months in those with recurrences and 30.6 months in those without, confirming that a younger age was related to a recurrence. A diazepam suppository after a febrile seizure will reduce the incidence of recurrent febrile seizures during the same febrile illness. However, a diazepam suppository after a febrile seizure should be used after carefully considering the benefits and potential adverse effects.

  12. Mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA A1555G mutation associated with cardiomyopathy and hearing loss following high-dose chemotherapy and repeated aminoglycoside exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Anne-Sofie; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Jensen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    A 19-month-old girl with the A1555G mitochondrial mutation in the 12S ribosomal RNA gene and acute myelogenous leukemia developed dilated cardiomyopathy and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss before undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. She had received gentamicin during episodes of ...... of febrile neutropenia. Testing for the A1555G mutation is recommended in patients frequently treated with aminoglycosides....

  13. Filgrastim as a Rescue Therapy for Persistent Neutropenia in a Case of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of dengue involves suppression of immune system leading to development of characteristic presentation of haematological picture of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Sometimes, this suppression in immune response is responsible for deterioration in clinical status of the patient in spite of all specific and supportive therapy. Certain drugs like steroids are used for rescue therapy in conditions like sepsis. We present a novel use of filgrastim as a rescue therapy in a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, myocarditis, and febrile neutropenia and not responding to standard management.

  14. Kejadian Demam Neutropenia pada Anak dengan Keganasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rafika Nursyirwan

    2018-03-01

    Kesimpulan. kejadian demam neutropenia lebih sering terjadi pada pasien dengan keganasan darah. Patogen ditemukan pada sebagian pasien dengan demam neutropenia. Penyebab terbanyak bakteremia adalah bakteri Gram positif. Sensitivitas antibiotik tertinggi didapatkan pada vankomisin. Data mengenai pola sensitivitas antibiotik terbaru diperlukan untuk pedoman tata laksana pasien demam neutropenia.

  15. Drug induced neutropenia manifesting as oral ulcerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Kaul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As dental practitioners, we often come across oral ulcerations of varied etiology. Among all the causes of oral ulcers, those due to neutropenia are significant. Neutropenia can occur in many systemic conditions and also in patients on long-term therapy of certain drugs like phenytoin. The diagnosis of neutropenia in time leads to early recognition of the cause of this fatal condition. Here, we report a case of a 50-year-old female patient who developed oral ulcerations secondary to phenytoin-induced neutropenia. Early diagnosis of the condition led to discontinuation of the offending drug and significant improvement in her blood picture and also prevented her from falling prey to many other systemic infections that neutropenia can cause.

  16. Risperidone-induced reversible neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattalai Kailasam, Vasanth; Chima, Victoria; Nnamdi, Uchechukwu; Sharma, Kavita; Shah, Kairav

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents a 44-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia who developed neutropenia on risperidone therapy. The patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of leukocytes and neutrophils after resolution and rechallenging. This was reversed with the discontinuation of risperidone and by switching to olanzapine. In this case report, we also discuss the updated evidence base for management of risperidone-induced neutropenia.

  17. Meta-Analysis and Cost Comparison of Empirical versus Pre-Emptive Antifungal Strategies in Hematologic Malignancy Patients with High-Risk Febrile Neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fung

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal disease (IFD causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN. These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients.We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study τ2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates.Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85 and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87 or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99. The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing.Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality

  18. Meta-Analysis and Cost Comparison of Empirical versus Pre-Emptive Antifungal Strategies in Hematologic Malignancy Patients with High-Risk Febrile Neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Monica; Kim, Jane; Marty, Francisco M; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Koo, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN). These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients. We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study τ2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates. Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87) or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99). The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical) than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality. We

  19. The more, the less: age and chemotherapy load are predictive of poor stem cell mobilization in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shen-miao; CHEN Huan; CHEN Yu-hong; ZHU Hong-hu; ZHAO Ting; LIU Kai-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Intensive treatment such as autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is an important therapeutic strategy in many hematologic malignancies.A number of factors have been reported to impact PBSC mobilization,but the predictive factors varied from one study to another.This retrospective study assessed our current mobilization and collection protocols,and explored the factors predictive of PBSC mobilization in patients with hematologic malignancies.Methods Data of 64 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies (multiple myeloma,n=22; acute leukemia,n=27; lymphoma,n=15) who underwent PBSC mobilization for over 1 year were analyzed.Four patients with response to treatment of near complete remission or better were administered granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize PBSCs.Sixty patients received G-CSF followed by chemotherapy mobilizing regimens.Poor mobilization (PM) was defined as when ≤2.0×106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight were collected within three leukapheresis procedures.Results The incidence of PM at the first mobilization attempt was 19% (12/64).The PM group was older than the non-PM group (median age,51 vs.40 years; P=0.013).In univariate analysis,there were no significant differences in gender,diagnosis,and body weight between the PM and non-PM groups.A combination of chemotherapy and G-CSF was more effective than G-CSF alone as a mobilizing regimen (P=0.019).Grade Ⅲ or Ⅳ hematopoietic toxicity of chemotherapy had no significant effect on the mobilization efficacy.Supportive care and the incidence of febrile neutropenia were not significantly different between the two groups.In multivariate analysis,age (odds ratio (OR),9.536;P=-0.002) and number of previous chemotherapy courses (OR 3.132; P=0.024) were two independent negative predictive factors for CD34+ cell yield.PM patients could be managed well by remobilization.Conclusion Older age and a heavy load of previous chemotherapy are the negative

  20. Use of inflammatory molecules to predict the occurrence of fever in onco-hematological patients with neutropenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.F. Tibúrcio; Nobre, V.; Neuenschwander, L.C. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, A.L. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Xavier, S.G.; Paula, F.D.F. [Departamento de Propedêutica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.M. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, J.C.A.; Bittencourt, H. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    Febrile neutropenia remains a frequent complication in onco-hematological patients, and changes in the circulating level of inflammatory molecules (IM) may precede the occurrence of fever. The present observational prospective study was carried out to evaluate the behavior of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), soluble TNF-α I and II receptors (sTNFRI and sTNFRII), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1 or chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α or CCL3), eotaxin (CCL11), interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8), and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10) in 32 episodes of neutropenia in 26 onco-hematological patients. IM were tested on enrollment and 24-48 h before the onset of fever and within 24 h of the first occurrence of fever. Eight of 32 episodes of neutropenia did not present fever (control group) and the patients underwent IM tests on three different occasions. sTNFRI levels, measured a median of 11 h (1-15) before the onset of fever, were significantly higher in patients presenting fever during follow-up compared to controls (P = 0.02). Similar results were observed for sTNFRI and CCL2 levels (P = 0.04 for both) in non-transplanted patients. A cut-off of 1514 pg/mL for sTNFRI was able to discriminate between neutropenic patients with or without fever during follow-up, with 65% sensitivity, 87% specificity, and 93% positive predictive value. Measurement of the levels of plasma sTNFRI can be used to predict the occurrence of fever in neutropenic patients.

  1. Use of inflammatory molecules to predict the occurrence of fever in onco-hematological patients with neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Tiburcio Ribeiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Febrile neutropenia remains a frequent complication in onco-hematological patients, and changes in the circulating level of inflammatory molecules (IM may precede the occurrence of fever. The present observational prospective study was carried out to evaluate the behavior of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, soluble TNF-α I and II receptors (sTNFRI and sTNFRII, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1 or chemokine (c-c motif ligand 2 (CCL2], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α or CCL3, eotaxin (CCL11, interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8, and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10 in 32 episodes of neutropenia in 26 onco-hematological patients. IM were tested on enrollment and 24-48 h before the onset of fever and within 24 h of the first occurrence of fever. Eight of 32 episodes of neutropenia did not present fever (control group and the patients underwent IM tests on three different occasions. sTNFRI levels, measured a median of 11 h (1-15 before the onset of fever, were significantly higher in patients presenting fever during follow-up compared to controls (P = 0.02. Similar results were observed for sTNFRI and CCL2 levels (P = 0.04 for both in non-transplanted patients. A cut-off of 1514 pg/mL for sTNFRI was able to discriminate between neutropenic patients with or without fever during follow-up, with 65% sensitivity, 87% specificity, and 93% positive predictive value. Measurement of the levels of plasma sTNFRI can be used to predict the occurrence of fever in neutropenic patients.

  2. Thickened cortical bones in congenital neutropenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boechat, M.I.; Gormley, L.S.; O'Laughlin, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital neutropenia is an uncommon entity which may be familial and has a wide spectrum of clinical expression. Three sisters with the severe form of the disease, that suffered from recurrent infections which lead to their demise are described. Review of their radiographs revealed the presence of cortical thickening of the bones. Although several syndroms with different bone abnormalities have been reported associated with neutropenia, the radiographic finding of thickened cortex in children with congenital neutropenia has not been previously described. (orig.)

  3. Thickened cortical bones in congenital neutropenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boechat, M.I.; Gormley, L.S.; O' Laughlin, B.J.

    1987-02-01

    Congenital neutropenia is an uncommon entity which may be familial and has a wide spectrum of clinical expression. Three sisters with the severe form of the disease, that suffered from recurrent infections which lead to their demise are described. Review of their radiographs revealed the presence of cortical thickening of the bones. Although several syndroms with different bone abnormalities have been reported associated with neutropenia, the radiographic finding of thickened cortex in children with congenital neutropenia has not been previously described.

  4. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  5. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    1999-01-01

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  6. Genetics Home Reference: severe congenital neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. ... Genetic Testing Registry: Severe congenital neutropenia 2, autosomal dominant Genetic Testing Registry: Severe congenital neutropenia 3, autosomal ...

  7. Association of oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics, neutropenia and acute radiation oesophagitis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Duffy, Mary; Bressel, Mathias; McInnes, Belinda; Russell, Christine; Sevitt, Tim; Ball, David

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between oesophageal radiation dose volume metrics and dysphagia in patients having chemoradiation (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. There is also some evidence that neutropenia is a factor contributing to the severity of oesophagitis. We retrospectively analysed acute radiation oesophagitis (ARO) rates and severity in patients with NSCLC who received concurrent chemotherapy and high dose radiation therapy (CRT). We investigated if there was an association between grade of ARO, neutropenia and radiation dose volume metrics. Patients with NSCLC having concurrent CRT who had RT dose and toxicity data available were eligible. Exclusion criteria included previous thoracic RT, treatment interruptions and non-standard dose regimens. RT dosimetrics included maximum and mean oesophageal dose, oesophagus dose volume and length data. Fifty four patients were eligible for analysis. 42 (78 %) patients received 60 Gy. Forty four (81 %) patients received carboplatin based chemotherapy. Forty eight (89 %) patients experienced ARO ≥ grade 1 (95 % CI: 78 % to 95 %). ARO grade was associated with mean dose (r s = 0.27, p = 0.049), V20 (r s = 0.31, p = 0.024) and whole oesophageal circumference receiving 20 Gy (r s = 0.32 p = 0.019). In patients who received these doses, V20 (n = 51, r s = 0.36, p = 0.011), V35 (n = 43, r s = 0.34, p = 0.027) and V60 (n = 25, r s = 0.59, P = 0.002) were associated with RO grade. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients with ARO ≥ grade 2 also had ≥ grade 2 acute neutropenia compared with 5 of 29 (17 %) patients with RO grade 0 or 1 (p = 0.035). In addition to oesophageal dose-volume metrics, neutropenia may also be a risk factor for higher grades of ARO

  8. Phase I dose-finding study of S1 in combination with docetaxel and oxaliplatin (DOS) as first-line therapy in patients with advanced gastro-esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber Vestermark, Lene; Jensen, H. A.; Schoennemann, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    -14) every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles followed by maintenance therapy with S-1 monotherapy (2 x 30 mg/m2/days 1-14) until progression. Toxicity was evaluated according to NCIC-CTC 4.0. DLT was defined as non-hematological toxicity grade > 3 or febrile neutropenia and evaluated after the first course...... was 67-years (49-75), median performance status was 1 (0-1). None of 3 patients at dose level 1 and 2 developed DLT. At dose level 3, 2/4 pts developed DLT (febrile neutropenia and febrile neutropenia with diarrhoea) and further inclusion at dose level 3 was halted. Five further patients at dose level 2...

  9. Evaluasi Sensitivitas Antibiotik dengan Demam Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Kesimpulan. Bakteri Gram negatif merupakan penyebab utama demam neutropenia. Sensitivitas cefotaxime lebih rendah apabila dibandingkan dengan antibiotik yang lain. Cefpirome, cefepime dan ampicillin-sulbactam direkomendasikan untuk menggantikan cefotaxime sebagai obat yang dikombinasikan dengan gentamicin pada pengobatan demam neutropenia.

  10. Prevalence, phenotype and inheritance of benign neutropenia in Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelkerke Nicollas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign neutropenia, i.e., neutropenia not associated with an increased risk of infection, may result in serious medical consequences when a 'standard' definition of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count (ANC 9cells/L is universally applied to all races. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of benign neutropenia among healthy Arabs and evaluate its mode of inheritance. Methods ANCs were studied prospectively amongst a healthy indigenous population (n = 1032 from the United Arab Emirates undergoing a nation-wide sickle-cell and thalassemia screening program. The mean neutrophil count and the prevalence of benign neutropenia were compared by age, sex and amongst various tribes. Results The mean neutrophil count (× 109cells/L was 3.3 (range 0.95–7.6. Benign neutropenia was present in 110 (10.7% subjects of whom 24 (2.3% individuals had moderate neutropenia (ANC 0.5 – 1.0 × 109 cells/L. In the 22 tribe-family groups, the prevalence of benign neutropenia varied between 0% and 38%. Benign neutropenia showed no difference in the frequency amongst the sexes (p = 0.23 and it was independent of age (Spearman's rho = 0.05, p = 0.13. The age-related mean neutrophil count was the lowest in Arabs when compared with other ethnic groups (Blacks, Europeans and Mexicans. The inheritance of benign neutropenia was consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern; however, the diversity of observed phenotypes suggested the presence of more than one genetic variant for this trait. Conclusion Arabs have a high prevalence of benign neutropenia that may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

  11. Relato de um caso de neutropenia congênita grave em um lactente jovem A case report of severe congenital neutropenia in a young infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fadel M. dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de neutropenia congênita grave e alertar os pediatras sobre tal diagnóstico em pacientes jovens, com infecções recorrentes. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Lactente jovem com 45 dias de vida, com história de febre alta, letargia, recusa alimentar e hemogramas repetidos com leucopenia importante à custa de polimorfonucleares. A hipótese diagnóstica foi confirmada pelo aspirado de medula óssea, que mostrou hipoplasia de série granulocítica e completa ausência de neutrófilos maduros. Foi introduzida antibioticoterapia de largo espectro e estimulador da formação de colônias de granulócitos. O paciente evoluiu para óbito em decorrência de complicações infecciosas após 21 dias de internação. COMENTÁRIOS: Trata-se de um lactente jovem, portador de uma rara desordem congênita que leva à intensa neutropenia, deixando-o vulnerável a infecções graves e potencialmente fatais. À internação, o paciente apresentava sinais e sintomas sugestivos de sepse, sendo introduzido antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro, necessária por se tratar de lactente jovem, neutropênico e febril. A hipótese diagnóstica se baseou na história clínica e nos leucogramas alterados, sendo posteriormente confirmada pelo aspirado de medula óssea. Foi introduzido o estimulador da formação de colônias de granulócitos, que geralmente é efetivo, porém, nesse caso, não houve sucesso e o paciente evoluiu para óbito devido à grave infecção.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe congenital neutropenia and alert pediatricians about its diagnosis in young patients with recurrent infectious diseases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Young infant with 45 days of life, with a history of high fever, lethargy, poor feeding and repeated blood counts showing significant leucopenia due to a significant decrease of polymorphonuclear cells. The diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow aspirate showing hypoplasia of the granulocytic series and complete absence of

  12. Fluconazole Therapy in Febrile Granulocytopenic Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, L.; Al-Shaarawy, I.; Abd Al-Karim, K.; Iskandar, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluconazole oral or IV solution in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Thirty-two febrile granulocytopenic patients with hematologic malignancies were included. They were 21 males (65.6%) and 11 females (34.4%). Their ages ranged between 21.5 to 72 years with a mean age of 44.8 ±13.1 years. Primary diagnosis was Lymphoma in 28 patients (87.5%), Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia in 3 patients (9.4%) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia in 1 patient (3.1%). Duration of fever and neutropenia ranged between 3-20 days and 3-50 days respectively. Fever of unknown origin (FUO)was reported in 25 patients (78.1%). Following initial assessment all patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics. Persistence of fever and neutropenia for 4 days while on broad-spectrum antibiotics necessitated addition of fluconaz-ole. At baseline visit body temperature and leucocyte count measures ranged between 38.2-40.1 degree with a mean of 39.3 degree 110-1800/cm 3 with a mean of 1080/cm 3 respectively. Besides, clinical picture of infection included most commonly cough and expectoration, and moniliasis. Mycological cultures showed positive fungal growth of all collected specimens (100%). All patients were assigned to receive 400-800 mg of fluconazole once daily either orally or parentally. Marked clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of infection was achieved as early as second visit (day-4). Significant reduction in number of growing colonies of fungi was reported by the first follow-up mycological culture (day-8). At final visit (day-14-21) complete clinical cure was achieved in 26 patients (81.3%) and improvement in 4 patients (18.7%). Mycological cultures showed complete eradication of growing colonies in 21 patients (70%) and significant reduction in number of growing colonies in 9 patients (30%). Duration of therapy ranged between 14 and 21 days with a mean of 15 days

  13. Neutropenia Prediction Based on First-Cycle Blood Counts Using a FOS-3NN Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize A. Shirdel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delivery of full doses of adjuvant chemotherapy on schedule is key to optimal breast cancer outcomes. Neutropenia is a serious complication of chemotherapy and a common barrier to this goal, leading to dose reductions or delays in treatment. While past research has observed correlations between complete blood count data and neutropenic events, a reliable method of classifying breast cancer patients into low- and high-risk groups remains elusive. Patients and Methods. Thirty-five patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer under the care of a single oncologist are examined in this study. FOS-3NN stratifies patient risk based on complete blood count data after the first cycle of treatment. All classifications are independent of breast cancer subtype and clinical markers, with risk level determined by the kinetics of patient blood count response to the first cycle of treatment. Results. In an independent test set of patients unseen by FOS-3NN, 19 out of 21 patients were correctly classified (Fisher’s exact test probability P<0.00023 [2 tailed], Matthews’ correlation coefficient +0.83. Conclusions. We have developed a model that accurately predicts neutropenic events in a population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the first cycle of a 6-cycle treatment.

  14. Neutropenia in infants with hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Esther; Johnston, Donna L

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the incidence, outcome and risk factors of neutropenia in infants with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). A retrospective chart review was performed on infants with HDN. Of 69 evaluable infants, 45% developed neutropenia. Only one infectious complication was recorded. In most instances the neutropenia resolved spontaneously, but in seven infants it persisted for a median of 397 days. Males were at higher risk for developing neutropenia, but severity of HDN, antibody specificity, or therapy were not significant risk factors. Neutropenia is a common feature of HDN, regardless of severity of disease, treatment received, or antibody specificity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Four novel ELANE mutations in patients with congenital neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnikova, Maria; Maschan, Michael; Dinova, Evgeniya; Shagina, Irina; Finogenova, Natalia; Mamedova, Elena; Polovtseva, Tatyana; Shagin, Dmitry; Shcherbina, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Congenital neutropenia is a heterogeneous bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by a maturation arrest of myelopoesis at the promyelocyte/myelocyte stage. Cyclic neutropenia (CyN) and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) are two main forms of congenital neutropenia. Genetic analysis has shown that heterozygous mutations in the ELANE gene encoding the neutrophil elastase are the major cause of these disorders. We investigated the prevalence of ELANE mutations in a group of 16 patients from 14 families with congenital neutropenia. Five patients had typical manifestations of CyN, and 11 patients had SCN. Seven different heterozygous ELANE mutations were found, including four novel mutations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy after surgery and preoperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS): an international, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Annemieke; Jansen, Edwin P M; van Grieken, Nicole C T; Sikorska, Karolina; Lind, Pehr; Nordsmark, Marianne; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Boot, Henk; Trip, Anouk K; Swellengrebel, H A Maurits; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Putter, Hein; van Sandick, Johanna W; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Hartgrink, Henk H; van Tinteren, Harm; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Verheij, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    . Chemoradiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1·8 Gy, for 5 weeks, five daily fractions per week, combined with capecitabine (575 mg/m 2 orally twice daily on radiotherapy days) and cisplatin (20 mg/m 2 intravenously on day 1 of each 5 weeks of radiation treatment). The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed by intention-to-treat. The CRITICS trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00407186; EudraCT, number 2006-004130-32; and CKTO, 2006-02. Between Jan 11, 2007, and April 17, 2015, 788 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to chemotherapy (n=393) or chemoradiotherapy (n=395). After preoperative chemotherapy, 372 (95%) of 393 patients in the chemotherapy group and 369 (93%) of 395 patients in the chemoradiotherapy group proceeded to surgery, with a potentially curative resection done in 310 (79%) of 393 patients in the chemotherapy group and 326 (83%) of 395 in the chemoradiotherapy group. Postoperatively, 233 (59%) of 393 patients started chemotherapy and 245 (62%) of 395 started chemoradiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 61·4 months (IQR 43·3-82·8), median overall survival was 43 months (95% CI 31-57) in the chemotherapy group and 37 months (30-48) in the chemoradiotherapy group (hazard ratio from stratified analysis 1·01 (95% CI 0·84-1·22; p=0·90). After preoperative chemotherapy, in the total safety population of 781 patients (assessed together), there were 368 (47%) grade 3 adverse events; 130 (17%) grade 4 adverse events, and 13 (2%) deaths. Causes of death during preoperative treatment were diarrhoea (n=2), dihydropyrimidine deficiency (n=1), sudden death (n=1), cardiovascular events (n=8), and functional bowel obstruction (n=1). During postoperative treatment, grade 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in 113 (48%) and 22 (9%) of 233 patients in the chemotherapy group, respectively, and in 101 (41%) and ten (4%) of 245 patients in the chemoradiotherapy group, respectively. Non-febrile neutropenia occurred more frequently during

  17. Neutropenia in pediatric hematology/oncology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Deordieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired neutropenia is one of the most common conditions in pediatric hematology practice. These conditions usually are benign. In contrast, congenital neutropenia are rare conditions, but in the absence of pathogenic therapy can cause fatal complications. Approach to the differential diagnosis and management of these patients are discussed in this review.

  18. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  19. [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma complicated with drug-induced vasculitis during administration of pegfilgrastim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuta; Noda, Kentaro; Aiba, Keisuke; Yano, Shingo; Fujii, Tsunehiro

    A 59-year-old female with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) regimen. In addition, we administered pegfilgrastim for treating chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. She complained of fever and neck and chest pain a few days after pegfilgrastim administration during the third and fourth courses of R-CHOP. Radiological imaging revealed an inflammation of large vessels, which led to the diagnosis of drug-associated vasculitis. We confirmed that vasculitis observed in this case was caused by pegfilgrastim administration because similar symptoms appeared with both injections of pegfilgrastim.

  20. Results from a Phase I Study of Lapatinib with Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Advanced or Metastatic Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerbone, L; Sternberg, C N; Sengeløv, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Lapatinib is a potent HER1 and HER2 inhibitor. Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) is a standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced/metastatic bladder cancer. This phase I study examined the safety of lapatinib in combination with GC in patients with bladder cancer. The primary aim...... × 3 patients), 1 of the 6 patients presented DLTs (grade 4, treatment-related febrile neutropenia and renal failure). Twelve patients received 6 cycles. CONCLUSIONS: Lapatinib at 750-1,250 mg combined with GC appears safe and tolerable. The MTD of lapatinib combined with GC in bladder cancer was 1...

  1. [Combination Chemotherapy Including Intraperitoneal(IP)Administration of Paclitaxel(PTX)followed by PTX, CDDP and S-1Triplet Chemotherapy for CY1P0 Gastric Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Masayuki; Imano, Motohiro; Hiraki, Yoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Iwama, Mitsuru; Shiraishi, Osamu; Yasuda, Atsushi; Kimura, Yutaka; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combination chemotherapy including single intraperitoneal( IP)administration of paclitaxel(PTX), followed by triplet chemotherapy(PTX, cisplatin[CDDP]and S-1: PCS)for CY1P0 gastric cancer. First of all, we performed staging laparoscopy and confirmed CY1P0, and secondary, administrated PTX intraperitoneally. Thirdly, patients received PCS chemotherapy for 2 courses. After antitumor effect had been confirmed, we performed second look laparoscopy. In the case of CY0P0, we performed gastrectomy with D2 lymph nodes dissection. Total 4 patients were enrolled. Grade 3 leukopenia and neutropenia were observed in one patient while intraperitoneal and systemic-chemotherapy. One patients showed PR and 3 patients showed SD. All patients underwent second look laparoscopy. CY0P0 was observed in all patients and gastrectomy with D2 dissection was performed for all patients. Postoperative complications were observed in 2 patients. Two patients were still alive without recurrence, while the remaining 2 had died of liver metastasis and #16 LN metastasis. Combination chemotherapy including single IP PTX followed by PCS systemic-chemotherapy for CY1P0 gastric cancer is feasible and efficient.

  2. Treatment-related death in patients with small-cell lung cancer in phase III trials over the last two decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Ochi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment-related death (TRD remains a serious problem in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC, despite recent improvements in supportive care. However, few studies have formally assessed time trends in the proportion of TRD over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and pattern of TRD over time. METHODS: We examined phase 3 trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 to address the role of systemic treatment for SCLC. The time trend was assessed using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 97 trials including nearly 25,000 enrolled patients were analyzed. The overall TRD proportion was 2.95%. Regarding the time trend, while it was not statistically significant, it tended to decrease, with a 0.138% decrease per year and 2.76% decrease per two decades. The most common cause of death was febrile neutropenia without any significant time trend in its incidence over the years examined (p = 0.139. However, deaths due to febrile neutropenia as well as all causes in patients treated with non-platinum chemotherapy increased significantly (p = 0.033. CONCLUSIONS: The overall TRD rate has been low, but not negligible, in phase III trials for SCLC over the past two decades.

  3. A phase 2 study of MK-0457 in patients with BCR-ABL T315I mutant chronic myelogenous leukemia and philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seymour, J F; Kim, D W; Rubin, E

    2014-01-01

    achieved major hematologic response. The most common adverse event (AE) was neutropenia (50%). The most common grade 3/4 AEs were neutropenia (46%) and febrile neutropenia (35%). MK-0457 demonstrated minimal efficacy and only at higher, intolerable doses; lower doses were tolerated and no unexpected...

  4. O papel da neutropenia no prognóstico do doente oncológico com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aliberti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A doença infecciosa contribui para uma elevada morbilidade e mortalidade no doente oncológico, representando a pneumonia adquirida na comunidade a mais frequente.O desenvolvimento de PAC no doente neoplásico parece advir da modificação de mecanismos de defesa imunitária resultante, quer da patologia maligna, quer do tratamento oncológico. O risco de infecção relacionada com o tipo de neoplasia pode associar-se ao défice de imunidade humoral, celular ou do número de neutrófilos. As doenças hematológicas malignas podem predispor o doente às infecções devido à substituição da medula por células neoplásicas. Consequentemente, estes doentes têm neutropenia funcional, apesar de apresentarem, muitas vezes, um número normal ou aumentado de neutrófilos. Por outro lado, estes doentes podem ter neutropenia como efeito secundário da quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia (neutropenia absoluta.A gravidade da neutropenia foi considerada como principal factor de risco isolado no doente neoplásico, com particular relevância se o número de neutrófilos ≤500cel/mm3.A mortalidade global atribuída à neutropenia febril no doente neoplásico é de 30–50%. Nas últimas décadas, o tratamento das infecções na população oncológica foi direccionado, primariamente, para o manuseamento da neutropenia febril, devido ao facto de o local da infecção não ser determinado em 50–80% dos casos.As guidelines da American Thoracic Society de 2001 utilizavam a neutropenia para identificar os quadros mais graves de PAC nos doentes oncológicos. Os doen tes com patologia hematológica e neutropenia funcional ou indivíduos com qualquer tipo de neoplasia e neutropenia absoluta foram excluídos das referidas guidelines. A decisão de incluir doentes com tumores sólidos não neutropénicos foi baseada, apenas, na opinião de

  5. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...... with schizophrenia. A history of febrile seizures was associated with a 44% increased risk of schizophrenia [relative risk (RR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.95] after adjusting for confounding factors. The association between febrile seizures and schizophrenia remained virtually unchanged when...... restricting the analyses to people with no history of epilepsy. A history of both febrile seizures and epilepsy was associated with a 204% increased risk of schizophrenia (RR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.79) as compared with people with no such history. CONCLUSIONS: We found a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia...

