WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemotactic protein mcp-1

  1. Temporal cascade of inflammatory cytokines and cell-type populations in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)-mediated aneurysm healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Brian L; Fazal, Hanain Z; Hourani, Siham; Li, Mengchen; Lin, Li; Hosaka, Koji

    2018-03-01

    We have previously shown that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes aneurysm healing. To determine the temporal cascade and durability of aneurysm healing. Murine carotid aneurysms were treated with MCP-1-releasing or poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-only coils. Aneurysm healing was assessed by quantitative measurements of intraluminal tissue ingrowth on 5 μm sections by blinded observers. Aneurysm healing occurred in stages characteristic of normal wound healing. The 1st stage (day 3) was characterized by a spike in neutrophils and T cells. The 2nd stage (week 1) was characterized by an influx of macrophages and CD45+ cells significantly greater with MCP-1 than with PLGA (p<0.05). The third stage (week 2-3) was characterized by proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts (greater with MCP-1 than with PLGA, p<0.05). The fourth stage (3-6 months) was characterized by leveling off of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. M1 macrophages were greater at week 1, whereas M2 macrophages were greater at weeks 2 and 3 with MCP-1 than with PLGA. Interleukin 6 was present early and increased through week 2 (p<0.05 compared with PLGA) then decreased and leveled off through 6 months. Tumour necrosis factor α was present early and remained constant through 6 months. MCP-1 and PLGA treatment had similar rates of tissue ingrowth at early time points, but MCP-1 had a significantly greater tissue ingrowth at week 3 (p<0.05), which persisted for 6 months. The sequential cascade is consistent with an inflammatory model of injury, repair, and remodeling. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Localization of monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF/MCP-1) in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, M; Buhl, L; Ellingsen, T

    1996-01-01

    in the epidermal pustules in pustular psoriasis. In normals positive staining was observed in all the layers of the epidermis and in a few perivascular cells and blood vessels in the dermis. Where present in normal and diseased skin, eccrine ducts of sweat glands and sebaceous glands stained positive for MCAF......The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCAF) also termed MCP-1, a strong chemotactic factor towards monocytes, is produced by several cell types present in the skin. The in situ presence of MCAF/MCP-1 protein in the skin has, however, not yet been established. Using immunohistochemical techniques we...... have investigated the distribution of MCAF in skin from patients with different types of psoriasis and normal healthy volunteers. We report the novel finding that psoriasis has strong positive immunostaining for MCAF located to all the layers of the epidermis, except the stratum granulosum, in pustular...

  3. The roles of MCP-1 and protein kinase C delta activation in human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Yang, Eun Ju; Kim, In Sik

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilc syndrome is a disorder associated with clonally eosinophilic proliferation. The importance of FIP1-like-1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRA) in the pathogenesis and classification of HES has been recently reported. In this study, we investigated the contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 to chemotactic activity and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta in the human eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1. These cells express CCR2 protein among the CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-5). MCP-1 induces strong migration of EoL-1 cells and the chemotaxis signal in response to MCP-1 involves a G(i)/G(o) protein, phospholipase C (PLC), PKC delta, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. MCP-1 activates p38 MAPK via G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC and PKC delta cascade. MCP-1 also induces NF-kappaB translocation and the activation is inhibited by PKC delta activation. The increase in the basal expression and activity of PKC delta in EoL-1 cells, compared to normal eosinophils, inhibits apoptosis in EoL-1 cells. Anti-apoptotic mechanism of PKC delta is related to inhibition of caspase 3 and caspase 9, but not to FIP1L1-PDGFRA. PKC delta functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and is involved in EoL-1 cell movement stimulated by MCP-1. This study contributes to an understanding of MCP-1 in eosinophil biology and pathogenic mechanism of eosinophilic disorders.

  4. Local Delivery Is Critical for Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Mediated Site-Specific Murine Aneurysm Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Siham; Motwani, Kartik; Wajima, Daisuke; Fazal, Hanain; Jones, Chad H; Doré, Sylvain; Hosaka, Koji; Hoh, Brian L

    2018-01-01

    Local delivery of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) via our drug-eluting coil has been shown to promote intrasaccular aneurysm healing via an inflammatory pathway. In this study, we validate the importance of local MCP-1 in murine aneurysm healing. Whether systemic, rather than local, delivery of MCP-1 can direct site-specific aneurysm healing has significant translational implications. If systemic MCP-1 is effective, then MCP-1 could be administered as a pill rather than by endovascular procedure. Furthermore, we confirm that MCP-1 is the primary effector in our MCP-1 eluting coil-mediated murine aneurysm healing model. We compare aneurysm healing with repeated intraperitoneal MCP-1 versus vehicle injection, in animals with control poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-coated coils. We demonstrate elimination of the MCP-1-associated tissue-healing response by knockout of MCP-1 or CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor) and by selectively inhibiting MCP-1 or CCR2. Using immunofluorescent probing, we explore the cell populations found in healed aneurysm tissue following each intervention. Systemically administered MCP-1 with PLGA coil control does not produce comparable aneurysm healing, as seen with MCP-1 eluting coils. MCP-1-directed aneurysm healing is eliminated by selective inhibition of MCP-1 or CCR2 and in MCP-1-deficient or CCR2-deficient mice. No difference was detected in M2 macrophage and myofibroblast/smooth muscle cell staining with systemic MCP-1 versus vehicle in aneurysm wall, but a significant increase in these cell types was observed with MCP-1 eluting coil implant and attenuated by MCP-1/CCR2 blockade or deficiency. We show that systemic MCP-1 concurrent with PLGA-coated platinum coil implant is not sufficient to produce site-specific aneurysm healing. MCP-1 is a critical, not merely complementary, actor in the aneurysm healing pathway.

  5. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 regulates macrophage cytotoxicity in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: In abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, macrophages are detected in the proximity of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs. We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of AAA that apoptotic SMCs attract monocytes and other leukocytes by producing MCP-1. Here we tested whether infiltrating macrophages also directly contribute to SMC apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a SMC/RAW264.7 macrophage co-culture system, we demonstrated that MCP-1-primed RAWs caused a significantly higher level of apoptosis in SMCs as compared to control macrophages. Next, we detected an enhanced Fas ligand (FasL mRNA level and membrane FasL protein expression in MCP-1-primed RAWs. Neutralizing FasL blocked SMC apoptosis in the co-culture. In situ proximity ligation assay showed that SMCs exposed to primed macrophages contained higher levels of receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1/Caspase 8 containing cell death complexes. Silencing RIP1 conferred apoptosis resistance to SMCs. In the mouse elastase injury model of aneurysm, aneurysm induction increased the level of RIP1/Caspase 8 containing complexes in medial SMCs. Moreover, TUNEL-positive SMCs in aneurysmal tissues were frequently surrounded by CD68(+/FasL(+ macrophages. Conversely, elastase-treated arteries from MCP-1 knockout mice display a reduction of both macrophage infiltration and FasL expression, which was accompanied by diminished apoptosis of SMCs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MCP-1-primed macrophages are more cytotoxic. MCP-1 appears to modulate macrophage cytotoxicity by increasing the level of membrane bound FasL. Thus, we showed that MCP-1-primed macrophages kill SMCs through a FasL/Fas-Caspase8-RIP1 mediated mechanism.

  6. Muscle glycogen depletion following 75-km of cycling is not linked to increased muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Christopher Nieman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures. Cyclists (N=20 participated in a 75-km cycling time trial (168±26.0 min, with blood and vastus lateralis muscle samples collected before and after. Muscle glycogen decreased 77.2±17.4%, muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA increased 18.5±2.8-, 45.3±7.8-, and 8.25±1.75-fold, and muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein increased 70.5±14.1%, 347±68.1%, and 148±21.3%, respectively (all, P<0.001. Serum myoglobin and cortisol increased 32.1±3.3 to 242±48.3 mg/mL, and 295±27.6 to 784±63.5 nmol/L, respectively (both P<0.001. Plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 0.42±0.07 to 18.5±3.8, 4.07±0.37 to 17.0±1.8, and 96.5±3.7 to 240±21.6 pg/mL, respectively (all P<0.001. Increases in muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA were unrelated to any of the outcome measures. Muscle glycogen depletion was related to change in plasma IL-6 (r=0.462, P=0.040, with change in myoglobin related to plasma IL-8 (r=0.582, P=0.007 and plasma MCP-1 (r=0.457, P=0.043, and muscle MCP-1 protein (r=0.588, P=0.017; cortisol was related to plasma IL-8 (r=0.613, P=0.004, muscle IL-8 protein (r=0.681, P=0.004, and plasma MCP-1 (r=0.442, P=0.050. In summary, this study showed that muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression after 75-km cycling was unrelated to glycogen depletion and muscle damage, with change in muscle glycogen related to plasma IL-6, and changes in serum myoglobin and cortisol related to the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1.

  7. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, T; Elling, P; Olson, A

    2000-01-01

    was localised to the vessel wall in patients with TA. In TA, PMR, and healthy controls MCP-1 was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma. RESULTS: MCP-1 was localised to the majority of mononuclear cells, some smooth muscle cells, and giant cells in the arterial biopsy specimens from...

  8. The chemokine MCP-1 (CCL2) in the host interaction with cancer: a foe or ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Teizo

    2018-01-29

    Macrophages are one of the most abundant leukocyte populations infiltrating tumor tissues and can exhibit both tumoricidal and tumor-promoting activities. In 1989, we reported the purification of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from culture supernatants of mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor cells. MCP-1 is a potent monocyte-attracting chemokine, identical to the previously described lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor or tumor-derived chemotactic factor, and greatly contributes to the recruitment of blood monocytes into sites of inflammatory responses and tumors. Because in vitro-cultured tumor cells often produce significant amounts of MCP-1, tumor cells are considered to be the main source of MCP-1. However, various non-tumor cells in the tumor stroma also produce MCP-1 in response to stimuli. Studies performed in vitro and in vivo have provided evidence that MCP-1 production in tumors is a consequence of complex interactions between tumor cells and non-tumor cells and that both tumor cells and non-tumor cells contribute to the production of MCP-1. Although MCP-1 production was once considered to be a part of host defense against tumors, it is now believed to regulate the vicious cycle between tumor cells and macrophages that promotes the progression of tumors.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 29 January 2018; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.135.

  9. Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, H R; Escamilla-Ocañas, C E; Camara-Lemarroy, C R; González-Garza, M T; Moreno-Cuevas, J; García Sarreón, M A

    2017-10-10

    Neuroinflammation has recently been described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the precise role of such proinflammatory cytokines as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) in ALS has not yet been determined. In this study, we determined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCP-1 and MIP-1β levels and assessed their association with the duration and severity of ALS. Concentrations of MCP-1 and MIP-1β were determined in the CSF of 77 patients diagnosed with ALS and 13 controls. Cytokine levels were analysed in relation to ALS duration (12months) and severity (30points on the ALS Functional Rating Scale administered at hospital admission). Higher CSF MIP-1β (10.68pg/mL vs. 4.69pg/mL, P<.0001) and MCP-1 (234.89pg/mL vs. 160.95pg/mL, P=.011) levels were found in the 77 patients with ALS compared to controls. There were no differences in levels of either cytokine in relation to disease duration or severity. However, we did observe a significant positive correlation between MIP-1β and MCP-1 in patients with ALS. The increase in MIP-1β and MCP-1 levels suggests that these cytokines may have a synergistic effect on ALS pathogenesis. However, in our cohort, no association was found with either the duration or the clinical severity of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  11. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases. © FASEB.

  12. Clinical value of detection on ser um monocyte chemotactant protein-1 and vascular endothelial cadher in levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum monocyte chemotactant protein-1 (MCP-1 and vascular endothelia cadherin (VE-cadherin levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and nerve injury molecules, interleukins and matrix metalloproteinases. Methods: A total of 86 patients with acute cerebral infarction treated in our hospital from April 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the observation group and 50 healthy subjects in the same period treated in our hospital were selected as the control group. The serums were collected and the contents of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP, S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, interleukin-lb (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were measured. Results: The serum contents of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, H-FABP, S100B, NSE, IL-1b, IL- 6, IL-17, IL-18, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 in observation group were significantly higher than those of control group. Carotid artery plaque formation and unstable plaque properties will increase the serum contents of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, H-FABP, S100B, NSE, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 in patients with cerebral infarction. The serum levels of MCP-1, VE-cadherin and the contents of H-FABP, S100B, NSE, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were positively correlated. Conclusions: The serum levels of VE-cadherin and MCP-1 were significantly increased in patients with acute cerebral infarction. MCP-1 and VE-cadherin can increase the secretion of interleukins and matrix metalloproteinases, which can result in the carotid artery plaque formation, unstable plaque properties and the injury of nerve function.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels unaltered in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque patients from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj eKhurana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein(MCP-1 as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis(p<0.05. Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountaineer region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at plain region. We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress independent of these inflammatory molecules. In parallel, risk factor analysis indicates hypertension, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle as the most

  14. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xueting [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Fang, Shencun [Nine Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing Chest Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China); Liu, Haijun [Neurobiology Laboratory, New Drug Screening Centre, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Wang, Xingang; Dai, Xiaoniu; Yin, Qing; Yun, Tianwei [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yingming [Nine Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing Chest Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China); Liao, Hong [Neurobiology Laboratory, New Drug Screening Centre, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Yao, Honghong [Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Chao, Jie, E-mail: chaojie@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}). Phagocytosis of SiO{sub 2} in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO{sub 2} produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Methods and results: Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO{sub 2} treatment resulted in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell migration. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO{sub 2}. CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO{sub 2}, and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO{sub 2}-induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. - Highlights: • Role of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in experimental silicosis was studied. • SiO{sub 2} induced MCP-1 release from cultured human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF-a). • SiO{sub 2} directly activated HPF-a via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • SiO{sub 2} increased HPF-a migration in both 2D and 3D

  15. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueting; Fang, Shencun; Liu, Haijun; Wang, Xingang; Dai, Xiaoniu; Yin, Qing; Yun, Tianwei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yingming; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). Phagocytosis of SiO 2 in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO 2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Methods and results: Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO 2 treatment resulted in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO 2 -induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO 2 -induced increase in cell migration. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO 2 . CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO 2 , and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO 2 -induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. - Highlights: • Role of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in experimental silicosis was studied. • SiO 2 induced MCP-1 release from cultured human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF-a). • SiO 2 directly activated HPF-a via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • SiO 2 increased HPF-a migration in both 2D and 3D model via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • RNA-i of MCP-1/CCR2

  16. Role of MCP-1 in pleural effusion development in a carrageenan-induced murine model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, Sally M; Cheah, Hui Min; Lee, Y C Gary

    2017-05-01

    Exudative pleural effusions affect over 1500 patients per million population each year. The pathobiology of pleural exudate formation remains unclear. Our recent study revealed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) as a key driver of fibrinolytic-induced exudate effusion while another study found a role for MCP-1 in malignant effusion formation. In the present study, we further evaluated the role of MCP-1 in the development of pleural effusion in a mouse model of acute pleural inflammation. λ-Carrageenan (CAR) was injected into the pleural cavity of CD1 mice and pleural effusion volume measured up to 16 h post-injection. Pleural effusion and serum protein and MCP-1 concentrations were measured and differential cell counts performed in fluids. Mice were also treated with either intraperitoneal (i) anti-MCP-1 antibody or isotype control or (ii) an MCP-1 receptor (CCR2) antagonist or vehicle control 12 h prior to and at the time of CAR injection. Intrapleural CAR induced significant pleural fluid accumulation (300.0 ± 49.9 μL) in mice after 4 h. Pleural fluid MCP-1 concentrations were significantly higher than corresponding serum MCP-1 (144 603 ± 23 204 pg/mL vs 3703 ± 801 pg/mL, P pleural fluid formation was seen both with anti-MCP-1 antibody (median (interquartile range, IQR): 36 (0-168) μL vs controls 290 (70-436) μL; P = 0.02) or CCR2 antagonist (153 (30-222) μL vs controls 240 (151-331) μL, P = 0.0049). Blockade of MCP-1 activity significantly reduced inflammatory pleural effusion formation in a CAR model. Together with recent successes in MCP-1 blockade in other effusion formation models, our data strongly support clinical evaluation of MCP-1 antagonists as a novel approach to pleural fluid management. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 in Plasma from Soluble Leishmania Antigen-Stimulated Whole Blood as a Potential Biomarker of the Cellular Immune Response to Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Ibarra-Meneses

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New biomarkers are needed to identify asymptomatic Leishmania infection as well as immunity following vaccination or treatment. With the aim of finding a robust biomarker to assess an effective cellular immune response, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was examined in plasma from soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA-stimulated whole blood collected from subjects living in a Leishmania infantum-endemic area. MCP-1, expressed 110 times more strongly than IL-2, identified 87.5% of asymptomatic subjects and verified some asymptomatic subjects close to the cutoff. MCP-1 was also significantly elevated in all patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, unlike IL-2, indicating the specific memory response generated against Leishmania. These results show MCP-1 to be a robust candidate biomarker of immunity that could be used as a marker of cure and to both select and follow the population in vaccine phase I–III human clinical trials with developed rapid, easy-to-use field tools.