  6. A phase I study of amrubicin and fixed dose of irinotecan (CPT-11) in relapsed small cell lung cancer: Japan multinational trial organization LC0303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Masaaki; Kubo, Akihito; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Yuka; Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Masanori; Daimon, Takashi; Furuse, Kiyoyuki; Mishima, Michiaki; Mio, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose of amrubicin (AMR) with a fixed dose of irinotecan (CPT-11). Patients having pathologically proven small cell lung cancer (SCLC) relapsed after one or two chemotherapies, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2 were eligible for the study. CPT-11 was delivered as 50 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. AMR was delivered on day 1. Doses of AMR were level 1: 80 mg/m2, level 2: 90 mg/m2, and level 3: 100 mg/m2. Dose elevation was determined using the modified continuous reassessment method. Tolerability was assessed after the first cycle. Another two cycles were conducted when disease progression or unacceptable toxicities were not observed. Eighteen patients (mean age: 66.3 years) were enrolled. A total of 40 courses were conducted. Grade 3/4 toxicities of the first cycle were leukocytopenia: 11 (61%, grade 3/4: 8/3); neutropenia: 15 (83%, grade 3/4: 6/9); and thrombocytopenia: three (17%, grade 3/4: 2/1). Other grade 3 toxicities observed were febrile neutropenia, one; infection, three; diarrhea, one; and dyspnea, one. Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in two of six patients at level 2 (neutropenia and febrile neutropenia) and in one of six at level 3 (thrombocytopenia and infection). The maximum tolerated dose was level 3, and so, the recommended dose for phase II trials was judged to be 90 mg/m2. Objective response was obtained in four of eight patients who were able to evaluate responses. Median survival time was 13 months, with 68% at 1-year survival rate. This combination was well tolerated and showed encouraging activities in SCLC. Randomized phase II trials are being planned in chemonaive SCLC.

  7. Toxicity-adjusted dose (TAD) administration of chemotherapy: Effect of baseline and nadir neutrophil count in patients with breast, ovarian, and lung cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carus, Andreas; Donskov, Frede; Gebski, Val

    2011-01-01

    Background: In some solid cancers a survival benefit has been observed for patients who had chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The prognostic impact of baseline and nadir blood neutrophils was assessed in the present study. Methods: Data on patients with breast cancer st.I-IV, ovarian cancer st.......Survival data were updated 2010. Results: A total of 819 patients were identified, comprising 507 patients with breast cancer, 118 patients with ovarian cancer, 115 patients with NSCLC and 79 patients with SCLC. Median survival for ovarian cancer patients obtaining nadir neutropenia below 2.0 x 109/l was 56...... months. In contrast, median survival for ovarian cancer patients who had nadir neutropenia above 2.0 was 27 months. In a multivariate analysis, adjusting for well-known prognostic features, nadir neutropenia below 2.0 was statistically significant (HR 1.73;p=0.03). In patients with NSCLC, baseline...

  8. Antifungal prophylaxis in chemotherapy-associated neutropenia: a retrospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In August 2002, the antifungal prophylaxis algorithm for neutropenic hematology/oncology (NHO patients at the Medical Center was changed from conventional amphotericin (AMB to an azole (AZ based regimen (fluconazole [FLU] in low-risk and voriconazole [VOR] in high-risk patients. The aim of our study was to compare outcomes associated with the two regimens, including breakthrough fungal infection, adverse drug events, and costs. Methods Adult, non-febrile, NHO patients who received prophylactic AMB from 8/01/01-7/30/02 or AZ from 8/01/02-7/30/03 were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of 370 patients (AMB: n = 181; AZ: n = 216 associated with 580 hospitalizations (AMB: n = 259; AZ: n = 321 were included. The incidence of probable/definite breakthrough Aspergillus infections was similar among regimens (AMB: 1.9% vs AZ: 0.6%; p=0.19. A greater incidence of mild/moderate (24.7% vs. 5.3%; p $9,000 increase in mean total costs/hospitalization, the mean acquisition cost associated with AZ was only $947/hospitalization more than AMB. Conclusion While an AZ-based regimen is associated with increased cost, the reduced rate of nephrotoxicity and availability of oral dosage forms, suggests that azoles be used preferentially over AMB. However, an increased rate of severe hepatic toxicity may be associated with VOR.

  9. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  10. Efficacy and tolerability of treatment with azacitidine for 5 days in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashiv, Santhosh K; Hilton, Christie; Khan, Cyrus; Rossetti, James M; Benjamin, Heather L; Fazal, Salman; Sahovic, Entezam; Shadduck, Richard K; Lister, John

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients aged ≥60 years tolerate standard induction chemotherapy poorly. Therapy with azacitidine at a dose of 75 mg/m 2 /day for 7 days appears to be better tolerated, and is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of elderly AML patients with bone marrow (BM) blast counts of 20–30%. Here, we report the results of a prospective, phase 2, open-label study that evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a 5-day regimen of single-agent subcutaneous azacitidine 100 mg/m 2 /day administered every 28 days in 15 elderly patients with newly diagnosed AML, 14 of whom had BM blast counts >30%. The overall response rate was 47%. Complete remission, partial remission, and hematologic improvement were achieved by 20, 13, and 13% of patients, respectively. Median overall survival was 355 days for the entire cohort, and 532 days for responders. Median time to best response was 95 days, and median treatment duration was 198 days (range = 13–724 days). Grade 3–4 hematologic toxicities comprised predominantly febrile neutropenia (40%) and thrombocytopenia (20%). Febrile neutropenia was the most common cause of hospitalization. Nonhematologic toxicities, consisting of injection-site skin reactions and fatigue (Grades 1–2), occurred in 73% (n = 11) of patients. No treatment-related deaths occurred during the study. The dose and schedule of therapy remained constant in all but four patients. The findings of this study suggest that administration of subcutaneous azacitidine 100 mg/m 2 /day for 5 days every 28 days is a feasible, well-tolerated, and effective alternative to standard induction chemotherapy in elderly patients with AML

  11. Crisis febriles simples y complejas, epilepsia generalizada con crisis febriles plus, FIRES y nuevos síndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noris Moreno de Flagge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las convulsiones febriles representan la mayoría de las convulsiones en el niño. Se ha descrito que 2-5% de los niños experimentan convulsiones febriles antes de los 5 años de edad, aunque en algunas poblaciones se ha descrito hasta un 15%. Es una causa común de admisión en pediatría y de preocupación de los padres. Puede ser la primera manifestación de una epilepsia. Un 13% de pacientes que desarrollan epilepsia tienen antecedente de convulsiones febriles y 30% de estos pacientes se presentan con convulsiones recurrentes. Sus características fenotípicas nos permiten, en su gran mayoría, clasificarlas, tomar una actitud terapéutica y elaborar un pronóstico. Se puede describir un espectro de su gravedad desde las convulsiones febriles simples hasta las más complejas como las convulsiones febriles plus que comprenden los síndromes de Dravet y FIRES. En los últimos años se han hecho descubrimientos importantes que definen su carácter genético, entrelazándose cada vez más con diferentes afecciones de tipo epiléptico que nos obliga a un seguimiento neurológico más estrecho de muchos de estos niños con convulsiones febriles. Hacemos una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos sobre las convulsiones febriles, su pronóstico y su relación con los nuevos síndromes epilépticos.

  12. Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

  13. Re-challenge with Etanercept in patients with Etanercept-induced Neutropenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2011-08-05

    TNF blockers have rarely been associated with haematological complications; however, there are scattered case reports of marked neutropenia with their use and necessitating in their withdrawal. We would like to report a series of five patients who developed neutropenia with etanercept use; however, all these patients were re-challenged with etanercept with a mean follow up of 30 months. These patients developed neutropenia within 2 months of starting etanercept. Two patients were eventually taken off etanercept; one of them needed switching to a different form of TNF blockers, and the second patient is in clinical remission with low-dose corticosteroids. All our patients continued to have mild-moderate degree of neutropenia; however, they are being monitored very closely and they are enjoying complete disease remission. It was interesting to note that none of our patients had increased infections during the re-challenge phase, even though they had grade 2 to grade 4 neutropenia. We have re-challenged these patients without any clinical complications, revealing that patients with mild to moderate neutropenia can be safely exposed to TNF blockers as long as they are monitored with regular cell count checks. Although largely noted to be clinically insignificant in our patient series, the potential of drug-induced neutropenia in causing higher rate of infections do exist. Careful clinical and hematologic monitoring is the best way to recognize this adverse event.

  14. Febrile seizures: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane S. Dalbem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8–10.1. There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Resumo: Objetivos: Estabelecer a prevalência das crises febris e descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado na cidade de Barra do Bugres (MT, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Os dados foram coletados em duas etapas. Na primeira fase utilizamos um questionário validado previamente em outro estudo brasileiro, para identificação de casos suspeitos de crises epilépticas. Na segunda etapa realizamos a avaliação neuroclínica para confirmação diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de crise febril foi de 6,4/1000 habitantes (IC95% 3,8; 10,1. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. As crises febris simples foram encontradas em 88,8% dos casos. A história familiar de crise febril e epilepsia em parentes de 1° grau esteve

  15. Phase I Study of Concurrent High-Dose Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy With Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin and Vinorelbine for Unresectable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Ikuo, E-mail: isekine@ncc.go.jp [Division of Internal Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sumi, Minako; Ito, Yoshinori [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Horinouchi, Hidehito; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Kubota, Kaoru; Tamura, Tomohide [Division of Internal Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose in concurrent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with chemotherapy for unresectable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Eligible patients with unresectable Stage III NSCLC, age {>=}20 years, performance status 0-1, percent of volume of normal lung receiving 20 GY or more (V{sub 20}) {<=}30% received three to four cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} Day 1) and vinorelbine (20 mg/m{sup 2} Days 1 and 8) repeated every 4 weeks. The doses of 3D-CRT were 66 Gy, 72 Gy, and 78 Gy at dose levels 1 to 3, respectively. Results: Of the 17, 16, and 24 patients assessed for eligibility, 13 (76%), 12 (75%), and 6 (25%) were enrolled at dose levels 1 to 3, respectively. The main reasons for exclusion were V{sub 20} >30% (n = 10) and overdose to the esophagus (n = 8) and brachial plexus (n = 2). There were 26 men and 5 women, with a median age of 60 years (range, 41-75). The full planned dose of radiotherapy could be administered to all the patients. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were noted in 24 (77%) and 5 (16%) of the 31 patients, respectively. Grade 4 infection, Grade 3 esophagitis, and Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity were noted in 1 patient, 2 patients, and 1 patient, respectively. The dose-limiting toxicity was noted in 17% of the patients at each dose level. The median survival and 3-year and 4-year survival rates were 41.9 months, 72.3%, and 49.2%, respectively. Conclusions: 72 Gy was the maximum dose that could be achieved in most patients, given the predetermined normal tissue constraints.

  16. Severe congenital neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tidwell et al1 demonstrate that mutations in the start codon (protein synthesis is initiated at the codon ATG) of neutrophil elastase (ELANE) result in the production of N-terminally truncated elastase, which mislocates to the nucleus and results in severe congenital neutr...... neutropenia (SCN)....

  17. Antibiotic prophylaxis in veterinary cancer chemotherapy: A review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, J L; Argyle, D J; Argyle, S A

    2018-06-12

    Bacterial infection following cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in human and veterinary patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial in the human oncology field, as any decreased incidence in bacterial infections is countered by patient adverse effects and increased antimicrobial resistance. Comprehensive guidelines exist to aid human oncologists in prescribing antimicrobial prophylaxis but similar recommendations are not available in veterinary literature. As the veterinarian's role in antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly emphasized, it is vital that veterinary oncologists implement appropriate antimicrobial use. By considering the available human and veterinary literature we present an overview of current clinical practices and are able to suggest recommendations for prophylactic antimicrobial use in veterinary cancer chemotherapy patients. © 2018 The Authors. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Difference in Neutropenia due to Administration Schedule of TAS-102

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Yoshida

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available TAS-102 significantly improves overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The most common adverse event of TAS-102 is bone marrow suppression, which leads to neutropenia. The incidence of neutropenia is high, and there is no known effective prevention method. Furthermore, the administration method of TAS-102 is complicated. We reported that neutropenia could be avoided by changing to a simple administration method of TAS-102.

  19. Feasibility of abbreviated cycles of immunochemotherapy for completely resected limited-stage CD20+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CISL 12-09).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Sohn, Byeong Seok; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Huh, Jooryung; Suh, Cheolwon

    2017-02-21

    The appropriate number of chemotherapy cycles for limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients without gross residual lesions after complete resection, has not been specifically questioned. We performed a multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 study to investigate the feasibility of 3 cycles of abbreviated R-CHOP chemotherapy in low-risk patients with completely resected localized CD20+ DLBCL. Between December 2010 and May 2013, we recruited 23 patients. One was excluded due to ineligibility, and hence, 22 were included in the final analysis. The primary sites comprised the intestine (n = 15), cervical lymph nodes (n = 4), stomach (n = 1), tonsil (n = 1), and spleen (n = 1). All patients successfully completed the 3 cycles of planned R-CHOP chemotherapy. Over a median follow-up of 39.5 months (95% confidence interval, 29.9-47.1 months), both the estimated 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates was 95% confidence interval, 85.9-104.1%. Only one patient with an international prognostic index of 2 experienced relapse and died. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity condition included neutropenia (n = 8, 36.4%). Three patients experienced grade 3 febrile neutropenia, but no grade 3 or 4 non-hematologic toxicity was observed. DLBCL patients without residual lesions after resection were enrolled and R-CHOP chemotherapy was repeated at 3-week-intervals over 3 cycles. The primary endpoint was 2-year disease-free survival. Three cycles of abbreviated R-CHOP immunochemotherapy is feasible for completely resected low risk localized DLBCL.

  20. Neutropenia induced by high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin in treating neurosyphilis: Does it really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rui Peng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prompt therapy with high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin for a prolonged period is critical for neurosyphilis patients to avoid irreversible sequelae. However, life-threatening neutropenia has been reported as a complication of prolonged therapy with high doses of benzylpenicillin when treating other diseases. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, presentation, management and prognosis of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia in treating neurosyphilis based on a large sample of syphilis patients in Shanghai.Between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2015, 1367 patients with neurosyphilis were treated with benzylpenicillin, 578 of whom were eligible for recruitment to this study. Among patients without medical co-morbidities, the total incidence of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia and severe neutropenia was 2.42% (95% CI: 1.38-4.13% and 0.35% (95% CI: 0.06-1.39%, respectively. The treatment duration before onset of neutropenia ranged from 10 to 14 days, with a total cumulative dose of between 240 and 324 megaunits of benzylpenicillin. Neutropenia was accompanied by symptoms of chills and fever (5 patients, fatigue (2 patients, cough (1 patient, sore throat (1 patient, diarrhea (1 patient and erythematous rash (1 patient. The severity of neutropenia was not associated with age, gender or type of neurosyphilis (p>0.05. Neutropenia, even when severe, was often tolerated and normalized within one week. A more serious neutropenia did not occur when reinstituting benzylpenicillin in patients with mild or moderate neutropenia nor when ceftriaxone was used three months after patients had previously experienced severe neutropenia.Benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia was uncommon in our cohort of patients. Continuation of therapy was possible with intensive surveillance for those with mild or moderate neutropenia. For severe neutropenia, it is not essential to aggressively use hematopoietic growth factors or broad-spectrum antibiotics for

  1. Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus fluorouracil and leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (ADORE): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Sang; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Kim, Jeong Eun; Park, Seong Joon; Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Tae-You; Kim, Jee Hyun; Ahn, Joong Bae; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin-Hong; Park, Hee Chul; Jung, Kyung Hae; Kim, Tae Won

    2014-10-01

    -free survival was 71·6% (95% CI 64·6-78·6) in the FOLFOX group and 62·9% (55·4-70·4) in the fluorouracil plus leucovorin group (hazard ratio 0·657, 95% CI 0·434-0·994; p=0·047). Any grade neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, fatigue, nausea, and sensory neuropathy were significantly more common in the FOLFOX group than in the fluorouracil plus leucovorin group; however, we noted no significant difference in the frequency of these events at grade 3 or 4. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (38 [26%] of 149 patients in the fluorouracil plus leucovorin group vs 52 [36%] of 146 patients in the FOLFOX group), leucopenia (eight [5%] vs 12 [8%]), febrile neutropenia (four [3%] vs one [rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision, and warrants further investigation. Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project (South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  3. Periodontal disease in three siblings with familial neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstilä, V; Sewón, L; Laine, J

    1993-06-01

    The periodontal status and treatment of three teenagers in a Finnish family with familial neutropenia is described. The mother was also diagnosed with neutropenia. At initial examination, the 15-year-old male and the 10-year-old female had severe periodontitis, whereas the 13-year-old male had oral ulcerations but no significant periodontal disease. The two siblings with periodontitis were treated and followed approximately 5 years. It was concluded that periodontal therapy including scaling, surgery, and use of antimicrobial agents can be successful in patients with familial neutropenia, and that such patients are not necessarily candidates for full mouth extraction. The role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in which was used in the treatment of these patients remains to be established.

  4. Parvovirus B19 reactivation presenting as neutropenia after rituximab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepfish, A; Rachmilevitch, E; Schattner, A

    2006-11-01

    A patient with primary biliary cirrhosis and associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura was treated with 4 weekly courses of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting B-cell surface antigen CD20. Her thrombocyte count and even cholestatic liver function tests improved. However, 17 weeks after rituximab treatment, she developed severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count 0.23x10(3)/mul) and recurrent thrombocytopenia with abnormal bone marrow of all three lineages. Although delayed-onset neutropenia has been reported after rituximab, reactivated viral infections have also been encountered. Parvovirus B19 was suspected and confirmed as the cause of neutropenia in our patient. The patient was supported by GCSF treatment and recovered uneventfully after several weeks. Neutropenia after rituximab can also be the predominant manifestation of reactivated parvovirus B19 infection and have a favorable prognosis.

  5. Indomethacin-associated neutropenia with subsequent Gram-negative sepsis in a preterm infant. Cause or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, B-O S; Milstein, J M; Sherman, M P

    2006-06-01

    A preterm male infant with a patent ductus arteriosus developed neutropenia during treatment with indomethacin. Afterward, the mother described her own history of indomethacin-associated neutropenia. During the recovery from the neutropenia, the infant became septic with bacteremia caused by Enterobacter cloacae. Although indomethacin-related neutropenia has been described in adults, no case in a neonate has been reported. If neutropenia occurs after indomethacin therapy in a neonate, a familial history of indomethacin-associated neutropenia should be sought and the increased risk of infection should be considered.

  6. Sequential chemotherapy with dose-dense docetaxel, cisplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (TCF-dd) followed by combination of oxaliplatin, folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan (COFFI) in metastatic gastric cancer: results of a phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Chiesa, Matteo; Tomasello, Gianluca; Buti, Sebastiano; Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; Brighenti, Matteo; Lazzarelli, Silvia; Donati, Gianvito; Passalacqua, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate a new strategy of two sequential, intensified chemotherapy regimens in metastatic gastric cancer. Chemo-naïve patients with metastatic gastric cancer were enrolled to receive 4 cycles of TCF-dd (docetaxel initially 85 mg/m(2) and cisplatin initially 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 [later modified due to toxicity: 70 and 60 mg/m(2) respectively], l-folinic acid 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2, 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) bolus and then 600 mg/m(2) as a 22 h continuous infusion on day 1 and 2, every 14 days). Subsequently, patients with CR, PR or SD received 4 cycles of COFFI (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2), irinotecan 140 mg/m(2), l-folinic acid 200 mg/m(2), 5-fluorouracil bolus 400 mg/m(2) on day 1 followed by 2,400 mg/m(2) as a 48 h continuous infusion, every 14 days). In both regimens pegfilgrastim 6 mg subcutaneously on day 3 was included. Forty consecutive patients were enrolled. TCF-dd regimen achieved an ORR of 55% (95% CI, 40-70). Twenty-three patients proceeded to COFFI. After this regimen the ORR was then increased to 60% (95% CI, 45-75). Among the 21 patients treated with TCF-dd after the protocol amendments, main grade 3-4 toxicities were: neutropenia (29%), thrombocytopenia (19%), asthenia (24%) and diarrhea (14%). COFFI caused grade 3-4 neutropenia (all not febrile) and diarrhea in 35% and 17% of patients respectively. A sequential strategy with TCF-dd followed by COFFI is very active and may be of special interest in selected patients.

  7. An effective modestly intensive re-induction regimen with bortezomib in relapsed or refractory paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Niewerth, Denise; Wilhelm, Bram A J; Scholte-van Houtem, Peggy; Lopez-Yurda, Marta; Berkhof, Johannes; Cloos, Jacqueline; de Haas, Valerie; Mathôt, Ron A; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Baruchel, André; de Bont, Eveline S; Fagioli, Franca; Rössig, Claudia; Klingebiel, Thomas; De Moerloose, Barbara; Nelken, Brigitte; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rohrlich, Pierre-Simon; Simon, Pauline; von Stackelberg, Arend; Zwaan, Christian Michel

    2018-05-01

    This trial explored the efficacy of re-induction chemotherapy including bortezomib in paediatric relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Patients were randomized 1:1 to bortezomib (1.3 mg/m 2 /dose) administered early or late to a dexamethasone and vincristine backbone. Both groups did not differ regarding peripheral blast count on day 8, the primary endpoint. After cycle 1, 8 of 25 (32%) patients achieved complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery, 7 (28%) a partial remission and 10 had treatment failure. Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (31%) and pain (17%). Bortezomib was safely combined with vincristine. Bortezomib rarely penetrated the cerebrospinal fluid. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Chemotherapy for neuroendocrine tumors: the Beatson Oncology Centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, M Q; Reed, N S

    1997-01-01

    The role of chemotherapy in malignant neuroendocrine tumours is difficult to assess because of their rarity and variation in biological behaviour. We present a retrospective review of chemotherapy given to 18 patients with metastatic and one with locally advanced neuroendocrine tumours. There were eight poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours, six thyroid medullary carcinomas, two phaeochromocytomas, two pancreatic islet cell tumours and one undifferentiated neuroblastoma. Four patients were given 3-weekly dacarbazine, vincristine and cyclophosphamide (DOC) chemotherapy. In eight patients, this regimen was modified by substituting the dacarbazine and cisplatin and etoposide (OPEC). A further six patients were treated with dacarbazine reintroduced into the 3-weekly regimen (DOPEC). The remaining patient received cisplatin and etoposide. There were two complete responses (both with OPEC) and eight partial responses (two with DOC, three with OPEC and three with DOPEC). Five patients had stable disease and four progressed. Four received further chemotherapy on relapse, producing one complete and one partial response. The median response duration to initial chemotherapy was 10 months (range 3-34). The median survival was 12 months (range 1-42). The main toxicity was haematological, with grade 3-4 neutropenia in 12 patients; eight suffered episodes of sepsis. One death was treatment related. Other toxicity was mild although three patients discontinued vincristine with grade 2 neurotoxicity. The response rate and side effects of these three regimens appear comparable. We conclude that, although these patient numbers are small, combination chemotherapy produces an encouraging response rate (53%; 95% CI 30-75) in malignant neuroendocrine tumours, with acceptable toxicity.

  9. REFRACTORY THROMBOCYTOPENIA AND NEUTROPENIA: A DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gyan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2008 WHO classification identified refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD as a composite entity encompassing refractory anemia, refractory thrombocytopenia (RT, and refractory neutropenia (RN, characterized by 10% or more dysplastic cells in the bone marrow respective lineage. The diagnosis of RT and RN is complicated by several factors.  Diagnosing RT first requires exclusion of familial thrombocytopenia, chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenia, concomitant medications, viral infections, or hypersplenism. Diagnosis of RN should also be made after ruling out differential diagnoses such as ethnic or familial neutropenia, as well as acquired, drug-induced, infection-related or malignancy-related neutropenia. An accurate quantification of dysplasia should be performed in order to distinguish RT or RN from the provisional entity named idiopathic cytopenia of unknown significance (ICUS. Cytogenetic analysis, and possibly in the future somatic mutation analysis (of genes most frequently mutated in MDS, and flow cytometry analysis aberrant antigen expression on myeloid cells may help in this differential diagnosis. Importantly, we and others found that, while isolated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are not rare in MDS, those patients can generally be classified (according to WHO 2008 classification as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia or refractory anemia with excess blasts, while RT and RN (according to WHO 2008 are quite rare.These results suggest in particular that identification of RT and RN as distinct entities could be reconsidered in future WHO classification updates.

  10. Biweekly cetuximab and irinotecan as second-line therapy in patients with gastro-esophageal cancer previously treated with platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoennemann, Katrine R; Bjerregaard, Jon K; Hansen, Tine P

    2011-01-01

    toxicities were: diarrhea (8%), fatigue (10%), neutropenia (16%), and febrile neutropenia (2%). CONCLUSION: Cetiri every two weeks is a convenient and well-tolerated second-line regimen in GEC patients. A promising effect was seen in patients with PS 0-1 and in patients who developed a rash....

  11. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge.

  12. The Use of Intravenous Antibiotics at the Onset of Neutropenia in Patients Receiving Outpatient-Based Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, Aziz; Schreiber, Yoko; Toye, Baldwin; McDiarmid, Sheryl; Huebsch, Lothar; Bredeson, Christopher; Tay, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Empirical antibiotics at the onset of febrile neutropenia are one of several strategies for management of bacterial infections in patients undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) (empiric strategy). Our HSCT program aims to perform HSCT in an outpatient setting, where an empiric antibiotic strategy was employed. HSCT recipients began receiving intravenous antibiotics at the onset of neutropenia in the absence of fever as part of our institutional policy from 01 Jan 2009; intravenous Prophylactic strategy. A prospective study was conducted to compare two consecutive cohorts [Year 2008 (Empiric strategy) vs. Year 2009 (Prophylactic strategy)] of patients receiving HSCT. There were 238 HSCTs performed between 01 Jan 2008 and 31 Dec 2009 with 127 and 111 in the earlier and later cohorts respectively. Infection-related mortality pre- engraftment was similar with a prophylactic compared to an empiric strategy (3.6% vs. 7.1%; p = 0.24), but reduced among recipients of autologous HSCT (0% vs. 6.8%; p = 0.03). Microbiologically documented, blood stream infections and clinically documented infections pre-engraftment were reduced in those receiving a prophylactic compared to an empiric strategy, (11.7% vs. 28.3%; p = 0.001), (9.9% vs. 24.4%; p = 0.003) and (18.2% vs. 33.9% p = 0.007) respectively. The prophylactic use of intravenous once-daily ceftriaxone in patients receiving outpatient based HSCT is safe and may be particularly effective in patients receiving autologous HSCT. Further studies are warranted to study the impact of this Prophylactic strategy in an outpatient based HSCT program. PMID:23029441

  13. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Yolanda I.; Okuno, Scott H.; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Bot, Brian M.; Martens, John M.; Wender, Donald B.; Soori, Gamini S.; Moore, Dennis F.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Jett, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m 2 ) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m 2 ) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m 2 ) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade ≥4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade ≥3 dyspnea, or Grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade ≥3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine

  14. Intermittent chronic neutropenia in a patient with familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiou Tidjani, K; Ailal, F; Najib, J; Bellanné-Chantelot, C; Donadieu, J; Bousfiha, A A

    2008-11-01

    A 12-year-old daughter of consanguineous Moroccan parents was diagnosed with cyclic neutropenia, based on a combination of recurrent gingivostomatitis, a fluctuating neutrophil count, and several episodes of severe neutropenia. No ELA2 gene mutations were found. At age 19 years she presented with edema of the limbs, proteinuria and renal failure. Renal amyloidosis AA was diagnosed by biopsy. Gene mutations associated with family Mediterranean fever (FMF) were sought, and a homozygous mutation (M694V) was found in the MFEV gene. This is the novel finding of FMF that masqueraded as cyclic neutropenia. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Favorable Outcome of Hepatosplenic Candidiasis in a Patient with Acute Leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čolović, Nataša; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Suvajdžić, Nada; Djunić, Irena; Tomin, Dragica

    2015-01-01

    Acute leukemias treatment requires strong chemotherapy. Patients that develop bone marrow aplasia become immunocompromised, thus becoming liable to bacterial and fungal infections. Fungal infections caused by Candida are frequent. Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) is a frequent consequence of invasive candidiasis which is clinically presented with prolonged febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. A 53-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia was submitted to standard chemotherapy "3+7" regimen (daunoblastine 80 mg i.v. on days 1 to 3, cytarabine 2 x 170 mg i.v. during 7 days) and achieved complete remission. However, during remission he developed febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense lesions within the liver and spleen. Haemocultures on fungi were negative. However, seroconversion of biomarkers for invasive fungal infection (FI) (Candida and Aspergillus antigen/Ag and antibody/Ab) indicated possible HSC. Only high positivity of anti-Candida IgG antibodies, positivity of mannan and CT finding we regarded sufficient for the diagnosis and antimycotic therapy.Three months of treatment with different antimycotics were necessary for complete disappearance of both clinical symptoms and CT findings. In patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia IFI has to be strongly suspected. If imaging techniques show multiple hypodense lesions within liver and spleen, HSC has to be taken seriously into consideration. We believe that, along with CT finding, positive laboratory Candida biomarkers (mannan and IgG antibodies) should be considered sufficient for"probable HSC" and commencement of antifungal therapy, which must be long enough, i.e. until complete disappearance of clinical symptoms and CT findings are achieved.

  16. Severe neutropenia revealing a rare presentation of dengue fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shourick, J; Dinh, A; Matt, M; Salomon, J; Davido, B

    2017-08-17

    Arboviruses are a common cause of fever in the returned traveler often associated with leucopenia, especially lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Transient neutropenia has been described in a few cases of arboviruses. However, prolonged and severe neutropenia (dengue fever, especially in the returned traveler in Europe. A 26-year-old healthy female without any medical past history, flying back from Thailand, presented a transient fever with severe neutropenia (dengue fever. Outcome was favorable without any antimicrobial therapy. Physicians should be wary of possible unusual presentation of dengue fever with prolonged neutropenia. Although such biological sign is more often associated with malaria or severe bacterial infection, it may be a sign of arbovirus.

  17. O papel da neutropenia no prognóstico do doente oncológico com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade** Eur Respir J 2009; 33:142-147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aliberti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A doença infecciosa contribui para uma elevada morbilidade e mortalidade no doente oncológico, representando a pneumonia adquirida na comunidade a mais frequente.O desenvolvimento de PAC no doente neoplásico pa-rece advir da modificação de mecanismos de defesa imunitária resultante, quer da patologia maligna, quer do tratamento oncológico. O risco de infecção relacionada com o tipo de neoplasia pode associarse ao défice de imunidade humoral, celular ou do número de neutrófilos. As doenças hematológicas malignas podem predispor o doente às infecções devido à substituição da medula por células neoplásicas. Consequentemente, estes doentes têm neutropenia funcional, apesar de apresentarem, muitas vezes, um número normal ou aumentado de neutrófilos. Por outro lado, estes doentes podem ter neutropenia como efeito secundário da quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia (neutropenia absoluta.A gravidade da neutropenia foi considerada como principal factor de risco isolado no doente neoplásico, com particular relevância se o número de neutrófilos ≤500cel/mm3.A mortalidade global atribuída à neutropenia febril no doente neoplásico é de 30-50%. Nas últimas décadas, o tratamento das infecções na população oncológica foi direccionado, primariamente, para o manuseamento da neutropenia febril, devido ao facto de o local da infecção não ser determinado em 50-80% dos casos. As guidelines da American Thoracic Society de 2001 utilizavam a neutropenia para identificar os quadros mais graves de PAC nos doentes oncológicos. Os doentes com patologia hematológica e neutropenia funcional ou indivíduos com qualquer tipo de neoplasia e neutropenia absoluta foram excluídos das referidas guidelines. A decisão de incluir doentes com tumores sólidos não neutropénicos foi baseada, apenas, na opinião de especialistas

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy followed by conformal chemoradiotherapy in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Quero, L.; Kouto, H.; Hennequin-Baruch, V.; Sergent, G.; Maylin, C.; Hennequin, C.; Gornet, J.M.; Munoz, N.; Cojean-Zelek, I.; Houdart, R.; Panis, Y.; Valleur, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the feasibility and results of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by conformal chemoradiotherapy after surgery for gastric carcinoma. Patients and methods Twenty-six patients (R0 or R1) were treated postoperatively by three cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin, followed by a concomitant association of LV5FU2 chemotherapy with a conformal radiotherapy of 45 Gy. Results: The tumor was classified pT3-T4 in 77% of the patients and 92.5% had a nodal involvement (pN1: 54%; pN2: 31%). Feasibility (1) Adjuvant chemotherapy: nausea/vomiting grade II/III: 12 patients (48%); neutropenia grade III/IV: two patients; completed in all patients, except one. (2) Chemoradiotherapy: nausea/vomiting grade II/III: 10 patients; diarrhea grade II/3: two patients; oesophagitis grade II/III: two patients; myocardial infarction/pulmonary embolism: two patients. All patients except one received the planned dose of 45 Gy. Radiotherapy was interrupted in six cases, with a median duration of 14 days. Survival: with a median follow-up of 30 months, 65% of the patients were alive without disease; median survival was 32 months. Conclusion: This postoperative schedule was judged feasible. It allowed the deliverance of a more intensified chemotherapy than the classical schedule. Its clinical benefit must be evaluated in a phase III trial. (authors)

  19. Frequency of fever episodes related to febrile seizure recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the number of fever episodes as a risk factor for febrile seizure recurrence during the first 6 months after the last previous febrile seizure. In a 6-month follow-up study of 155 children, aged 3 months to 5 y, with a first or a recurrent febrile

  20. Severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann Syndrome)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), Kostmann syndrome is a heterogenous disorder of myelopoiesis characterized by severe chronic ... erogenous hematological disorders, characterized by extremely low circu- lating neutrophils and ..... tic activation of STAT5 and stimulate. G-CSF-induced cell proliferation.26, 27.

  1. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  2. Predictors of Recurrent Febrile Seizures in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A few factors appear to boost a child's risk of having recurrent febrile seizures, including young age during the first seizure, seizure type, and having immediate family members with a history of febrile seizures. The present study aimed to provide reliable information about recurrent febrile seizure in Iranian children. On the computerized literature valid on valid keyword with search in valid database PubMed, Scientific Information Databases (SID (, Global medical article limberly (Medlib, Iranian Biomedical Journals (Iran Medex, Iranian Journal Database (Magiran, and Google Scholar recruited in different geographic areas. To explore heterogeneity in studies I2 index was used. Meta-analysis used to data analysis with random effects model.Hospital data of 4,599 children with febrile seizure. Overall, 21 studies met our inclusion criteria. Febrile seizure in 2 age groups (<2 and 2-6 years were 55.8% (95% CI: 50.4-61.2 and 44.2% (95% CI: 38.8-61.2 respectively. Pooled recurrent rate of febrile seizure in Iran was 20.9% (95% CI: 12.3-29.5. In 28.8 (95% CI: 19.3-38.4, children there was positive family history. The mean prevalence of simple and complex seizures was 69.3% (95% CI: 59.5-79.0 and 28.3% (95% CI: 19.6-31.0 respectively. The rates in different geographical regions of central, east, and west of Iran, 25, 20.8 and 27.1% were estimated, respectively.According to the data the prevalence febrile seizure is higher in males and children under two years. Recurrence rate in Iran, similar to other studies performed in other regions of the world.

  3. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin as postconsolidation therapy does not prevent relapse in children with AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik

    2012-01-01

    neutropenia followed 95% and febrile neutropenia 40% of the GO courses. Only a moderate decline in platelet count and a minor decrease in hemoglobin occurred. Relapse occurred in 24 and 25 of those randomized to GO or no further therapy. The median time to relapse was 16 months versus 10 months...

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy with modified dose-dense TCF regimen (TCF-dd) in locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer: final results of a phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Gianluca; Liguigli, Wanda; Poli, Rossana; Lazzarelli, Silvia; Brighenti, Matteo; Negri, Federica; Curti, Alessandra; Martinotti, Mario; Olivetti, Lucio; Rovatti, Massimo; Donati, Gianvito; Passalacqua, Rodolfo

    2014-10-01

    We previously studied a dose-dense TCF (TCF-dd) regimen demonstrating its feasibility and an activity comparable to epirubicin-based chemotherapy and TCF q3w in terms of overall survival and time to progression (TTP). We report here the final results of a phase II study of chemotherapy with a modified TCF-dd regimen in locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer (MGC). Patients with histologically confirmed measurable MGC, not previously treated for advanced disease, received docetaxel 70 mg/m(2) day 1, cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) day 1, l-folinic acid 100 mg/m(2) days 1 and 2, followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m(2) bolus days 1 and 2, and then 600 mg/m(2) as a 22-h continuous infusion days 1 and 2, every 14 days, plus pegfilgrastim 6 mg on day 3. Patients aged ≥65 years received the same schedule with a dose reduction of 30 %. Study duration: December 2007-November 2010. Forty-six consecutive patients were enrolled (78 % male, 22 % female; median age, 66 years, range, 38-76 years; ECOG PS: 0, 48 %, 1, 46 %). Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). A median of four cycles (range, one to six) was administered. Forty-three patients were evaluated for response (93.5 %) and all for toxicity: 3 complete response (CR), 25 partial response (PR), 10 stable disease (SD), and 5 progressive disease (PD) were observed, for an ORR by intention to treat (ITT) of 61 % (95 % CI 47-75). Median overall survival (OS) was 17.63 months (95 % CI, 13.67-20.67); median progression-free survival was 8.9 months (95 % CI, 6.5-13.4). Twenty-one patients (46.0 %) were treated at full doses without any delay, thus respecting the dose-dense criterion. Most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (20 %), leukopenia (4 %), thrombocytopenia (2 %), anemia (2 %), febrile neutropenia (6 %), asthenia (22 %), diarrhea (4 %), nausea/vomiting (11 %), and hypokalemia (6 %). Overall, TCF-dd was shown to be safe. The TCF-dd regimen in locally advanced or MGC

  5. Phase III trial of vinflunine plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care alone after a platinum-containing regimen in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmunt, Joaquim; Théodore, Christine; Demkov, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    neutropenia (50%), febrile neutropenia (6%), anemia (19%), fatigue (19%), and constipation (16%). In the intent-to-treat population, the objective of a median 2-month survival advantage (6.9 months for VFL + BSC v 4.6 months for BSC) was achieved (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1...

  6. Neutropenia and agranulocytosis in England and Wales: incidence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staa, T. P.; Boulton, F.; Cooper, C.; Hagenbeek, A.; Inskip, H.; Leufkens, H. G. M.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of idiosyncratic neutropenia and agranulocytosis in England and Wales and to evaluate their risk factors and outcomes. The study was conducted using data from the General Practice Research Database. All cases of idiosyncratic neutropenia or

  7. Neutropenia associated with osteomyelitis due to Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Umeki, Saori; Baba, Kenji; Sada, Kumiko; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2011-10-01

    A 4-year-old, intact male Shiba dog was referred to Yamaguchi University Animal Medical Center, Yamaguchi, Japan, for the following complaints: anorexia, lethargy, intermittent fever, gingival bleeding and abdominal purpura. The dog presented with persistent neutropenia. Histopathological examination of a bone marrow sample revealed round to oval structures that resembled Hepatozoon micromerozoites and formed a "wheel-spoke" pattern. Furthermore, mature neutrophils were observed around these structures. PCR and sequencing using bone marrow aspirate confirmed Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) infection. These findings suggest that the neutropenia observed in this case was associated with osteomyelitis due to H. canis infection. This is the first report of neutropenia associated with H. canis infection. H. canis infection can be included in the differential diagnosis in canine cases of neutropenia in areas where the disease is endemic.

  8. Comparison of long-term efficacy between intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Ying; Sun Xueming; Zeng Lei; Chen Chunyan; Han Fei; Lu Taixiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the long-term efficacy between two radiochemotherapy regimens for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by CCRT. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 278 patients with locally advanced NPC who were admitted to our hospital from 2001 to 2008. Of the 278 patients, 133 received CCRT, and 145 received NACT followed by CCRT (NACT + CCRT). Results: The follow-up rate was 96.6%. The 5-year overall survival (OS),distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were 78.1%, 78.0%, 90.6%, and 72.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the CCRT group and NACT + CCRT group in 5-year OS (79.9% vs. 76.4%, P=0.443), DMFS (77.1% vs. 78.9%, P=0.972), RFS (91.6% vs. 89.8%, P=0.475), and PFS (71.6% vs. 72.2%, P=0.731). Subgroup analysis showed that compared with CCRT, NACT + CCRT did not significantly improve 5-year RFS in T 3-4 N 0-1 patients (90.7% vs. 86.9%, P=0.376) and did not significantly improve 5-year DMFS in patients with advanced N-stage disease (57.6% vs. 69.7%, P=0.275). There were significantly higher numbers of individuals with neutropenia,decrease in hemoglobin, and upper gastrointestinal reactions in patients treated with NACT + CCRT than in those treated with CCRT (100 vs. 52, P=0.000; 64 vs. 35, P=0.010; 90 vs. 63, P=0.044). Conclusions: Compared with CCRT,NACT + CCRT does not significantly improve the prognosis in patients with locally advanced NPC and leads to significant increases in grade ≥ 3 toxicities (neutropenia, decrease in hemoglobin, and upper gastrointestinal reactions). The role of NACT in the treatment of locally advanced NPC needs further study. (authors)

  9. Nintedanib Plus Pemetrexed/Cisplatin in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosso, Federica; Steele, Nicola; Novello, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    ). Neutropenia was the most frequent grade ≥ 3 adverse event (AE; nintedanib 43.2% v placebo 12.2%); rates of febrile neutropenia were low (4.5% in nintedanib group v 0% in placebo group). AEs leading to discontinuation were reported in 6.8% of those receiving nintedanib versus 17.1% of those in the placebo...

  10. Salvage chemotherapy of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) for patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas: a consortium for improving survival of lymphoma (CISL) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeong-Bae; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Jeong-A; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Lee, Won Sik

    2015-11-01

    There is no standard salvage chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). Gemcitabine combined with cisplatin has been known as an effective regimen for lymphoma treatment in the salvage setting. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) for relapsed or refractory PTCLs in search of a more effective and less toxic therapy. Patients with relapsed or refractory PTCLs with more than one previous regimen were eligible. Treatment consisted of gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously (i.v.) on days 1 and 8, dexamethasone 40 mg orally on days 1-4, and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1, and then every 21 days. Patients could proceed to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after four cycles of GDP or receive up to six treatment cycles. Twenty-five eligible patients were evaluated for toxicity and response. The diagnoses of participants included 14 cases of PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS) (56 %) and four cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (16 %) among others. The median age of the patients was 59 years (range 20-75 years). After treatments with GDP, which delivered a median of four GDP cycles, there were 12 patients with complete responses (CR; 48 %) and six with partial responses (PR; 24 %). The overall response rate (RR) was 72 %. Four patients preceded to ASCT, and three patients finally achieved CR. The median progression free survival was 9.3 months (95 % confidence interval (CI); 4.1-14.6) with a median follow-up duration of 27.1 months. In a total of 86 cycles of GDP, grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 16.3 and 12.8 % of cycles, respectively. Three patients (3.3 %) experienced febrile neutropenia. GDP is a highly effective and optimal salvage regimen for relapsed or refractory PTCLs and can be administered with acceptable toxicity.

  11. Validation of genetic polymorphisms associated to the toxicity of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cortejoso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To validate the associations previously found in three cohorts of patients from the General University Hospital Gregorio Marañón, between the polymorphisms rs1128503, rs2032582 and rs1045642 of the ABCB1 gene and the hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy regimes containing Capecitabine and 5-Fluorouracil, respectively, and between the polymorphisms rs2297595 of the DPYD gene and nausea/vomiting, rs11615 of ERCC1 and neutropenia, and rs28399433 CYP2A6 and neutropenia, in colorectal cancer patients treated with FOLFOX or XELOX as adjuvant therapy. Method: Colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy regimes, containing Capecitabine (n = 157, 5-Fluorouracil (n = 99 were included in the study, as well as patients treated with XELOX or FOLFOX (n = 83 as adjuvant therapy. The patients included were recruited from the Doce de Octubre University Hospital and from the Gregorio Marañón General University Hospital, and signed the informed consent form. DNA was obtained from blood samples. Genotyping was carried out with SNaPshot. Contingency tables were created for analyzing the associations between the genotypes and the adverse reactions. Results: None of the associations previously identified was replicated in the validation cohort. Conclusions: Pharmacogenetic studies with a limited sample size must be validated with bigger cohorts, if possible by means of multicentre studies, reducing the variables to the maximum and should never be used in clinical practice without validation.

  12. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  13. Childhood Epilepsy, Febrile Seizures, and Subsequent Risk of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Elin Næs; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Christensen, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ADHD were estimated by using Cox regression analysis, comparing children with epilepsy and febrile seizure with those without these disorders, adjusted for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, as well as family history of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. A total of 906 379 individuals were followed up for 22 years (∼10 million person-years of observation); 21 079 individuals developed ADHD. Children with epilepsy had a fully adjusted IRR of ADHD of 2.72 (95% CI, 2.53-2.91) compared with children without epilepsy. Similarly, in children with febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20-1.35). In individuals with both epilepsy and febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 3.22 (95% CI, 2.72-3.83). Our findings indicate a strong association between epilepsy in childhood and, to a lesser extent, febrile seizure and subsequent development of ADHD, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, and family history of epilepsy, febrile seizures, or psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Population pharmacokinetics and dosing simulations of imipenem in serious bacteraemia in immunocompromised patients with febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Sutep; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Jullangkoon, Monchana; Samaeng, Maseetoh

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to i) reveal the population pharmacokinetics; and ii) assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) (defined as the expected population PTA for a specific drug dose and a specific population of microorganisms) of imipenem in febrile neutropenic patients with bacteraemia. Ten patients were randomised into two groups: Group I received a 0.5-h infusion of 0.5 g of imipenem every 6 h (q6h) for 8 doses; and Group II received a 4-h infusion of 0.5 g q6h for 8 doses. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the PTA. The volume of distribution and total clearance of imipenem were 20.78 ± 1.35 l and 23.19 ± 1.34 l/h, respectively. Only a 4-h infusion of 1 g q6h regimen achieved a PTA >93% for 80% T>MIC for a MIC of 2 μg/ml. A 4-h infusion of all simulated regimens and a 0.5-h infusion of 0.5 g q6h and 1 g q6h achieved targets (CFR ≥ 90%) against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., no regimens achieved their targets. In conclusion, the results indicate that a higher than manufacturer's dosage recommendation is required to maximize the activity of imipenem. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Favorable outcome of hepatosplenic candidiasis in a patient with acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute leukemias treatment requires strong chemotherapy. Patients that develop bone marrow aplasia become immunocompromised, thus becoming liable to bacterial and fungal infections. Fungal infections caused by Candida are frequent. Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC is a frequent consequence of invasive candidiasis which is clinically presented with prolonged febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Case Outline. A 53-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia was submitted to standard chemotherapy “3+7” regimen (daunoblastine 80 mg i.v. on days 1 to 3, cytarabine 2Ч170 mg i.v. during 7 days and achieved complete remission. However, during remission he developed febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Computerised tomography (CT of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense lesions within the liver and spleen. Haemocultures on fungi were negative. However, seroconversion of biomarkers for invasive fungal infection (IFI (Candida and Aspergillus antigen/Ag and antibody/Ab indicated possible HSC. Only high positivity of anti-Candida IgG antibodies, positivity of mannan and CT finding we regarded sufficient for the diagnosis and antimycotic therapy. Three months of treatment with different antimycotics were necessary for complete disappearance of both clinical symptoms and CT findings. Conclusion. In patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia IFI has to be strongly suspected. If imaging techniques show multiple hypodense lesions within liver and spleen, HSC has to be taken seriously into consideration. We believe that, along with CT finding, positive laboratory Candida biomarkers (mannan and IgG antibodies should be considered sufficient for “probable HSC” and commencement of antifungal therapy, which must be long enough, i.e. until complete disappearance of clinical symptoms and CT findings are achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175034

  16. A phase II trial of pemetrexed plus gemcitabine in locally advanced and/or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maase, Hans von der; Lehmann, J.; Gravis, G.

    2006-01-01

    .1-14.6 months). CTC grade 3/4 hematologic       toxicities included anemia (19%), thrombocytopenia (9%), neutropenia       (38%), febrile neutropenia (17%) and neutropenic sepsis (3%). Grade 3/4       non-hematologic toxicities included elevated transaminases (12%), dyspnea       (8%), fatigue (8...

  17. Bevacizumab with metronomic chemotherapy of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in recurrent cervical cancer: Four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Isono-Nakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard chemotherapy for women with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer involves a combination of paclitaxel, platinum, and bevacizumab. However, for patients who experience anaphylaxis in response to paclitaxel or platinum, have permanent peripheral neuropathy, or develop early recurrence or progressive disease during first-line chemotherapy, the development of a non-taxane non-platinum regimen is mandatory. Clinical trials using anti-angiogenic treatment demonstrated favorable outcomes in cases of highly vascularized cervical cancer. Metronomic chemotherapy has been considered an anti-angiogenic treatment, although its use in combination with bevacizumab has not been studied in cervical cancer. We treated four patients with recurrent cervical cancer with 50 mg of oral cyclophosphamide daily and 15 mg/kg of intravenous bevacizumab every 3 weeks (CFA-BEV. One patient experienced disease progression after 4 months, whereas the other three patients continued the regimen until their last follow-up at 13, 14, and 15 months, respectively. One patient suffered from grade 3 neutropenia; however, no grade 2 or higher non-hematological toxicities were observed. These cases demonstrate the use of CFA-BEV with minimal toxicity and expected anti-cancer activity and indicate that this regimen should be considered for second-line chemotherapy in advanced recurrent cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Metronomic chemotherapy, Bevacizumab

  18. C-reactive protein velocity to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Paran, Yael; Yablecovitch, Doron; Choshen, Guy; Zeitlin, Ina; Rogowski, Ori; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Katzir, Michal; Saranga, Hila; Rosenzweig, Tovit; Justo, Dan; Orbach, Yaffa; Halpern, Pinhas; Berliner, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction C-reactive protein (CRP) is a real-time and low-cost biomarker to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses. We hypothesised that measuring the velocity of the biomarker instead of its absolute serum concentration could enhance its ability to differentiate between these two conditions. Methods We prospectively recruited adult patients (age ? 18 years) who presented to the emergency department with fever. We recorded their data regarding the ons...

  19. Prevalence and clinical significance of neutropenia discovered in routine complete blood cell counts: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Tesfa, D.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutropenia, defined as an absolute blood neutrophil count (ANC) neutropenia detected in a routine complete blood cell count is poorly understood. METHODS: Using a primary care resource, comprising...... more than 370 000 individuals, we assessed the association with a number of previously recognized conditions as well as all-cause mortality in the 4 years following the identification of neutropenia. By matching laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers, risk estimates were assessed....... RESULTS: Neutropenia was observed in approximately 1% of all individuals and was associated dose dependently with viral infections, haematological malignancies (but not autoimmune disorders or solid cancers) and mortality. Neutropenia was particularly associated with HIV, acute leukaemias...

  20. A Case of Severe Neutropenia From Short-Term Exposure to Moxifloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihan Chen BS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is commonly prescribed in the inpatient and outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia and other common infections. We report a case of a 76-year-old man who developed severe neutropenia after several days of treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. The patient had a history of alcohol abuse; however, there were no other offending medications prescribed, and a thorough laboratory workup for other possible causes of neutropenia was negative. The patient’s neutrophils and white blood count responded quickly to cessation of fluoroquinolones. This case highlights the importance of identifying patients that might be at high risk for neutropenia that may need closer monitoring on this commonly prescribed medication.

  1. Benefit risk assessment and update on the use of docetaxel in the management of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alken S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scheryll Alken, Catherine M KellyDepartment of Medical Oncology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: The objective of this paper is to review the data supporting the use of docetaxel in the treatment of breast cancer, focusing on pharmacokinetics, efficacy in adjuvant and metastatic trials alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and the toxicity of docetaxel in comparison to paclitaxel. Docetaxel is a semisynthetic product derived from the European yew tree Taxus baccata L. It promotes the assembly of microtubules, stabilizes them, and thereby prevents their depolymerization. Docetaxel has been incorporated into neo-adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, both with and without anthracyclines. The inclusion of taxanes such as docetaxel in polychemotherapy regimens in early breast cancer is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality. As a single agent, docetaxel is highly active in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the combination of docetaxel and capecitabine was associated with an improvement in overall survival; however, toxicity was higher. The toxicity profile of docetaxel has been well documented and is predictable; the most frequent adverse effects are neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Taxane-specific adverse effects, such as peripheral neuropathy, are also expected but are manageable with appropriate dosing and scheduling.Keywords: taxanes, docetaxel, clinical trial, adverse effects, peripheral neuropathy, neutropenia

  2. History of febrile illness and variation in semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality....

  3. Costo- Efectividad Del Uso Profiláctico Del Factor Estimulante De Colonias De Granulocitos En Adultos Con Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda en Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadiego Rincón, Elkin Javier; Díaz Rojas, Jorge Augusto; Bermúdez, Carlos Daniel; Martínez, Víctor Prieto

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) compared with no use of it, during the induction phase of chemotherapy in Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in Colombia. A decision tree with a time horizon of 30 days was built under colombian health system perspective including only direct costs. The costs of procedures and medications were taken from official sources and an institution of national reference of oncology services. The safety and effectiveness data were taken from the literature and two Colombian cohorts with patients older than 15 years. The unit of outcome was the proportion of deaths avoided. Base-case results on a clinical trial indicate that using factor is a dominant strategy. The variable that most impacted the outcome was the incidence of febrile neutropenia. Considering a threshold of $22.228 USD in 80% of cases using factor was cost effective. However, the use of factor is not cost-effective for the country for incidences of febrile neutropenia > 48%. It was not possible to establish cost-effectiveness of pegfilgrastim because no information was found. As per Colombian data, the use of prophylactic factor under chemotherapeutic induction in adults with ALL, turns out to be not cost effective. The difference in the results suggests the need of a careful extrapolation of information from clinical trials (ideal world) for developing economic evaluations in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone in stage III-IV unresectable head and neck cancer. Results of a randomized phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polgar, Csaba; Major, Tibor; Fodor, Janos; Hitre, Erika; Remenar, Eva; Kasler, Miklos; Oberna, Ferenc; Goedeny, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this phase II randomized study, the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by concurrent CRT was compared with those after standard CRT alone in patients with locally advanced, unresectable head and neck cancer. Between January 2007 and June 2009, 66 patients with advanced (stage III or IV) unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx) were randomly assigned to two groups: one receiving two cycles of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil ICT followed by CRT with three cycles of cisplatin and one treated by CRT alone. Response rate, local tumor control (LTC), locoregional tumor control (LRTC), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity results were assessed. Three patients from the ICT + CRT group did not appear at the first treatment, so a total of 63 patients were evaluated in the study (30 ICT + CRT group and 33 CRT group). Three patients died of febrile neutropenia after ICT. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 63 months (range 53-82 months). The rate of radiologic complete response was 63 % following ICT + CRT, whereas 70 % after CRT alone. There were no significant differences in the 3-year rates of LTC (56 vs. 57 %), LRTC (42 vs. 50 %), OS (43 vs. 55 %), and PFS (41 vs. 50 %) in the ICT + CRT group and in the CRT group, respectively. The rate of grade 3-4 neutropenia was significantly higher in the ICT + CRT group than in the CRT group (37 and 12 %; p = 0.024). Late toxicity (grade 2 or 3 xerostomia) developed in 59 and 42 % in the ICT + CRT and CRT groups, respectively. The addition of ICT to CRT did not show any advantage in our phase II trial, while the incidence of adverse events increased. The three deaths as a consequence of ICT call attention to the importance of

  5. A triplet combination with capecitabine/oxaliplatin/irinotecan (XELOXIRI) plus cetuximab as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a dose escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hirakawa, Masahiro; Ohnuma, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Minoru; Okamoto, Tetsuro; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Takemasa, Ichiro; Kato, Junji; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-12-01

    The addition of cetuximab to triplet chemotherapy can increase treatment efficacy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We explored the dose-limiting toxicity and feasibility of a triweekly capecitabine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, plus cetuximab (XELOXIRI plus cetuximab) regimen in patients with wild-type KRAS mCRC. Patients received oxaliplatin (100 mg/m 2 , day 1), capecitabine (1700 mg/m 2 per day from day 2 to 15), irinotecan (100, 120, and 150 mg/m 2 for dose levels 1, 2, 3, respectively, on day 1), and cetuximab (400 mg/m 2 , day 1 and, thereafter, 250 mg/m 2 every week), repeated every 3 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were assessed in the first 2 treatment cycles to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended dose (RD). Twelve patients received a median of 7 cycles of therapy (range 2-10). The DLT was grade 4 neutropenia, observed in 1 of 6 patients at dose level 2. The MTD was not reached at dose level 3. Therefore, the RD of irinotecan was defined as 150 mg/m 2 . Most common grade ≥ 3 toxicities were neutropenia (50%), diarrhea (17%), and febrile neutropenia (8%). The response rate was 83% (complete and partial response: 1 and 9 patient(s), respectively), including 4 conversion cases. The combination of XELOXIRI and cetuximab is feasible and has an acceptable toxicity profile; neutropenia was the DLT. The RD of irinotecan is 150 mg/m 2 . The observed response rate was promising and warrants further investigation.

  6. The Long-term Risk of Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures in susceptible subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sidenius, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    A family history of seizures, preexisting brain damage, or birth complications may modify the long-term risk of epilepsy after febrile seizures. The authors evaluated the association between febrile seizures and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.54 million persons born in Denmark (1978......-2002), including 49,857 persons with febrile seizures and 16,481 persons with epilepsy. Overall, for children with febrile seizures compared with those without such seizures, the rate ratio for epilepsy was 5.43 (95% confidence interval: 5.19, 5.69). The risk remained high during the entire follow.......3). In conclusion, persons with a history of febrile seizures had a higher rate of epilepsy that lasted into adult life, but less than 7 percent of children with febrile seizures developed epilepsy during 23 years of follow-up. The risk was higher for those who had a family history of epilepsy, cerebral palsy...