  18. Combined use of serum MCP-1/IL-10 ratio and uterine artery Doppler index significantly improves the prediction of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihong; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Lindong; Liu, Pingping; Liu, Ling; Chen, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, or CCL2) is a member of the chemokine subfamily involved in recruitment of monocytes in inflammatory tissues. IL-10 is a key regulator for maintaining the balance of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory milieu at the feto-maternal interface. Doppler examination has been routinely performed for the monitoring and management of preeclampsia patients. This study evaluates the efficiency of these factors alone, or in combination, for the predication of preeclampsia. The serum levels of MCP-1 and IL-10 in 78 preeclampsia patients and 143 age-matched normal controls were measured. The Doppler ultrasonography was performed and Artery Pulsatility Index (PI) and Resistance Index (RI) were calculated for the same subjects. It was found that while the second-trimester serum MCP-1, IL-10, MCP-1/IL-10 ratio, PI, and RI showed some power in predicting preeclampsia, the combination of MCP-1/IL-10 and PI and RI accomplishes the highest efficiency, achieving an AUC of 0.973 (95% CI, 0.000-1.000, Ppreeclampsia. Future studies using a larger sample can be conducted to construct an algorithm capable of quantitative assessment on the risk of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of 17β-estradiol on the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and MAPK activity in monocytes stimulated with peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Seung-Chul; Joo, Jong-Kil; Kim, Hwi-Gon; Na, Young-Jin; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2012-03-01

    Hormones and inflammation have been implicated in the pathological process of endometriosis; therefore, we investigated the combined effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) or a control peritoneal fluid (cPF) obtained from patients without endometriosis on the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by monocytes and the role of signaling pathways. Monocytes were cultured with ePF and cPF in the presence of E2; the MCP-1 levels in the supernatants were then measured by ELISA. In addition, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was measured by Western blotting of phosphorylated proteins. E2 down-regulated MCP-1 release by lipopolysaccharide- or cPF-treated monocytes, but failed to suppress its release by ePF-treated monocytes. The release of MCP-1 by ePF- and cPF-treated monocytes was efficiently abrogated by p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors; however, the MCP-1 release by cPF-treated monocytes, but not by ePF-treated monocytes, was blocked by a MAPK kinase inhibitor. In addition, ePF and cPF induced the phosphorylation of extracellular stress regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). E2 decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2 in ePF-treated monocytes; however, E2 decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK in cPF-treated monocytes. The ability of E2 to modulate MCP-1 production is impaired in ePF-treated monocytes, which may be related to regulation of MAPK activity. These findings suggest that the failure of E2 to suppress ePF-treated production of MCP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Systemic MCP1/CCR2 blockade and leukocyte specific MCP1/CCR2 inhibition affect aortic aneurysm formation differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Vivian; Bot, Ilze; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Talib, Sara; Egashira, Kensuke; de Vries, Margreet R.; Quax, Paul H. A.; Biessen, Erik A. L.; van Berkel, Theo J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), is involved in atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Here, we explored the potential beneficial blockade of the MCP1/CCR2 pathway. Methods: We applied an AAA model in aging apolipoprotein E deficient mice

  1. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES and macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid of metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Ali; Eren, Gülnihal; Çetinkalp, Şevki; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Emingil, Gülnur; Atilla, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis. Twenty metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis (MSG), 20 MetS patients with clinically healthy periodontium (MSH), 20 systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and 20 subjects who were both systemically and periodontally healthy were included. Periodontal and systemical parameters were recorded. GCF MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. MSG and MSH groups had elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference and fasting glucose values in comparison to gingivitis and healthy groups (Pgingivitis groups when compared to those of the MSH and healthy groups (Pgingivitis group had higher MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels compared to the healthy group (P=0.011, P=0.0001, P=0.011 respectively). The RANTES level of MSG group was significantly higher than those of the gingivitis group (P=0.01), but MCP-1 and MIF levels were similar in the MSG and gingivitis groups (P>0.05). Elevated levels of GCF RANTES in MetS patients with gingivitis might associate with the presence of increased gingival inflammation by MetS. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with MetS and adipose tissue-derived RANTES might lead to altered GCF RANTES levels in the presence of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Neogambogic acid prevents silica-induced fibrosis via inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 and MCP-1-induced protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Respiration, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhang, Mei, E-mail: meizhang1717@163.com [Department of Respiration, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Wang, Zhongjiang [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Cheng, Yusi; Liu, Haijun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhou, Zewei [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Han, Bing [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Chen, Baoan [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Yao, Honghong, E-mail: yaohh@seu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chao, Jie, E-mail: chaojie@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Respiration, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}); early stages are characterized by alveolar inflammation, and later stages are characterized by progressive lung fibrosis. Mounting evidence indicates that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Whether neogambogic acid (NGA) inhibits macrophage and fibroblast activation induced by SiO{sub 2} by targeting HMGB1 remains unclear. Methods and results: Experiments using cultured mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) demonstrated that SiO{sub 2} treatment induces the expression of HMGB1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway; in turn, this expression causes macrophage apoptosis and fibroblast activation. Pretreating macrophages with NGA inhibited the HMGB1 expression induced by SiO{sub 2} and attenuated both macrophage apoptosis and fibroblast activation. Moreover, NGA directly inhibited MCP-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) expression, as well as markers of fibroblast activation and migration induced by SiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the effects of NGA on macrophages and fibroblasts were confirmed in vivo by exposing mice to SiO{sub 2}. Conclusion: NGA can prevent SiO{sub 2}-induced macrophage activation and apoptosis via HMGB1 inhibition and SiO{sub 2}-induced fibrosis via the MCPIP1 pathway. Targeting HMGB1 and MCPIP1 with NGA could provide insights into the potential development of a therapeutic approach for alleviating the inflammation and fibrosis induced by SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • The SiO{sub 2} induced HMGB1 in alveolar macrophage and MCPIP1 in fibroblast. • NGA rescued the SiO{sub 2}-induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages via HMGB1 signaling. • NGA inhibited the fibroblast activation induced by SiO{sub 2} via MCPIP1 signaling. • NGA might represent a potential therapeutic approach for silicosis.

  3. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3: possible involvement in apical periodontitis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, A; Osorio, C; Mardones, J; Mundi, V; Dutzan, N; Franco, M; Gamonal, J; Oyarzún, A; Overall, C M; Hernández, M

    2010-10-01

    To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, also known as chemokine CCL-7) in tissue from apical lesions (AL) and to associate MCP-3 expression with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis. To determine the expression of MCP-3 in AL, biopsies obtained during tooth extraction procedures were fixed, subjected to routine processing and diagnosed as apical granuloma (AG) (n = 7) or radicular cyst (RC) (n = 5). As controls, apical periodontal ligament (PDL) specimens from healthy premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons were included (n = 7). All specimens were immunostained for MCP-3 and examined under a light microscope. In addition, homogenates from AL (n = 14) and healthy PDL samples (n = 7) were studied through immunowestern blot. Finally, periapical exudates samples were collected from root canals of teeth having diagnosis of symptomatic (n = 14) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 14) during routine endodontic treatments and analysed by immunowestern blot and densitometry.   MCP-3 was detected in AG and RC and localized mainly to inflammatory leucocytes, whereas no expression was observed in healthy PDLs. MCP-3 was also detected in periapical exudate, and its levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MCP-3 was expressed in AL and its levels associated with clinical symptoms. MCP-3 might play a role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by stimulating mononuclear chemotaxis. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  4. CCL2/MCP-1 modulation of microglial activation and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Bueno Borja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein (CCL2/MCP-1 is a chemokine that attracts cells involved in the immune/inflammatory response. As microglia are one of the main cell types sustaining inflammation in brain, we proposed here to analyze the direct effects of MCP-1 on cultured primary microglia. Methods Primary microglia and neuronal cultures were obtained from neonatal and embryonic Wistar rats, respectively. Microglia were incubated with different concentrations of recombinant MCP-1 and LPS. Cell proliferation was quantified by measuring incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Nitrite accumulation was measured using the Griess assay. The expression and synthesis of different proteins was measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Cell death was quantified by measuring release of LDH into the culture medium. Results MCP-1 treatment (50 ng/ml, 24 h did not induce morphological changes in microglial cultures. Protein and mRNA levels of different cytokines were measured, showing that MCP-1 was not able to induce proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL6, MIP-1α, either by itself or in combination with LPS. A similar lack of effect was observed when measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 expression or accumulation of nitrites in the culture media as a different indicator of microglial activation. MCP-1 was also unable to alter the expression of different trophic factors that were reduced by LPS treatment. In order to explore the possible release of other products by microglia and their potential neurotoxicity, neurons were co-cultured with microglia: no death of neurons could be detected when treated with MCP-1. However, the presence of MCP-1 induced proliferation of microglia, an effect opposite to that observed with LPS. Conclusion These data indicate that, while causing migration and proliferation of microglia, MCP-1 does not appear to directly activate an inflammatory response in this cell type, and therefore, other factors may be

  5. Study on MCP-1 related to inflammation induced by biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Tingting; Sun Jiao; Zhang Ping

    2009-01-01

    The study of inflammation is important for understanding the reaction between biomaterials and the human body, in particular, the interaction between biomaterials and immune system. In the current study, rat macrophages were induced by multiple biomaterials with different biocompatibilities, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing 8% of organic tin, a positive control material with cellular toxicity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304), cultured with PRMI-1640, were detached from cells cultured with the supernatant of macrophages containing TNF-α and IL-1β because of stimulation by biomaterials. The cells were then treated with different biomaterials. Then both TNF-α and IL-1β in macrophages were detected by ELISA. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by RT-PCR. The results suggested that the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was elevated by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and American NPG alloy (p < 0.001). The level of MCP-1 cultured in supernatant of macrophages was higher than in PRMI-1640 with the same biomaterials. And the exposure to PTFE, PLGA and NPG resulted in the high expression of MCP-1 (p < 0.001) following cytokine stimulation. MCP-1 was also significantly expressed in β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and calcium phosphate cement samples (CPC) (p < 0.01). Thus, TNF-α, IL-1β and MCP-1 had played an important role in the immune reaction induced by biomaterials and there was a close relationship between the expression of cytokines and biomcompatibility of biomaterials. Furthermore, these data suggested that MCP-1 was regulated by TNF-α and IL-1β, and activated by both cytokines and biomaterials. The data further suggested that the expression of MCP-1 could be used as a marker to indicate the degree of immune reaction induced by biomaterials.

  6. L-Cysteine supplementation increases adiponectin synthesis and secretion, and GLUT4 and glucose utilization by upregulating disulfide bond A-like protein expression mediated by MCP-1 inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achari, Arunkumar Elumalai; Jain, Sushil K

    2016-03-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine; its plasma levels are decreased in obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. An adiponectin-interacting protein named disulfide bond A-like protein (DsbA-L) plays an important role in the assembly of adiponectin. This study examined the hypothesis that L-cysteine (LC) regulates glucose homeostasis through the DsbA-L upregulation and synthesis and secretion of adiponectin in diabetes. 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with LC (250 and 500 µM, 2 h) and high glucose (HG, 25 mM, 20 h). Results showed that LC supplementation significantly (p L, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 protein expression and glucose utilization in HG-treated adipocytes. LC supplementation significantly (p L expression and adiponectin levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment with LC prevented the decrease in DsbA-L, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 expression in 3T3L1 adipocyte cells exposed to MCP-1. Thus, this study demonstrates that DsbA-L and adiponectin upregulation mediates the beneficial effects of LC on glucose utilization by inhibiting MCP-1 secretion in adipocytes and provides a novel mechanism by which LC supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes.

  7. MCP-1 expressed by osteoclasts stimulates osteoclastogenesis in an autocrine/paracrine manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kana; Ninomiya, Ken; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Miyamoto, Hiroya

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Here, we describe that multinuclear osteoclast formation was significantly inhibited in cells derived from MCP-1-deficient mice. MCP-1 has been implicated in the regulation of osteoclast cell-cell fusion; however defects of multinuclear osteoclast formation in the cells from mice deficient in DC-STAMP, a seven transmembrane receptor essential for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, was not rescued by recombinant MCP-1. The lack of MCP-1 in osteoclasts resulted in a down-regulation of DC-STAMP, NFATc1, and cathepsin K, all of which were highly expressed in normal osteoclasts, suggesting that osteoclast differentiation was inhibited in MCP-1-deficient cells. MCP-1 alone did not induce osteoclastogenesis, however, the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in MCP-1-deficient cells was restored by addition of recombinant MCP-1, indicating that osteoclastogenesis was regulated in an autocrine/paracrine manner by MCP-1 under the stimulation of RANKL in osteoclasts.

  8. Expression and divalent cation binding properties of the novel chemotactic inflammatory protein psoriasin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H

    1996-01-01

    Psoriasin is a novel chemotactic inflammatory protein that possesses weak similarity to the S100 family members of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, and that is highly up-regulated in hyperproliferative psoriatic keratinocytes. Here we have used the psoriasin cDNA to express recombinant human (rh) psorias...