  7. Febrile status epilepticus due to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kazuhiro; Kitazawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, depend on the etiology, including infection due to viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood may also contribute to this. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae in febrile status epilepticus. We reviewed the medical records of children aged ≤3 years with febrile status epilepticus who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. The differences between the RSV-positive and RSV-negative groups were evaluated according to the demographic and clinical data. A total of 99 patients with febrile status epilepticus who had been tested for RSV infection were identified. Three patients in the RSV-positive group (n = 19) and four in the RSV-negative group (n = 80) presented with bronchiolitis. The incidence of intubation and anti-seizure drug treatment in the RSV-positive group was significantly higher than in the -negative group. While all of the patients in the RSV-negative group recovered completely, six patients in the RSV-positive group developed encephalopathy and profound neurological sequelae. In five of the six patients, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed subcortical white matter lesions. RSV infection in the absence of bronchiolitis can initially present as febrile status epilepticus and subsequently develop into acute encephalopathy with profound neurological sequelae. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Cetuximab plus platinum-based chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study in a single comprehensive European cancer institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade de Mello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cetuximab in combination with platinum (P plus 5-fluorouracil (F has previously been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of metastatic squamous cell cancer of head and neck (SCCHN. We investigated the efficacy and outcome of this protocol as a first-line treatment for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. We evaluated overall-survival (OS, progression-free-survival (PFS, overall response rate (ORR and the treatment toxicity profile in a retrospective cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 121 patients with untreated recurrent or metastatic SCCHN. The patients received PF+ cetuximab every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles. Patients with stable disease who received PF+ cetuximab continued to receive cetuximab until disease progressed or unacceptable toxic effects were experienced, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 (37-78 years. The patient cohort was 86.8% male. The addition of cetuximab to PF in the recurrent or metastatic setting provided an OS of 11 months (Confidential Interval, CI, 95%, 8.684-13.316 and PFS of 8 months (CI 95%, 6.051-9.949. The disease control rate was 48.9%, and the ORR was 23.91%. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the PF+ cetuximab regimen were febrile neutropenia (5.7%, skin rash (3.8% and mucosistis (3.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that cetuximab plus platinum-fluorouracil chemotherapy is a good option for systemic treatment in advanced SSCHN patients. This regimen has a well-tolerated toxicity profile.

  9. Home Management of Febrile Convulsion in Under-fives: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home Management of Febrile Convulsion in Under-fives: an Assessment of Perceptions and Practices of Caregivers in Ojokoro Local Council Development Area, Lagos. ... Of the 46 respondents that reported previous history of febrile convulsion, 39(84.8%)carried out inappropriate pre-facility management practices.

  10. The relationship between iron deficiency anemia and simple febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Eghbali, Aziz; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Zolfi, Mohaddeseh; Firouzifar, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    Simple febrile convulsion is the most common disease of the nervous system in children. There are hypotheses that iron deficiency may affect febrile convulsion and the threshold of neuron excitation. This study was conducted with the objective of finding the effects of iron deficiency anemia on simple febrile convulsion episodes. The study was conducted at AmirKabir Hospital of Arak Medical Sciences University, Arak, Iran. This is a case-control study. In this study, 382 children who were selected according to our inclusion and exclusion factors, were divided into two groups of case (febrile convulsion) and control (other factors causing fever) by their cause of hospitalization. After fever subsided, 5 ml blood sample was taken from each child and complete blood count and iron profile tests were performed. The results were interpreted using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The prevalence of anemia in the group with febrile convulsion was significantly less than that in the control group: 22.5% of the children in the group with febrile convulsion and 34% in the control group exhibited anemia (P < 0.001). Moreover, the group with febrile convulsion had significantly higher blood indices, such as Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and MCHC, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Iron deficiency can prevent febrile convulsion in children and probably increases the threshold of neuron excitation in fever.

  11. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m 2 /day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m 2 /day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  12. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer; Radiochimiotherapie concomitante preoperatoire pour cancer du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  13. Benefit risk assessment and update on the use of docetaxel in the management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alken, Scheryll; Kelly, Catherine M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the data supporting the use of docetaxel in the treatment of breast cancer, focusing on pharmacokinetics, efficacy in adjuvant and metastatic trials alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and the toxicity of docetaxel in comparison to paclitaxel. Docetaxel is a semisynthetic product derived from the European yew tree Taxus baccata L. It promotes the assembly of microtubules, stabilizes them, and thereby prevents their depolymerization. Docetaxel has been incorporated into neo-adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, both with and without anthracyclines. The inclusion of taxanes such as docetaxel in polychemotherapy regimens in early breast cancer is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality. As a single agent, docetaxel is highly active in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the combination of docetaxel and capecitabine was associated with an improvement in overall survival; however, toxicity was higher. The toxicity profile of docetaxel has been well documented and is predictable; the most frequent adverse effects are neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Taxane-specific adverse effects, such as peripheral neuropathy, are also expected but are manageable with appropriate dosing and scheduling

  14. Neutropenia in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: a Rare Event Associated with Severe Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffroy, Aurélien; Mourot-Cottet, Rachel; Gérard, Laurence; Gies, Vincent; Lagresle, Chantal; Pouliet, Aurore; Nitschké, Patrick; Hanein, Sylvain; Bienvenu, Boris; Chanet, Valérie; Donadieu, Jean; Gardembas, Martine; Karmochkine, Marina; Nove-Josserand, Raphaele; Martin, Thierry; Poindron, Vincent; Soulas-Sprauel, Pauline; Rieux-Laucat, Fréderic; Fieschi, Claire; Oksenhendler, Eric; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Korganow, Anne-Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by infections and hypogammaglobulinemia. Neutropenia is rare during CVID. The French DEFI study enrolled patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia. Patients with CVID and neutropenia were retrospectively analyzed. Among 473 patients with CVID, 16 patients displayed neutropenia (lowest count [0-1400]*10 6 /L). Sex ratio (M/F) was 10/6. Five patients died during the follow-up (11 years) with an increased percentage of deaths compared to the whole DEFI group (31.3 vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). Neutropenia was diagnosed for 10 patients before 22 years old. The most frequent symptoms, except infections, were autoimmune cytopenia, i.e., thrombopenia or anemia (11/16). Ten patients were affected with lymphoproliferative diseases. Two patients were in the infection only group and the others belonged to one or several other CVID groups. The median level of IgG was 2.6 g/L [0.35-4.4]. Most patients presented increased numbers of CD21 low CD38 low B cell, as already described in CVID autoimmune cytopenia group. Neutropenia was considered autoimmune in 11 cases. NGS for 52 genes of interest was performed on 8 patients. No deleterious mutations were found in LRBA, CTLA4, and PIK3. More than one potentially damaging variant in other genes associated with CVID were present in most patients arguing for a multigene process. Neutropenia is generally associated with another cytopenia and presumably of autoimmune origin during CVID. In the DEFI study, neutropenia is coupled with more severe clinical outcomes. It appears as an "alarm bell" considering patients' presentation and the high rate of deaths. Whole exome sequencing diagnosis should improve management.

  15. Treatment duration and prognostics in febrile urinary tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starre, Willy Elizabeth van der (Willize)

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this thesis was to provide evidence for the clinical implication of biomarkers in blood and urine, as well as genetic markers, for the prediction of the severity and course of febrile UTI. Furthermore, this thesis focused on optimization of antimicrobial treatment of febrile UTI. The main

  16. Dipstick screening for urinary tract infection in febrile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glissmeyer, Eric W; Korgenski, E Kent; Wilkes, Jacob; Schunk, Jeff E; Sheng, Xiaoming; Blaschke, Anne J; Byington, Carrie L

    2014-05-01

    This study compares the performance of urine dipstick alone with urine microscopy and with both tests combined as a screen for urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile infants aged 1 to 90 days. We queried the Intermountain Healthcare data warehouse to identify febrile infants with urine dipstick, microscopy, and culture performed between 2004 and 2011. UTI was defined as >50 000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a urinary pathogen. We compared the performance of urine dipstick with unstained microscopy or both tests combined ("combined urinalysis") to identify UTI in infants aged 1 to 90 days. Of 13 030 febrile infants identified, 6394 (49%) had all tests performed and were included in the analysis. Of these, 770 (12%) had UTI. Urine culture results were positive within 24 hours in 83% of UTIs. The negative predictive value (NPV) was >98% for all tests. The combined urinalysis NPV was 99.2% (95% confidence interval: 99.1%-99.3%) and was significantly greater than the dipstick NPV of 98.7% (98.6%-98.8%). The dipstick positive predictive value was significantly greater than combined urinalysis (66.8% [66.2%-67.4%] vs 51.2% [50.6%-51.8%]). These data suggest 8 febrile infants would be predicted to have a false-positive combined urinalysis for every 1 infant with UTI initially missed by dipstick screening. Urine dipstick testing compares favorably with both microscopy and combined urinalysis in febrile infants aged 1 to 90 days. The urine dipstick test may be an adequate stand-alone screen for UTI in febrile infants while awaiting urine culture results. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. First-line dose-dense chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) plus panitumumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction: final results and biomarker analysis from an Italian oncology group for clinical research (GOIRC) phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Gianluca; Valeri, Nicola; Ghidini, Michele; Smyth, Elizabeth C; Liguigli, Wanda; Toppo, Laura; Mattioli, Rodolfo; Curti, Alessandra; Hahne, Jens C; Negri, Federica M; Panni, Stefano; Ratti, Margherita; Lazzarelli, Silvia; Gerevini, Fabiana; Colombi, Chiara; Panni, Andrea; Rovatti, Massimo; Treccani, Leonardo; Martinotti, Mario; Passalacqua, Rodolfo

    2017-12-19

    Survival for patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer (AGC) using standard treatment regimens is poor. EGFR overexpression is common in AGC and associated with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy and adding panitumumab could improve efficacy. HER2 negative, PS 0-1 patients, received up to 4 cycles of panitumumab 6 mg/kg d 1, docetaxel 60 mg/m2 d 1, cisplatin 50 mg/m2 d 1, l-folinic acid 100 mg/m2 d 1-2, followed by 5-FU 400 mg/m2 bolus d 1-2, and then 600 mg/m2 as a 22 h c.i. on d 1-2, q15 d, plus pegfilgrastim 6 mg on d 3. Patients with disease control after 4 cycles received panitumumab until progression. From 05/2010 to 01/2014, 52 patients (75% male; median age 64.5 y; metastatic 90%, locally advanced 10%; 96% adenocarcinoma; 25% GEJ) were recruited. Three CR, 29 PR, 10 SD and 8 PD were observed, for an ORR by ITT (primary endpoint) of 62% (95% CI, 48%-75%) and a DCR of 81%. Median TTP was 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.2-7.0) and mOS 10 months (95% CI, 8.2- 13.5). Most frequent G3-4 toxicities: leucopenia (29%), asthenia (27%), skin rash (25%), neutropenia (19%), anorexia (17%), febrile neutropenia (13%), and diarrhea (15%). EGFR expression tested both with dd-PCR and FISH was not associated with any significant clinical benefit from treatment. Dose-dense DCF plus panitumumab is an active regimen. However, the toxicity profile of this limits further development. Further research on predictive biomarkers for treatment efficacy in AGC is required.Clinical trial information: 2009-016962-10.

  18. Dental findings and treatment in consanguinity associated congenital chronic familial neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduneli, Nurcan; Cogulu, Dilsah; Kardesler, Levent; Kütükçüler, Necil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe dental findings and treatment of an 11-year old male patient and a 5-year old female patient, children of first cousins, suffering from severe benign congenital chronic familial neutropenia. This case report emphazises the importance of differential diagnosis of immunodeficiencies including congenital chronic familial neutropenia in the background of severe periodontal diseases and/or diffuse carious lesions in children.

  19. pre-hospital management of febrile seizures in children seen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. A febrile seizure refers to a seizure occurring in infancy or childhood usually between three months and five years of age as a result of elevated body temperature in the absence of pathology in the brain.1 Febrile seizures are commonly encountered in emergency paediatric practice and have been ...

  20. Cefozopran, meropenem, or imipenem-cilastatin compared with cefepime as empirical therapy in febrile neutropenic adult patients: A multicenter prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takahiko; Tamura, Kazuo; Hino, Masayuki; Tamaki, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Isao; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Tatsumi, Youichi; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Hatanaka, Kazuo; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Nobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Urabe, Akio; Masaoka, Toru; Kanamaru, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label, randomized study to evaluate the clinical efficacy of cefozopran, meropenem or imipenem-cilastatin using cefepime as a control in febrile neutropenia (FN) patients. Three hundred and seventy-six patients received cefepime, cefozopran, meropenem or imipenem-cilastatinas initial therapy for FN. The primary endpoint was the non-inferiority of response rates including modification at day 7 in cefozopran, meropenem or imipenem-cilastatin patients compared with cefepime in the per-protocol population (delta = 10%). The response rates for cefozopran, meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin were not significantly different compared with cefepime (cefozopran: 54/90 (60%), meropenem: 60/92 (65%), and IPM/CS: 63/88 (72%) versus cefepime: 56/85 (66%) (p = 0.44, 1.0 and 0.51, respectively)), and the differences in treatment success for cefozopran, meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin compared with cefepime were -5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): -20.1-8.4), -0.7% (95% CI: -14.6-13.3), and 5.7% (95% CI: -8.1-19.4), respectively. The same tendency was seen in the modified intention-to-treat population. Based on the evaluation of initial drug efficacy performed on days 3-5, there was no significant difference between the four drugs. In the subgroup with an absolute neutrophil count ≤ 100 × 10(6)/L for longer than seven days, there was significantly better efficacy in the carbapenem arm compared to 4th generation beta-lactams (52% versus 27% at days 3-5, p = 0.006, and 76% versus 48% at day 7, p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the effects of these four drugs as empiric therapy were virtually the same for adult FN patients, although non-inferiority was shown only in imipenem-cilastatin compared with cefepime (clinical trial number: UMIN000000462). Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Daratumumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, T.; Arkenau, H. T.; Gimsing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    %), muscle spasms (44%), cough (38%), diarrhea (34%), fatigue and hypertension (28% each). Only 1 (3%) patient experienced febrile neutropenia (grade 1). Neutropenia was the most frequently (>25%) reported grade 3 or 4 TEAE (75%). Eighteen (56%) patients had IRRs and these were generally mild to moderate...... treatment due to either disease progression (n = 3), treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE; 1 patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and 1 patient with laryngeal edema that was a grade 3 infusion-related reaction [IRR]), or physician decision (n = 1). The most common (>25%) TEAEs included neutropenia (81...

  2. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin as Post-Consolidation Therapy Does Not Prevent Relapse In Children with AML. Results of the NOPHO-AML 2004 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik

    . No significant decrease in hemoglobin was observed whereas severe neutropenia occurred in 96% of the patients. Recovery to neutrophils > 0.5 lasted a median of 15 days. Febrile neutropenia followed 39% of the GO courses but none were life-threatening. A moderate decline in platelet count was noted with platelets...... with severe neutropenia, modest thrombocytopenia and no clinical liver toxicity. GO did not change the frequency of relapses but there was a non-significant delay in the time to relapse from 10 to 16 months for patients randomized to GO....

  3. The Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexing; Duan, Li; Tu, Zhiquan; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Cuicui; Li, Xu; Cao, Yuzhu; Wen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), a cumulative prognostic score based on C-reactive protein and albumin, indicates the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. The GPS has been adopted as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with various types of malignant tumors, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the GPS in predicting the response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with metastatic breast cancers in a progressive stage for consideration of chemotherapy were eligible. The clinical characteristics and demographics were recorded. The GPS was calculated before the onset of chemotherapy. Data on the response to chemotherapy and progression-free survival (PFS) were also collected. Objective tumor responses were evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTC) version 3.0 throughout therapy. In total, 106 breast cancer patients were recruited. The GPS was associated with the response rate (p = 0.05), the clinical benefit rate (p = 0.03), and PFS (p = 0.005). The GPS was the only independent predictor of PFS (p = 0.005). The GPS was significantly associated with neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and mucositis (p = 0.05-0.001). Our data demonstrate that GPS assessment is associated with poor clinical outcomes and severe chemotherapy-related toxicities in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have undergone chemotherapy, without any specific indication regarding the type of chemotherapy applied. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Chemotherapy versus best supportive care in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer, non metastatic to the brain Quimioterapia versus melhor tratamento de suporte em câncer de pulmão estádio clínico IV não metastático para o sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Anelli

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer is a fatal disease, with a median survival of 14 months. Systemic chemotherapy is the most common approach. However the impact in overall survival and quality of life still a controversy. OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in overall survival and quality of life among patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer non-metastatic to the brain treated with best supportive care versus systemic chemotherapy. PATIENTS: From February 1990 through December 1995, 78 eligible patients were admitted with the diagnosis of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer . Patients were divided in 2 groups: Group A (n=31 -- treated with best supportive care , and Group B (n=47 -- treated with systemic chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median survival time was 23 weeks (range 5 -- 153 weeks in Group A and 55 weeks (range 7.4 -- 213 weeks in Group B (p=0.0018. In both groups, the incidence of admission for IV antibiotics and need of blood transfusions were similar. Patients receiving systemic chemotherapy were also stratified into those receiving mytomycin, vinblastin, and cisplatinum, n=25 and those receiving other combination regimens (platinum derivatives associated with other drugs, n=22. Patients receiving mytomycin, vinblastin, and cisplatinum, n=25 had a higher incidence of febrile neutropenia and had their cycles delayed for longer periods of time than the other group. These patients also had a shorter median survival time (51 versus 66 weeks, p=0.005. CONCLUSION: In patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer, non-metastatic to the brain, chemotherapy significantly increases survival compared with best supportive care.O câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas em estádio IV é uma doença fatal, com uma sobrevida mediana de seis meses. Quimioterapia é a abordagem mais freqüente, apresentando um impacto na sobrevida controverso e questionável alteração na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Comparar o impacto na

  5. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease chemotherapy should be given serious consideration, even at the expense of significantly increased, but manageable toxicity.

  6. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Sandra M; Tang, Gong; Geyer, Charles E; Rastogi, Priya; Atkins, James N; Donnellan, Paul P; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Azar, Catherine A; Robidoux, André; Polikoff, Jonathan A; Brufsky, Adam M; Biggs, David D; Levine, Edward A; Zapas, John L; Provencher, Louise; Northfelt, Donald W; Paik, Soonmyung; Costantino, Joseph P; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wolmark, Norman

    2013-09-10

    Anthracycline- and taxane-based three-drug chemotherapy regimens have proven benefit as adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This trial (NSABP B-38; Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer) asked whether the incorporation of a fourth drug could improve outcomes relative to two standard regimens and provided a direct comparison of those two regimens. We randomly assigned 4,894 women with node-positive early-stage breast cancer to six cycles of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC), four cycles of dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of DD paclitaxel (P; DD AC→P), or DD AC→P with four cycles of gemcitabine (G) added to the DD paclitaxel (DD AC→PG). Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was required; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used at the investigator's discretion. There were no significant differences in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (80.6% v 82.2%; HR, 1.07; P = .41), between DD AC→PG and TAC (80.6% v 80.1%; HR, 0.93; P = .39), in 5-year overall survival (OS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (90.8% v 89.1%; HR, 0.85; P = .13), between DD AC→PG and TAC (90.8% v 89.6%; HR, 0.86; P = .17), or between DD AC→P versus TAC for DFS (HR, 0.87; P = .07) and OS (HR, 1.01; P = .96). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities for TAC, DD AC→P, and DD AC→PG, respectively, were febrile neutropenia (9%, 3%, 3%; P < .001), sensory neuropathy (< 1%, 7%, 6%; P < .001), and diarrhea (7%, 2%, 2%; P < .001). Exploratory analyses for ESAs showed no association with DFS events (HR, 1.02; P = .95). Adding G to DD AC→P did not improve outcomes. No significant differences in efficacy were identified between DD AC→P and TAC, although toxicity profiles differed.

  7. Iron deficiency anaemia -a risk factor for febrile seizures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherjil, A.; Saeed, Z.U.; Shehzad, S.; Amjad, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia and febrile seizures are two common diseases in children worldwide as well as in our country. Iron insufficiency is known to cause neurological symptoms like behavioural changes, poor attention span and learning deficits in children. Therefore, it may also be associated with other neurological disturbances like febrile seizures in children. Objective of our case-control study was to find association between iron deficiency anaemia and febrile seizures in children. Methods: This multicentre study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics HIT Hospital Taxila Cantt, Department of Paediatrics CMH Mangla and Department of Paediatrics POF Hospital Wah Cantt, from June 2008 to June 2010. Three hundred and ten children aged between 6 months to 6 years were included in the study. One hundred and fifty-seven children who presented with febrile seizures were our cases, while, 153 children who presented with febrile illnesses without seizures were recruited as controls. All patients were assessed for iron deficiency anaemia by measuring haemoglobin level, serum ferritin level, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV). Patients with iron deficiency anaemia amongst controls and cases were documented. Percentages and Odds ratio were derived from the collected data. Results: 31.85% of cases (50 out of 157) had iron deficiency anaemia whereas, 19.6% of controls (30 out of 153) were found to have iron deficiency anaemia as revealed by low levels of haemoglobin level, serum ferritin level, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration and Mean Corpuscular Volume. Odds ratio was 1.93. Conclusion: Patients with febrile seizures are 1.93 times more likely to have iron deficiency anaemia compared to febrile patients without seizures. (author)

  8. Different clinical phenotypes in familial severe congenital neutropenia cases with same mutation of the ELANE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Kyung; Jeon, In Sang

    2014-03-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a defect in granulopoiesis causing marked neutropenia and severe bacterial infections. A 17-month-old girl (patient 1) was admitted due to cervical lymphadenitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with neutropenia. She had Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and peritonitis with perforated appendicitis at 8-month of age. Her sister, a 37-month-old girl (patient 2), had recurrent stomatitis with profound neutropenia, and her mother, a 32-yr-old woman (patient 3), had had recurrent stomatitis until her early 20s with neutropenia. We found an ELANE gene mutation (c.597+1G > A) from them in direct DNA sequencing analysis. Patients 1 and 2 did not respond to granulocyte colony stimulating factor and patient 1 was treated with prolonged antibiotics and excision. We demonstrated inherited SCN cases showing different severity even with the same mutation of the ELANE gene in a family.

  9. Maintenance treatment with azacytidine for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia following MDS in complete remission after induction chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grövdal, Michael; Karimi, Mohsen; Khan, Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    chemotherapy. Sixty patients were enrolled and treated by standard induction chemotherapy. Patients that reached CR started maintenance therapy with subcutaneous azacytidine, 5/28 d until relapse. Promoter-methylation status of CDKN2B (P15 ink4b), CDH1 and HIC1 was examined pre-induction, in CR and 6, 12...... and 24 months post CR. Twenty-four (40%) patients achieved CR after induction chemotherapy and 23 started maintenance treatment with azacytidine. Median CR duration was 13.5 months, >24 months in 17% of the patients, and 18-30.5 months in the four patients with trisomy 8. CR duration was not associated......-IV thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurred after 9.5 and 30% of the cycles, respectively, while haemoglobin levels increased during treatment. 5-azacytidine treatment is safe, feasible and may be of benefit in a subset of patients....

  10. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs corrects mild neutropenia in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, N; Tee, S A; Saqib, W; Fretwell, T; Summerfield, G P; Razvi, S

    2016-12-01

    Neutropenia secondary to antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy in Graves' disease (GD) is well recognized. However, the effect of hyperthyroidism, prior to and after ATD therapy, on neutrophil counts in patients with GD is unclear. To study the prevalence of neutropenia in newly diagnosed untreated GD and the effect of ATD on the neutrophil count. Prospective study from August 2010 to December 2014. Endocrinology outpatient clinic in a single centre. Consecutive patients (n = 206) with newly diagnosed GD. ATD therapy. Prevalence and factors predicting neutropenia (treatment with ATD and are related to reduction in thyroid hormone concentrations. It is therefore important to check neutrophil levels in newly diagnosed patients with GD prior to commencing ATD therapy as otherwise low levels may incorrectly be attributed to ATD therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  12. Different Clinical Phenotypes in Familial Severe Congenital Neutropenia Cases with Same Mutation of the ELANE Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hye-Kyung; Jeon, In Sang

    2014-01-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a defect in granulopoiesis causing marked neutropenia and severe bacterial infections. A 17-month-old girl (patient 1) was admitted due to cervical lymphadenitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with neutropenia. She had Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and peritonitis with perforated appendicitis at 8-month of age. Her sister, a 37-month-old girl (patient 2), had recurrent stomatitis with profou...

  13. Serum zinc and copper levels in children with febrile convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsions (FC are the most common neurologic disorder in children 6-60 months of age. Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu play role as cofactors in more than 300 enzymatic activities significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship serum levels of Zn and Cu with seizure occurrence in febrile children. In this case-control study, 270 children with 6 month to 6 years were evaluated. The patients were enrolled in three groups: a children with febrile convulsion, b febrile children without convulsion and c healthy ones. After recording of all patients’ characteristics, 5 mL blood was taken from peripheral vessels at the first 12 hours of hospitalization. Absorption of all samples was read by BRAIC (Rayleigh instrument company, WFX-130 model with calibration diagram, considering samples dilution levels. The mean of serum Zn levels in children with FC were significantly lower than other two groups. Mean serum Cu levels in children with FC and non-FC patients were significantly higher than healthy children. No meaningful differences were observed in serum levels of Zn and Cu among the girl or boy cases. This study showed significant lower serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure and meaningful higher serum copper level than control group cases. There was no significant difference in level of serum zinc and copper in term of sex.

  14. Compliance and toxicity of adjuvant CMF in elderly breast cancer patients: a single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maio, Ermelinda; Capasso, Immacolata; Rinaldo, Massimo; Morrica, Brunello; Elmo, Massimo; Di Maio, Massimo; Perrone, Francesco; Matteis, Andrea de; Gravina, Adriano; Pacilio, Carmen; Amabile, Gerardo; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Nuzzo, Francesco; Rossi, Emanuela; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Few data are available on compliance and safety of adjuvant chemotherapy when indicated in elderly breast cancer patients; CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil) can be reasonably considered the most widely accepted standard of treatment. We retrospectively reviewed compliance and safety of adjuvant CMF in patients older than 60. The treatment was indicated if patients had no severe comorbidity, a high-risk of recurrence, and were younger than 75. Toxicity was coded by NCI-CTC. Toxicity and compliance were compared between two age subgroups (<65, ≥ 65) by Fisher exact test and exact Wilcoxon rank-sum test. From March 1991 to March 2002, 180 patients were identified, 100 older than 60 and younger than 65, and 80 aged 65 or older. Febrile neutropenia was more frequent among older patients (p = 0.05). Leukopenia, neutropenia, nausea, cardiac toxicity and thrombophlebitis tended to be more frequent or severe among elderlies, while mucositis tended to be more evident among younger patients, all not significantly. Almost one half (47%) of the older patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy experienced grade 3–4 haematological toxicity. Compliance was similar in the two groups, with 6 cycles administered in 86% and 79%, day-8 chemotherapy omitted at least once in 36% and 39%, dose reduction in 27% and 38%, prolonged treatment duration (≥ 29 weeks) in 10% and 11% and need of G-CSF in 9% and 18%, among younger and older patients, respectively. Our data show that, in a highly selected population of patients 65 or more years old, CMF is as feasible as in patients older than 60 and younger than 65, but with a relevant burden of toxicity. We suggest that prospective trials in elderly patients testing less toxic treatment schemes are mandatory before indicating adjuvant chemotherapy to all elderly patients with significant risk of breast cancer recurrence

  15. A Phase II Study of Bevacizumab in Combination With Definitive Radiotherapy and Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Untreated Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma: Preliminary Results of RTOG 0417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefter, Tracey E., E-mail: tracey.schefter@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kwon, Janice S. [University of British Columbia and BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stuhr, Kelly [Anschutz Cancer Pavilion, Aurora, CO (United States); Balaraj, Khalid [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Yaremko, Brian P. [University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (Canada); Small, William [The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Gaffney, David K. [University of Utah Health Science Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. RTOG 0417 was a Phase II study exploring the safety and efficacy of the addition of bevacizumab to standard CRT. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with bulky tumors (Stage IB-IIIB) were treated with once-weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy and standard pelvic radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Bevacizumab was administered at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks for three cycles. Treatment-related serious adverse event (SAE) and other adverse event (AE) rates within the first 90 days from treatment start were determined. Treatment-related SAEs were defined as any Grade {>=}4 vaginal bleeding or thrombotic event or Grade {>=}3 arterial event, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, or bowel/bladder perforation, or any Grade 5 treatment-related death. Treatment-related AEs included all SAEs and Grade 3 or 4 GI toxicity persisting for >2 weeks despite medical intervention, Grade 4 neutropenia or leukopenia persisting for >7 days, febrile neutropenia, Grade 3 or 4 other hematologic toxicity, and Grade 3 or 4 GI, renal, cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, or neurologic AEs. All AEs were scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE) v 3.0 (MedDRA version 6.0). Results: A total of 60 patients from 28 institutions were enrolled between 2006 and 2009, and of these, 49 patients were evaluable. The median follow-up was 12.4 months (range, 4.6-31.4 months).The median age was 45 years (range, 22-80 years). Most patients had FIGO Stage IIB (63%) and were of Zubrod performance status of 0 (67%). 80% of cases were squamous. There were no treatment-related SAEs. There were 15 (31%) protocol-specified treatment-related AEs within 90 days of treatment start; the most common were hematologic (12/15; 80%). 18 (37%) occurred during treatment or follow-up at any time. 37 of the 49 patients (76%) had cisplatin and bevacizumab

  16. A Phase II Study of Bevacizumab in Combination With Definitive Radiotherapy and Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Untreated Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma: Preliminary Results of RTOG 0417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefter, Tracey E.; Winter, Kathryn; Kwon, Janice S.; Stuhr, Kelly; Balaraj, Khalid; Yaremko, Brian P.; Small, William; Gaffney, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. RTOG 0417 was a Phase II study exploring the safety and efficacy of the addition of bevacizumab to standard CRT. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with bulky tumors (Stage IB-IIIB) were treated with once-weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m 2 ) chemotherapy and standard pelvic radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Bevacizumab was administered at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks for three cycles. Treatment-related serious adverse event (SAE) and other adverse event (AE) rates within the first 90 days from treatment start were determined. Treatment-related SAEs were defined as any Grade ≥4 vaginal bleeding or thrombotic event or Grade ≥3 arterial event, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, or bowel/bladder perforation, or any Grade 5 treatment-related death. Treatment-related AEs included all SAEs and Grade 3 or 4 GI toxicity persisting for >2 weeks despite medical intervention, Grade 4 neutropenia or leukopenia persisting for >7 days, febrile neutropenia, Grade 3 or 4 other hematologic toxicity, and Grade 3 or 4 GI, renal, cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, or neurologic AEs. All AEs were scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE) v 3.0 (MedDRA version 6.0). Results: A total of 60 patients from 28 institutions were enrolled between 2006 and 2009, and of these, 49 patients were evaluable. The median follow-up was 12.4 months (range, 4.6–31.4 months).The median age was 45 years (range, 22–80 years). Most patients had FIGO Stage IIB (63%) and were of Zubrod performance status of 0 (67%). 80% of cases were squamous. There were no treatment-related SAEs. There were 15 (31%) protocol-specified treatment–related AEs within 90 days of treatment start; the most common were hematologic (12/15; 80%). 18 (37%) occurred during treatment or follow-up at any time. 37 of the 49 patients (76%) had cisplatin and bevacizumab

  17. Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Hana; Chung, Woo Sik; Sim, Bong Suk; Lee, Dong Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction.

  18. Safety and feasibility of fasting in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorff, Tanya B; Groshen, Susan; Garcia, Agustin; Shah, Manali; Tsao-Wei, Denice; Pham, Huyen; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Cohen, Pinchas; Wei, Min; Longo, Valter; Quinn, David I

    2016-06-10

    Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in cancer patients. 3 cohorts fasted before chemotherapy for 24, 48 and 72 h (divided as 48 pre-chemo and 24 post-chemo) and recorded all calories consumed. Feasibility was defined as ≥ 3/6 subjects in each cohort consuming ≤ 200 kcal per 24 h during the fast period without excess toxicity. Oxidative stress was evaluated in leukocytes using the COMET assay. Insulin, glucose, ketones, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured as biomarkers of the fasting state. The median age of our 20 subjects was 61, and 85 % were women. Feasibility criteria were met. Fasting-related toxicities were limited to ≤ grade 2, most commonly fatigue, headache, and dizziness. The COMET assay indicated reduced DNA damage in leukocytes from subjects who fasted for ≥48 h (p = 0.08). There was a non-significant trend toward less grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in the 48 and 72 h cohorts compared to 24 h cohort (p = 0.17). IGF-1 levels decreased by 30, 33 and 8 % in the 24, 48 and 72 h fasting cohorts respectively after the first fasting period. Fasting for 72 h around chemotherapy administration is safe and feasible for cancer patients. Biomarkers such as IGF-1 may facilitate assessment of differences in chemotherapy toxicity in subgroups achieving the physiologic fasting state. An onging randomized trial is studying the effect of 72 h of fasting. NCT00936364 , registered propectively on July 9, 2009.

  19. Safety and feasibility of fasting in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorff, Tanya B.; Groshen, Susan; Garcia, Agustin; Shah, Manali; Tsao-Wei, Denice; Pham, Huyen; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Cohen, Pinchas; Wei, Min; Longo, Valter; Quinn, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in cancer patients. 3 cohorts fasted before chemotherapy for 24, 48 and 72 h (divided as 48 pre-chemo and 24 post-chemo) and recorded all calories consumed. Feasibility was defined as ≥ 3/6 subjects in each cohort consuming ≤ 200 kcal per 24 h during the fast period without excess toxicity. Oxidative stress was evaluated in leukocytes using the COMET assay. Insulin, glucose, ketones, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured as biomarkers of the fasting state. The median age of our 20 subjects was 61, and 85 % were women. Feasibility criteria were met. Fasting-related toxicities were limited to ≤ grade 2, most commonly fatigue, headache, and dizziness. The COMET assay indicated reduced DNA damage in leukocytes from subjects who fasted for ≥48 h (p = 0.08). There was a non-significant trend toward less grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in the 48 and 72 h cohorts compared to 24 h cohort (p = 0.17). IGF-1 levels decreased by 30, 33 and 8 % in the 24, 48 and 72 h fasting cohorts respectively after the first fasting period. Fasting for 72 h around chemotherapy administration is safe and feasible for cancer patients. Biomarkers such as IGF-1 may facilitate assessment of differences in chemotherapy toxicity in subgroups achieving the physiologic fasting state. An onging randomized trial is studying the effect of 72 h of fasting. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00936364, registered propectively on July 9, 2009. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2370-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Induction therapy with cetuximab plus docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (ETPF) in patients with resectable nonmetastatic stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. A GERCOR phase II ECHO-07 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Lacave, Roger; Lefevre, Marine; Soussan, Patrick; Antoine, Martine; Périé, Sophie; Belloc, Jean-Baptiste; Banal, Alain; Albert, Sébastien; Chabolle, Frédéric; Céruse, Philippe; Baril, Philippe; Gatineau, Michel; Housset, Martin; Moukoko, Rachel; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; Gramont, Aimery de; Bonnetain, Franck; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 months. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3–4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage

  1. A therapeutic trial of decitabine and vorinostat in combination with chemotherapy for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J; Lamba, Jatinder K; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Ghodke-Puranik, Yogita; Lindgren, Bruce R; Weigel, Brenda J; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are pathways of leukemia resistance. We investigated the tolerability and efficacy of decitabine and vorinostat plus chemotherapy in relapse/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Decitabine (15 mg/m(2) iv) and vorinostat (230 mg/m(2) PO div BID) were given days 1-4 followed by vincristine, prednisone, PEG-asparaginase, and doxorubicin. Genome wide methylation profiles were performed in 8 matched patient bone marrow (BM) samples taken at day 0 and day 5 (postdecitabine). The median age was 16 (range, 3-54) years. All patients had a prior BM relapse, with five relapsing after allogeneic transplant. The most common nonhematological toxicities possibly related to decitabine or vorinostat were infection with neutropenia (grade 3; n = 4) and fever/neutropenia (grade 3, n = 4; grade 4, n = 1). Of the 13 eligible patients, four achieved complete remission without platelet recovery (CRp), two partial response (PR), one stable disease (SD), one progressive disease (PD), two deaths on study and three patients who did not have end of therapy disease evaluations for an overall response rate of 46.2% (CRp + PR). Following decitabine, significant genome-wide hypo-methylation was observed. Comparison of clinical responders with nonresponders identified methylation profiles of clinical and biological relevance. Decitabine and vorinostat followed by re-Induction chemotherapy was tolerable and demonstrated clinical benefit in relapsed patients with ALL. Methylation differences were identified between responders and nonresponders indicating interpatient variation, which could impact clinical outcome. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00882206. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Poikiloderma with Neutropenia in Morocco: a Report of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglaguel, Ayoub; Abdelghaffar, Houria; Ailal, Fatima; Habti, Norddine; Hesse, Sebastian; Kohistani, Naschla; Klein, Christoph; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Poikiloderma with Neutropenia (PN) is inherited genodermatosis which results from a biallelic mutation in the USB1 gene (U Six Biogenesis 1). PN, first described in Navajo Native Americans, is characterized by early onset poikiloderma, pachyonychia, palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis, and permanent neutropenia. This condition results in frequent respiratory tract infections during infancy and childhood. From 2011 to 2013, four cases of PN were diagnosed in Morocco. In this paper, we report the first four cases of PN diagnosed in Morocco, out of three unrelated consanguinous families. We investigated the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of four Moroccan patients with PN from three unrelated consanguinous families. Mean age at onset was 3 months and mean age at diagnosis was 7.5 years. The diagnosis of these PN patients was made based on clinical features and confirmed by molecular analysis for three cases. We identified two undescribed homozygous mutations in the USB1 gene: c.609 + 1G>A in two siblings and c.518 T>G(p.(Leu173Arg)) in the other case. This report confirms the clinical and genetic identity of Poikiloderma with Neutropenia syndrome.

  3. Oral features of a family with benign familial neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R; Luker, J; Scully, C; Oakhill, A

    1994-05-01

    The oral features of three members of a family with familial benign neutropenia (a mother and two children) are detailed. Prepubertal periodontitis, oral ulceration, and angular stomatitis were the principal features.

  4. [A Case of Retroperitoneal Abscess Due to Acute Appendicitis during Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Takaaki; Maeno, Kazuma; Ito, Kenichi; Ishizone, Satoshi; Hanaoka, Takaomi

    2017-11-01

    When acute appendicitis occurs in patients treated with chemotherapy, neutropenia and abdominal complaints caused by chemotherapy can contribute to the diagnostic difficulty, masking the increase in white blood cell(WBC)counts and physical findings of acute appendicitis. A 43-year-old premenopausal woman who was diagnosed with stage IIIA left breast cancer was scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy includingfluorouracil plus epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide(FEC), followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab(DOC plus HER). The patient developed fever and lower abdominal pain on day 17 of DOC plus HER cycle 1, and was diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis in the emergency room. These symptoms were almost improved 4 days later, and then cycle 2 was performed as scheduled. WBC counts decreased to 1,530 cells/mL due to DOCinduced myelosuppression on day 8 of cycle 2 when the patient developed lower abdominal pain again. However, WBC counts increased to 21,680 cells/mL on day 13 of cycle 2. Computed tomography scans revealed an intraperitoneal abscess due to acute appendicitis, and consequently urgent operation was performed. It is necessary to understand that patients with acute appendicitis duringchemotherapy can present less clinical findings.

  5. Sunitinib-associated hypertension and neutropenia as efficacy biomarkers in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, Frede; Michaelson, M Dror; Puzanov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    ), neutropenia (grade ⩾2), thrombocytopenia (grade ⩾2), hand-foot syndrome (grade >0), and asthenia/fatigue (grade >0)) were analysed in multivariate analyses of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) end points. RESULTS: On-treatment neutropenia and hypertension were associated with longer...... PFS (P=0.0276 and Pneutropenia was significantly associated...... with longer PFS and OS (P=0.013 and P=0.0122, respectively) and hypertension or hand-foot syndrome with longer OS (P=0.0036 and P=0.0218, respectively). The concordance index was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.63-0.67) for IMDC classification alone and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.70-0.74) when combined with hypertension and neutropenia...

  6. Simultaneous occurrence of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and neonatal neutropenia due to maternal neutrophilic autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taaning, Ellen; Jensen, Lise; Varming, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and neonatal neutropenia caused by maternal autoantibodies against neutrophils are rare disorders. We describe a newborn with severe thrombocytopenia and intracerebral bleeding caused by maternal anti-HPA-3a alloantibodies and mild neutropenia...

  7. The oxidative and antioxidative status of simple febrile seizure patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuhandan, M.; Yetkin, I.; Calik, M.; Iscan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the oxidative status following a seizure in children experiencing a simple febrile seizure. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Harran University, Turkey, between January and September 2011. It comprised 32 paediatric patients who, within the preceding 8 hours, had experienced a seizure due to upper respiratory tract infection and had been diagnosed with simple febrile seizure, and 30 healthy children as the control group. Blood was taken from the patients 8 hours after the seizure. Total oxidant level and Total anti-oxidant level were measured according to the Erel technique and the oxidative stress index was calculated. Data was analysed using SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean values of the total oxidant level and the oxidative stress index of the cases were found to be significantly high compared to the controls and the total anti-oxidant level was found to be significantly low (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.03 respectively). Conclusion: The increased total oxidant level and decreased total anti-oxidant level resulting in increased oxidative stress associated with febrile seizure patients may increase the risk of experiencing febrile seizures. (author)

  8. Microbiology of destructive periodontal disease in adolescent patients with congenital neutropenia - A report of 3 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, AJ; Schouten-van Meeteren, AYN; Baart, JA; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, CMJE

    Background, aims: Congenital neutropenia is one condition that may predispose for destructive periodontal disease at a young age. In this report, we describe the microbiology of 3 adolescent patients with congenital neutropenia two of whom suffered from severe periodontitis. Method: Microbiological

  9. The neurobiology of the human febrile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2006-04-01

    Fever is a normal adaptation in response to a pyrogenic stimulus resulting in the generation of cytokines and prostaglandins. Fever differs from hyperpyrexia and hyperthermia associated with hot environs and pharmacological triggers. Typically, pyrogens are infectious organisms or their direct products (toxins). The body produces a wide array of pyrogenic cytokines such as interleukins (IL-1, IL-6), interferon, and tumor necrosis factor. Tissue trauma can trigger the febrile response, as can infectious organisms, certain medications, and blood products. The circumventricular organ system (CVOS) is neuronal tissues lying outside the blood-brain barrier that has a key role in initiating the communication sequence responsible for the synthesis of febrile prostaglandins. When pyrogenic cytokines are detected by the CVOS, prostaglandin synthesis, especially cyclooxygenase-dependent prostaglandin E2, is induced, activating the febrile response. Once the appropriate signal is received by the hypothalamus, autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral processes are activated until the hypothalamic set-point is reset downward as a consequence of a reduction in pyrogen content or antipyretic therapy, with subsequent heat loss. There is little evidence that fever facilitates recovery from disease or assists the immune system in mounting a response. Antipyretics are used commonly to decrease the distressing manifestations associated with fever.

  10. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  11. IRON DEFICIENCY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR FIRST FEBRILE SEIZURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul; Haricharan; Venkatamurthy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Estimation of Iron status in children with first f ebrile seizure (FFS). Iron status was evaluated by including Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Serum ferritin. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Study was conducted all children with first febrile seizures and febrile illnesses (FI) in Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit and Pediatrics Wards of Sri Adichunchanag iri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G. Nagara ...

  12. Atypical febrile seizures, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Nathalie T; Desgent, Sébastien; Carmant, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Febrile seizures occurring in the neonatal period, especially when prolonged, are thought to be involved in the later development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) in children. The presence of an often undetected, underlying cortical malformation has also been reported to be implicated in the epileptogenesis process following febrile seizures. This paper highlights some of the various animal models of febrile seizures and of cortical malformation and portrays a two-hit model that efficiently mimics these two insults and leads to spontaneous recurrent seizures in adult rats. Potential mechanisms are further proposed to explain how these two insults may each, or together, contribute to network hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis. Finally the clinical relevance of the two-hit model is briefly discussed in light of a therapeutic and preventive approach to mTLE.

  13. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  14. Towards Improving Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Non-malaria Febrile Illness: A Metabolomics Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Decuypere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-malaria febrile illnesses such as bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI are a leading cause of disease and mortality in the tropics. However, there are no reliable, simple diagnostic tests for identifying BSI or other severe non-malaria febrile illnesses. We hypothesized that different infectious agents responsible for severe febrile illness would impact on the host metabolome in different ways, and investigated the potential of plasma metabolites for diagnosis of non-malaria febrile illness.We conducted a comprehensive mass-spectrometry based metabolomics analysis of the plasma of 61 children with severe febrile illness from a malaria-endemic rural African setting. Metabolite features characteristic for non-malaria febrile illness, BSI, severe anemia and poor clinical outcome were identified by receiver operating curve analysis.The plasma metabolome profile of malaria and non-malaria patients revealed fundamental differences in host response, including a differential activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A simple corticosteroid signature was a good classifier of severe malaria and non-malaria febrile patients (AUC 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93. Patients with BSI were characterized by upregulated plasma bile metabolites; a signature of two bile metabolites was estimated to have a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 80.2-100 and a specificity of 82.9% (95% CI: 54.7-99.9 to detect BSI in children younger than 5 years. This BSI signature demonstrates that host metabolites can have a superior diagnostic sensitivity compared to pathogen-detecting tests to identify infections characterized by low pathogen load such as BSI.This study demonstrates the potential use of plasma metabolites to identify causality in children with severe febrile illness in malaria-endemic settings.

  15. Phase III Randomized Trial of Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With N2 or N3 Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Karrison, Theodore G.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Mueller, Jeffrey; Egan, Robyn; Huang, Chao H.; Brockstein, Bruce E.; Agulnik, Mark B.; Mittal, Bharat B.; Yunus, Furhan; Samant, Sandeep; Raez, Luis E.; Mehra, Ranee; Kumar, Priya; Ondrey, Frank; Marchand, Patrice; Braegas, Bettina; Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Villaflor, Victoria M.; Haraf, Daniel J.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Induction chemotherapy (IC) before radiotherapy lowers distant failure (DF) rates in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The goal of this phase III trial was to determine whether IC before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) further improves survival compared with CRT alone in patients with N2 or N3 disease. Patients and Methods Treatment-naive patients with nonmetastatic N2 or N3 SCCHN were randomly assigned to CRT alone (CRT arm; docetaxel, fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea plus radiotherapy 0.15 Gy twice per day every other week) versus two 21-day cycles of IC (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 1, cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1, and fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5) followed by the same CRT regimen (IC + CRT arm). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included DF-free survival, failure pattern, and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results A total of 285 patients were randomly assigned. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities during IC were febrile neutropenia (11%) and mucositis (9%); during CRT (both arms combined), they were mucositis (49%), dermatitis (21%), and leukopenia (18%). Serious adverse events were more common in the IC arm (47% v 28%; P = .002). With a minimum follow-up of 30 months, there were no statistically significant differences in OS (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.41), RFS, or DF-free survival. Conclusion IC did not translate into improved OS compared with CRT alone. However, the study was underpowered because it did not meet the planned accrual target, and OS was higher than predicted in both arms. IC cannot be recommended routinely in patients with N2 or N3 locally advanced SCCHN. PMID:25049329

  16. Phase III randomized trial of induction chemotherapy in patients with N2 or N3 locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ezra E W; Karrison, Theodore G; Kocherginsky, Masha; Mueller, Jeffrey; Egan, Robyn; Huang, Chao H; Brockstein, Bruce E; Agulnik, Mark B; Mittal, Bharat B; Yunus, Furhan; Samant, Sandeep; Raez, Luis E; Mehra, Ranee; Kumar, Priya; Ondrey, Frank; Marchand, Patrice; Braegas, Bettina; Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Villaflor, Victoria M; Haraf, Daniel J; Vokes, Everett E

    2014-09-01

    Induction chemotherapy (IC) before radiotherapy lowers distant failure (DF) rates in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The goal of this phase III trial was to determine whether IC before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) further improves survival compared with CRT alone in patients with N2 or N3 disease. Treatment-naive patients with nonmetastatic N2 or N3 SCCHN were randomly assigned to CRT alone (CRT arm; docetaxel, fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea plus radiotherapy 0.15 Gy twice per day every other week) versus two 21-day cycles of IC (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) on day 1, cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1, and fluorouracil 750 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 5) followed by the same CRT regimen (IC + CRT arm). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included DF-free survival, failure pattern, and recurrence-free survival (RFS). A total of 285 patients were randomly assigned. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities during IC were febrile neutropenia (11%) and mucositis (9%); during CRT (both arms combined), they were mucositis (49%), dermatitis (21%), and leukopenia (18%). Serious adverse events were more common in the IC arm (47% v 28%; P = .002). With a minimum follow-up of 30 months, there were no statistically significant differences in OS (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.41), RFS, or DF-free survival. IC did not translate into improved OS compared with CRT alone. However, the study was underpowered because it did not meet the planned accrual target, and OS was higher than predicted in both arms. IC cannot be recommended routinely in patients with N2 or N3 locally advanced SCCHN. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Histotype-tailored neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus standard chemotherapy in patients with high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas (ISG-STS 1001): an international, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronchi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefano; Quagliuolo, Vittorio; Broto, Javier Martin; Pousa, Antonio Lopez; Grignani, Giovanni; Basso, Umberto; Blay, Jean-Yves; Tendero, Oscar; Beveridge, Robert Diaz; Ferraresi, Virginia; Lugowska, Iwona; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Fontana, Valeria; Marchesi, Emanuela; Donati, Davide Maria; Palassini, Elena; Palmerini, Emanuela; De Sanctis, Rita; Morosi, Carlo; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Bagué, Silvia; Coindre, Jean Michelle; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Picci, Piero; Bruzzi, Paolo; Casali, Paolo Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    8 intravenously over 90 min plus docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 on day 8 intravenously over 1 h, repeated every 21 days. Randomisation was stratified by administration of preoperative radiotherapy and by country of enrolment. Computer-generated random lists were prepared by use of permuted balanced blocks of size 4 and 6 in random sequence. An internet-based randomisation system ensured concealment of the treatment assignment until the patient had been registered into the system. No masking of treatment assignments was done. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. The primary and safety analyses were planned in the intention-to-treat population. We did yearly futility analyses on an intention-to-treat basis. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01710176, and with the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials, number EUDRACT 2010-023484-17, and is closed to patient entry. Between May 19, 2011, and May 13, 2016, 287 patients were randomly assigned to a group (145 to standard chemotherapy and 142 to histotype-tailored chemotherapy), all of whom, except one patient assigned to standard chemotherapy, were included in the efficacy analysis (97 [34%] with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma; 64 [22%] with high-grade myxoid liposarcoma; 70 [24%] with synovial sarcoma; 27 [9%] with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour; and 28 [10%] with leiomyosarcoma). At the third futility analysis, with a median follow-up of 12·3 months (IQR 2·75-28·20), the projected disease-free survival at 46 months was 62% (95% CI 48-77) in the standard chemotherapy group and 38% (22-55) in the histotype-tailored chemotherapy group (stratified log-rank p=0·004; hazard ratio 2·00, 95% CI 1·22-3·26; p=0·006). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events in the standard chemotherapy group (n=125) were neutropenia (107 [86%]), anaemia (24 [19%]), and thrombocytopenia (21 [17%]); the most common grade 3 or higher adverse event in the histotype

  18. SINGLE AGENT DOCETAXEL AS SECOND- LINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PRETREATED PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT NON- SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan N. Davidov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Single agent Docetaxel is a standard therapy for patients with non- small cell lung cancer after the failure of platinum- containing regimens. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of Docetaxel monotherapy as second- line chemotherapy in pretreated patient with inoperable non- small cell lung cancer. Methods: From January 2005 to May 2008 thirty- six consecutive patients with locally advanced or metastatic morphologically proven stage IIIB/ IV non- small cell lung cancer entered the study after failure of previous platinum- based regimens. Treatment schedule consist of Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 administered every three weeks with repetition after 21 days with Dexamethasone premedication. Results: Overall response rate, median time to progression and median survival was 16,6 %, 4,5 months and 5,6 months respectively. The main hematological toxicity was neutropenia. Conclusions: That data suggest that single agent Docetaxel remain reasonable choices for the chemotherapy in pretreated patients with non- small cell lung cancer.

  19. Attempt of differentiation acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus from febrile convulsive status epilepticus induced by human herpesvirus 6 at early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junichi; Yamamuro, Miho; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for clinicians to predict the subsequent development of acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), when febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) develops. Comparing clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with AEFCSE and those with FCSE, we investigated the factors which predict the later development of febrile convulsive status caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The subjects of this study were patients treated for FCSE or AEFCSE due to HHV6 in our hospital between April 2004 and January 2008. The AEFCSE group included 5 patients, and the FCSE group included 6 patients. There were few differences in clinical characteristics or brain images on admission between the 2 groups. Disturbance of consciousness persisted for 24 hours or more in all patients in the AEFCSE group and in 2 patients in the FCSE group. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the AEFCSE group. Serum creatinine concentration could be a good indicator for the prediction of AEFCSE in patients with FCSE. (author)

  20. Attempt of differentiation acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus from febrile convulsive status epilepticus induced by human herpesvirus 6 at early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Junichi; Yamamuro, Miho; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi [Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    It is difficult for clinicians to predict the subsequent development of acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), when febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) develops. Comparing clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with AEFCSE and those with FCSE, we investigated the factors which predict the later development of febrile convulsive status caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The subjects of this study were patients treated for FCSE or AEFCSE due to HHV6 in our hospital between April 2004 and January 2008. The AEFCSE group included 5 patients, and the FCSE group included 6 patients. There were few differences in clinical characteristics or brain images on admission between the 2 groups. Disturbance of consciousness persisted for 24 hours or more in all patients in the AEFCSE group and in 2 patients in the FCSE group. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the AEFCSE group. Serum creatinine concentration could be a good indicator for the prediction of AEFCSE in patients with FCSE. (author)

  1. Viral findings in adult hematological patients with neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ohrmalm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until recently, viral infections in patients with hematological malignancies were concerns primarily in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. During the last years, changed treatment regimens for non-transplanted patients with hematological malignancies have had potential to increase the incidence of viral infections in this group. In this study, we have prospectively investigated the prevalence of a broad range of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA as well as viruses that commonly reactivate after allogeneic HSCT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with hematological malignancies and therapy induced neutropenia (n = 159 were screened regarding a broad range of common respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and for viruses commonly detected in severely immunosuppressed patients in peripheral blood. Quantitative PCR was used for detection of viruses. A viral pathogen was detected in 35% of the patients. The detection rate was rather similar in blood (22% and NPA (18% with polyoma BK virus and rhinovirus as dominating pathogens in blood and NPA, respectively. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL (p<0.01 and patients with fever (p<0.001 were overrepresented in the virus-positive group. Furthermore, viral findings in NPA were associated with upper respiratory symptoms (URTS (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both respiratory viral infections and low titers of viruses in blood from patients with neutropenia were common. Patients with CLL and patients with fever were independently associated to these infections, and viral findings in NPA were associated to URTS indicating active infection. These findings motivate further studies on viruses' impact on this patient category and their potential role as causative agents of fever during neutropenia.

  2. Mediastinal nonleukemic granulocytic sarcoma with cardiac infiltration Sarcoma granulocítico mediastinal não associado à leucemia com infiltração cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle G. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of mediastinal granulocytic sarcoma with cardiac infiltration in a young man with no evidence of leukemia involving the bone marrow or peripheral blood. Diagnosis was accomplished by immuno-histochemistry with expressions of myeloperoxidase and CD99 antigens. The patient achieved clinical remission, but evolved with febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy and died. Although subclinical cardiac infiltrations are commonly found at autopsy in patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, only one case of involvement of the heart with granulocytic sarcoma in the absence of bone marrow disease has been published in the literature. A diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma should not be excluded when the biopsy of the bone marrow does not show any evidence of leukemic infiltration.Relata-se o caso de um adulto jovem com sarcoma granulocítico (SG mediastinal com infiltração cardíaca sem evidência de leucemia envolvendo medula óssea ou sangue periférico. O diagnóstico foi revelado pela imuno-histoquímica com positividade para mieloperoxidase e CD99. O paciente apresentou remissão clínica, porém evoluiu com neutropenia febril durante a quimioterapia e foi a óbito. Embora infiltrados cardíacos subclínicos sejam comumente detectados na autópsia em pacientes com leucemia aguda nãolinfoblástica, somente um caso de SG com envolvimento cardíaco na ausência de doença na medula óssea foi descrito na literatura. Um diagnóstico de SG não deve ser excluída quando a biópsia da medula óssea não mostrar nenhuma evidência de infiltração leucêmica.

  3. Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Larregina

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento.Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  4. Mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia

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    Čolović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Invasive fungal infection is among the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden for patients with acute leukemia after induction of chemotherapy. In the past few decades, the incidence of invasive fungal infection has increased dramatically. Its management has been further complicated by the increasing frequency of infection by non-Aspergillus molds (e.g. Mucorales. Neutropenic patients are at a high risk of developing an invasive mucormycosis with fulminant course and high mortality rate (35-100%. Case Outline. We are presenting the case of a 72-year-old male with an acute monoblastic leukemia. The patient was treated during five days with hydroxycarbamide 2 × 500 mg/day, followed by cytarabine 2 × 20 mg/sc over the next 10 days. He developed febrile neutropenia, headache, and edema of the right orbital region of the face. Computed tomography of the sinuses revealed shadow in sinuses with thickening of mucosa of the right paranasal sinuses. Lavage and aspirate from the sinuses revealed Rhizopus oryzae. Mucormycosis was successfully treated with amphotericin B (5 mg/kg/day followed by ketoconazole (400 mg/day. Two months later the patient died from primary disease. Conclusion. In patients with acute leukemia who developed aplasia, febrile neutropenia, and pain in paranasal sinuses, fungal infection should be taken into consideration. New and non-invasive methods for taking samples from sinuses should be standardized in order to establish an early and accurate diagnosis of mucormycosis with the source in paranasal sinuses, and to start early treatment by a proper antifungal drug. Clear communication between physician and mycologist is critical to ensure proper and timely sampling of lavage and aspirate from sinuses and correct specimen processing when mucormycosis is suspected clinically. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175034

  5. Neutropenia and eosinophilia among Ethiopian immigrants to Israel: Familial or environmental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandeter, Howard; Glick, Karina; Moser, Asher

    2016-12-01

    Due to trends of population movements, Israeli family physicians are treating increasing numbers of African immigrants from Ethiopia. These immigrants were found to have complete blood counts (CBC) that are different from other ethnic groups, with a higher prevalence of eosinophilia and neutropenia. To evaluate haematological findings in an attempt to define whether they behave as familial (genetic) or environmental. Retrospective chart review of 300 patients from a primary care clinic: 100 individuals of Ethiopian heritage born in Ethiopia (EE); 100 individuals of Ethiopian heritage born in Israel, whose parents were born in Ethiopia (EI), and a control group of 100 patients who were not of Ethiopian heritage (C). Absolute eosinophilia (greater than 500/dl) was found in 13% of the EE study group significantly higher than the two other groups (P neutropenia (defined as less than 1500/dl) was found in 32% of EE group, 20% of EI, and 1% of C (P familial-genetic nature is probably the reason for the higher prevalence of neutropenia in this population, although some environmental influence may play a role. The knowledge of these findings may be useful for physicians treating people migrating from Africa.