  9. MCP1 haplotypes associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu-Dabo Ellis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 is involved in the recruitment of lymphocytes and monocytes and their migration to sites of injury and cellular immune reactions. In a Ghanaian tuberculosis (TB case-control study group, associations of the MCP1 -362C and the MCP1 -2581G alleles with resistance to TB were recently described. The latter association was in contrast to genetic effects previously described in study groups originating from Mexico, Korea, Peru and Zambia. This inconsistency prompted us to further investigate the MCP1 gene in order to determine causal variants or haplotypes genetically and functionally. Results A 14 base-pair deletion in the first MCP1 intron, int1del554-567, was strongly associated with protection against pulmonary TB (OR = 0.84, CI 0.77-0.92, Pcorrected = 0.00098. Compared to the wildtype combination, a haplotype comprising the -2581G and -362C promoter variants and the intronic deletion conferred an even stronger protection than did the -362C variant alone (OR = 0.78, CI 0.69-0.87, Pnominal = 0.00002; adjusted Pglobal = 0.0028. In a luciferase reporter gene assay, a significant reduction of luciferase gene expression was observed in the two constructs carrying the MCP1 mutations -2581 A or G plus the combination -362C and int1del554-567 compared to the wildtype haplotype (P = 0.02 and P = 0.006. The associated variants, in particular the haplotypes composed of these latter variants, result in decreased MCP-1 expression and a decreased risk of pulmonary TB. Conclusions In addition to the results of the previous study of the Ghanaian TB case-control sample, we have now identified the haplotype combination -2581G/-362C/int1del554-567 that mediates considerably stronger protection than does the MCP1 -362C allele alone (OR = 0.78, CI 0.69-0.87 vs OR = 0.83, CI 0.76-0.91. Our findings in both the genetic analysis and the reporter gene study further indicate a largely negligible role of the

  10. Associations between Deceased-Donor Urine MCP-1 and Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, S G; Puthumana, J; Reese, P P; Hall, I E; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Schröppel, B; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Bimali, M; Parikh, C R

    2017-07-01

    Existing methods to predict recipient allograft function during deceased-donor kidney procurement are imprecise. Understanding the potential renal reparative role for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a cytokine involved in macrophage recruitment after injury, might help predict allograft outcomes. We conducted a sub-study of the multicenter prospective Deceased Donor Study cohort, which evaluated deceased kidney donors from five organ procurement organizations from May 2010 to December 2013. We measured urine MCP-1 (uMCP-1) concentrations from donor samples collected at nephrectomy to determine associations with donor acute kidney injury (AKI), recipient delayed graft function (DGF), 6-month estimated GFR (eGFR), and graft failure. We also assessed perfusate MCP-1 concentrations from pumped kidneys for associations with DGF and 6-month eGFR. AKI occurred in 111 (9%) donors. Median (interquartile range) uMCP-1 concentration was higher in donors with AKI compared to donors without AKI (1.35 [0.41-3.93] ng/ml vs. 0.32 [0.11-0.80] ng/ml, p<0.001). DGF occurred in 756 (31%) recipients, but uMCP-1 was not independently associated with DGF. Higher donor uMCP-1 concentrations were independently associated with higher 6-month eGFR in those without DGF [0.77 (0.10, 1.45) ml/min/1.73m 2 per doubling of uMCP1]. However, there were no independent associations between uMCP-1 and graft failure over a median follow-up of about 2 years. Lastly, perfusate MCP-1 concentrations significantly increased during pump perfusion but were not associated with DGF or 6-month eGFR. Donor uMCP-1 concentrations were modestly associated with higher recipient 6-month eGFR in those without DGF. However, the results suggest that donor uMCP-1 has minimal clinical utility given no associations with graft failure.

  11. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antivirals activate gene expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and 3.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, Petr; Holý, Antonín; Kmoníčková, Eva; Křížková, Jana; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 59-66 ISSN 1021-7770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Acyclic nucleoside phosponate * HIV * Monocyte chemotactic protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2007

  12. Prokaryotic expression and in vitro functional analysis of IL-1β and MCP-1 from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H; McMurray, David N

    2013-06-01

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an excellent animal model for studying human tuberculosis (TB) and also for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases. One of the major roadblocks in effective utilization of this animal model is the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In order to address this issue, guinea pig interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were efficiently cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the expressed proteins in soluble form from both the genes were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The biological activity of recombinant guinea pig IL-1β was demonstrated by its ability to drive proliferation in thymocytes, and the recombinant guinea pig MCP-1 exhibited chemotactic activity for guinea pig resident peritoneal macrophages. These biologically active recombinant guinea pig proteins will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the immune responses of the guinea pig to TB and other diseases.

  13. Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions acutely upregulate VEGF and MCP-1 expression in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Mehmet Soylu, S; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Yang, H T; Newcomer, Sean; Laughlin, M Harold

    2010-06-01

    Application of intermittent pneumatic compressions (IPC) is an extensively used therapeutic strategy in vascular medicine, but the mechanisms by which this method works are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that acute application (150 min) of cyclic leg compressions in a rat model signals upregulation of angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle. To explore the impact of different pressures and frequency of compressions, we divided rats into four groups as follows: 120 mmHg (2 s inflation/2 s deflation), 200 mmHg (2 s/2 s), 120 mmHg (4 s/16 s), and control (no intervention). Blood flow and leg oxygenation (study 1) and the mRNA expression of angiogenic mediators in the rat tibialis anterior muscle (study 2) were assessed after a single session of IPC. In all three groups exposed to the intervention, a modest hyperemia (approximately 37% above baseline) between compressions and a slight, nonsignificant increase in leg oxygen consumption (approximately 30%) were observed during IPC. Compared with values in the control group, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA increased significantly (P < 0.05) only in rats exposed to the higher frequency of compressions (2 s on/2 s off). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha mRNA did not change significantly following the intervention. These findings show that IPC application augments the mRNA content of key angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle. Importantly, the magnitude of changes in mRNA expression appeared to be modulated by the frequency of compressions such that a higher frequency (15 cycles/min) evoked more robust changes in VEGF and MCP-1 compared with a lower frequency (3 cycles/min).

  14. Increased MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients and under intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Wen-Shan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be a risk factor of coronary artery disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as a critical factor for monocyte infiltration, is known to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, on the MCP-1 expression of monocytes. Peripheral blood was sampled from 61 adults enrolled for suspected OSA. RNA was prepared from the isolated monocytes for the analysis of MCP-1. The effect of in vitro intermittent hypoxia on the regulation and function of MCP-1 was investigated on THP-1 monocytic cells and human monocytes. The mRNA and secreted protein levels were investigated by RT/real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Monocytic MCP-1 gene expression was found to be increased significantly in severe OSA patients. In vitro intermittent hypoxia was demonstrated to increase the mRNA and protein expression levels of MCP-1 dose- and time-dependently in THP-1 monocytic cells. The MCP-1 mRNA expression in monocytes isolated from OSA patient was induced to a much higher level compared to that from normal control. Pre-treatment with inhibitor for p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK suppressed the activation of MCP-1 expression by intermittent hypoxia. This is the first study to demonstrate the increase of MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients. In addition, monocytic MCP-1 gene expression can be induced under intermittent hypoxia.

  15. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  16. Folic Acid Supplementation Delays Atherosclerotic Lesion Development by Modulating MCP1 and VEGF DNA Methylation Levels In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shanshan; Li, Wen; Lv, Xin; Wang, Pengyan; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been partly acknowledged to result from aberrant epigenetic mechanisms. Accordingly, low folate levels are considered to be a contributing factor to promoting vascular disease because of deregulation of DNA methylation. We hypothesized that increasing the levels of folic acid may act via an epigenetic gene silencing mechanism to ameliorate atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the atheroprotective effects of folic acid and the resultant methylation status in high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice and in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We analyzed atherosclerotic lesion histology, folate concentration, homocysteine concentration, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and DNA methyltransferase activity, as well as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and promoter methylation. Folic acid reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE knockout mice. The underlying folic acid protective mechanism appears to operate through regulating the normal homocysteine state, upregulating the SAM: SAH ratio, elevating DNA methyltransferase activity and expression, altering MCP1 and VEGF promoter methylation, and inhibiting MCP1 and VEGF expression. We conclude that folic acid supplementation effectively prevented atherosclerosis by modifying DNA methylation through the methionine cycle, improving DNA methyltransferase activity and expression, and thus changing the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. PMID:28475147

  17. p115 RhoGEF activates the Rac1 GTPase signaling cascade in MCP1 chemokine-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhlesh K; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Rao, Gadiparthi N

    2017-08-25

    Although the involvement of Rho proteins in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases is well studied, little is known about the role of their upstream regulators, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). Here, we sought to identify the RhoGEFs involved in monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1)-induced vascular wall remodeling. We found that, among the RhoGEFs tested, MCP1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p115 RhoGEF but not of PDZ RhoGEF or leukemia-associated RhoGEF in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Moreover, p115 RhoGEF inhibition suppressed MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation. Consistent with these observations, balloon injury (BI) induced p115 RhoGEF tyrosine phosphorylation in rat common carotid arteries, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of its levels substantially attenuated BI-induced smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, resulting in reduced neointima formation. Furthermore, depletion of p115 RhoGEF levels also abrogated MCP1- or BI-induced Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling, which, as we reported previously, is involved in vascular wall remodeling. Our findings also show that protein kinase N1 (PKN1) downstream of Rac1-cyclin D1/CDK6 and upstream of CDK4-PAK1 in the p115 RhoGEF-Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling axis is involved in the modulation of vascular wall remodeling. Of note, we also observed that CCR2-G i/o -Fyn signaling mediates MCP1-induced p115 RhoGEF and Rac1 GTPase activation. These findings suggest that p115 RhoGEF is critical for MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation in vitro and for injury-induced neointima formation in vivo by modulating Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. An unusual protein kinase phosphorylates the chemotactic receptor of Dictystelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.; Klein, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the chemotactic receptor of Dictyostelium discoideum in partially purified plasma membranes. The protein kinase responsible for receptor phosphorylation is associated with this fraction and preferentially phosphorylates the ligand-occupied form of the receptor. 8-Azido[ 32 P]cAMP labeling of the cell surface has shown that the cAMP receptor exists in two forms. A 45-kDa protein is predominant on unstimulated cells. cAMP stimulation results in an increased receptor phosphorylation such that the receptor migrates on NaDodSO 4 /PAGE as a 47-kDa protein. Phosphorylation of the chemotactic receptor is not detected in membrane preparations unless cAMP is added to the incubation mixture. Only under those conditions is the phosphorylated 47-kDa form observed. The requirement for cAMP reflects the fact that the kinase involved preferentially uses the ligand-occupied receptor as a substrate. In vitro phosphorylation of the receptor does not involve tyrosine residues. The enzyme does not appear to be a cAMP- or cGMP-dependent protein kinase nor is it sensitive to guanine nucleotides, Ca 2+ /calmodulin, Ca 2+ /phospholipid, or EGTA. Similarities with the β-adrenergic receptor protein kinase are discussed

  19. JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Ling; Samad, Omar Abdel; Suter, Marc R; Yasuhiko, Kawasaki; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Jong-Yeon; Lind, Anne-Li; Ma, Qiufu; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-04-01

    Our previous study showed that activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in spinal astrocytes plays an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization. We further investigated how JNK regulates neuropathic pain. In cultured astrocytes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) transiently activated JNK via TNF receptor-1. Cytokine array indicated that the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was strongly induced by the TNF-alpha/JNK pathway. MCP-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha was dose dependently inhibited by the JNK inhibitors SP600125 (anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one) and D-JNKI-1. Spinal injection of TNF-alpha produced JNK-dependent pain hypersensitivity and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced persistent neuropathic pain and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord, and both were suppressed by D-JNKI-1. Remarkably, MCP-1 was primarily induced in spinal cord astrocytes after SNL. Spinal administration of MCP-1 neutralizing antibody attenuated neuropathic pain. Conversely, spinal application of MCP-1 induced heat hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in superficial spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, indicative of central sensitization (hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons). Patch-clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices showed that MCP-1 not only enhanced spontaneous EPSCs but also potentiated NMDA- and AMPA-induced currents. Finally, the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 was expressed in neurons and some non-neuronal cells in the spinal cord. Together, we have revealed a previously unknown mechanism of MCP-1 induction and action. MCP-1 induction in astrocytes after JNK activation contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain facilitation by enhancing excitatory synaptic transmission. Inhibition of the JNK/MCP-1 pathway may provide a new therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  20. MCP-1 in urine as biomarker of disease activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, Julia; Martin, Debora; Vega, Luisa; Almansa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Lisbeth; Nocito, Mercedes; Jimeno, Antonio; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F

    2012-11-01

    Conventional clinical parameters are not sensitive or specific enough for detecting ongoing disease activity in the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Measurement of cytokines in urine is an encouraging approach to detection of early flares in this disease. Here we have profiled 27 different cytokines, chemokines and celular growth factors in the urine of 48 patients previously diagnosed of SLE as potential biomarkers of disease activity. Correlation analysis with Bonferroni correction showed that MCP-1 was the only immune mediator which levels in urine correlated directly with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score (correlation coefficient, p): MCP-1 (0.45,0.003). MCP-1 correlated inversely with levels of C3 complement protein in serum (-0.50,0.001). MCP-1 showed significant higher levels in patients with severe disease activity in comparison with those exhibiting mild activity. Levels of this chemokine were also higher in patients with severe disease activity in comparison with patients with inactive disease and healthy controls. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for detection of severe disease (SLEDAI⩾8) was as follows for MCP-1: [AUROC, (IC95%), p]: [0.81 (0.65-0.96) 0.003]. In addition, MCP-1 showed a good result in the AUROC analysis for detecting renal involvement [0.70 (0.52-0.87) 0.050]. When correlation analysis were repeated excluding those patients with active renal disease (n=14), levels of MCP-1 in urine kept on showing a significant positive association with SLEDAI-2K score. In conclusion, multiplex-based cytokine profiling in urine demonstrated the superiority of MCP-1 over a wide range of cytokines as biomarker of disease activity in SLE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between serum MCP-1 and subclinical kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murea Mariana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 plays important roles in kidney disease susceptibility and atherogenesis in experimental models. Relationships between serum MCP-1 concentration and early nephropathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD were assessed in African Americans (AAs with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods Serum MCP-1 concentration, urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and atherosclerotic calcified plaque (CP in the coronary and carotid arteries and infrarenal aorta were measured in 479 unrelated AAs with T2D. Generalized linear models were fitted to test for associations between MCP-1 and urine ACR, eGFR, and CP. Results Participants were 57% female, with mean ± SD (median age 55.6±9.5 (55.0 years, diabetes duration 10.3±8.2 (8.0 years, urine ACR 149.7±566.7 (14.0 mg/g, CKD-EPI eGFR 92.4±23.3 (92.0 ml/min/1.73m2, MCP-1 262.9±239.1 (224.4 pg/ml, coronary artery CP 280.1±633.8 (13.5, carotid artery CP 47.1±132.9 (0, and aorta CP 1616.0±2864.0 (319.0. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, HbA1c, BMI, and LDL, serum MCP-1 was positively associated with albuminuria (parameter estimate 0.0021, P=0.04 and negatively associated with eGFR (parameter estimate −0.0003, P=0.001. MCP-1 remained associated with eGFR after adjustment for urine ACR. MCP-1 levels did not correlate with the extent of CP in any vascular bed, HbA1c or diabetes duration, but were positively associated with BMI. No interaction between BMI and MCP-1 was detected on nephropathy outcomes. Conclusions Serum MCP-1 levels are associated with eGFR and albuminuria in AAs with T2D. MCP-1 was not associated with subclinical CVD in this population. Inflammation appears to play important roles in development and/or progression of kidney disease in AAs.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol on TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jian; Yong Wei; Wu Xiaohong; Yu Ying; Lv Jinghuan; Liu Cuiping; Mao Xiaodong; Zhu Yunxia; Xu Kuanfeng; Han Xiao; Liu Chao

    2008-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation characterized by adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and abnormal cytokine production is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, induced by cytokines, has been shown to play an essential role in the early events during macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In this study we investigated the effects of resveratrol upon both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced MCP-1 gene expression and its underlying signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipoctyes. Resveratrol was found to inhibit TNF-α-induced MCP-1 secretion and gene transcription, as well as promoter activity, which based on down-regulation of TNF-α-induced MCP-1 transcription. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB was determined to play a major role in the TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression. Further analysis showed that resveratrol inhibited DNA binding activity of the NF-κB complex and subsequently suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Finally, the inhibition of MCP-1 may represent a novel mechanism of resveratrol in preventing obesity-related pathologies

  3. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  4. Myocardial production and release of MCP-1 and SDF-1 following myocardial infarction: differences between mice and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palasubramaniam Dharshan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell homing to the heart is mediated by the release of chemo-attractant cytokines. Stromal derived factor -1 alpha (SDF-1a and monocyte chemotactic factor 1(MCP-1 are detectable in peripheral blood after myocardial infarction (MI. It remains unknown if they are produced by, and released from, the heart in order to attract stem cells to repair the damaged myocardium. Methods Murine hearts were studied for expression of MCP-1 and SDF-1a at day 3 and day 28 following myocardial infarction to determine whether production is increased following MI. In addition, we studied the coronary artery and coronary sinus (venous blood from patients with normal coronary arteries, stable coronary artery disease (CAD, unstable angina and MI to determine whether these cytokines are released from the heart into the systemic circulation following MI. Results Both MCP-1 and SDF-1a are constitutively produced and released by the heart. MCP-1 mRNA is upregulated following murine experimental MI, but SDF-1a is suppressed. There is less release of SDF-1a into the systemic circulation in patients with all stages of CAD including MI, mimicking the animal model. However MCP-1 release from the human heart following MI is also suppressed, which is the exact opposite of the animal model. Conclusions SDF-1a and MCP-1 release from the human heart are suppressed following MI. In the case of SDF-1a, the animal model appropriately reflects the human situation. However, for MCP-1 the animal model is the exact opposite of the human condition. Human observational studies like this one are paramount in guiding translation from experimental studies to clinical trials.