  6. Therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric febrile refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chou, Cheng-Che; Lan, Shih-Yun; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Wang, Yu; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for the beneficial effect of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus is limited, and the clinical outcomes of this treatment strategy are largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in a series of children with febrile refractory status epilepticus. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit between January 2000 and December 2013. The clinical characteristics were analyzed. Thirty-five patients (23 boys; age range: 1-18years) were enrolled, of whom 28 (80%) developed super-refractory status epilepticus. All of the patients received the continuous administration of intravenous antiepileptic drugs for febrile refractory status epilepticus, and 26 (74.3%) achieved therapeutic burst-suppression coma. All of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support, and 26 (74.3%) received inotropic agents. Eight (22.9%) patients died within 1month. The neurologically functional outcomes at 6months were good in six (27.3%) of the 22 survivors, of whom two returned to clinical baseline. The patients with therapeutic burst-suppression coma were significantly associated with hemodynamic support than the patients with electrographic seizures control (p=0.03), and had a trend of higher 1-month mortality rate, worse 6months outcomes, and a longer duration of hospitalization. Our results suggest that therapeutic burst-suppression coma to treat febrile refractory status epilepticus may lead to an increased risk of hemodynamic instability and a trend of worse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Cao, F F; Wang, Y; Meng, F L; Zhang, Y; Zhong, D S; Zhou, Q H

    2015-05-01

    The application of newer signaling pathway-targeted agents has become an important addition to chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicities of PKC inhibitors combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced NSCLC systematically. Literature retrieval, trials selection and assessment, data collection, and statistic analysis were performed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. The outcome measures were tumor response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse effects. Five randomized controlled trials, comprising totally 1,005 patients, were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed significantly decreased response rate (RR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.64-0.99) and disease control rate (RR 0.90; 95 % CI 0.82-0.99) in PKC inhibitors-chemotherapy groups versus chemotherapy groups. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups regarding progression-free survival (PFS, HR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.91-1.22) and overall survival (OS, HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.86-1.16). The risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia, leucopenia, and thrombosis/embolism increased significantly in PKC inhibitors combination groups as compared with chemotherapy alone groups. The use of PKC inhibitors in addition to chemotherapy was not a valid alternative for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  8. Bilateral hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy: Effect of depressive symptoms and febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegersh, Andrey; Avedissian, Christina; Shamim, Sadat; Dustin, Irene; Thompson, Paul M.; Theodore, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Neuroimaging studies suggest a history of febrile seizures, and depression, are associated with hippocampal volume reductions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods We used radial atrophy mapping (RAM), a three-dimensional (3D) surface modeling tool, to measure hippocampal atrophy in 40 patients with unilateral TLE, with or without a history of febrile seizures and symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regression was used to single out the effects of covariates on local atrophy. Key Findings Subjects with a history of febrile seizures (n = 15) had atrophy in regions corresponding to the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus contralateral to seizure focus (CHC) compared to those without a history of febrile seizures (n = 25). Subjects with Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score ≥14 (n = 11) had atrophy in the superoanterior portion of the CHC compared to subjects with BDI-II <14 (n = 29). Significance Contralateral hippocampal atrophy in TLE may be related to febrile seizures or depression. PMID:21269286

  9. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as third- or later-line therapy in patients with heavily treated metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Yang Q

    2015-09-01

    , patients with a primary colon tumor might have had a longer overall survival than patients with a primary rectal tumor (18.8 months vs 11.1 months, respectively; P=0.037. Common chemotherapy-related toxicities were nausea/vomiting (48.6%, fatigue (34.3%, leucopenia (40%, neutropenia (42.9%, and anemia (42.9%, with one patient with grade 3 neutropenia, and two patients with grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The common bevacizumab-associated toxicity was hypertension (31.4%. None of the patients discontinued therapy or died because of bevacizumab-associated toxicities.Conclusion: Our data showed that adding bevacizumab to third- or later-line therapy might lead to tumor control and improved survival in heavily pretreated mCRC patients. In addition, preliminary data suggested that primary colon cancer was more likely to benefit from bevacizumab-containing regimens. Toxicities were acceptable, and no new toxicity was identified. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.Keywords: bevacizumab, chemotherapy, metastatic colorectal cancer

  10. Application of whole-exome sequencing to unravel the molecular basis of undiagnosed syndromic congenital neutropenia with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Vasserot, Alexandra; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Bruel, Ange-Line; Duffourd, Yannis; St-Onge, Judith; Jouan, Thibaud; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Heron, Delphine; Donadieu, Jean; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Briandet, Claire; Huet, Frédéric; Kuentz, Paul; Lehalle, Daphné; Duplomb-Jego, Laurence; Gautier, Elodie; Maystadt, Isabelle; Pinson, Lucile; Amram, Daniel; El Chehadeh, Salima; Melki, Judith; Julia, Sophia; Faivre, Laurence; Thevenon, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Neutropenia can be qualified as congenital when of neonatal onset or when associated with extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Overall, 30% of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN) remain without a molecular diagnosis after a multidisciplinary consultation and tedious diagnostic strategy. In the rare situations when neutropenia is identified and associated with intellectual disability (ID), there are few diagnostic hypotheses to test. This retrospective multicenter study reports on a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 10 unrelated patients with CN associated with ID and no molecular diagnosis prior to whole-exome sequencing (WES). WES provided a diagnostic yield of 40% (4/10). The results suggested that in many cases neutropenia and syndromic manifestations could not be assigned to the same molecular alteration. Three sub-groups of patients were highlighted: (i) severe, symptomatic chronic neutropenia, detected early in life, and related to a known mutation in the CN spectrum (ELANE); (ii) mild to moderate benign intermittent neutropenia, detected later, and associated with mutations in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (CHD2, HUWE1); and (iii) moderate to severe intermittent neutropenia as a probably undiagnosed feature of a newly reported syndrome (KAT6A). Unlike KAT6A, which seems to be associated with a syndromic form of CN, the other reported mutations may not explain the entire clinical picture. Although targeted gene sequencing can be discussed for the primary diagnosis of severe CN, we suggest that performing WES for the diagnosis of disorders associating CN with ID will not only provide the etiological diagnosis but will also pave the way towards personalized care and follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Triage of febrile children at a GP cooperative : determinants of a consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, Miriam; Berger, Marjolein Y.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Broekman, Berth J.; Koes, Bart W.

    Background Most febrile children contacting a GP cooperative are seen by a GP, although the incidence of serious illness is low. The guidelines for triage might not be suitable in primary care. Aim To investigate the determinants related to the outcome of triage in febrile children. Design of study

  12. Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients

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    Strojnik Ksenija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

  13. REFRACTORY THROMBOCYTOPENIA AND NEUTROPENIA: A DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGE

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Gyan; François Dreyfus; Pierre Fenaux

    2015-01-01

    Background. The 2008 WHO classification identified refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD) as a composite entity encompassing refractory anemia, refractory thrombocytopenia (RT), and refractory neutropenia (RN), characterized by 10% or more dysplastic cells in the bone marrow respective lineage. The diagnosis of RT and RN is complicated by several factors.  Diagnosing RT first requires exclusion of familial thrombocytopenia, chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenia, concomitant medi...

  14. Tratamiento al niño febril en atención primaria de salud Treatment of the febrile child in primary health care

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    Rogelio León López

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen consideraciones útiles sobre el tratamiento de la fiebre en el niño en el nivel de atención primaria de salud, haciendo referencia a aspectos esenciales, tales como: definición, fisiopatología, clasificación, signos de alarma y cómo tomar la temperatura, así como también aspectos básicos a tener en cuenta en el tratamiento de la entidad. Al constituir la fiebre uno de los motivos más frecuentes de atención al niño, se destaca la importancia de su correcta valoración por todo el personal que se enfrenta a la siempre preocupante situación del niño febril. Además, se enfatiza en el pesquisaje de una infección bacteriana severa a todo niño que acuda al facultativo con fiebre. Se hace referencia a algunos protocolos de trabajos nacionales e internacionales para el tratamiento al niño febril. Finalmente se hacen consideraciones sobre la importancia de entrenar no solamente al personal de la salud que atiende a los niños, sino también a los familiares y a los cuidadores del niño febril, así como algunas recomendaciones y sugerencias basadas en la bibliografía revisada y en nuestra propia experiencia en la práctica clínica.Useful considerations on the treatment of fever in the child at the primary health care level were exposed, making reference to essential aspects, such as: definition, physiopathology, classification, alarm signs, how to take the temperature, as well as other basic aspects to be taken into account in the treatment of the entity. On having fever, one of the most frequent reasons to give attention to the child, it was stressed the importance of its correct assessment by all the personnel facing the increasingly worrying situation of the febrile child. Moreover, emphasis was made on the screening of a severe bacterial infection in every child with fever visiting the physician. Reference was made to some national and international working protocols for the treatment of the febrile child. Finally, some

  15. Rapid COJEC Induction Therapy for High-risk Neuroblastoma Patients - Cochrane Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, F; van Dalen, E C; Berthold, F

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is a rare malignant disease and patients with high-risk neuroblastoma have a poor prognosis. Rapid COJEC induction chemotherapy means (almost) the same total doses given within a shorter time period. In theory, rapid COJEC could reduce the risk of drug resistance and it has been considered as a potential candidate for improving the outcome. The objective was to evaluate effects of rapid COJEC compared to standard induction chemotherapy in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. We searched the databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception to 11 November 2014 and included randomized controlled trials. We identified one relevant randomized controlled trial with 130 participants receiving rapid COJEC and 132 participants receiving standard OPEC/COJEC induction chemotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in complete response (risk ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.38, P=0.94) and treatment-related mortality (risk ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 4.39, P=0.77). A statistically significant difference in favor of the standard treatment arm was identified for the following early toxicities: febrile neutropenia, septicemia, and renal toxicity. The differences in complete response and treatment-related mortality between treatment alternatives were not statistically significantly different. Based on the currently available evidence, we are uncertain about the effects of rapid COJEC induction chemotherapy in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic children with cancer

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    Angelica Barone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period of neutropenia due to chemotherapy, patients have high risk of infections. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce neutropenia-related complications in oncologic patients is still disputed. Recent meta-analysis and clinical trials demonstrated that antibiotic prophylaxis with chinolons reduces fever episodes, bacterial infections and mortality in adult oncologic patients with neutropenia due to chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. In paediatric patients, the only randomized, double-blind, prospective study up till now suggested that Amoxicillin clavulanate may represent an effective prophylactic treatment to reduce fever and infections in oncologic children with neutropenia, with an efficacy statistically demonstrated only in patients with acute leukaemia. Considering the risk of resistances, antibiotic-prophylaxis should be used only in selected patients.

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy related neutropenia and thrombocythopenia correction in CML patients

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    V. A. Shuvaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, introduction of target therapy to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML treatment made CML not life-limiting disorder. The main condition of treatment efficacy is its continuity. The most common causes of dose reduction and CML therapy interruption is hematologic toxicities such as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The adverse events correction in these circumstances is vital. Recommendations for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia correction are proposed in this article. The basement and results of the use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and thrombopoietine receptor agonist for hematologic toxicities correction with clinical case are presented.

  18. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

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    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  19. CLINICAL FEATURES OF ACUTE FEBRILE THROMBOCYTOPAENIA AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PRIMARY CARE CLINICS

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    Khairani Omar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying clinical features that differentiate acute febrile thrombocytopaenia from acute febrile illness without thrombocytopaenia can help primary care physician to decide whether to order a full blood count (FBC. This is important because thrombocytopaenia in viral fever may signify more serious underlying aetiology like dengue infection.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of acute febrile patients with thrombocytopaenia and acute febrile patients without thrombocytopaenia.Methodology: This was a clinic-based cross-sectional study from May to November 2003. Consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever of less than two weeks were selected from the Primary Care Centre of Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Batu 9 Cheras Health Clinic. Clinical features of these patients were recorded and FBC examination was done for all patients. Thrombocytopaenia was defined as platelet count <150X109/L. The odds ratio of thrombocytopaenia for each presenting symptoms was calculated.Result: Seventy-three patients participated in this study. Among them, 45.2% had thrombocytopaenia. Myalgia and headache were common among all patients. However, nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more often among patients with thrombocytopaenia than in patients with normal platelet count (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5.Conclusion: Acute non-specific febrile patients presenting with symptoms of nausea and vomiting may have higher risk of thrombocytopaenia and should be seriously considered for FBC.

  20. The use of rhG-CSF in chronic autoimmune neutropenia: reversal of autoimmune phenomena, a case history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T. W.; de Haas, M.; de Groot, C. J.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Weening, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy had been suffering from chronic autoimmune neutropenia for more than 5 years. The neutropenia proved to be resistant to high-dose steroids and intravenous (either low-or high-dose) immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy. The chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenia and recurrent phases of

  1. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas of the limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Perry, Fernando; Cardona, Andres Felipe

    2005-01-01

    neoadjuvant chemotherapy to control local disease and preserve limb function from neutropenia, the most significant toxicity

  2. Infección bacteriana severa en niños febriles: Parámetros predictivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Álvarez Rodríguez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigadores han realizado estudios sobre el manejo del niño febril y plantean que es un dilema al que se enfrenta a diario el médico que atiende niños. Motivados por este tema se efectuó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los niños febriles, sin causa aparente en su valoración inicial, que asistieron al servicio de urgencias en un período de 9 meses, con el objetivo de identificar el diagnóstico definitivo al egreso y se precisó el tipo de infección bacteriana severa y relacionó la presencia de éstos con parámetros clínicos y de laboratorios. El mayor número de niños febriles valorados e ingresados mostraron edades desde 91 días hasta 36 meses. El menor porcenaje de ellos ingresaron y desarrollaron alguna infección bacteriana severa principalmente neumonía, y fue mayor el porcentaje de niños con esta patología a menos edad con predominio del aspecto tóxico y de la temperatura 39 EC. Resultó el manejo ambulatorio del niño febril mayor de 90 días y bajo riesgo de infección bacteriana severa un ahorro en vidas y dinero, por lo que se recomienda generalizar el flujograma propuesto para la evaluación y manejo del niño febril de 3 a 36 meses de edad.Different researches have performed studies on the management of the febrile infant and they point out that this is a dilemma faced by every physician who takes care of children. Motivated by this subject, a descriptive and retrospective study of febrile infants was conducted. The study was carried out to evaluate febrile infants without evident cause at the baseline evaluation who attended the emergency service during a period of 9 months with the objective of identifying the definite diagnosis at admission. The type of bacterial infection was accurately assessed and the presence of this was related to clinical and laboratory parameters. The greatest number of febrile infants evaluated and admitted to hospital were 91 days-36 months old. The lowest percentage

  3. Investigating febrile UTI in infants: is a cystogram necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccorso, G; Wagstaff, J; Blakey, K; Moss, G D; Broadley, P; Roberts, J P; Godbole, P

    2010-04-01

    Current imaging recommendations for investigating any infantile febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) are ultrasound scan (US), micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the need and indications for MCUG in the investigation of a first febrile infantile UTI, as doubts have been raised over its benefit. Information on 427 infants who had undergone US, MCUG and DMSA following a first febrile UTI was prospectively recorded. The infants were divided into two groups: A (354) with normal renal US and B (73) with abnormal US. DMSA findings were correlated with findings on MCUG. Main outcome measures were incidence of recurrent UTIs, change in management or intervention as a result of MCUG, and outcome at discharge. Only 21/354 (6%) infants in Group A had both scarring on DMSA and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), predominantly low-grade on MCUG. In Group B (abnormal US), 23/73 (32%) had scarring on DMSA and vesicoureteric reflux, predominantly high grade on MCUG. Of the infants with non-scarred kidneys, 73% had dilating reflux. Successful conservative treatment was performed in 423 infants, and 4 infants in Group B required surgery. We recommend US and DMSA in all infantile febrile UTI cases. Where US is normal, MCUG should be reserved for those cases with abnormal DMSA. Where US is abnormal, MCUG should be performed irrespective of findings on DMSA scan. A randomized prospective study is necessary to evaluate this further. Copyright © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

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    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  5. Immune-Mediated Neutropenia and Thrombocytopenia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis: An Unusual Hematological Association with IBD

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    Young-In Kim

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are well described in the literature. However, the combination of immune-mediated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia has only been reported once in association with IBD. A case is reported of immune-mediated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in a patient with ulcerative colitis during a relapse. No obvious causes of these hematological abnormalities were found in the patient despite an exhaustive search. An immune-mediated process was confirmed by positive antineutrophil antibody and platelet-associated antibody in the patient’s serum, and the demonstration of binding of the patient’s immunoglobulin G to autologous neutrophils. The patient was treated with high-dose steroid, intravenous gamma-globulin and eventually splenectomy. The platelet count subsequently normalized; although the severe neutropenia recurred, it has subsequently improved without further treatment. Although a definitive cause-effect relationship cannot be established, the immune-mediated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia may be an unusual hematological manifestation associated with ulcerative colitis.

  6. The Long-term Risk of Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures in susceptible subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sidenius, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    A family history of seizures, preexisting brain damage, or birth complications may modify the long-term risk of epilepsy after febrile seizures. The authors evaluated the association between febrile seizures and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.54 million persons born in Denmark (1978-2......, or low Apgar scores at 5 minutes....

  7. Pages 390 - 394.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Objective: To evaluate the febrile neutropenia episodes of hematological patients and their outcomes with respect to fungal pathogens ... and undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with prior conditioning ... fungal infection, amphotericin B (conventional or liposomal, AM-B) ... Mantle-cell lymphoma. 2 (3).

  8. Heterozygous M1V variant of ELA-2 gene mutation associated with G-CSF refractory severe congenital neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Bhuvana A; Yeager, Nicholas D; Bajwa, Rajinder P

    2011-09-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by maturation arrest at the promyelocyte/myelocyte phase in the bone marrow, absolute neutrophil count ELA-2 have been described. We report the case of a premature male infant with congenital neutropenia, associated with multiple infections, refractory to treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor who subsequently underwent matched sibling donor stem-cell transplant. He was found to be heterozygous for the M1V variant of the ELA-2 gene that we postulate to be causative for his severe neutropenia Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen

  10. Successful Management of Crizotinib-Induced Neutropenia in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Osugi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crizotinib, the first clinically available inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangement, is generally well tolerated. In contrast, neutropenia induced by crizotinib is a commonly reported grade 3 or 4 adverse event. In such cases, interruption and dose reduction of crizotinib might be necessary for some patients with severe neutropenia. However, information concerning clinical experience and management of severe neutropenia is currently limited. In this report, the successful management of crizotinib-induced neutropenia by dose reduction of crizotinib in a patient with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer is described.

  11. Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia in Croatia during the 1998-2008 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Maja; Starcevic, Mirta; Ribicic, Rebeka; Golubic-Cepulic, Branka; Hundric-Haspl, Zeljka; Jukic, Irena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the disease and to analyze laboratory data of 23 newborns undergoing serologic testing for alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN) during the 1998-2008 period in Croatia. Laboratory data on 23 newborns undergoing serologic testing for ANN during the 1998-2008 period and epidemiologic data on the number of live births in Croatia were analyzed. Laboratory testing for ANN included serologic screening of maternal and neonatal sera and granulocytes (neutrophils) by immunofluorescence (IF) method. The monoclonal antibody immobilization of neutrophil antigens (MAINA) was employed to determine anti-HNA antibody specificity. Anti-HNA antibodies were detected in seven (54%) of 13 cases of serologically positive ANN. Only anti-HLA class I antibodies were demonstrated in four (31%) of 13 cases In the 2007-2008 period of prospective data collection, the number of serologically verified ANN cases was one case per 17,323 live births. Results of the prospective study conducted at Maternity Ward, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center yielded the ANN incidence of one case per 2843 live births. Monitoring of neutrophil count in neonatal blood and serologic testing for ANN in case of isolated neutropenia in the newborn contributed considerably to timely detection of ANN. Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia-incidence, serologic diagnosis, antineutrophil antibodies, anti-HNA, anti-HLA class I, Croatia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Congenital neutropenia in the era of genomics: classification, diagnosis, and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadieu, Jean; Beaupain, Blandine; Fenneteau, Odile; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine

    2017-11-01

    This review focuses on the classification, diagnosis and natural history of congenital neutropenia (CN). CN encompasses a number of genetic disorders with chronic neutropenia and, for some, affecting other organ systems, such as the pancreas, central nervous system, heart, bone and skin. To date, 24 distinct genes have been associated with CN. The number of genes involved makes gene screening difficult. This can be solved by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of targeted gene panels. One of the major complications of CN is spontaneous leukaemia, which is preceded by clonal somatic evolution, and can be screened by a targeted NGS panel focused on somatic events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. febrile seizures, Tripoli, Libya, knowledge, attitude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers regarding febrile seizures in Tripoli, Libya. ... aim of the audit is to assess the attitude and knowledge of parents of children with .... The following exclusion criteria were used: child who has fever due CNS ... department after giving prior first aid-a similar results was reported.

  14. Imatinib induced severe skin reactions and neutropenia in a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jun-Eul; Yoon, Ju-Young; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Sang-Hee; Chung, Ik-Joo

    2010-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate has been used for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The current recommended dose of imatinib is 400 mg/day that is increased to 800 mg/day in cases with disease progression. However, imatinib can be associated with diverse adverse events, which has limited its use. We report a case of severe adverse skin reactions with neutropenic fever during imatinib treatment in a patient with GIST. A 71-year-old man was admitted with a one month history of epigastric pain and a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant. An abdominal CT scan revealed a 20 × 19 cm intraabdominal mass with tumor invasion into the peritoneum. Needle biopsy was performed and the results showed spindle shaped tumor cells that were positive for c-KIT. The patient was diagnosed with unresectable GIST. Imatinib 400 mg/day was started. The patient tolerated the first eight weeks of treatment. However, about three months later, the patient developed a grade 4 febrile neutropenia and a grade 3 exfoliative skin rash. The patient recovered from this serious adverse events after discontinuation of imatinib with supportive care. However, the skin lesions recurred whenever the patient received imatinib over 100 mg/day. Therefore, imatinib 100 mg/day was maintained. Despite the low dose imatinib, follow up CT showed a marked partial response without grade 3 or 4 toxicities. The recommended dose of imatinib for the treatment of GIST is 400 mg/day but patients at risk for adverse drug reaction may benefit from lower doses. Individualized treatment is needed for such patients, and we may also try sunitinib as a alternative drug

  15. A prospective phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Aasebø, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    , anemia was observed in 2 (6%) patients, leukopenia in 6 (18%), granulocytopenia in 9 (27%) and thrombocytopenia in 3 (9%). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 6 (18%) patients. There were no treatment related deaths. CONCLUSION: High-dose pemetrexed monotherapy to patients with recurrent SCLC yielded...

  16. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  17. ERITEMA NODOSO Y SINDROME FEBRIL PROLONGADO ASOCIADOS A HIPERPARATIROIDISMO SECUNDARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enz P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  18. Familial benign chronic neutropenia associated with periodontal disease. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, M J; Vogel, R I; Macedo-Sobrinho, B; Gertzman, G; Simon, B

    1980-04-01

    A rare case report of periodontal disease associated with familial benign chronic neutropenia is presented. The medical, dental and family histories as well as clinical and histologic observations are described and discussed.

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer ≥4 cm in size: an SEER-Medicare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, J; Mhango, G; Gomez, J E; Smith, C; Galsky, M D; Strauss, G M; Wisnivesky, J P

    2015-04-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage I patients with tumors size ≥4 cm is not well established in the elderly. We identified 3289 patients with stage I NSCLC (T2N0M0 and tumor size ≥4 cm) who underwent lobectomy from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database diagnosed from 1992 to 2009. Overall survival and rates of serious adverse events (defined as those requiring admission to hospital) were compared between patients treated with resection alone, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, or postoperative radiation (PORT) with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Propensity scores for receiving each treatment were calculated and survival analyses were conducted using inverse probability weights based on the propensity score. Overall, 84% patients were treated with resection alone, 9% received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and 7% underwent PORT with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjusted analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.98] was associated with improved survival compared with resection alone. Conversely, the use of PORT with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64-2.23) was associated with worse outcomes. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had more serious adverse events compared with those treated with resection alone, with neutropenia (odds ratio, 21.2; 95% CI 5.8-76.6) being most significant. No significant difference was observed in rates of fever, cytopenias, nausea, and renal dysfunction. Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with reduced mortality and increased serious adverse events in elderly patients with stage I NSCLC and tumor size ≥4 cm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Circulating Chemokine Levels in Febrile Infants With Serious Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Lin Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of serious bacterial infections (SBI in febrile young infants based on clinical symptoms and signs is difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of circulating chemokines and C-reactive protein (CRP levels in febrile young infants < 3 months of age with suspected SBI. We enrolled 43 febrile young infants < 3 months of age with clinically suspected SBI who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit or complete nursing unit of the pediatric department of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between December 2006 and July 2007. Blood was drawn from the patients at admission, and complete blood counts, plasma levels of CRP, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, and chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, monokine induced by interferon-γ, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were measured. Patients’ symptoms and signs, length of hospital stay, main diagnosis, and results of routine blood tests and microbiological culture results were recorded. Twenty-six infants (60.5% were diagnosed with SBI, while 17 (39.5% had no evidence of SBI based on the results of bacterial cultures. CRP, IL-8 and G-CSF levels were significantly higher in the infants with SBI than in those without SBI. Plasma levels of other chemokines were not significantly different between the groups. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve for differentiating between the presence and absence of SBI was 0.79 for CRP level. Diagnostic accuracy was further improved by combining CRP and IL-8, when the area under the ROC curve increased to 0.91. CRP levels were superior to IL-8 and G-CSF levels for predicting SBI in febrile infants at initial survey. IL-8 levels could be used as an additional diagnostic tool in the initial evaluation of febrile young infants, allowing clinicians to treat these patients more appropriately.

  1. Iliopsoas Abscess Possibly due to Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection after Chemoradiotherapy for Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiyoshi Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iliopsoas abscess was once an uncommon condition but now occurs somewhat more frequently due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients, such as those with diabetes. We encountered a case of iliopsoas abscess following chemoradiotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer. A 60-year-old man was admitted for a sore throat and left neck swelling. Hypopharyngeal cancer was diagnosed, but the patient refused surgery. After two rounds of chemotherapy, febrile neutropenia developed and chest computed tomography (CT revealed an iliopsoas abscess. The platelet count was low but recovered after administration of antibiotics and could not be explained by puncture of the abscess. CT-guided drainage eventually improved his symptoms. Even for disorders of the head and neck region, iliopsoas abscess should be suspected in immunocompromised patients who develop a fever. CT and magnetic resonance imaging should be performed at an early stage as it is important to determine whether surgical drainage is indicated.

  2. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers – what have we learned and how do we move on?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Arne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI. Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85% have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD. Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD- BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined.

  3. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers – what have we learned and how do we move on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Arne; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Laws, Hans Jürgen; Voigt, Sebastian; Piening, Brar; Geffers, Christine; Agyeman, Philipp; Ammann, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI). Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85%) have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD). Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD-associated BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined. PMID:27274442

  4. Neutropenia, agranulocytosis and dipyrone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Neutropenia and agranulocytosis may be defined as granulocyte counts of less than 1,500/mm³ and 500/mm³, respectively. Agranulocytosis is a rare and serious disease often caused by drugs. Its mortality rate is around 10%. The most common manifestations are infections such as tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis or pneumonia. Although dipyrone is one of the drugs known to be associated with agranulocytosis, the strength of the association has been a matter of much debate. Moreover, alternative analgesic and antipyretic agents are not devoid of serious side effects. CONCLUSIONS: It is therefore necessary to establish the incidence of agranulocytosis in Latin America and the role of dipyrone. The ongoing LATIN Study is a multicenter international case-control study that will provide answers for these questions.