  5. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavinas, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[ 123 l/ 131 l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies of the

  6. Thioredoxin reductase 1 upregulates MCP-1 release in human endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen-Bo [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Shen, Xun, E-mail: shenxun@sun5.ibp.ac.cn [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-04

    To know if thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) plays a role in antioxidant defense mechanisms against atherosclerosis, effect of TrxR1 on expression/release of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) was investigated in activated human endothelial-like EAhy926 cells. The MCP-1 release and expression, cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-{kappa}B subunit p65 were assayed in cells either overexpressing recombinant TrxR1 or having their endogenous TrxR1 knocked down. It was found that overexpression of TrxR1 enhanced, while knockdown of TrxR1 reduced MCP-1 release and expression. Upregulation of MCP-1 by TrxR1 was associated with increasing generation of intracellular ROS generation, enhanced nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-{kappa}B. Assay using NF-{kappa}B reporter revealed that TrxR1 upregulated transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. This study suggests that TrxR1 enhances ROS generation, NF-{kappa}B activity and subsequent MCP-1 expression in endothelial cells, and may promote rather than prevent vascular endothelium from forming atherosclerotic plaque.

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins may induce expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Kim, Ji Young; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Kang, Mi Ae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Oh, Goo Taeg; Nam, Kyung Tak; Lee, Won-Ha; Park, Yong Bok

    2004-01-01

    Genes induced or suppressed by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in human monocytic THP-1 cells were searched using the differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. One of the differentially expressed (up-regulated) cDNA fragments was found to contain sequences corresponding to monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3). The stimulatory effect of the oxLDL on the expression of MCP-3 mRNA was both time- and dose-dependent. Treatment with GF109203X and genistein, inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, respectively, had no effect on the induction of MCP-3 mRNA by oxLDL, while treatment with cycloheximide inhibited the induction. The induction was reproduced by the lipid components in oxLDL such as 9-HODE and 13-HODE, which are known to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Introduction of an endogenous PPARγ ligand, 15d-PGJ2, in the culture of THP-1 cells resulted in the induction of MCP-3 gene expression. Furthermore, analyses of human atherosclerotic plaques revealed that the expressional pattern of MCP-3 in the regions of neointimal and necrotic core overlapped with that of PPARγ. These results suggest that oxLDL delivers its signal for MCP-3 expression via PPARγ, which may be further related to the atherogenesis

  8. Effects of Triptergium Glycosides on Expressions of MCP- 1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is one of the chronic ..... the release of lysosomal enzymes and TGF, increase the ... important roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus, MCP-1 and CTGF are potential targets for ...

  9. The role of MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis in chondrocyte degradation and disease progress in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-kun Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common arthritic disease and multifactorial whole-joint disease. Interactions of chemokines and OA is inadequately documented RESULTS: In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to investigate monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 in chondrocyte degradation and cartilage degeneration. Chondrocytes from 16 OA patients and 6 normal controls were involved in this study. After stimulation of MCP-1, the expression of MCP-1 and CCR2 increased significantly (P < 0.001 and the expression of MMP-13 also increased (P < 0.05. MCP-1 stimulation also induced (or enhanced the apoptosis of OA chondrocytes (P < 0.05. Additionally, the degradation of cartilage matrix markers (metalloproteinase 3 and 13, MMP3 and MMP13 in the culture medium of normal chondrocytes was also assessed. Furthermore, intra-articular injection of MCP-1 in mouse knees induced cartilage degradation and the CCR2 antagonist did not impede cartilage destroy in rats knees of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis plays a special role in the initiation and progression of OA pathology. Patients with ambiguous etiology can gain some insight from the MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis

  10. Impact of MCP-1 and CCR-2 gene polymorphisms on coronary artery disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Ling; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the second leading cause of death during the last 3 years in Taiwan. Smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages, and endothelial cells produce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) within atherosclerotic plaques following binding to the chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2). Previous studies have well-documented the association between MCP-1 expression and susceptibility to, or clinicopathological features, of CAD. This study investigated the relationships between MCP-1-2518A/G and CCR-2-V64I genetic polymorphisms and CAD in the Taiwanese population. A total of 608 subjects, including 392 non-CAD controls and 216 patients with CAD, were recruited and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to evaluate the effects of these two polymorphic variants on CAD. Results indicated a significant association between MCP-1 -2548 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to CAD. GG genotypes (OR = 1.629; 95 % CI = 1.003-2.644), or individuals with at least one G allele (OR = 1.511; 95 % CI = 1.006-2.270), had a higher risk of CAD as compared with AA genotypes. Results also revealed that subjects with at least one A allele of the V64I CCR2 gene polymorphism had significantly increased risk of CAD. G allele in MCP-1-2518 might contribute to higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation in CAD patients (OR = 4.254; p CCR-2 64I gene polymorphisms represent important factors in determining susceptibility to CAD, and the contribution of MCP-1-2518G could be through effects on atrial fibrillation in CAD patients.

  11. MCP-1 Levels are Associated with Cardiac Remodeling but not with Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Faria, Ana Paula Cabral de; Sabbatini, Andrea; Corrêa, Nathalia Batista; Brunelli, Veridiana; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is a chronic, low-grade inflammation process associated with the release of cytokines and development of target organ damage. Deregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels have been associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms involved are complex and not fully understood. This study aimed to compare the levels of MCP-1 in patients with resistant (RH) versus mild-to-moderate (HTN) hypertension and their association with the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in all hypertensive subjects. We enrolled 256 hypertensive subjects: 120 RH and 136 HTN, investigating the relationship between circulating MCP-1 levels and blood pressure, biochemical data, hematologic profile, and cardiac damage within the RH and HTN groups. Plasma MCP-1 levels were measured by ELISA and LVH was assessed by echocardiography. We found no difference in MCP-1 levels between RH and HTN subjects. On the other hand, we encountered lower MCP-1 levels in patients with LVH (105 pg/mL [100 - 260 pg/mL] versus 136 pg/mL (100 - 200 pg/mL), p = 0.005, respectively] compared with those without LVH. A logistic regression model adjusted for body mass index (BMI), age, race, aldosterone levels, and presence of diabetes and RH demonstrated that median levels of MCP-1 (2.55 pg/mL [1.22 - 5.2 pg/mL], p = 0.01) were independently associated with LVH in the entire hypertensive population. Since MCP-1 levels were similar in both RH and HTN subjects and decreased in hypertensive patients with existing LVH, our study suggests a possible downregulation in MCP-1 levels in hypertensive individuals with LVH, regardless of hypertension strata. A hipertensão arterial é um processo crônico de baixo grau inflamatório, associado com liberação de citocinas e desenvolvimento de lesão em órgãos-alvo. A desregulação dos níveis de proteína quimiotática de monócitos-1 (MCP-1) tem sido associada com elevação da press

  12. Role of CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Huber-Lang, M; Guo, R F

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. Rat MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, and RANTES...... were cloned, the proteins were expressed, and neutralizing Abs were developed. mRNA and protein expression for MIP-1 beta and MCP-1 were up-regulated during the inflammatory response, while mRNA and protein expression for RANTES were constitutive and unchanged during the inflammatory response....... Treatment of rats with anti-MIP-1 beta Ab significantly decreased vascular permeability by 37% (p = 0.012), reduced neutrophil recruitment into lung by 65% (p = 0.047), and suppressed levels of TNF-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by 61% (p = 0.008). Treatment of rats with anti-rat MCP-1 or anti...

  13. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  14. Curcumin as a natural regulator of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Maryam Saberi; Pirro, Matteo; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-02-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant/chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the CC chemokine family, is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and tissue infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Its role in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory diseases has been widely recognized, thus making MCP-1 a possible target for anti-inflammatory treatments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric). Anti-inflammatory action underlies numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin in the control and prevention of several diseases. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of curcumin on the regulation of MCP-1 as a key mediator of chemotaxis and inflammation, and the biological consequences thereof. In vitro studies have shown that curcumin can decrease MCP-1 production in various cell lines. Animal studies have also revealed that curcumin can attenuate MCP-1 expression and improve a range of inflammatory diseases through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. There is limited data from human clinical trials showing the decreasing effect of curcumin on MCP-1 concentrations and improvement of the course of inflammatory diseases. Most of the in vitro and animal studies confirm that curcumin exert its MCP-1-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathway. As yet, there is limited data from human clinical trials showing the effect of curcumin on MCP-1 levels and improvement of the course of inflammatory diseases. More evidence, especially from human studies, is needed to better assess the effects of curcumin on circulating MCP-1 in different human diseases and the role of this modulatory effect in the putative anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between MCP-1, VEGF polymorphisms and their serum levels in patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolei

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate distribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) -2518A/G and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -634G/C polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes melitus patients (T2DM) presenting diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Additionally, we evaluated the effects of these 2 polymorphisms on serum levels of MCP-1 and VEGF in the study population.Patients diagnosed with T2DM without or with DFU were recruited in the study. The distribution of MCP-1 -2518A/G and VEGF -634G/C polymorphisms was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the protein levels of MCP-1 and VEGF. The comparisons of protein levels in DFU patients were performed by student t test according to their genotypes.The frequencies of GG genotype and G allele of MCP-1 -2518A/G was increased in DFU patients, compared with T2DM patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-5.50, P = .011 and OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.18-2.50, P = .005, respectively). Moreover, the increased frequency of GG was significantly associated with up-regulated MCP-1 level in DFU patients (P < .001). Analysis for VEGF -634G/C polymorphisms indicated that the prevalence of CC genotype and C allele of the polymorphisms was decreased in DFU patients, compared with T2DM patients (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.17-0.77, P = .008 and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.91, P = .015, respectively). DFU patients carrying CC genotype had a higher level of VEGF than those with other genotypes (P = .007).MCP-1 -2518A/G and VEGF -634G/C polymorphisms may involve in occurrence and progress of DFU through regulating transcription activity of the genes.

  16. Increased Eotaxin and MCP-1 Levels in Serum from Individuals with Periodontitis and in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulniute, Rima; Palmqvist, Py; Majster, Mirjam; Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Zwicker, Stephanie; Clark, Reuben; Önell, Sebastian; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lerner, Ulf H.; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated by local chemokine production but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. There are no reliable serologic biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis, which is today based solely on the degree of local tissue destruction, and there is no available biological treatment tool. Prompted by the increasing interest in periodontitis and systemic inflammatory mediators we mapped serum cytokine and chemokine levels from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. We used multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeling and identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin as clearly associated with periodontitis along with C-reactive protein (CRP), years of smoking and age, whereas the number of remaining teeth was associated with being healthy. Moreover, body mass index correlated significantly with serum MCP-1 and CRP, but not with eotaxin. We detected higher MCP-1 protein levels in inflamed gingival connective tissue compared to healthy but the eotaxin levels were undetectable. Primary human gingival fibroblasts displayed strongly increased expression of MCP-1 and eotaxin mRNA and protein when challenged with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), key mediators of periodontal inflammation. We also demonstrated that the upregulated chemokine expression was dependent on the NF-κΒ pathway. In summary, we identify higher levels of CRP, eotaxin and MCP-1 in serum of periodontitis patients. This, together with our finding that both CRP and MCP-1 correlates with BMI points towards an increased systemic inflammatory load in patients with periodontitis and high BMI. Targeting eotaxin and MCP-1 in periodontitis may result in reduced leukocyte infiltration and inflammation in

  17. Monocytes infiltrate the pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and differentiate into stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Ino

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+CD45(- cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Because the vast majority of EGFP(+CD45(- cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and α-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs. EGFP(+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, were expressed on Ly6C(high monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP(+F4/80(+CCR2(+ monocytic cells and EGFP(+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP(+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP(+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2(+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the

  18. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and other inflammatory parameters in Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Nikolic; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between cancer and the immune system, and the production of cytokines by the tumour itself have been associated with altered levels of cytokines in human cancer patients. Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS) show vague and non-specific clinical signs....... Although histiocytes can secrete cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, serum cytokine concentrations in dogs with DHS have not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunological state of untreated Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS by assessing multiple serum...... cytokines and to correlate these with other inflammatory markers. As a prospective case control study, 17 Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS were included along with 18 healthy controls (12 Bernese Mountain dogs and 6 dogs of various breeds). Blood samples were examined for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP...

  19. MCP-1/CCR-2-double-deficiency severely impairs the migration of hematogenous inflammatory cells following transient cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Strecker, Jan-Kolja; Minnerup, Jens; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Schilling, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CCR-2 are known to play a major role in inflammatory responses after cerebral ischemia. Mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR-2 have been reported to develop smaller infarct sizes and show decreased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells. In the present study we used green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to investigate the effect of MCP-1/CCR-2-double deficiency on the recruitment of inflammatory cells in a model of both, mild and severe cerebral ischemia. We show that MCP-1/CCR-2-double deficiency virtually entirely abrogates the recruitment of hematogenous macrophages and significantly reduces neutrophil migration to the ischemic brain 4 and 7 days following focal cerebral ischemia. This argues for a predominant role of the MCP-1/CCR-2 axis in chemotaxis of monocytes despite a wide redundancy in the chemokine-receptor-system. Chemokine analysis revealed that even candidates known to be involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment like MIP-1α, CXCL-1, C5a, G-CSF and GM-CSF showed a reduced and delayed or even a lack of relevant compensatory response in MCP-1(-/-)/CCR-2(-/-)-mice. Solely, chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5) increased early in both, but rose above wildtype levels at day 7 in MCP-1(-/-)/CCR-2(-/-)-animals, which might explain the higher number of activated microglial cells compared to control mice. Our study was, however, not powered to investigate infarct volumes. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these mechanisms of inflammatory cell recruitment might be essential for early infarct development and final infarct size and to evaluate potential therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations Between Deceased-Donor Urine MCP-1 and Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mansour

    2017-07-01

    Discussion: Donor uMCP-1 concentrations were modestly associated with higher recipient 6-month eGFR in those without DGF. However, the results suggest that donor uMCP-1 has minimal clinical utility given no associations with graft failure.

  1. Circulating MCP-1 level and вˆј2518 gene polymorphism as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azza M. Hassan

    that plays an important role in the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages into renal tubulointer- stitium. A biallelic A/G polymorphism at position 2518 in the MCP-1 gene was found ..... minurea, but also with UAE in their type 2 diabetic patients. This is explained by the pivotal role played by increased MCP-. 1 production due ...