  5. Monitoring procalcitonin in febrile neutropenia: what is its utility for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owen Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenic episodes (FE is challenged by lacking microbiological and clinical documentation of infection. We aimed at evaluating the utility of monitoring blood procalcitonin (PCT in FE for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever. METHODS: PCT kinetics was prospectively monitored in 194 consecutive FE (1771 blood samples: 65 microbiologically documented infections (MDI, 33.5%; 49 due to non-coagulase-negative staphylococci, non-CNS, 68 clinically documented infections (CDI, 35%; 39 deep-seated, and 61 fever of unexplained origin (FUO, 31.5%. RESULTS: At fever onset median PCT was 190 pg/mL (range 30-26'800, without significant difference among MDI, CDI and FUO. PCT peak occurred on day 2 after onset of fever: non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI (656, 80-86350 vs. FUO (205, 33-771; p500 pg/mL distinguished non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI from FUO with 56% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PCT was >500 pg/ml in only 10% of FUO (688, 570-771. A PCT peak >500 pg/mL (1196, 524-11950 occurred beyond 3 days of persistent fever in 17/21 (81% invasive fungal diseases (IFD. This late PCT peak identified IFD with 81% sensitivity and 57% specificity and preceded diagnosis according to EORTC-MSG criteria in 41% of cases. In IFD responding to therapy, median days to PCT <500 pg/mL and defervescence were 5 (1-23 vs. 10 (3-22; p = 0.026, respectively. CONCLUSION: While procalcitonin is not useful for diagnosis of infection at onset of neutropenic fever, it may help to distinguish a minority of potentially severe infections among FUOs on day 2 after onset of fever. In persistent fever monitoring procalcitonin contributes to early diagnosis and follow-up of invasive mycoses.

  6. Neutropenic enterocolitis affecting the transverse colon: an unusual complication of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Jason; Bolln, Carsten; Hodnett, Robert; Al-Ani, Ahmed

    2014-05-02

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 1-day history of sudden onset of generalised abdominal pain associated with fever and vomiting. She was previously diagnosed with left breast cancer 2 months ago and completed a course of chemotherapy 1 week prior to presentation. She was clinically unwell with generalised tenderness in her abdomen. Blood investigations showed severe neutropenia. A CT scan was requested which reported a marked oedematous swelling of the transverse colon with features suggestive of a contained perforation. The decision was made to operate. Intraoperatively, the transverse colon was found to be thickened with omentum adherent focally around the distal third. A right hemicolectomy was performed with an end ileostomy and mucus fistula. The patient made a successful recovery and was discharged within 7 days of presenting. Pathology reported typical features of neutropenic enterocolitis affecting the transverse colon with a normal terminal ileum, caecum and ascending colon.

  7. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of locally advanced cervix cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Osman

    2014-09-01

    with a mild early toxicity profile. Leucopenia and neutropenia were the most common side effects. Late toxicity was also generally mild and mainly associated with bladder dysfunction and vaginal dehiscence. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieved comparable survival results to CCRT, and was associated with less toxicity.

  8. Palbociclib in Combination With Fulvestrant in Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive/HER2-Negative Advanced Metastatic Breast Cancer: Detailed Safety Analysis From a Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Study (PALOMA-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sunil; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Schnell, Patrick; DeMichele, Angela M; Loi, Sherene; Ro, Jungsil; Colleoni, Marco; Iwata, Hiroji; Harbeck, Nadia; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Zhang, Ke; Thiele, Alexandra; Turner, Nicholas C; Rugo, Hope S

    2016-10-01

    Palbociclib enhances endocrine therapy and improves clinical outcomes in hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Because this is a new target, it is clinically important to understand palbociclib's safety profile to effectively manage toxicity and optimize clinical benefit. Patients with endocrine-resistant, HR-positive/HER2-negative MBC (n = 521) were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive fulvestrant (500 mg intramuscular injection) with or without goserelin with oral palbociclib (125 mg daily; 3 weeks on/1 week off) or placebo. Safety assessments at baseline and day 1 of each cycle included blood counts on day 15 for the first 2 cycles. Hematologic toxicity was assessed by using laboratory data. A total of 517 patients were treated (palbociclib, n = 345; placebo, n = 172); median follow-up was 8.9 months. With palbociclib, neutropenia was the most common grade 3 (55%) and 4 (10%) adverse event; median times to onset and duration of grade ≥3 episodes were 16 and 7 days, respectively. Asian ethnicity and below-median neutrophil counts at baseline were significantly associated with an increased chance of developing grade 3-4 neutropenia with palbociclib. Dose modifications for grade 3-4 neutropenia had no adverse effect on progression-free survival. In the palbociclib arm, febrile neutropenia occurred in 3 (<1%) patients. The percentage of grade 1-2 infections was higher than in the placebo arm. Grade 1 stomatitis occurred in 8% of patients. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant treatment was well-tolerated, and the primary toxicity of asymptomatic neutropenia was effectively managed by dose modification without apparent loss of efficacy. This study appears at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01942135. Treatment with palbociclib in combination with fulvestrant was generally safe and well-tolerated in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Consistent with the drug's proposed

  9. Methimazole Associated Neutropenia in a Preterm Neonate Treated for Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Angelis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal Graves’ disease is relatively uncommon with an estimated incidence of 0.4%–1% of all pregnancies, but only 1–5% of newborns delivered to mothers with Graves’ disease develop overt clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Here, we describe a case of a 1380-gram female neonate who was born at 30-week gestation to a mother with Graves’ disease. Our patient presented with hyperthyroidism followed by transient hypothyroidism requiring treatment with levothyroxine. While hyperthyroid, she was treated with methimazole, iodine, and a beta-blocker. 20 days after the initiation of methimazole, she developed neutropenia. The neutrophil counts started to improve immediately after the initiation of the weaning of methimazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of methimazole induced neutropenia in a preterm infant being treated for neonatal Graves’ disease.

  10. Thermoregulatory Responses of Febrile Monkeys During Microwave Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adair, E

    1997-01-01

    .... In a controlled ambient temperature of 26 degrees C, autonomic mechanisms of heat production and heat loss were measured in febrile squirrel monkeys during 30-min exposures to 450 or 2450 MHz CW MW...

  11. Risk factors of leptospirosis among febrile hospital admissions in northeastern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizah, A A Noor; Aziah, B D; Azwany, Y N; Imran, M Kamarul; Rusli, A Mohamed; Nazri, S Mohd; Nikman, A Mohd; Nabilah, I; Asma', H Siti; Zahiruddin, W M; Zaliha, I

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Risk factors for the disease may vary among countries. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of leptospirosis among febrile cases. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 999 febrile patients admitted to 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia, from August 2010 to February 2011. An interviewer-guided proforma sheet on sociodemography, type of occupation and social history data was distributed to all adult patients with fever on admission. Serum sample for leptospirosis was screened by IgM Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (IgM ELISA) test and confirmed by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The cut-off point for positive MAT was ≥ 1:400 titer in single acute specimens. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8, 10.3) (n=84/999) by MAT. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the high risk occupation group (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.22, 3.13) (p=0.005) and history of recent recreational activity (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.85) (pMalaysia. Identification of high risk occupational group and history of recent recreational activity will help to increase the index of suspicion to diagnose leptospirosis among febrile inpatients due to its mimicking other common febrile illnesses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  13. When to perform urine cultures in respiratory syncytial virus-positive febrile older infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluarachchi, Dinushan; Kaldas, Virginia; Erickson, Evelyn; Nunez, Randolph; Mendez, Magda

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are associated with clinically significant rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young infants. Previous research investigating RSV infections and UTIs has been performed mainly in infants younger than 2 to 3 months and has not focused on the risk of UTI in infants 3 to 12 months. This study aimed to assess the rate of UTIs in febrile RSV-positive older infants admitted as inpatients and identify predictors of UTI in febrile RSV-positive older infants. This is a retrospective comparative study of febrile RSV-positive infants 0 to 12 months of age admitted to the inpatient pediatric unit of Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Bronx, from September through April 2006 to 2012. Infants 3 to 12 months were considered the cases, and infants 0 to 3 months were the comparative group. The rate of UTIs between the 2 groups was compared. Univariate tests and multiple logistic regression were used to identify demographic/clinical factors associated with UTI in febrile RSV-positive older infants. A total of 414 RSV-positive febrile infants were enrolled including 297 infants 3 to 12 months of age. The rate of UTI in older infants was 6.1% compared with 6.8% in infants younger than 3 months. Positive urinalysis finding was an independent predictor of UTI (P = 0.003) in older infants. All 11 boys with UTI were uncircumcised, and none of the 51 circumcised boys had UTI. Demographic (race, sex, and age) and clinical factors (temperature, white blood cell count, and absolute neutrophil count) were not associated with UTI. Febrile older infants who are RSV positive have a clinically significant rate of UTIs. It seems prudent to examine the urine of these older infants. Positive urinalysis finding was a predictive factor of UTI. Circumcised boys are at a decreased risk of UTI, compared with uncircumcised boys.

  14. Doxorubicin plus paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, P; Boesgaard, M; Andersen, E

    1997-01-01

    . As of February 1997, 34 patients have been enrolled, two patients are too early to evaluate, and 13 are continuing treatment. The preliminary response rate is 69% (95% confidence interval, 50% to 84%), ranging from 60% to 80% within the three schedules. The main toxicities consisted of grade 3/4 neutropenia...... in 65% of all courses, with febrile neutropenia in 2%. Stomatitis and paresthesia were rare. To date, eight of 32 patients have developed abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction values and one patient has developed congestive heart failure. Our preliminary conclusions are that bolus doxorubicin...

  15. A Matched-Case Comparison to Explore the Role of Consolidation Chemotherapy After Concurrent Chemoradiation in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim; Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Gie, E-mail: bksong.kim@samsung.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) and CCRT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Using medical records from January 2001 to December 2007, 39 patients treated with consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT (Group 1) were matched to 39 patients treated with CCRT alone (Group 2). Consolidation chemotherapy consisted of three additional cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin 60 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 1) and 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} per day (Days 1-5) given every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: During a median follow-up period of 35 months (range, 8-96 months), 10 (25.6%) and 16 (41.0%) patients showed disease progression in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Distant recurrence with or without locoregional/lymphogenous recurrence occurred more frequently in Group 2 than in Group 1 (23.1% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.06). By contreast, there was no difference in locoregional or lymphogenous recurrence between the two groups. The rate of overall survival was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.7% vs. 69.9%, p = 0.042), whereas the difference in progression-free survival between the groups was not statistically significant (70.1% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.079). Although the difference was not statistically significant, neutropenia was more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (10.9% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT may improve survival and reduce distant recurrence without additional toxicity compared to CCRT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

  16. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  17. Chest CT scans are frequently abnormal in asymptomatic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallipuram, Janaki; Dhalla, Sidika; Bell, Chaim M; Dresser, Linda; Han, Heekyung; Husain, Shahid; Minden, Mark D; Paul, Narinder S; So, Miranda; Steinberg, Marilyn; Vallipuram, Mayuran; Wong, Gary; Morris, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    Chest computed tomography (CT) findings of nodules, ground glass opacities, and consolidations are often interpreted as representing invasive fungal infection in individuals with febrile neutropenia. We assessed whether these CT findings were present in asymptomatic individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at low risk of invasive fungal disease. A retrospective study of consecutive asymptomatic adult patients with newly diagnosed AML over a 2-year period was performed at a tertiary care oncology center. Radiology reports of baseline chest CTs were reviewed. Of 145 CT scans, the majority (88%) had pulmonary abnormalities. Many (70%) had one or both of unspecified opacities (52%) and nodules (49%). Ground glass opacities (18%) and consolidations (12%) occurred less frequently. Radiologists suggested pneumonia as a possible diagnosis in 32% (n = 47) of scans. Chest CT may result in over-diagnosis of invasive fungal disease in individuals with febrile neutropenia if interpreted without correlation to the patients' clinical status.

  18. Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rivera, Claudio; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Salmen, Benedikt; Mackie, Ken; Sipilä, Sampsa T; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai

    2006-07-01

    Febrile seizures are frequent during early childhood, and prolonged (complex) febrile seizures are associated with an increased susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy. The pathophysiological consequences of febrile seizures have been extensively studied in rat pups exposed to hyperthermia. The mechanisms that trigger these seizures are unknown, however. A rise in brain pH is known to enhance neuronal excitability. Here we show that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis in the immature brain, with a threshold of 0.2-0.3 pH units for seizure induction. Suppressing alkalosis with 5% ambient CO2 abolished seizures within 20 s. CO2 also prevented two long-term effects of hyperthermic seizures in the hippocampus: the upregulation of the I(h) current and the upregulation of CB1 receptor expression. The effects of hyperthermia were closely mimicked by intraperitoneal injection of bicarbonate. Our work indicates a mechanism for triggering hyperthermic seizures and suggests new strategies in the research and therapy of fever-related epileptic syndromes.

  19. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  20. Can GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms predict clinical outcomes of chemotherapy in gastric and colorectal cancers? A result based on the previous reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haixia Liu,1,* Wei Shi,2,* Lianli Zhao,3 Dianlu Dai,4 Jinghua Gao,5 Xiangjun Kong6 1Department of Ultrasound, 2Office of Medical Statistics, 3Human Resource Department, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Medical Oncology, 6Central Laboratory, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Yunhe District, Cangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study and should be considered cofirst authors Background: Gastric and colorectal cancers remain the major causes of cancer-related death. Although chemotherapy improves the prognosis of the patients with gastrointestinal cancers, some patients do not benefit from therapy and are exposed to the adverse effects. The polymorphisms in genes including GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been explored to predict therapeutic efficacy; however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. Materials and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching relevant studies about the association between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and chemotherapy efficacy in gastrointestinal cancers in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database up to January 10, 2016. Subgroup analyses were also performed according to ethnicity, cancer type, evaluation criteria, study type, chemotherapy type, and age. Results: A total of 19 articles containing 3,217 cases were finally included. Overall analysis suggested that no significance was found between overall toxicity, neurotoxicity, neutropenia, gastrointestinal toxicity, tumor response, and progression-free survival, and the polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1, while GSTM1 polymorphism associated with overall survival (OS; hazard ratio =1.213, 95% confidence interval =1.060–1.388, P=0.005. Subgroup analyses suggested that neurotoxicity was associated with GSTM1 polymorphism in the Asian population, neutropenia was associated with GSTM1 polymorphism in palliative

  1. Prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Lena M; Flick, Louise H; Twyman, Kimberly A; Xian, Hong; Conturo, Thomas E

    2016-11-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized not only by deficits in communication and social interactions but also a high rate of co-occurring disorders, including metabolic abnormalities, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, and seizures. Seizures, when present, interfere with cognitive development and are associated with a higher mortality rate in the ASD population. To determine the relative prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic ASD from multiplex and simplex families compared with the unaffected siblings in a cohort of 610 children with idiopathic ASD and their 160 unaffected siblings, participating in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange project, the secondary analysis was performed comparing the life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures. Statistical models to account for non-independence of observations, inherent with the data from multiplex families, were used in assessing potential confounding effects of age, gender, and history of febrile seizures on odds of having non-febrile seizures. The life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures was 8.2% among children with ASD and 2.5% among their unaffected siblings. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for familial clustering, children with ASD had 5.27 (95%CI: 1.51-18.35) times higher odds of having non-febrile seizures compared to their unaffected siblings. In this comparison, age, presence of gastrointestinal dysfunction, and history of febrile seizures were significantly associated with the prevalence of non-febrile seizures. Children with idiopathic ASD are significantly more likely to have non-febrile seizures than their unaffected siblings, suggesting that non-febrile seizures may be ASD-specific. Further studies are needed to determine modifiable risk factors for non-febrile seizures in ASD.

  2. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Association With Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Lundström, Sebastian; Fernell, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Gill; Neville, Brian

    2017-09-01

    There is a recently well-documented association between childhood epilepsy and earlysymptomaticsyndromeselicitingneurodevelopmentalclinicalexaminations (ESSENCE) including autism spectrum disorder, but the relationship between febrile seizures and ESSENCE is less clear. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing population-based study targeting twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Parents of 27,092 twins were interviewed using a validated DSM-IV-based interview for ESSENCE, in connection with the twins' ninth or twelfth birthday. Diagnoses of febrile seizures (n = 492) and epilepsy (n = 282) were based on data from the Swedish National Patient Register. Prevalence of ESSENCE in individuals with febrile seizures and epilepsy was compared with prevalence in the twin population without seizures. The association between febrile seizures and ESSENCE was considered before and after adjustment for epilepsy. Age of diagnosis of febrile seizures and epilepsy was considered as a possible correlate of ESSENCE in febrile seizures and epilepsy. The rate of ESSENCE in febrile seizures and epilepsy was significantly higher than in the total population without seizures (all P epilepsy, a significant association between febrile seizures and autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and intellectual disability remained. Earlier age of onset was associated with all ESSENCE except attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epilepsy but not with ESSENCE in febrile seizures. In a nationally representative sample of twins, there was an increased rate of ESSENCE in childhood epilepsy and in febrile seizures. Febrile seizures alone could occur as a marker for a broader ESSENCE phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by GDP chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage I/II extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Jianliang; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Shengyu; Gui, Lin; He, Xiaohui; Qin, Yan; Zhang, Changgong; Yang, Sheng; Xing, Puyuan; Sun, Yan; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-09-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the majority of ENKTL cases are diagnosed at the localized stage. Radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has been used for localized ENKTL, but the optimal combination treatment modality and the best first-line chemotherapy regimen have not been defined. In this retrospective study, 44 patients with newly diagnosed, stages I/II ENKTL were enrolled and received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, 50-56 Gy) followed by GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) chemotherapy. The median number of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 (range, 2-6 cycles). At the end of treatment, the overall response rate was 95% (42/44), including 39 patients (89%) who attained complete response. Two patients developed systemic progression after IMRT. With a median follow-up of 37.5 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate and progression-free survival (PFS) rate were 85% (95% CI, 74 to 96%) and 77% (95% CI, 64 to 91%), respectively. Locoregional and systemic failure rates for this treatment were 9% (4/44) and 14% (6/44), respectively. The most common grades 3 to 4 adverse events included leukopenia (37%), neutropenia (34%), and mucositis (25%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. This study suggested high efficacy and low toxicity of IMRT followed by GDP regimen chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage I/II ENKTL patients. These results require further investigation in prospective trials.

  4. Detection of anti-neutrophil antibodies in autoimmune neutropenia of infancy: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Ruti; Flomenblit, Lena; Goldstein, Itamar; Kaplinsky, Chaim

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy is caused by neutrophil-specific autoantibodies. Primary AIN is characterized by neutrophil count familial or congenital neutropenias. To further assure the quality of the new test, we retested six samples previously tested by the gold standard method. All medical files were screened and clinical outcomes were recorded. Our method showed specificity of 85%, sensitivity of 62.5%, and a positive predictive value of 91.8%, values quite similar to those obtained by more traditional methods. The new method showed high specificity for detection of anti-neutrophil antibodies in the appropriate clinical setting and could be an effective tool for clinical decision making.

  5. Safety and efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (SAiL, MO19390): a phase 4 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinò, Lucio; Dansin, Eric; Garrido, Pilar; Griesinger, Frank; Laskin, Janessa; Pavlakis, Nick; Stroiakovski, Daniel; Thatcher, Nick; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Wu, Yi-long; Zhou, Caicun

    2010-08-01

    Results of two phase 3 trials have shown first-line bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy improves clinical outcomes in patients with advanced or recurrent non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The SAiL (MO19390) study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of first-line bevacizumab combined with standard chemotherapy regimens in clinical practice. Between August, 2006, and June, 2008, patients with untreated locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent non-squamous NSCLC were recruited to this open-label, single group, phase 4 study from centres in 40 countries. Eligible patients had histologically or cytologically documented inoperable, locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent disease (stage IIIB-IV); an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2; and adequate haematological, hepatic, and renal function. Patients received bevacizumab (7.5 or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) plus standard chemotherapy for up to six cycles, followed by single-agent bevacizumab until disease progression. The primary endpoint was safety; analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00451906. At the final data cutoff (July 24, 2009), an ITT population of 2212 patients was assessed. The incidence of clinically significant (grade > or = 3) adverse events of special interest was generally low; thromboembolism occurred in 172 (8%) patients, hypertension in 125 (6%), bleeding in 80 (4%), proteinuria in 67 (3%), and pulmonary haemorrhage in 15 (1%). 57 (3%) patients died because of these adverse events, with thromboembolism (26 patients, 1%) and bleeding (17, 1%) as the most common causes. The most common grade 3 or higher serious adverse events deemed by investigators to be associated with bevacizumab were pulmonary embolism (28 patients; 1%) and epistaxis, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and deep vein thrombosis (all of which occurred in 13 patients [1%]). Bevacizumab was temporarily

  6. A predictive model to estimate the risk of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, RMF; Berger, MY; vanSteenselMoll, HA; DzoljicDanilovic, G; DerksenLubsen, G

    Low risk criteria have been defined to identify febrile infants unlikely to have serious bacterial infection (SBI). Using these criteria approximately 40% of all febrile infants can be defined as being at low risk. Of the remaining infants (60%) only 10%-20% have an SBI. No adequate criteria exists

  7. Lithium carbonate as a treatment for paliperidone extended-release-induced leukopenia and neutropenia in a patient with schizoaffective disorder; a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroki; Kimoto, Sohei; Harada, Izumi; Naemura, Satoshi; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-05-26

    Antipsychotic drug treatment can potentially lead to adverse events such as leukopenia and neutropenia. Although these events are rare, they represent serious and life-threatening hematological side effects. We present a case study of a patient with schizoaffective disorder in a 50-year-old woman. We report a case of paliperidone extended-release (ER)-induced leukopenia and neutropenia in a female patient with schizoaffective disorder. Initiating lithium carbonate treatment and decreasing the dose of valproic acid improved the observed leukopenia and neutropenia. This treatment did not influence psychotic symptoms. The combination of paliperidone ER and valproic acid induces increased paliperidone ER plasma levels. Lithium carbonate was successfully used to treat paliperidone ER-induced leukopenia and neutropenia.

  8. Aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. Restrepo-Gualteros

    2015-06-01

    Ante la presencia de síntomas respiratorios en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedades hematológicas que cursen con neutropenia febril, es indispensable considerar como agentes etiológicos los hongos, entre los cuales Aspergillus spp. se presenta frecuentemente causando diferentes síndromes clínicos.

  9. High frequency of GATA2 mutations in patients with mild chronic neutropenia evolving to MonoMac syndrome, myelodysplasia, and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Marlène; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Tavitian, Suzanne; Prade, Naïs; Beaupain, Blandine; Larochelle, Olivier; Petit, Arnaud; Rohrlich, Pierre; Ferrand, Christophe; Van Den Neste, Eric; Poirel, Hélène A; Lamy, Thierry; Ouachée-Chardin, Marie; Mansat-De Mas, Véronique; Corre, Jill; Récher, Christian; Plat, Geneviève; Bachelerie, Françoise; Donadieu, Jean; Delabesse, Eric

    2013-01-31

    Congenital neutropenia is a group of genetic disorders that involve chronic neutropenia and susceptibility to infections. These neutropenias may be isolated or associated with immunologic defects or extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Complications may occur as infectious diseases, but also less frequently as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, the transcription factor GATA2 has been identified as a new predisposing gene for familial AML/MDS. In the present study, we describe the initial identification by exome sequencing of a GATA2 R396Q mutation in a family with a history of chronic mild neutropenia evolving to AML and/or MDS. The subsequent analysis of the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry allowed the identification of 6 additional pedigrees and 10 patients with 6 different and not previously reportedGATA2 mutations (R204X, E224X, R330X, A372T, M388V, and a complete deletion of the GATA2 locus). The frequent evolution to MDS and AML in these patients reveals the importance of screening GATA2 in chronic neutropenia associated with monocytopenia because of the frequent hematopoietic transformation, variable clinical expression at onset, and the need for aggressive therapy in patients with poor clinical outcome. Mutations of key transcription factor in myeloid malignancies.

  10. Outcome of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia after Induction Therapy --- Three-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Belayet Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of different malignancies is increasing among the world populations. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL is the most common of all the paediatric malignancies. Response to induction therapy is one of the most important predictors of long term outcome of ALL. Objective: To see the immediate outcome of paediatric ALL patients following induction therapy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. Total 221 paediatric ALL patients were included in this study. Diagnosis was based on history, examination, blast cells count on peripheral blood film and bone marrow study, CSF study and immunophenotyping of peripheral blood/bone marrow aspirate in patients who were financially capable. Among them, parents of 40 (18% patients did not agree to start chemotherapy. According to Modified UK ALL 2003 protocol (Regimen A & B 181 patients were given induction therapy (vincristine, prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and daunomycin in high risk patients. Among them 14 patients discontinued, 10 patients died during chemotherapy and rest 157 patients completed induction phase. Bone marrow study was repeated after completion of induction therapy and remission pattern was seen. Results: Out of 157 chemotherapy completed patients, 137 (87% went into complete remission (25% blast cells in the bone marrow. Ten (5.5% patients died due to bleeding, febrile neutropenia and sepsis during the course of induction therapy. Conclusion: ALL in children is curable with effective chemotherapy. Poverty, ignorance and misconception regarding outcome are responsible for refusal and discontinuation of chemotherapy in third world countries like Bangladesh. Mortality and treatment cost can be reduced with the improvement of the facilities for isolation, barrier nursing and supportive treatment, and by creating awareness.

  11. Safety of Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta in Patients with Sickle Cell Trait/Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta is a recombinant filgrastim (human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF attached to a polyethylene glycol (PEG molecule and is given as part of chemotherapy regimens that are associated with significant myelosuppression and risk for febrile neutropenia. Prescribing information available on manufacturer’s website for the drug warns us about possible severe sickle cell crises related to the medication but does not report the actual incidence or the use in patients with sickle cell trait. Caution is advised when using it in patients with sickle cell disease. Here we present a case of a Caucasian female with known sickle cell trait (SCT with no prior complications who developed a presumed sickle cell crisis after getting Neulasta, as a part of the chemotherapy regimen used to treat her breast cancer. Based on our literature review, this appears to be the first case report of a patient with SCT developing a sickle cell crisis with the pegylated form of recombinant filgrastim. Given the dearth of literature regarding the use of G-CSF and its related pegylated forms in patients with sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait, a discussion of potential mechanisms and review of current literature and guidelines is also presented.

  12. The influence of different fever definitions on diagnostics and treatment after diagnosis of fever in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in children with cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Wagner

    Full Text Available There is no evidence-based definition of the temperature limit defining fever (TLDF in children with neutropenia. Lowering the TLDF is known to increase the number of episodes of fever in neutropenia (FN. This study aimed to investigate the influence of a lower versus standard TLDF on diagnostics and therapy.In a single pediatric cancer center using a high standard TLDF (39°C tympanic-temperature patients were observed prospectively (NCT01683370. The effect of applying lower TLDFs (range 37.5°C to 38.9°C versus 39.0°C on these measures was simulated in silicon.In reality, 45 FN episodes were diagnosed. Of 3391 temperatures measured, 193 were ≥39.0°C, and 937 ≥38.0°C. For persisting fever ≥24 hours, additional blood cultures were taken in 31 (69% episodes in reality. This number decreased to 22 (49% when applying 39.0°C, and increased to 33 for 38.0°C (73%; plus 11 episodes; plus 24%. For persisting fever ≥48 hours, i.v.-antibiotics were escalated in 25 (56% episodes. This number decreased to 15 (33% when applying 39.0°C, and increased to 26 for 38.0°C (58%; plus 11 episodes; plus 24%. For persisting fever ≥120 hours, i.v.-antifungals were added in 4 (9% episodes. This number increased to 6 (13% by virtually applying 39.0°C, and to 11 for 38.0°C (24%; plus 5 episodes; plus 11%. The median length of stay was 5.7 days (range, 0.8 to 43.4. In 43 episodes with hospital discharge beyond 24 hours, applying 38.0°C led to discharge delay by ≥12 hours in 24 episodes (56%; 95% CI, 40 to 71, with a median delay of 13 hours, and a cumulative delay of 68 days.Applying a low versus standard TLDF led to relevant increases of diagnostics, antimicrobial therapy, and length of stay. The differences between management in reality versus simply applying 39.0° as TLDF reflect the important impact of clinical assessment.

  13. The influence of different fever definitions on diagnostics and treatment after diagnosis of fever in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stéphanie; Brack, Eva K; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Agyeman, Philipp; Leibundgut, Kurt; Teuffel, Oliver; Ammann, Roland A

    2018-01-01

    There is no evidence-based definition of the temperature limit defining fever (TLDF) in children with neutropenia. Lowering the TLDF is known to increase the number of episodes of fever in neutropenia (FN). This study aimed to investigate the influence of a lower versus standard TLDF on diagnostics and therapy. In a single pediatric cancer center using a high standard TLDF (39°C tympanic-temperature) patients were observed prospectively (NCT01683370). The effect of applying lower TLDFs (range 37.5°C to 38.9°C) versus 39.0°C on these measures was simulated in silicon. In reality, 45 FN episodes were diagnosed. Of 3391 temperatures measured, 193 were ≥39.0°C, and 937 ≥38.0°C. For persisting fever ≥24 hours, additional blood cultures were taken in 31 (69%) episodes in reality. This number decreased to 22 (49%) when applying 39.0°C, and increased to 33 for 38.0°C (73%; plus 11 episodes; plus 24%). For persisting fever ≥48 hours, i.v.-antibiotics were escalated in 25 (56%) episodes. This number decreased to 15 (33%) when applying 39.0°C, and increased to 26 for 38.0°C (58%; plus 11 episodes; plus 24%). For persisting fever ≥120 hours, i.v.-antifungals were added in 4 (9%) episodes. This number increased to 6 (13%) by virtually applying 39.0°C, and to 11 for 38.0°C (24%; plus 5 episodes; plus 11%). The median length of stay was 5.7 days (range, 0.8 to 43.4). In 43 episodes with hospital discharge beyond 24 hours, applying 38.0°C led to discharge delay by ≥12 hours in 24 episodes (56%; 95% CI, 40 to 71), with a median delay of 13 hours, and a cumulative delay of 68 days. Applying a low versus standard TLDF led to relevant increases of diagnostics, antimicrobial therapy, and length of stay. The differences between management in reality versus simply applying 39.0° as TLDF reflect the important impact of clinical assessment.

  14. High-dose rapid and standard induction chemotherapy for patients aged over 1 year with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew D J; Pinkerton, C Ross; Lewis, Ian J; Imeson, John; Ellershaw, Caroline; Machin, David

    2008-03-01

    patients in the rapid group completed chemotherapy. Chemotherapy doses were recorded for 123 patients in the standard group and 126 patients in the rapid group. 97 of 123 (79%) patients in the standard group and 84 of 126 (67%) patients in the rapid group received at least 90% of the scheduled chemotherapy, and the relative dose intensity was 1.94 compared with the standard regimen. 3-year EFS was 24.2% for patients in the standard group and 31.0% for those in the rapid group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86 [95% CI 0.66-1.14], p=0.30. 5-year EFS was 18.2% in the standard group and 30.2% in the rapid group, representing a difference of 12.0% (1.8 to 22.3), p=0.022. 10-year EFS was 18.2% in the standard group and 27.1% in the rapid group, representing a difference of 8.9% (-1.2 to 19.0), p=0.085. Myeloablation was given a median of 55 days earlier in patients assigned rapid treatment than those assigned standard treatment. Infective complications (numbers of patients with febrile neutropenia and septicaemia, and if given, time on antibiotic and antifungal treatment) and time in hospital were greater with rapid treatment. Occurrence of fungal infection was the same in both regimens. Dose intensity can be increased with a rapid induction regimen in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. There was no significant difference in OS between the rapid and standard regimens at 5 years and 10 years. However, an increasing difference in EFS after 3 years suggests that the efficacy of the rapid regimen is better than the standard regimen. A rapid induction regimen enables myeloablation to be given much earlier, which might contribute to a better outcome.

  15. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor, Tissue Factor, and VEGF-R Bound VEGF in Human Breast Cancer In Loco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Sierko, Ewa; Skalij, Piotr; Kamińska, Magda; Zimnoch, Lech; Brekken, Ralf A; Thorpe, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin and docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens used in breast cancer patients are associated with high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) are recommended for both treating and preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Increased thrombosis incidence in G-CSF treated patients was reported; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The principal activator of blood coagulation in cancer is tissue factor (TF). It additionally contributes to cancer progression and stimulates angiogenesis. The main proangiogenic factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the study was to evaluate granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), tissue factor (TF) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) bound VEGF in human breast cancer in loco. G-CSFR, TF and VEGFR bound VEGF (VEGF: VEGFR) were assessed in 28 breast cancer tissue samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) methodologies according to ABC technique and double staining IHC procedure were employed utilizing antibodies against G-CSFR, TF and VEGF associated with VEGFR (VEGF: VEGFR). Expression of G-CSFR was demonstrated in 20 breast cancer tissue specimens (71%). In 6 cases (21%) the expression was strong (IRS 9-12). Strong expression of TF was observed in all investigated cases (100%). Moreover, expression of VEGF: VEGFR was visualized in cancer cells (IRS 5-8). No presence of G-CSFR, TF or VEGF: VEGFR was detected on healthy breast cells. Double staining IHC studies revealed co-localization of G-CSFR and TF, G-CSFR and VEGF: VEGFR, as well as TF and VEGF: VEGFR on breast cancer cells and ECs. The results of the study indicate that GCSFR, TF and VEGF: VEGFR expression as well as their co-expression might influence breast cancer biology, and may increase thromboembolic adverse events incidence.

  16. Weekly docetaxel versus CMF as adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly breast cancer patients: safety data from the multicentre phase 3 randomised ELDA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Francesco; Morabito, Alessandro; De Maio, Ermelinda; Di Rella, Francesca; Gravina, Adriano; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Pacilio, Carmen; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Rossi, Emanuela; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Thomas, Renato; Gori, Stefania; Colozza, Mariantonietta; De Placido, Sabino; Lauria, Rossella; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; de Matteis, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    Within an ongoing multicentre phase 3 randomised trial (ELDA, cancertrials.gov ID: NCT00331097), early breast cancer patients, 65-79 years old, with average to high risk of recurrence, are randomly assigned to receive CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2, fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, days 1-8) or docetaxel (35 mg/m2 days 1-8-15), every 4 weeks. Here we report an unplanned safety analysis prompted by an amendment introducing creatinine clearance as a tool to adjust methotrexate dose. Before such change, 101 patients with a median age of 70 were randomly assigned CMF (53 patients) or docetaxel (48 patients). At least one grades 3-4 toxic event of any type was reported in 40 (75.5%) and 19 (39.6%) patients with CMF and docetaxel, respectively (p=0.0002). Grades 3-4 hematological events were observed in 37 (69.8%) vs. 4 (8.3%) cases (p<0.0001) and grades 3-4 non-hematological toxicity in 12 (22.6%) vs. 15 (31.2%) patients (p=0.11), with CMF and docetaxel, respectively. A higher incidence of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and febrile neutropenia was reported with CMF. Constipation, mucositis, nausea and vomiting were more common with CMF; diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dysgeusia, neuropathy and liver toxicity were more frequent with docetaxel. No significant interaction was found between the occurrence of severe toxicity and baseline variables, including creatinine clearance and geriatric activity scales. In conclusion, weekly docetaxel appears to be less toxic than CMF in terms of hematological toxicity.

  17. [Origin exploration of "the fifty-nine acupoints for febrile disease"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyi

    2017-02-12

    Fifty-nine acupoints for febrile disease is recorded in Huangdi Neijing ( Huangdi's Internal Classics ). By analyzing the combination of these acupoints, the writer discovered the acupoint composition and detected their origins from Huangdi's Internal Classics , in which the terms biaoben, qijie and beishu are involved in the theoretic evidence. The writer thought the "fifty-nine acupoints for febrile disease" implied the self-evolution of some acupuncture school in ancient time, which was formed by absorbing the theoretic experiences of the other schools. It is necessary to analyze and interpret the other literatures besides Huangdi's Internal Classics and probably obtain the further reorganization on it.

  18. Beliefs and expectations of Canadian parents who bring febrile children for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enarson, Mark C; Ali, Samina; Vandermeer, Ben; Wright, Robert B; Klassen, Terry P; Spiers, Judith A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to study the beliefs, expectations, and satisfaction of Canadian parents regarding fever and the treatment of their febrile children. A survey was developed exploring caregiver beliefs and treatment strategies, as well as expectations and satisfaction with medical care. Some items were modeled after previous studies to allow comparison. Caregivers with febrile children were recruited from 2005 to 2007 at 3 urgent care centers and emergency departments in Edmonton, Canada: a pediatric emergency department (n = 376), an urban urgent care center (n = 227), and a suburban urgent care clinic (n = 173). High and rapidly rising temperature, as well as physical symptoms associated with fever, caused concern in most parents surveyed. Seventy-four percent of parents felt that the elevated temperature from fever was dangerous and 90.3% always try to treat it. Forty degrees Celsius was the most commonly sited threshold for danger. Identifying the cause (80.6%) and seriousness (87.4%) of fever were the most com-mon stressors identified. Caregivers expected to receive information about the child's illness and appropriate treatment. The parents most often wanted information about febrile seizures and the potential dangers of febrile illness. Only 16.7% of caregivers expected anti-biotics. Nearly 92% of subjects were usually satisfied with medical care. Fever phobia continues to be a significant issue for Canadian parents. As a result, they treat fever aggressively and often seek medical attention. Good communication is important for medical staff caring for febrile children and typically leads to satisfied parents.

  19. Preliminary results of multicenter phase II trial of docetaxel (Taxotere) in combination with doxorubicin as first line chemotherapy in Indonesian patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, A; Darwis, I; Prayogo, N; Sutjipto

    2000-05-01

    Docetaxel and doxorubicin have produced a high degree of activity in previously untreated/treated patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The efficacy of Taxotere (T) single agent as 2nd line chemotherapy is well established in large randomized phase III studies. The objective of this study is to confirm the efficacy and safety of a combination of Taxotere with doxorubicin as 1st line chemotherapy in Indonesian MBC patients. TREATMENT AND METHOD: Eighteen patients age < or = 70 years with advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with no prior taxane chemotherapy or prior cumulative doxorubicin (D) of no more than 250 mg/m2 and no heart disease were enrolled in this phase II study of D (50 mg/m2) IV bolus followed one hour later by Taxotere (T) 60 mg/m2 IV infusion over 1 hour every 3 weeks for 6 cycles treatments. A 3-day oral corticosteroid premedication was administered starting one day before the infusion of each cycle. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated at baseline and after cycle 6. 18 patients (pts) have been treated with 108 cycles administered. Median age was 46 years (31-58), WHO PS 0 = 50%, 1 = 50% and number of organs involved were: 2 (72%), 3 (22%) and 4 (6%). After 3 cycles, partial (PR) and no change (NC) responses occurred in 15 pts (83.3%) and 3 pts (16.7%). The best overall response after 6 cycles, including complete (CR) and partial (PR) responses, occurred in 13 pts (72.2%) including 3 CRs and 10 PRs. Two patients with extensive liver metastases at the baseline had a complete disappearance after 6 cycles. No patients developed congestive heart failure (CHF). Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities included leukopenia in 18 pts (100%), febrile neutropenia in 6 pts (33%), leukopenia with infection in 2 pts (11%), leukopenia with fever in 1 pt (5.5%), and anemia in 6 pts (33.3%). Nonhematological toxicities grade 3/4 included alopecia (61%), asthenia (4.6%), nausea/vomiting (2.7%), pain (2.7%), stomatitis (2.7%), and

  20. Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution and risk for febrile seizure: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-03-25

    Objectives Exposure to traffic noise and air pollution is suspected to increase susceptibility to viral infections - the main triggering factor for febrile seizures. No studies have examined these two exposures in relation to febrile seizures. We aimed to investigate whether exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution are associated with risk of febrile seizures in childhood. Methods From our study base of 51 465 singletons from a national birth cohort, we identified 2175 cases with febrile seizures using a nationwide registry. Residential address history from conception to six years of age were found in national registers, and road traffic noise (L den ) and air pollution (NO 2 ) were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for potential confounders, including mutual exposure adjustment. Results An interquartile range (IQR) increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution was associated with an 11% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19) and 5% (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) higher risk for febrile seizures, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. Weaker tendencies were seen for pregnancy exposure. In models with mutual exposure adjustment, the estimates were slightly lower, with IRR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.16) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) per IQR increase in childhood exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that residential exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution is associated with higher risk for febrile seizures.

  1. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-12-01

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in circulating inflammatory markers following febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions to leucoreduced red cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R; Sandhu, N; Heegaard, N H H

    2018-01-01

    It would be desirable to be able to distinguish fever as a result of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) from other febrile conditions. To further characterize the inflammatory feature of FNHTR, we measured a large panel of inflammatory markers in pre- and posttransfusion plasma...

  3. Combination chemotherapy with Regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: A single center, retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available Regorafenib has been demonstrated as effective in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Combination use with chemotherapy has not been reported. We examined the efficacy and safety of adding chemotherapy to Regorafenib for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC patients.We recruited mCRC patients at our institute who received either regorafenib monotherapy or regorafenib in combination with other chemotherapies. All patients had received chemo and target therapies and presented with disease progression before regorafenib treatment. The primary end point was overall survival.Between September1, 2015 and May 31, 2017, 100 mCRC patients at our institute received regorafenib treatment. 39 patients were excluded due to poor performance, lack of timely treatment, or inadequate clinical data. A total of 34 patients received regorafenib combined with other chemotherapies, and 27 patients received regorafenib alone. Median follow up time was 10.4 and 6.1 months, respectively. The primary end point of median OS was higher in the combination group than in the single use group (20.9m vs 10.3m, p = 0.015. The most frequent adverse events were hand-foot skin reactions(16[47.1%]vs 12[44.4%], fatigue(6[17.6%] vs 7[25.9%], gastrointestinal discomfort (7[20.6%] vs 6[22.2%], neutropenia (4[11.8%] vs 1[3.7%], diarrhea(4[11.8%] vs 1[3.7%], and mucositis(5[14.7%] vs 1[3.7%].The present study showed the efficacy and side effects of regorafenib combination treatment. Superiority in median OS and median PFS was noted in the combination group. The sampling difference between the study and observation groups effects justifies the comparison. Further clinical evidence of combination therapy efficacy is pending future studies.

  4. Combination chemotherapy with Regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: A single center, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Chen, Chou-Chen; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Chou-Pin

    2018-01-01

    Regorafenib has been demonstrated as effective in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Combination use with chemotherapy has not been reported. We examined the efficacy and safety of adding chemotherapy to Regorafenib for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC) patients. We recruited mCRC patients at our institute who received either regorafenib monotherapy or regorafenib in combination with other chemotherapies. All patients had received chemo and target therapies and presented with disease progression before regorafenib treatment. The primary end point was overall survival. Between September1, 2015 and May 31, 2017, 100 mCRC patients at our institute received regorafenib treatment. 39 patients were excluded due to poor performance, lack of timely treatment, or inadequate clinical data. A total of 34 patients received regorafenib combined with other chemotherapies, and 27 patients received regorafenib alone. Median follow up time was 10.4 and 6.1 months, respectively. The primary end point of median OS was higher in the combination group than in the single use group (20.9m vs 10.3m, p = 0.015). The most frequent adverse events were hand-foot skin reactions(16[47.1%]vs 12[44.4%]), fatigue(6[17.6%] vs 7[25.9%]), gastrointestinal discomfort (7[20.6%] vs 6[22.2%]), neutropenia (4[11.8%] vs 1[3.7%]), diarrhea(4[11.8%] vs 1[3.7%]), and mucositis(5[14.7%] vs 1[3.7%]). The present study showed the efficacy and side effects of regorafenib combination treatment. Superiority in median OS and median PFS was noted in the combination group. The sampling difference between the study and observation groups effects justifies the comparison. Further clinical evidence of combination therapy efficacy is pending future studies.

  5. Combination chemotherapy with Regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: A single center, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Chen, Chou-Chen; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Background Regorafenib has been demonstrated as effective in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Combination use with chemotherapy has not been reported. We examined the efficacy and safety of adding chemotherapy to Regorafenib for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC) patients. Methods We recruited mCRC patients at our institute who received either regorafenib monotherapy or regorafenib in combination with other chemotherapies. All patients had received chemo and target therapies and presented with disease progression before regorafenib treatment. The primary end point was overall survival. Findings Between September1, 2015 and May 31, 2017, 100 mCRC patients at our institute received regorafenib treatment. 39 patients were excluded due to poor performance, lack of timely treatment, or inadequate clinical data. A total of 34 patients received regorafenib combined with other chemotherapies, and 27 patients received regorafenib alone. Median follow up time was 10.4 and 6.1 months, respectively. The primary end point of median OS was higher in the combination group than in the single use group (20.9m vs 10.3m, p = 0.015). The most frequent adverse events were hand-foot skin reactions(16[47.1%]vs 12[44.4%]), fatigue(6[17.6%] vs 7[25.9%]), gastrointestinal discomfort (7[20.6%] vs 6[22.2%]), neutropenia (4[11.8%] vs 1[3.7%]), diarrhea(4[11.8%] vs 1[3.7%]), and mucositis(5[14.7%] vs 1[3.7%]). Conclusion The present study showed the efficacy and side effects of regorafenib combination treatment. Superiority in median OS and median PFS was noted in the combination group. The sampling difference between the study and observation groups effects justifies the comparison. Further clinical evidence of combination therapy efficacy is pending future studies. PMID:29304109

  6. Chikungunya as a cause of acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Reller

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007.We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797 patients without acute dengue virus (DENV infection, 64.3% (18/28 of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007 showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5% patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection.Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka.

  7. TAXTOX - a retrospective study regarding the side effects of docetaxel given as part of the adjuvant treatment to patients with primary breast cancer in Denmark from 2007 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, Lise; Nielsen, Mette; Moeller, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    was given as three cycles of cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) and epirubicin (90 mg/m(2)) followed by three cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)). Because of an apparent high incidence of side effects, especially febrile neutropenia (FN) and non-hematologic side effects, the DBCG (The Danish Breast Cancer...

  8. Oncological emergencies for the internist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An oncologic emergency is defined as any acute, potentially life-threatening event, either directly or indirectly related to a patient′s cancer (ca or its treatment. It requires rapid intervention to avoid death or severe permanent damage. Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or side effects from chemotherapy agents. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. The condition is treated with aggressive hydration, allopurinol or urate oxidase to lower uric acid levels. Hypercalcemia of malignancy is treated with aggressive rehydration, furosemide, and intravenous (IV bisphosphonates. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone should be suspected if a patient with ca presents with normovolemic hyponatremia. This metabolic condition usually is treated with fluid restriction and furosemide. Febrile neutropenia is a hematologic emergency that usually requires inpatient therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, although outpatient therapy may be appropriate for low-risk patients. Hyperviscosity syndrome usually is associated with Waldenstrφm′s macroglobulinemia, which is treated with plasmapheresis and chemotherapy. Structural oncologic emergencies are caused by direct compression of surrounding structures or by metastatic disease. Superior vena cava syndrome is the most common structural oncological emergency. Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, and IV stenting. Epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with dexamethasone, radiation, or surgery. Malignant pericardial effusion, which often is undiagnosed in ca patients, can be treated with pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window procedure.

  9. Voriconazole versus amphotericin B or fluconazole in cancer patients with neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Dalbøge, Christina S

    2014-01-01

    and fluconazole when used for prevention or treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients with neutropenia. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 1 2014), MEDLINE (to January 2014). Letters, abstracts and unpublished trials were...

  10. Sincronia Cosmopolita Febril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Goulart

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available No ano de 2011, pessoas de todo o mundo começaram a indignar através das redes sociais e blogs da internet contra as mais variadas injustiças do mundo. Uns queriam liberdade e democracia, outros criticavam os abusos dos bancos e alguns apenas queriam ter comida digna na mesa todos os dias. Em pouco tempo, o mundo virtual e o real se viram contaminados por uma sincronia cosmopolita febril que levou multidões às praças de todo o mundo e conseguiu, entre outras coisas, derrubar ditaduras opressoras e muito antigas. Com base em estudos, análise de mundo e vivências do autor, este trabalho visa clarificar à luz da filosofia os movimentos do tipo Occupy em suas mais variadas formas.

  11. HIPPOCAMPAL SCLEROSIS IN EPILEPSY AND CHILDHOOD FEBRILE SEIZURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUKS, JBM; COOK, MJ; FISH, DR; STEVENS, JM; SHORVON, SD

    1993-01-01

    The connection between hippocampal sclerosis and childhood febrile seizures (CFS) is a contentious issue in the study of epilepsy. We investigated 107 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy by high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 20 had a history of CFS, 45 had focal (26) or

  12. Malaria parasitaemia among febrile under-five children at Nnamdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia among febrile under-five children at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South-East, Nigeria. C.E. Ezeudu, J.C. Ebenebe, J.O. Chukwuka, E.F. Ugochukwu, G.I. Amilo, O.I. Okorie ...

  13. A phase II trial of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus chemotherapy as initial treatment for local failures or advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Robert; Stepankiw, Mika; Gonzales, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Long-term hormonal ablation in prostate cancer is associated with decreased overall health and quality of life. Few reports emphasized the role of chemotherapy in the management of early stage prostate cancer. This study analyzed the safety and efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus chemotherapy as initial treatment for patients identified as local failures or not eligible for prostatectomy or radiation therapy due to advanced disease presentation. Enrolled patients received ADT in the form of leuprolide every 12 weeks for 24 months with bicalutamide initiating after the completion of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy consisted of ketoconazole and doxorubicin for weeks 1, 3, and 5 and estramustine and docetaxel and for weeks 2, 4 and 6. During weeks 7 and 8, no treatment was received. Forty-six patients were enrolled, and forty-five patients were evaluable. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 23.4 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 53.7 months. Out of 45 patients with measurable disease, 22 patients had an objective response: 9 patients achieved a complete response; 2 patients achieved a partial response; 10 patients achieved stable disease. Frequent grade 3 adverse events included elevated ALT (17 %), hypokalemia (13 %), and hypophosphatemia (13 %). Grade 4 adverse events were rare and included low bicarbonate (2 %), hypokalemia (2 %), leukocytopenia (2 %), and neutropenia (2 %). The treatment demonstrated clinical benefit in all patient subsets with minimal reversible treatment-related adverse events. Subgroup analysis suggests that having prior local therapy resulted in greater PFS and OS.

  14. Effects of Prestorage Leukoreduction on the Rate of Febrile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) are common ... Department of Immunohaematology and Blood Transfusion, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India ... antigen (HLA) or WBC‑specific antigens located on donor .... though increasing awareness and reporting about adverse.

  15. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offringa, Martin; Newton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the

  16. Priming with r-metHuSCF and filgrastim or chemotherapy and filgrastim in patients with malignant lymphomas: a randomized phase II pilot study of mobilization and engraftment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hanne; Geisler, C; Juvonen, E

    2011-01-01

    methionyl human G-CSF (filgrastim, r-metHuG-CSF) (experimental arm A) or routine chemotherapy plus filgrastim (conventional arm B). The primary objective was to evaluate the side effects and toxicity during priming and mobilization. The secondary objectives were efficacy by the level of blood......-circulating PBPCs, the number of harvest days and the time to three-lineage engraftment after autografting. First, during priming 5 patients had 8 serious events, 4 in each arm. A summary of all adverse events revealed 30 (94%) patients suffering from 132 events of all grading. Second, neutropenia...... and thrombocytopenia was documented in arm B. Third, 9/14 (64%) patients in arm A reached the target of 5 million CD34(+) cells/kg body weight (bw) compared with 13/15 (87%) in arm B. The results represent the first randomized trial of growth factor plus chemotherapy priming and indicate that a formal phase III trial...

  17. Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES): An Overview of Treatment and Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun E Lun; Leung, Alexander K C; Torres, Alcy R

    2018-05-08

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) refers to a clinical presentation in a patient without active epilepsy or other existing relevant neurological disorder, with new onset of refractory status epilepticus in the absence of a clear acute or active structural, metabolic, or toxic cause. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a subset of NORSE that requires a febrile infection between 24 hours and 2 weeks prior to the onset of refractory status epilepticus, with or without fever at the onset of status epilepticus, and with no restriction to the age of the patient. The literature on FIRES is scarce. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical features, and various treatment modalities in the treatment of FIRES. A Medline/Pubmed search was conducted using Clinical Queries with the key terms "febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome", "FIRES", "new-onset refractory status epilepticus" and "NORSE". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, reviews and pertinent references. Patents were searched using the key term "FIRES", "NORSE" and "febrile epilepsy syndrome" from www.google.com/patents, www.uspto.gov, and www.freepatentsonline.com. FIRES almost invariably begins with a mild nonspecific febrile illness in an otherwise healthy individual. Twenty four hours to two weeks later, seizures begin and quickly become very frequent and worsen, becoming status epilepticus. Seizures can be simple motor, complex partial or secondary generalized. The exact etiology is no known. It is possible that the syndrome is caused by an inflammatory or autoimmune mechanism. Seizures in FIRES are notoriously very difficult to treat. Treatment modalities include, among others, various antiepileptic drugs, ketogenic diet, intravenous corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and burst-suppression coma. Outcome is poor; most children are left with significant cognitive disability and refractory epilepsy

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, A C; Gomes, W A; Shinnar, S; Hesdorffer, D C; Bagiella, E; Lewis, D V; Bello, J A; Chan, S; MacFall, J; Chen, M; Pellock, J M; Nordli, D R; Frank, L M; Moshé, S L; Shinnar, R C; Sun, S

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including the distance of the hippocampus from the midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Temporal lobe morphologic parameters were correlated with the presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association was with left temporal horn width (P status epilepticus, encompassing both the right and left sides. This association was statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation was almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persisted when the analysis was restricted to cases with visually normal imaging findings without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormalities. Several component morphologic features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offringa, Martin; Newton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects

  20. Phase II study of neoadjuvant treatment with doxorubicin, docetaxel, and capecitabine (ATX) in locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Gumersindo Pérez; Shahi, Parham Khosravi; Ureña, Miguel Méndez; Pereira, Rosa Quiben; Plaza, María Isabel Palomero; Peron, Yann Izarzugaza; Val, Ricardo González Del; Carrión, Joaquín Belón; Cañón, Esperanza Pérez; Alfonso, Pilar García

    2010-07-01

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) after preoperative systemic chemotherapy (PSCh) is associated with better outcome in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). PSCh included: doxorubicin (A) 50 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1; docetaxel (T) 30 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1, 8 and 15; and capecitabine (X) 1,500 mg/m(2)/day p.o. on days 1-14, in a 4-week course repeated for up to four cycles (ATX), followed by surgery. The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the pCR rate. Secondary endpoints included clinical response rate, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the toxicity profile. A total of 60 patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 49 years, and 63.3% of patients were hormone receptor positive. The median number of cycles of PSCh was four (95% CI: 3-4). Five patients (8.3%) achieved pCR in both breast and nodes, and 16.7% reached pCR only in nodes. The clinical response rate was 77% (27% complete response), but only 18% of the patients underwent conservative surgery. With a median follow-up of 20 months, 3-year DFS and OS were 76 and 90%, respectively. Grade III/IV toxicity included neutropenia (74%), febrile neutropenia (9%), mucositis (12%), and diarrhea (12%). ATX every 28 days for four cycles is associated with a modest activity (low pCR rate) in the neoadjuvant setting of LABC.

  1. Amrubicin for relapsed small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 803 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Tsukahara, Toshinori; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Tashiro, Ken; Shibata, Yuji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nagai, Kenjiro; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Ikeda, Misako; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Shinkai, Masaharu; Kudo, Makoto; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, amrubicin is permitted for relapsed small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) only in Japan. The efficacy and adverse effects of amrubicin as reported by previous studies varied greatly. The inclusion criterion was a prospective study that was able to provide data for efficacy and safety by the AMR single agent regimen as second-line chemotherapy for a patient with SCLC. Binary data were meta-analyzed with the random-model generic inverse variance method. We included nine articles consisted of 803 patients. The pooled three-, six-, and nine-month progression-free survival were 63% (95% CI 57–69%, I2 = 53%), 28% (95% CI 21–35%, I2 = 71%), and 10% (95% CI 6–14%, I2 = 41%), respectively. The pooled six-, 12-, and 18-month overall survival were 69% (95% CI 61–78%, I2 = 83%), 36% (95% CI 28–44%, I2 = 80%), and 15% (95% CI 8–21%, I2 = 81%), respectively. Amrubicin seemed much more beneficial for Japanese patients. However, compared to the efficacy of topotecan presented in a previous meta-analysis, amrubicin may be a better treatment option than topotecan for both Japanese and Euro-American. Adverse effects by amrubicin were almost exclusively observed to be hematological. Notably, grade III/IV neutropenia incidence was 70% and febrile neutropenia incidence was 12%. PMID:26750506

  2. Characteristics of the initial seizure in familial febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E. van Beijeren; N.H. Wils; G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractComplex seizure characteristics in patients with a positive family history were studied to define familial phenotype subgroups of febrile seizures. A total of 51 children with one or more affected first degree relatives and 177 without an affected first degree

  3. Case report of a family with benign familial neutropenia and the implications for the general dental practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Christine; Brooke, Tony; Davies, Rebecca; Franklin, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    Benign familial neutropenia (BFN) is a condition where there is a decrease in circulating neutrophils in the blood and patients suffer from oral manifestations which include: persistant periodontal disease, recurrent neutropenic ulceration and candidal infections. This report discusses a family affected by BFN and the effects on their oral health. Benign familial neutropenia is a rare condition and this article aims to raise awareness among general dental practitioners so that prompt referral and management in secondary care can be arranged.

  4. Cabazitaxel Versus Docetaxel As First-Line Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudard, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    of grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were 41.2%, 60.1%, and 46.0% for C20, C25, and D75, respectively. Febrile neutropenia, diarrhea, and hematuria were more frequent with C25; peripheral neuropathy, peripheral edema, alopecia, and nail disorders were more frequent with D75. Conclusion C20...

  5. Familial severe congenital neutropenia associated with infantile osteoporosis: a new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhasid, R; Hofbauer, L C; Ish-Shalom, S; Ben-Arush, M; Koc, O; Rowe, J M; Etzioni, A

    2003-01-01

    A new entity manifested by severe congenital neutropenia associated with osteoporosis and recurrent bone fracture is described in a family. A possible role for a new recognized cytokine system involved in bone remodeling, the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, is suggested. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.