  2. Aspergillus antigen induces robust Th2 cytokine production, inflammation, airway hyperreactivity and fibrosis in the absence of MCP-1 or CCR2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charo Israel F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is characterized by type 2 T-helper cell (Th2 inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, and airway fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2 and its receptor, CCR2, have been shown to play important roles in the development of Th2 inflammation. CCR2-deficient mice have been found to have altered inflammatory and physiologic responses in some models of experimental allergic asthma, but the role of CCR2 in contributing to inflammation and airway hyperreactivity appears to vary considerably between models. Furthermore, MCP-1-deficient mice have not previously been studied in models of experimental allergic asthma. Methods To test whether MCP-1 and CCR2 are each required for the development of experimental allergic asthma, we applied an Aspergillus antigen-induced model of Th2 cytokine-driven allergic asthma associated with airway fibrosis to mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2. Previous studies with live Aspergillus conidia instilled into the lung revealed that MCP-1 and CCR2 play a role in anti-fungal responses; in contrast, we used a non-viable Aspergillus antigen preparation known to induce a robust eosinophilic inflammatory response. Results We found that wild-type C57BL/6 mice developed eosinophilic airway inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, elevations in serum IgE, and airway fibrosis in response to airway challenge with Aspergillus antigen. Surprisingly, mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2 had responses to Aspergillus antigen similar to those seen in wild-type mice, including production of Th2 cytokines. Conclusion We conclude that robust Th2-mediated lung pathology can occur even in the complete absence of MCP-1 or CCR2.

  3. Nuclear NF-κB p65 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with urinary MCP-1, RANTES and the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yi

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate if nuclear NF-κB p65 expression in ex vivo isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with urinary MCP-1 or RANTES and the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: According to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR, 107 patients with type 2 diabetes (eGFR >60 ml/min were divided into normal albuminuria group (DN0 group, 38 cases, microalbuminuria group (DN1 group, 38 cases, and macroalbuminuria group (DN2 group, 31 cases, compared with matched healthy normal control group (NC group, 30 cases. Nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by western blotting. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect NF-κB p65 mRNA expression and ELISA assay was used to detect the levels of urinary MCP-1 and RANTES. RESULTS: Nuclear NF-κB p65 protein and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, urinary MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr were all significantly higher in all diabetes groups as compared with NC group. In particular, the increase of nuclear NF-κB p65 protein and NF-κB p65 mRNA expressions, urinary MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr all correlated with the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy as indicated by the increase in uACR. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that both urinary MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr were positively correlated with nuclear NF-κB p65 protein or NF-κB p65 mRNA levels. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that nuclear NF-κB p65 protein or NF-κB p65 mRNA was an independent variable for urinary MCP-1/Cr, and MCP-1/Cr and RANTES/Cr were two independent variables for uACR. CONCLUSION: Our research demonstrates that nuclear NF-κB p65 protein and mRNA expressions in ex vivo isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells well correlate with urinary MCP-1/Cr, RANTES/Cr and the severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Correlation of serum MCP-1 and VE-cadherin levels with neural function and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bing Xi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin levels with neural function and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: A total of 78 patients who were diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction in our hospital between May 2013 and August 2016 were selected as pathological group, and 80 healthy volunteers who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Serum was collected to determine the levels of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, nerve injury molecules, inflammatory mediators, proteases and their hydrolysate. Results: Serum MCP-1, VE-cadherin, NGB, NSE, S100β, HMGB-1, sCD40L, YKL-40, visfatin, CatK, MMP9 and ICTP levels of pathological group were significantly higher than those of control group; serum MCP-1 and VE-cadherin levels of pathological group were positively correlated with NGB, NSE, S100β, HMGB-1, sCD40L, YKL-40, visfatin, CatK, MMP9 and ICTP levels. Conclusion: Serum MCP-1 and VE-cadherin levels abnormally increase in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and are closely related to the nerve injury and atherosclerosis process.

  5. AOPPs Induce MCP-1 Expression by Increasing ROS-Mediated Activation of the NF-κB Pathway in Rat Mesangial Cells: Inhibition by Sesquiterpene Lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Cheng Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 plays an important role in extracellular matrix accumulation through macrophage recruitment and activation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study examined whether advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs are involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in mesangial cells (MCs and evaluated the effects of derivatives of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs on AOPP-induced renal damage. Methods: MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCs were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression of tubulin, P47, NF-κB p65, phospho-NF-κB p65, IκB, phospho-IκB, IKKß and phospho-IKKß was evaluated by Western blot. Results: AOPPs caused oxidative stress in MCs and activated the NF-κB pathway by inducing IκBa phosphorylation and degradation. Inhibition of ROS by SOD (ROS inhibitor blocked the AOPP-mediated NF-κB pathway. Moreover, the inhibition of AOPP-induced overproduction of MCP-1 mRNA and protein was associated with inhibition of IκBa degradation by SLs. Conclusion: AOPPs induce MCP-1 expression by activating the ROS/NF-κB pathway and can be inhibited by SLs. These findings may provide a novel approach to treat inflammatory and immune renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Effects of Triptergium Glycosides on Expressions of MCP- 1 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (SCr) and 24 h urinary total protein (UTP) of rats were determined. Additionally ... were of analytic grade. Animals ... five or six times with 0.1 M PBS, dehydrated in ethanol ... following selected conditions: first pre-.

  7. Correlation of urinary monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 with other parameters of renal injury in type-II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Salwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the western world. Increased number of interstitial macrophages has been observed in biopsies from patients with DN. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is the strongest known chemo-tactic factor for monocytes and is upregulated in DN. We examined urinary levels of MCP-1 in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM to assess its possible correlation with other para-meters of renal injury. The urinary MCP-1 level was assessed in 75 patients with type-2 DM (25 patients each with no microalbuminuria, with macroalbuminuria and, with renal impairment and compared them with matched healthy control subjects. The HbA1c and estimated glomerular fil-tration rate (eGFR derived from the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation were examined in the study groups in relation to the urinary MCP-1. The urinary MCP-1 level was significantly higher in patients with micro and macroalbuminuria (167.41 ± 50.23 and 630.87 ± 318.10 ng/gm creatinine respectively as compared with normoalbuminuric patients and healthy controls (63.85 ± 21.15 and 61.50 ± 24.81 ng/gm creatinine, p< 0.001. MCP-1 correlated positively with urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR (r= 0.75, p< 0.001, HbA1c (r= 0.55, p< 0.001 and inversely with eGFR (r=-0.60, p< 0.001. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia is associated with increased urinary levels of MCP-1 that is closely linked to renal damage as reflected by proteinuria and eGFR levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that MCP-1 is in-volved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through its various stages.

  8. The Effect of Post-Resistance Exercise Amino Acids on Plasma MCP-1 and CCR2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Wells

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment and infiltration of classical monocytes into damaged muscle is critical for optimal tissue remodeling. This study examined the effects of an amino acid supplement on classical monocyte recruitment following an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm ingested supplement (SUPP or placebo (PL immediately post-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL, immediately (IP, 30-min (30P, 1-h (1H, 2-h (2H, and 5-h (5H post-exercise to assess plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, myoglobin, cortisol and insulin concentrations; and expressions of C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2, and macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b on classical monocytes. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects of SUPP compared to PL. Changes in myoglobin, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were similar between treatments. Compared to PL, plasma MCP-1 was “very likely greater” (98.1% likelihood effect in SUPP at 2H. CCR2 expression was “likely greater” at IP (84.9% likelihood effect, “likely greater” at 1H (87.7% likelihood effect, “very likely greater” at 2H (97.0% likelihood effect, and “likely greater” at 5H (90.1% likelihood effect in SUPP, compared to PL. Ingestion of SUPP did not influence CD11b expression. Ingestion of an amino acid supplement immediately post-exercise appears to help maintain plasma MCP-1 concentrations and augment CCR2 expression in resistance trained men.

  9. Reconstitution of a physical complex between the N-formyl chemotactic peptide receptor and G protein. Inhibition by pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommakanti, R K; Bokoch, G M; Tolley, J O; Schreiber, R E; Siemsen, D W; Klotz, K N; Jesaitis, A J

    1992-04-15

    Photoaffinity-labeled N-formyl chemotactic peptide receptors from human neutrophils solubilized in octyl glucoside exhibit two forms upon sucrose density gradient sedimentation, with apparent sedimentation coefficients of approximately 4 and 7 S. The 7 S form can be converted to the 4 S form by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) with an EC50 of approximately 20 nM, suggesting that the 7 S form may represent a physical complex of the receptor with endogenous G protein (Jesaitis, A. J., Tolley, J. O., Bokoch, G. M., and Allen, R. A. (1989) J. Cell Biol. 109, 2783-2790). To probe the nature of the 7 S form, we reconstituted the 7 S form from the 4 S form by adding purified G protein. The 4 S form, obtained by solubilizing GTP gamma S-treated neutrophil plasma membranes, was incubated with purified (greater than 95%) Gi protein from bovine brain (containing both Gi alpha 1 and Gi alpha 2) or with neutrophil G protein (Gn), and formation of the 7 S complex was analyzed on sucrose density gradients. The EC50 of 7 S complex formation induced by the two G proteins was 70 +/- 25 and 170 +/- 40 nM for Gn and Gi, respectively. No complexation was measurable when bovine transducin (Gt) was used up to 30 times the EC50 for Gn. The EC50 for Gi was the same for receptors, obtained from formyl peptide-stimulated or unstimulated cells. The addition of 10 microM GTP gamma S to the reconstituted 7 S complex caused a complete revision of the receptor to the 4 S form, and anti-Gi peptide antisera immunosedimented the 7 S form. ADP-ribosylation of Gi prevented formation of the 7 S form even at 20 times the concentration of unribosylated Gi normally used to attain 50% conversion to the 7 S form. These observations suggest that the 7 S species is a physical complex containing N-formyl chemotactic peptide receptor and G protein.

  10. Cigarette smoke-related hydroquinone dysregulates MCP-1, VEGF and PEDF expression in retinal pigment epithelium in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Pons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of legal blindness in the elderly population. Debris (termed drusen below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE have been recognized as a risk factor for dry AMD and its progression to wet AMD, which is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV. The underlying mechanism of how drusen might elicit CNV remains undefined. Cigarette smoking, oxidative damage to the RPE and inflammation are postulated to be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. To better understand the cellular mechanism(s linking oxidative stress and inflammation to AMD, we examined the expression of pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and anti-angiogenic pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF in RPE from smoker patients with AMD. We also evaluated the effects of hydroquinone (HQ, a major pro-oxidant in cigarette smoke on MCP-1, VEGF and PEDF expression in cultured ARPE-19 cells and RPE/choroids from C57BL/6 mice.MCP-1, VEGF and PEDF expression was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Low levels of MCP-1 protein were detected in RPE from AMD smoker patients relative to controls. Both MCP-1 mRNA and protein were downregulated in ARPE-19 cells and RPE/choroids from C57BL/6 mice after 5 days and 3 weeks of exposure to HQ-induced oxidative injury. VEGF protein expression was increased and PEDF protein expression was decreased in RPE from smoker patients with AMD versus controls resulting in increased VEGF/PEDF ratio. Treatment with HQ for 5 days and 3 weeks increased the VEGF/PEDF ratio in vitro and in vivo.We propose that impaired RPE-derived MCP-1-mediated scavenging macrophages recruitment and phagocytosis might lead to incomplete clearance of proinflammatory debris and infiltration of proangiogenic macrophages which along with increased VEGF/PEDF ratio favoring angiogenesis might promote drusen accumulation and

  11. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling; Radioiodacao de proteina por via direta e indireta: estudo comparativo da marcacao de peptideo quimiotatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinas, Tatiana

    2004-07-01

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 123}l/{sup 131}l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies

  12. The host response to the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917: Specific up-regulation of the proinflammatory chemokine MCP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukena Sya N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of live microorganisms to influence positively the course of intestinal disorders such as infectious diarrhea or chronic inflammatory conditions has recently gained increasing interest as a therapeutic alternative. In vitro and in vivo investigations have demonstrated that probiotic-host eukaryotic cell interactions evoke a large number of responses potentially responsible for the effects of probiotics. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the E. coli Nissle 1917-host interaction by analyzing the gene expression pattern initiated by this probiotic in human intestinal epithelial cells. Methods Gene expression profiles of Caco-2 cells treated with E. coli Nissle 1917 were analyzed with microarrays. A second human intestinal cell line and also pieces of small intestine from BALB/c mice were used to confirm regulatory data of selected genes by real-time RT-PCR and cytometric bead array (CBA to detect secretion of corresponding proteins. Results Whole genome expression analysis revealed 126 genes specifically regulated after treatment of confluent Caco-2 cells with E. coli Nissle 1917. Among others, expression of genes encoding the proinflammatory molecules monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ligand 2 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 alpha (MIP-2α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 beta (MIP-2β was increased up to 10 fold. Caco-2 cells cocultured with E. coli Nissle 1917 also secreted high amounts of MCP-1 protein. Elevated levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2α mRNA could be confirmed with Lovo cells. MCP-1 gene expression was also up-regulated in mouse intestinal tissue. Conclusion Thus, probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 specifically upregulates expression of proinflammatory genes and proteins in human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells.

  13. Analysis of the temporal expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during experimental granulomatous inflammation: role and expression of MIP-1α and MCP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, Maria; Hogaboam, Cory M; Kunkel, Stephen L; Delaney, Stephen; Christie, Mark I; Perretti, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Chemokine expression and function was monitored in an experimental model of granulomatous tissue formation after injection of croton oil in complete Freund's adjuvant (CO/CFA) into mouse dorsal air-pouches up to 28 days. In the first week, mast cell degranulation and leukocyte influx (mononuclear cell, MNC, and polymorphonuclear cell, PMN) were associated with CXCR2, KC and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 mRNA expression, as determined by TaqMan® reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. KC (∼400 pg mg protein−1, n=12) and MIP-2 (∼800 pg mg protein−1, n=12) proteins peaked at day 7, together with myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Highest MIP-1α (>1 ng mg protein−1, n=12) levels were measured at day 3. After day 7, a gradual increase in CCR2 and CCR5 mRNA, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA and protein expression was measured. MCP-1 protein peaked at day 21 (∼150 pg mg protein−1, n=12) and was predominantly expressed by mast cells. A gradual increase in N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity (maximal at 28 days) was also measured. An antiserum against MIP-1α did not modify the inflammatory response measured at day 7 (except for a 50% reduction in MIP-1α levels), but provoked a significant increase in MPO, NAG and MCP-1 levels as measured at day 21 (n=6, Pvalues (n=8, P<0.05). In conclusion, we have shown that CO/CFA initiates a complex inflammatory reaction in which initial expression of MIP-1α serves a protective role whereas delayed expression of MCP-1 seems to have a genuine pro-inflammatory role. PMID:11704636

  14. Radiation-Induced Thymidine Phosphorylase Upregulation in Rectal Cancer Is Mediated by Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 From Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Li Ge; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Jun-Sang; Kim, Jong-Seok; Yun, Eun-Jin; Park, Jong-Il; Park, Hae-Duck; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Lim, Kyu; Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) regulation induced by radiation therapy (XRT) in various tumors are poorly understood. We investigated the effect and mechanisms of preoperative XRT on TP expression in rectal cancer tissues. Methods and Materials: TP expression and CD68 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in rectal cancer tissues and cancer cell lines were evaluated before and after XRT in Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies. Isolated peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study of chemotaxis under the influence of MCP-1 released by irradiated colon cancer cells. Results: Expression of TP was significantly elevated by 9 Gy of XRT in most rectal cancer tissues but not by higher doses of XRT. In keeping with the close correlation of the increase in both TP expression and the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), anti-TP immunoreactivity was found in the CD68-positive TAMs and not the neoplastic cells. Expression of MCP-1 was increased in most cases after XRT, and this increase was strongly correlated with TP expression. However, this increase in MCP-1 expression occurred in tumor cells and not stromal cells. The XRT upregulated MCP-1 mRNA and also triggered the release of MCP-1 protein from cultured colon cancer cells. The supernatant of irradiated colon cancer cells showed strong chemotactic activity for monocyte migration, but this activity was completely abolished by neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: Use of XRT induces MCP-1 expression in cancer cells, which causes circulating monocytes to be recruited into TAMs, which then upregulate TP expression in rectal cancer tissues

  15. Toward a noncytotoxic glioblastoma therapy: blocking MCP-1 with the MTZ Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salacz ME

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Salacz,1,2 Richard E Kast,3 Najmaldin Saki,4 Ansgar Brüning,5 Georg Karpel-Massler,6 Marc-Eric Halatsch6 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3IIAIGC Study Center, Burlington, VT, USA; 4Health Research Institute, Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; 5Molecular Biology Laboratory, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 6Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany Abstract: To improve the prognosis of glioblastoma, we developed an adjuvant treatment directed to a neglected aspect of glioblastoma growth, the contribution of nonmalignant monocyte lineage cells (MLCs (monocyte, macrophage, microglia, dendritic cells that infiltrated a main tumor mass. These nonmalignant cells contribute to glioblastoma growth and tumor homeostasis. MLCs comprise of approximately 10%–30% of glioblastoma by volume. After integration into the tumor mass, these become polarized toward an M2 immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic phenotype that promotes continued tumor growth. Glioblastoma cells initiate and promote this process by synthesizing 13 kDa MCP-1 that attracts circulating monocytes to the tumor. Infiltrating monocytes, after polarizing toward an M2 phenotype, synthesize more MCP-1, forming an amplification loop. Three noncytotoxic drugs, an antibiotic – minocycline, an antihypertensive drug – telmisartan, and a bisphosphonate – zoledronic acid, have ancillary attributes of MCP-1 synthesis inhibition and could be re-purposed, singly or in combination, to inhibit or reverse MLC-mediated immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and other growth-enhancing aspects. Minocycline, telmisartan, and zoledronic acid – the MTZ Regimen – have low-toxicity profiles and could be added to standard radiotherapy and temozolomide. Re-purposing older drugs has advantages of established safety and low

  16. Rhizoma coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFB-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Remppis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine.

  17. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFκB-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFκB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFκB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine. PMID:20652055

  18. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Fasting and Postprandial Levels of the Inflammatory Markers YKL-40 and MCP-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Tolerant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Brinkløv Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory markers YKL-40 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 are elevated in morbidly obese patients and decline after weight loss. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible changes of YKL-40 and MCP-1, in both the fasting and the postprandial states, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D and normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Methods. Ten obese patients with T2D and 10 subjects with NGT were examined in the fasting state and after a standard meal prior to and after (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year RYGB. Results. Fasting state MCP-1 levels decreased after RYGB in both groups (P values < 0.0001 whereas fasting YKL-40 levels were unchanged (P values ≥ 0.120. Postprandial MCP-1 levels showed a tendency towards a decrease on most study days; however, the changes were only significant at 1 week (P=0.001 and 1 yr (P<0.0001 in the T2D group and at 3 mo after RYGB in the NGT group (P=0.009. YKL-40 levels showed a slight, postprandial suppression on all study days in the T2D group (all P values ≤ 0.021. Conclusions. Fasting MCP-1 levels, but not YKL-40 levels, decrease after RYGB in subjects with T2D and NGT. Postprandial changes of inflammatory markers are discrete and inconsistent.

  19. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Fasting and Postprandial Levels of the Inflammatory Markers YKL-40 and MCP-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Tolerant Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Stine Brinkløv; Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Background. The inflammatory markers YKL-40 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are elevated in morbidly obese patients and decline after weight loss. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible changes of YKL-40 and MCP-1, in both the fasting and the postprandial states......, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods. Ten obese patients with T2D and 10 subjects with NGT were examined in the fasting state and after a standard meal prior to and after (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year) RYGB. Results....... Fasting state MCP-1 levels decreased after RYGB in both groups (P values...

  20. Phenolic excipients of insulin formulations induce cell death, pro-inflammatory signaling and MCP-1 release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Weber

    2015-01-01

    Insulin solutions displayed cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory potential caused by phenol or m-cresol. We speculate that during insulin pump therapy phenol and m-cresol might induce cell death and inflammatory reactions at the infusion site in vivo. Inflammation is perpetuated by release of MCP-1 by activated monocytic cells leading to enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells. To minimize acute skin complications caused by phenol/m-cresol accumulation, a frequent change of infusion sets and rotation of the infusion site is recommended.

  1. N-caffeoyltryptomine, a potent anti-inflammatory phenolic amide, suppressed MCP-1 expression in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and rats fed with a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a well-known chemokine critically involved in the pathophysiological progression of cardiovascular diseases such as arthrosclerosis. N-caffeoyltryptamine is a phenolic amide with strong anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this paper, the potential e...

  2. MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are present in early aneurysmal dilatation in experimental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Fan; Hao-Tong; Jing Di; Fang Liu; Hai-Hua Zhao; Shu-Ling Bai; Xiang Li; Linlin Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that inflammation actively participates in ascending aortic aneurysm formation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression changes of adhesion molecules and MMPs in an experimental model of ascending aortic aneurysm induced by ascending aorta banding in Wistar rats. Twelve rats developed aortic dilation after ascending aorta banding treatment, while nine normal animals underwent surgery without banding were used as controls. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope showed that the wall of the ascending aorta became disorganized as well as infiltration by inflammatory cells in aneurysmal rats. By using immunohistochemical techniques, a significant increase in the immunostaining of MCP-1 was observed in the aneurysmal wall as compared to the normal aortic wall. Under similar experimental conditions, we also found that the immunostaining of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased in the aneurysmal wall. In addition, gelatin zymo graphic analysis showed that the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were remarkably enhanced in the ascending aorta of ascending aortic aneurysmal rats as compared to normal rats. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are involved in the pathogenesis of ascending aortic aneurysm and an increase in the immunostaining and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may promote the progression of ascending aortic aneurysm. (authors)

  3. TRPV1 and the MCP-1/CCR2 Axis Modulate Post-UTI Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Yaggie, Ryan E; Woida, Patrick J; Miller, Richard J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2018-05-08

    The etiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes remains unknown. In a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model, lipopolysaccharide of uropathogenic E. coli and its receptor TLR4 are required for post-UTI chronic pain development. However, downstream mechanisms of post-UTI chronic pelvic pain remain unclear. Because the TRPV1 and MCP-1/CCR2 pathways are implicated in chronic neuropathic pain, we explored their role in post-UTI chronic pain. Mice were infected with the E. coli strain SΦ874, known to produce chronic allodynia, and treated with the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Mice treated with capsazepine at the time of SΦ874 infection failed to develop chronic allodynia, whereas capsazepine treatment of mice at two weeks following SΦ874 infection did not reduce chronic allodynia. TRPV1-deficient mice did not develop chronic allodynia either. Similar results were found using novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) to assess depressive behavior associated with neuropathic pain. Imaging of reporter mice also revealed induction of MCP-1 and CCR2 expression in sacral dorsal root ganglia following SΦ874 infection. Treatment with a CCR2 receptor antagonist at two weeks post-infection reduced chronic allodynia. Taken together, these results suggest that TRPV1 has a role in the establishment of post-UTI chronic pain, and CCR2 has a role in maintenance of post-UTI chronic pain.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-chemotactic effects of dietary flaxseed oil on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte-mediated cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Brown, Morgan J; Zarepoor, Leila; De Boer, Anna A; Ma, David W L; Power, Krista A; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-03-01

    CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions represent a critical step in the development of the obese inflammatory phenotype that is disrupted by long-chain n-3 PUFA. Our objective was to determine the effect of flaxseed-derived n-3 PUFA (α-linolenic acid) on these paracrine interactions. C57BL/6 mice were fed 3.5% flaxseed oil (FX) + 3.5% corn oil diet w/w or an isocaloric 7% corn oil w/w control diet (CON) for 3 wk. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and purified primary splenic CD8(+) T cells were cocultured at an obese cellular ratio (10% CD8(+) T cells) and LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL mimicking obese circulating endotoxin levels) for 24 h. FX cocultures reduced (i) secreted IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) levels; (ii) activation of inflammatory transcription factors NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3); and (iii) RAW264.7 macrophage chemotaxis versus CON (p ≤ 0.05). Coculture of pre-inflamed adipocytes (10 ng/mL LPS, 24 h prior to CD8(+) T-cell addition) resulted in reduced secretion of IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1β, and RANTES in FX cocultures versus CON (p ≤ 0.05). FX exerts an anti-chemotactic and anti-inflammatory effect on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions (cross-talk), which has the potential to mitigate macrophage chemotaxis which drives components of the obese phenotype. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The MCP-1, CCL-5 and SDF-1 chemokines as pro-inflammatory markers in generalized anxiety disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa A; Szota, Anna M; Just, Marek J; Moś, Danuta M; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2015-02-01

    The co-occurrence of generalized anxiety disorder and personality disorders suggests the existence of association between the neurobiological predispositions leading to the development of these disorders and activation of cytokine system. Pro-inflammatory chemokines such as CCL-5/RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and CXCL12/SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) play an important role in immune response. A total of 160 participants were enrolled in the study, 120 of whom comprised the study group (people with the dual diagnosis of personality disorder and generalized anxiety disorder). The mean age was 41.4 ± 3.5 years (range: 20-44 years). The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals in the mean age of 40.8 ± 3.1 years (range: 20-43 years). A blood sample was collected from each participant and the plasma levels of the CCL-2/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), RANTES and SDF-1 chemokines were determined by ELISA. Increased levels of MCP-1 and SDF-1 were found both in women and in men versus the control group for all types of personality disorders. The levels of CCL-5 in men were significantly increased versus the control group and significantly higher in women than in men. Neither women nor men with avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder showed any significant differences in MCP-1 or SFD-1 levels. In subjects with borderline personality disorder, the levels of the study chemokines were higher in women than in men. Our study has shown the need for determination of proinflammatory interleukins which are considered as biomarkers of personality disorders and generalized anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in MCP-1, CCR-2, and non-small-cell lung cancer in the Han nationality of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wang, J; Li, F-G; Han, M; Chang, X-J; Wang, Z-T

    2015-04-22

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor worldwide and is now the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 2 (CCR-2) are important chemokines. We examined the polymorphisms of 338 unrelated patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and 200 unrelated healthy controls of Han nationality in Northern China using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found a significant increase in the frequency of the MCP-1 AA genotype [0.293 vs 0.195, odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.60] and a significant decrease in the frequency of the GG genotype (0.290 vs 0.41, OR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.47-0.87) in NSCLC patients compared to controls. The frequencies of AA-ww (0.151 vs 0.090, P = 0.041, OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.33-2.43) and AA-wm (0.136 vs 0.080, P = 0.049, OR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.01-3.27) were higher in lung cancer patients than in healthy controls; the frequency of GG-wm (0.121 vs 0.190, P = 0.030, OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.38-0.95) was lower in lung cancer patients than in healthy controls. Based on these results, the polymorphism in MCP-1 may be correlated with the development of NSCLC in the Han nationality of Northern China. However, the polymorphism in CCR-2 is not involved in NSCLC.

  7. Plasma leptin concentrations are greater in type II diabetic patients and stimulate monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 synthesis via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Cha

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest that activation of leptin synthesis may promote MCP-1 activation in a diabetic environment via the MAPK pathway in VSMCs and that it possibly contributes to the acceleration of atherosclerosis.

  8. Insulin resistance is associated with MCP1-mediated macrophage accumulation in skeletal muscle in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patsouris

    Full Text Available Inflammation is now recognized as a major factor contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, while the mechanisms and consequences associated with white adipose tissue inflammation are well described, very little is known concerning the situation in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro and in vivo, how skeletal muscle inflammation develops and how in turn it modulates local and systemic insulin sensitivity in different mice models of T2D and in humans, focusing on the role of the chemokine MCP1. Here, we found that skeletal muscle inflammation and macrophage markers are increased and associated with insulin resistance in mice models and humans. In addition, we demonstrated that intra-muscular TNFα expression is exclusively restricted to the population of intramuscular leukocytes and that the chemokine MCP1 was associated with skeletal muscle inflammatory markers in these models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure of C2C12 myotubes to palmitate elevated the production of the chemokine MCP1 and that the muscle-specific overexpression of MCP1 in transgenic mice induced the local recruitment of macrophages and altered local insulin sensitivity. Overall our study demonstrates that skeletal muscle inflammation is clearly increased in the context of T2D in each one of the models we investigated, which is likely consecutive to the lipotoxic environment generated by peripheral insulin resistance, further increasing MCP1 expression in muscle. Consequently, our results suggest that MCP1-mediated skeletal muscle macrophages recruitment plays a role in the etiology of T2D.

  9. Strontium-Substituted Bioceramics Particles: A New Way to Modulate MCP-1 and Gro-α Production by Human Primary Osteoblastic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Braux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid morbidity and limited availability associated with autografts, synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP ceramics were extensively developed and used as bone filling materials. Controlling their induced-inflammatory response nevertheless remained a major concern. Strontium-containing CaP ceramics were recently demonstrated for impacting cytokines’ secretion pattern of human primary monocytes. The present study focuses on the ability of strontium-containing CaP to control the human primary bone cell production of two major inflammatory and pro-osteoclastogenic mediators, namely MCP-1 and Gro-α, in response to ceramics particles. Methods: This in vitro study was performed using human primary osteoblasts in which their response to ceramics was evaluated by PCR arrays, antibody arrays were used for screening and real-time PCR and ELISA for more focused analyses. Results: Study of mRNA and protein expression highlights that human primary bone cells are able to produce these inflammatory mediators and reveal that the adjunction of CaP in the culture medium leads to their enhanced production. Importantly, the current work determines the down-regulating effect of strontium-substituted CaP on MCP-1 and Gro-α production. Conclusion: Our findings point out a new capability of strontium to modulate human primary bone cells’ communication with the immune system.

  10. Diclofenac, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits DMH-induced colon tumorigenesis through suppression of MCP-1, MIP-1α and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Sanyal, S N

    2011-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiological process involving growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones; however, it also plays a critical role in tumor progression. It favors the transition from hyperplasia to neoplasia, that is, from a state of cellular multiplication to uncontrolled proliferation. Therefore targeting angiogenesis will be profitable as a mechanism to inhibit tumor's lifeline. Further, it is important to understand the cross-communication between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-master switch in angiogenesis and other molecules in the neoplastic and pro-inflammatory milieu. We studied the role of two important chemokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-lα] alongwith VEGF and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced chemopreventive effect in experimental colon cancer in rat. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 30 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously (s.c.) once-a-week) for 18 wk was used as pro-carcinogen and diclofenac (8 mg/kg body weight, orally daily) as the preferential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. Expression of COX-2 and VEGF was found to be significantly elevated in the DMH-treated group as compared to the control, which was lowered notably by Diclofenac co-administration with DMH. Gelatin zymography showed prominent MMP-9 activity in the DMH-treated rats, while the activity was nearly absent in all the other groups. Expression of MCP-1 was found to be markedly increased whereas MIP-1α expression was found to be decreased in colonic mucosa from DMH-treated rats, which was reversed in the DMH + Diclofenac group. Our results indicate potential role of chemokines alongwith VEGF in angiogenesis in DMH-induced cancer and its chemoprevention with diclofenac. Copyright ©2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Aumento da expressão do MCP-1 coroidal e escleral em modelo experimental de hipercolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar experimentalmente que a dieta rica em colesterol provoca aumento da expressão da MCP-1 na coroide e esclera. MÉTODO: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN (grupo dieta normal, composto por 8 coelhos (8 olhos, recebeu ração padrão para coelhos, durante 4 semanas; GH (grupo hipercolesterolêmico, composto por 13 coelhos (13 olhos, recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1% por 8 semanas. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 8ª semana para o GH e 4ª semana para o GN foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com o anticorpo anti-MCP-1. RESULTADOS: A dieta provocou significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001. Houve significativo aumento da expressão da MCP-1 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica em coelhos induz ao aumento da expressão do MCP-1 na coroide e esclera.

  12. Combination of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 with traditional serum tumor markers in lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y W; Zhou, Z G; Wang, M; Dong, J Q; Du, K P; Li, S; Liu, Y L; Lv, P J; Gao, J B

    2016-11-03

    Early detection and treatment is critically important for lung cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 participate in lung cancer regulation. CEA, CA125, and ProGRP are commonly used serum tumor markers for lung cancer. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP when used in combination with IL-6, IL-10, and MCP in lung cancer diagnosis. Serum from three different groups (healthy controls, individuals with high risk for lung cancer, and lung cancer patients) was collected. Electrochemiluminescence was used to detect expressions of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP; ELISA was used to examine serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1. Specificity and sensitivity of single as well as combination markers in lung cancer diagnosis were determined. Results indicated that CEA, CA125, ProGRP, and MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in lung cancer patients as compared to those in controls and high risk individuals. Higher IL-6 and IL-10 levels were observed in both lung cancer patients and high-risk individuals as compared to those in controls. Highest sensitivity (95.2%) in cancer diagnosis was achieved when all six markers were used. This was followed by a combination of IL-6, IL-10, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP (92.6%). The most sensitive (88.6%). Four-marker combination was composed of IL-6, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP. As the combined usage of CEA, CA125, ProGRP, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 significantly improved sensitivity of lung cancer detection; this biomarker arrangement may be beneficial for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of lung cancer.

  13. Spatially and Temporally Regulated NRF2 Gene Therapy Using Mcp-1 Promoter in Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fujita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell degeneration triggered by axonal injury is believed to underlie many ocular diseases, including glaucoma and optic neuritis. In these diseases, retinal ganglion cells are affected unevenly, both spatially and temporally, such that healthy and unhealthy cells coexist in different patterns at different time points. Herein, we describe a temporally and spatially regulated adeno-associated virus gene therapy aiming to reduce undesired off-target effects on healthy retinal neurons. The Mcp-1 promoter previously shown to be activated in stressed retinal ganglion cells following murine optic nerve injury was combined with the neuroprotective intracellular transcription factor Nrf2. In this model, Mcp-1 promoter-driven NRF2 expression targeting only stressed retinal ganglion cells showed efficacy equivalent to non-selective cytomegalovirus promoter-driven therapy for preventing cell death. However, cytomegalovirus promoter-mediated NRF2 transcription induced cellular stress responses and death of Brn3A-positive uninjured retinal ganglion cells. Such undesired effects were reduced substantially by adopting the Mcp-1 promoter. Combining a stress-responsive promoter and intracellular therapeutic gene is a versatile approach for specifically targeting cells at risk of degeneration. This strategy may be applicable to numerous chronic ocular and non-ocular conditions.

  14. Optimal methylation noise for best chemotactic performance of E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Subrata; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2018-03-01

    In response to a concentration gradient of chemoattractant, E. coli bacterium modulates the rotational bias of flagellar motors which control its run-and-tumble motion, to migrate towards regions of high chemoattractant concentration. Presence of stochastic noise in the biochemical pathway of the cell has important consequences on the switching mechanism of motor bias, which in turn affects the runs and tumbles of the cell in a significant way. We model the intracellular reaction network in terms of coupled time evolution of three stochastic variables—kinase activity, methylation level, and CheY-P protein level—and study the effect of methylation noise on the chemotactic performance of the cell. In presence of a spatially varying nutrient concentration profile, a good chemotactic performance allows the cell to climb up the concentration gradient quickly and localize in the nutrient-rich regions in the long time limit. Our simulations show that the best performance is obtained at an optimal noise strength. While it is expected that chemotaxis will be weaker for very large noise, it is counterintuitive that the performance worsens even when noise level falls below a certain value. We explain this striking result by detailed analysis of CheY-P protein level statistics for different noise strengths. We show that when the CheY-P level falls below a certain (noise-dependent) threshold the cell tends to move down the concentration gradient of the nutrient, which has a detrimental effect on its chemotactic response. This threshold value decreases as noise is increased, and this effect is responsible for noise-induced enhancement of chemotactic performance. In a harsh chemical environment, when the nutrient degrades with time, the amount of nutrient intercepted by the cell trajectory is an effective performance criterion. In this case also, depending on the nutrient lifetime, we find an optimum noise strength when the performance is at its best.

  15. Joint effect of MCP-1 genotype GG and MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G increases the likelihood of developing pulmonary tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathesha Ganachari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG increases the likelihood of developing tuberculosis (TB in non-BCG-vaccinated Mexicans and Koreans. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this genotype, alone or together with the -1607 MMP-1 functional polymorphism, increases the likelihood of developing TB in BCG-vaccinated individuals. We conducted population-based case-control studies of BCG-vaccinated individuals in Mexico and Peru that included 193 TB cases and 243 healthy tuberculin-positive controls from Mexico and 701 TB cases and 796 controls from Peru. We also performed immunohistochemistry (IHC analysis of lymph nodes from carriers of relevant two-locus genotypes and in vitro studies to determine how these variants may operate to increase the risk of developing active disease. We report that a joint effect between the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG and the -1607 MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G consistently increases the odds of developing TB 3.59-fold in Mexicans and 3.9-fold in Peruvians. IHC analysis of lymph nodes indicated that carriers of the two-locus genotype MCP-1 GG MMP-1 2G/2G express the highest levels of both MCP-1 and MMP-1. Carriers of these susceptibility genotypes might be at increased risk of developing TB because they produce high levels of MCP-1, which enhances the induction of MMP-1 production by M. tuberculosis-sonicate antigens to higher levels than in carriers of the other two-locus MCP-1 MMP-1 genotypes studied. This notion was supported by in vitro experiments and luciferase based promoter activity assay. MMP-1 may destabilize granuloma formation and promote tissue damage and disease progression early in the infection. Our findings may foster the development of new and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting MCP-1 and/or MMP-1.

  16. Joint effect of MCP-1 genotype GG and MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G increases the likelihood of developing pulmonary tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachari, Malathesha; Ruiz-Morales, Jorge A; Gomez de la Torre Pretell, Juan C; Dinh, Jeffrey; Granados, Julio; Flores-Villanueva, Pedro O

    2010-01-25

    We previously reported that the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG increases the likelihood of developing tuberculosis (TB) in non-BCG-vaccinated Mexicans and Koreans. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this genotype, alone or together with the -1607 MMP-1 functional polymorphism, increases the likelihood of developing TB in BCG-vaccinated individuals. We conducted population-based case-control studies of BCG-vaccinated individuals in Mexico and Peru that included 193 TB cases and 243 healthy tuberculin-positive controls from Mexico and 701 TB cases and 796 controls from Peru. We also performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of lymph nodes from carriers of relevant two-locus genotypes and in vitro studies to determine how these variants may operate to increase the risk of developing active disease. We report that a joint effect between the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG and the -1607 MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G consistently increases the odds of developing TB 3.59-fold in Mexicans and 3.9-fold in Peruvians. IHC analysis of lymph nodes indicated that carriers of the two-locus genotype MCP-1 GG MMP-1 2G/2G express the highest levels of both MCP-1 and MMP-1. Carriers of these susceptibility genotypes might be at increased risk of developing TB because they produce high levels of MCP-1, which enhances the induction of MMP-1 production by M. tuberculosis-sonicate antigens to higher levels than in carriers of the other two-locus MCP-1 MMP-1 genotypes studied. This notion was supported by in vitro experiments and luciferase based promoter activity assay. MMP-1 may destabilize granuloma formation and promote tissue damage and disease progression early in the infection. Our findings may foster the development of new and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting MCP-1 and/or MMP-1.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES, IL1-A, MCP-1 and TNF-A genes in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sáenz-López, Pablo; Carretero, Rafael; Cózar, José Manuel; Romero, José Maria; Canton, Julia; Vilchez, José Ramón; Tallada, Miguel; Garrido, Federico; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated as an etiological factor in several human cancers, including prostate cancer. Allelic variants of the genes involved in inflammatory pathways are logical candidates as genetic determinants of prostate cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes that lead to increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk. A case-control study design was used to test the association between prostate cancer risk and the polymorphisms TNF-A-308 A/G (rs 1800629), RANTES-403 G/A (rs 2107538), IL1-A-889 C/T (rs 1800587) and MCP-1 2518 G/A (rs 1024611) in 296 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and in 311 healthy controls from the same area. Diagnosis of prostate cancer was significantly associated with TNF-A GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09–2.64) and RANTES GA + AA genotype (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–2.38). A alleles in TNF-A and RANTES influenced prostate cancer susceptibility and acted independently of each other in these subjects. No epistatic effect was found for the combination of different polymorphisms studied. Finally, no overall association was found between prostate cancer risk and IL1-A or MCP-1 polymorphisms. Our results and previously published findings on genes associated with innate immunity support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in proinflammatory genes may be important in prostate cancer development

  18. The MCP-4/MCP-1 ratio in plasma is a candidate circadian biomarker for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgard, C; Eidelman, O; Jozwik, C; Olsen, C H; Srivastava, M; Biswas, R; Eudy, Y; Rothwell, S W; Mueller, G P; Yuan, P; Drevets, W C; Manji, H K; Vythlingam, M; Charney, D S; Neumeister, A; Ursano, R J; Jacobowitz, D M; Pollard, H B; Bonne, O

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is psychiatric disease, which can occur following exposure to traumatic events. PTSD may be acute or chronic, and can have a waxing and waning course of symptoms. It has been hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or plasma might be mediators of the psychophysiological mechanisms relating a history of trauma exposure to changes in behavior and mental health disorders, and medical morbidity. Here we test the cytokine/chemokine hypothesis for PTSD by examining levels of 17 classical cytokines and chemokines in CSF, sampled at 0900 hours, and in plasma sampled hourly for 24 h. The PTSD and healthy control patients are from the NIMH Chronic PTSD and healthy control cohort, initially described by Bonne et al. (2011), in which the PTSD patients have relatively low comorbidity for major depressive disorder (MDD), drug or alcohol use. We find that in plasma, but not CSF, the bivariate MCP4 (CCL13)/ MCP1(CCL2) ratio is ca. twofold elevated in PTSD patients compared with healthy controls. The MCP-4/MCP-1 ratio is invariant over circadian time, and is independent of gender, body mass index or the age at which the trauma was suffered. By contrast, MIP-1β is a candidate biomarker for PTSD only in females, whereas TARC is a candidate biomarker for PTSD only in males. It remains to be discovered whether these disease-specific differences in circadian expression for these specific immune signaling molecules are biomarkers, surrogates, or drivers for PTSD, or whether any of these analytes could contribute to therapy. PMID:28170001

  19. Commensal bacteria and MAMPs are necessary for stress-induced increases in IL-1β and IL-18 but not IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maslanik

    Full Text Available Regular interactions between commensal bacteria and the enteric mucosal immune environment are necessary for normal immunity. Alterations of the commensal bacterial communities or mucosal barrier can disrupt immune function. Chronic stress interferes with bacterial community structure (specifically, α-diversity and the integrity of the intestinal barrier. These interferences can contribute to chronic stress-induced increases in systemic IL-6 and TNF-α. Chronic stress, however, produces many physiological changes that could indirectly influence immune activity. In addition to IL-6 and TNF-α, exposure to acute stressors upregulates a plethora of inflammatory proteins, each having unique synthesis and release mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses are dependent on the commensal bacteria, and more specifically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS shed from Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacteria. We present evidence that both reducing commensal bacteria using antibiotics and neutralizing LPS using endotoxin inhibitor (EI attenuates increases in some (inflammasome dependent, IL-1 and IL-18, but not all (inflammasome independent, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 inflammatory proteins in the blood of male F344 rats exposed to an acute tail shock stressor. Acute stress did not impact α- or β- diversity measured using 16S rRNA diversity analyses, but selectively reduced the relative abundance of Prevotella. These findings indicate that commensal bacteria contribute to acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses, and support the presence of LPS-mediated signaling in stress-evoked cytokine and chemokine production. The selectivity of the commensal bacteria in stress-evoked IL-1β and IL-18 responses may implicate the inflammasome in this response.

  20. Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch–Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Yu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the fact that chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of HSP. MCP1/CCL2 gene polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility for HSP. RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms may be related to disease severity and HSP nephritis.

  1. Concentrações de IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 em crianças com excesso de massa corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Magalhães Guedes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar a relação das concentrações de IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 em crianças com excesso de massa corporal. As bases de dados investigadas PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS e Periódico Capes foram consultadas retrospectivamente para os últimos seis anos (2009 a 2014 utilizando combinações de palavras chaves como inflamação, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1 combinadas com crianças e escolares. Foram analisados 21 artigos. Foi encontrado associação entre sobrepeso/obesidade com IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 em 73,3% (11/15, 80% (12/15 e 60% (3/5 dos estudos que analisaram tais marcadores, respectivamente. Crianças com excesso de massa corporal possuem concentrações elevadas de IL-6, TNF-α e MCP-1 resultando em inflamação sistêmica crônica e aumentando o risco de desenvolvimento de outras doenças cardiovasculares. 

  2. Dynamics of the Chemotactic Boycott Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Luis; Wolgemuth, Charles; Tuval, Idan

    2005-03-01

    Aerobic bacteria often live in thin fluid layers on irregular surfaces, near solid-air-water contact lines where the interplay between fluid interface geometry, nutrient transport, and chemotaxis is central to the micro-ecology. To elucidate these processes, we use the simplified geometry of a sessile drop and provide direct experimental evidence for the ``chemotactic Boycott effect" in suspensions of B. subtilis: upward oxygentaxis toward the drop surface leads to accumulation of cells in a thin layer, which flows down to the contact line and produces there a persistent vortex which traps cells near the meniscus. These phenomena are explained quantitatively with a mathematical model consisting of coupled oxygen diffusion and consumption, chemotaxis, and viscous fluid dynamics; they are shown to be associated with a singularity in the chemotactic dynamics at the contact line.

  3. A case-control association study between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and the MCP-1 -2518G/A polymorphism in a Chinese sample Estudo de associação de casos-controle entre Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo (TOC e polimorfismo MCP-1 -2518G/A em uma coorte chinesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and a functional polymorphism of MCP-1 in the Chinese Han population. METHOD: We genotyped and performed a case-control association analysis of the MCP-1 -2518G/A polymorphism in 200 OCD patients and 294 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in MCP-1 -2518G/A genotypic and allelic frequencies between OCD cases and controls (x² = 1.123, df = 2, P = 0.57 by genotype; x² = 0.802, df = 1, P = 0.37 by allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that MCP-1 -2518G/A may not play a major role in the genetic predisposition of the Chinese Han population to OCD. However, further studies using a larger number of subjects are required to obtain a clear conclusion.OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre Transtorno Obsessivo-Compusilvo (TOC e um polimorfismo funcional de MCP-1 na população chinesa de etnia Han. MÉTODOS: Determinamos os genótipos e realizamos uma análise de associações de casos-controle de polimorfismo MCP-1 -2518G/A em 200 indivíduos com TOC e 294 indivíduos saudáveis (controle. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa no genótipo MCP-1 -2518G/A e nas frequências alélicas entre casos de TOC e controles (x² = 1,123, df = 2, P = 0,57 por genotipo; x² = 0,802, df = 1, P = 0,37 por alelo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicaram que MCP-1 -2518G/A pode não ter grande participação na predisposição genética da etnia Han no que diz respeito ao TOC. Contudo, novos estudos com um maior número de indivíduos são necessários para uma conclusão mais clara.

  4. Influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sha Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis. Methods: A total of 60 infertile patients with endometriosis were randomly divided into observation group (30 cases and control group (30 cases. Observation group: promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy; control group: patients were treated only by laparoscopy. Recording and comparing the levels of MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones before and after treatment. Results: (1 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum MCP-1, RANTES, AOPP, MDA, SOD, levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum RANTES, AOPP, MDA levels of the two groups were significantly lower, the serum SOD level of the two groups were significantly higher, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. (2 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum FSH, LH, E2, P, PRL levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum FSH, LH, P, PRL levels of the two groups were significantly higher, the serum E2 level of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy for infertile patients with endometriosis can reduce the levels of serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress, hormones and be beneficial to protect their uterine function.

  5. Changes of MCP-1, FKN, and related cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid in children with epidemic encephalitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the changes of MCP-1, FKN, and related cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in children with epidemic encephalitis B. Methods: A total of 40 children with epidemic encephalitis B who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2014 to June, 2017 were included in the study and divided into the severe group (n=15 and general group (n=25 according to the severity group. Moreover, 20 children who were suffered from oblique inguinal hernia, perineal adhesion, and cryptorchidism were served as the control group. The serum and CSF specimens were collected 24 h after admission and during the recovery period in children with epidemic encephalitis B. The serum specimen was collected 24 h after admission in the control group, and CSF specimen was collected during the lumbar puncture. ELISA was used to detect CMP-1, FKN, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels in the serum and CSF. CMP-1, FKN, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels in children with epidemic encephalitis B on the day after admission and 2-3 weeks after admission and in the control group were compared. The changes of CMP-1, FKN, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α in children with severe and general epidemic encephalitis B were observed. Results: CMP-1 and FKN levels in the serum and CSF in children with epidemic encephalitis B in the critical stage were significantly higher than those in the recovery stage and in the control group. The serum CMP-1 and FKN levels in children with epidemic encephalitis B during the recovery stage were not significantly different from those in the control group, while CMP-1 and FKN levels in CSF were significantly higher than those in the control group. CMP-1 and FKN levels in the serum and CSF in children with severe epidemic encephalitis B were significantly higher than those in the general group. IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-18 levels in the serum and CSF in children with epidemic encephalitis B during the critical stage were significantly higher than

  6. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  7. Chemotactic droplet swimmers in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenyu; Hokmabad, Babak V.; Baldwin, Kyle A.; Maass, Corinna C.

    2018-02-01

    Chemotaxis1 and auto-chemotaxis are key mechanisms in the dynamics of micro-organisms, e.g. in the acquisition of nutrients and in the communication between individuals, influencing the collective behaviour. However, chemical signalling and the natural environment of biological swimmers are generally complex, making them hard to access analytically. We present a well-controlled, tunable artificial model to study chemotaxis and autochemotaxis in complex geometries, using microfluidic assays of self-propelling oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution (Herminghaus et al 2014 Soft Matter 10 7008-22 Krüger et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117). Droplets propel via interfacial Marangoni stresses powered by micellar solubilisation. Moreover, filled micelles act as a chemical repellent by diffusive phoretic gradient forces. We have studied these chemotactic effects in a series of microfluidic geometries, as published in Jin et al (2017 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 114 5089-94): first, droplets are guided along the shortest path through a maze by surfactant diffusing into the maze from the exit. Second, we let auto-chemotactic droplet swimmers pass through bifurcating microfluidic channels and record anticorrelations between the branch choices of consecutive droplets. We present an analytical Langevin model matching the experimental data. In a previously unpublished experiment, pillar arrays of variable sizes and shapes provide a convex wall interacting with the swimmer and, in the case of attachment, bending its trajectory and forcing it to revert to its own trail. We observe different behaviours based on the interplay of wall curvature and negative autochemotaxis, i.e. no attachment for highly curved interfaces, stable trapping at large pillars, and a narrow transition region where negative autochemotaxis makes the swimmers detach after a single orbit.

  8. Fish-oil-derived n-3 PUFAs reduce inflammatory and chemotactic adipokine-mediated cross-talk between co-cultured murine splenic CD8+ T cells and adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Brown, Morgan J; Power, Krista A; Ma, David Wl; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-04-01

    Obese adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is characterized by dysregulated adipokine production and immune cell accumulation. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+ T cell AT infiltration represents a critical step that precedes macrophage infiltration. n-3 (ω-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in obese AT, thereby disrupting AT inflammatory paracrine signaling. We assessed the effect of n-3 PUFAs on paracrine interactions between adipocytes and primary CD8+ T cells co-cultured at the cellular ratio observed in obese AT. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a 3% menhaden fish-oil + 7% safflower oil (FO) diet (wt:wt) or an isocaloric 10% safflower oil (wt:wt) control (CON) for 3 wk, and splenic CD8+ T cells were isolated by positive selection (via magnetic microbeads) and co-cultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Co-cultures were unstimulated (cells alone), T cell receptor stimulated, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated for 24 h. In LPS-stimulated co-cultures, FO reduced secreted protein concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 (-42.6%), tumor necrosis factor α (-67%), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α (-52%), MIP-1β (-62%), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 (-23%), and MCP-3 (-19%) vs. CON, which coincided with a 74% reduction in macrophage chemotaxis toward secreted chemotaxins in LPS-stimulated FO-enriched co-culture-conditioned media. FO increased mRNA expression of the inflammatory signaling negative regulators monocyte chemoattractant 1-induced protein (Mcpip; +9.3-fold) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3; +1.7-fold), whereas FO reduced activation of inflammatory transcription factors nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by 27% and 33%, respectively. Finally, mRNA expression of the inflammasome components Caspase1 (-36.4%), Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3; -99%), and Il1b (-68.8%) were decreased by FO compared with CON (P

  9. Abnormal monocyte recruitment and collateral artery formation in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Michiel; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Royen, Niels; Hua, Jing; de Graaf, Stijn; Bode, Christoph; Buschmann, Ivo R.; Piek, Jan J.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been shown to be effective for the stimulation of collateral artery formation in small and large animal models. The availability of a genetic knockout mouse enables evaluation of the importance of the role of MCP-1 in the natural course of collateral

  10. The chemotactic activity of sputum from patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, M; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Bayley, D; Hill, S L; Stockley, R A

    1998-03-01

    Persistent polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment to airway is thought to be an important component of continuing inflammation and progression of chronic destructive lung diseases. Although chemoattractants are required for the PMN to migrate, the nature of the chemoattractants in the airways has not yet been clarified. We therefore investigated the contribution of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and leukotriene-B4 (LTB4) to the chemotactic activity of lung secretions by inhibiting their activity using a monoclonal antibody to IL-8 and an LTB4 receptor antagonist (LY293111 sodium). Fifty-nine sputum samples obtained from 19 patients with bronchiectasis were studied. In preliminary studies the chemotactic responses to IL-8 and LTB4 were found to be additive, and we were able to remove their contribution independently with the appropriate antibody and antagonist. The chemotactic activity of the secretions was related to the macroscopic appearance (mucoid, mucopurulent, and purulent), and this appeared to be related to an increase in IL-8 contribution. Chemotactic activity was reduced by antibiotic therapy and again that seemed to relate to a reduction in the IL-8 contribution. The contributions of LTB4 were similar among the three types of sputum in varying clinical states. These data suggest that LTB4 and IL-8 are important chemotactic factors in lung secretions from such patients, although IL-8 appears to play a more important role during acute exacerbations. These results may be useful in determining therapeutic strategies for chronic destructive lung diseases in the future.

  11. Generation and partial characterization of an eosinophil chemotactic cytokine produced by sensitized equine mononuclear cells stimulated with Strongylus vulgaris antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Chapman, M R

    1993-07-01

    Supernatants generated by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Strongylus vulgaris sensitized or immunized ponies were assayed in vitro for eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) using the filter system in blind well chambers. The supernatants from these cultures were chemotactic for eosinophils, but not for neutrophils. Supernates from cultures of unsensitized PBMC stimulated with S. vulgaris antigen were not chemotactic for eosinophils. ECA was first detected in culture supernatants after 1.5 h of incubation and was dependent on both antigen and PBMC concentrations, but independent of serum concentrations. Both female and male S. vulgaris worm antigens stimulated ECA production from sensitized PBMC. ECA was not induced by in vitro stimulation of sensitized S. vulgaris PBMC by female Strongylus edentatus worm antigen. Partial characterization of the eosinophil chemotactic cytokine showed it to be nondialyzable, greater than 8000 molecular weight (MW), and sensitive to heating (56 and 95 degrees C), trypsin, and sodium metaperiodate treatments, suggesting that the cytokine is a protein containing some essential carbohydrate moieties. The cytokine described in this paper could partially contribute to the in vivo blood and tissue eosinophilia in experimental S. vulgaris infection.

  12. Urine Epidermal Growth Factor, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 or Their Ratio as Biomarkers for Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy in Primary Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanat Worawichawong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The degree of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (IFTA is an important prognostic factor in glomerulonephritis. Imbalance between pro-inflammatory cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1 (MCP-1 and protective cytokines such as epidermal growth factor (EGF likely determine IFTA severity. In separate studies, elevated MCP-1 and decreased EGF have been shown to be associated with IFTA severity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the predictive value of urinary EGF/MCP-1 ratio compared to each biomarker individually for moderate to severe IFTA in primary glomerulonephritis (GN. Methods: Urine samples were collected at biopsy from primary GN (IgA nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy. MCP-1 and EGF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: EGF, MCP-1 and EGF/MCP-1 ratio from primary GN, all correlated with IFTA (n=58. By univariate analysis, glomerular filtration rate, EGF, and EGF/MCP-1 ratio were associated with IFTA. By multivariate analysis, only EGF/MCP-1 ratio was independently associated with IFTA. EGF/MCP-1 ratio had a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 74 % for IFTA. EGF/MCP-1 had good discrimination for IFTA (AUC=0.85, but the improvement over EGF alone was not significant. Conclusion: EGF/MCP-1 ratio is independently associated IFTA severity in primary glomerulonephritis, but the ability of EGF/MCP-1 ratio to discriminate moderate to severe IFTA may not be much better than EGF alone.

  13. Transport of Chemotactic Bacteria in Porous Media with Structured Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Long, T.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical contaminants that become trapped in low permeability zones (e.g. clay lenses) are difficult to remediate using conventional pump-and-treat approaches. Chemotactic bacteria that are transported by groundwater through more permeable regions may migrate toward these less permeable zones in response to chemical gradients created by contaminant diffusion from the low permeability source, thereby enhancing the remediation process by directing bacteria to the contaminants they degrade. What effect does the heterogeneity associated with coarse- and fine-grained layers that are characteristic of natural groundwater environments have on the transport of microorganisms and their chemotactic response? To address this question experiments were conducted over a range of scales from a single capillary tube to a laboratory- scale column in both static and flowing systems with and without chemoattractant gradients. In static capillary assays, motile bacteria accumulated at the interface between an aqueous solution and a suspension of agarose particulates. In microfluidic devices with an array of staggered cylinders, chemotactic bacteria migrated transverse to flow in response to a chemoattractant gradient. In sand columns packed with a coarse-grained core and surrounded by a fine-grained annulus, chemotactic bacteria migrated preferentially toward a chemoattractant source along the centerline. Mathematical models and computer simulations were developed to analyze the experimental observations in terms of transport parameters from the advection- disperson-sorption equation.

  14. Human type II pneumocyte chemotactic responses to CXCR3 activation are mediated by splice variant A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rong; Lee, Clement M; Gonzales, Linda W; Yang, Yi; Aksoy, Mark O; Wang, Ping; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae; Hurford, Matthew T; Kelsen, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    Chemokine receptors control several fundamental cellular processes in both hematopoietic and structural cells, including directed cell movement, i.e., chemotaxis, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that CXCR3, the chemokine receptor expressed by Th1/Tc1 inflammatory cells present in the lung, is also expressed by human airway epithelial cells. In airway epithelial cells, activation of CXCR3 induces airway epithelial cell movement and proliferation, processes that underlie lung repair. The present study examined the expression and function of CXCR3 in human alveolar type II pneumocytes, whose destruction causes emphysema. CXCR3 was present in human fetal and adult type II pneumocytes as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. CXCR3-A and -B splice variant mRNA was present constitutively in cultured type II cells, but levels of CXCR3-B greatly exceeded CXCR3-A mRNA. In cultured type II cells, I-TAC, IP-10, and Mig induced chemotaxis. Overexpression of CXCR3-A in the A549 pneumocyte cell line produced robust chemotactic responses to I-TAC and IP-10. In contrast, I-TAC did not induce chemotactic responses in CXCR3-B and mock-transfected cells. Finally, I-TAC increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B kinases only in CXCR3-A-transfected cells. These data indicate that the CXCR3 receptor is expressed by human type II pneumocytes, and the CXCR3-A splice variant mediates chemotactic responses possibly through Ca(2+) activation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways. Expression of CXCR3 in alveolar epithelial cells may be important in pneumocyte repair from injury.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide regulated protein expression is only partly impaired in monocytes from patients with type I diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abke Sabine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocytes play an important role in innate immunity and atherosclerosis. A disturbed secretion of cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated monocytes from type 1 diabetes (T1D patients has been described and may contribute to the impaired inflammatory response in these individuals. In the present study the influence of LPS on five different proteins with a function in immunity and atherosclerosis was analyzed in monocytes from controls and T1D patients. Methods Monocytes were isolated from controls and T1D patients and the LPS-stimulated increase of IL-6, CXCL8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (CCL2, MCP-1 and superoxide dismutase (SOD 2, as well as the LPS-mediated decrease of apolipoprotein E (Apo E in primary human monocytes from controls and T1D patients was determined. Results CCL2 and IL-6 secretion in response to LPS was found significantly reduced in monocytes from T1D patients when compared to controls whereas basal CCL2 release was similar in control and T1D cells. In contrast, CXCL8 and apolipoprotein E secretion and SOD 2 expression upon LPS stimulation is similar from T1D and control monocytes. Conclusion These data indicate that LPS-mediated protein expression is only partly disturbed in monocytes from T1D patients. Reduced secretion of IL-6 and CCL2 in activated monocytes of these patients may contribute to an impaired inflammatory response and vascular disease.

  16. Plasma Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Level as a Predictor of the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Khun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 increases in the serum of immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. However, the correlation between the circulating level of MCP-1 and severity of CAP remains unclear. This study investigated differential changes in the plasma MCP-1 levels of patients with CAP before and after an antibiotic treatment and further analyzes the association between the CAP severity and MCP-1 levels. We measured the plasma MCP-1 levels of 137 patients with CAP and 74 healthy controls by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Upon initial hospitalization, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II; confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age of >64 years (CURB-65; and pneumonia severity index (PSI scores were determined for assessing the CAP severity in these patients. The antibiotic treatment reduced the number of white blood cells (WBCs and neutrophils as well as the level of C-reactive protein (CRP and MCP-1. The plasma MCP-1 level, but not the CRP level or WBC count, correlated with the CAP severity according to the PSI (r = 0.509, p < 0.001, CURB-65 (r = 0.468, p < 0.001, and APACHE II (r = 0.360, p < 0.001 scores. We concluded that MCP-1 levels act in the development of CAP and are involved in the severity of CAP.

  17. Monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4/CCL-13) and CC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    chronic inflammation and local tissue eosinophilia. Atopic asthma is characterized by a 50-fold increase in the number of eosinophils relative to neutrophils in the bronchial mucosa. This is the result of the cumulative and sequential effects of variable increases in selective eosinophil versus neutrophil migration occurring at ...

  18. Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness during late gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Lopez Nardhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parturition has been widely described as an immunological response; however, it is unknown how this is triggered. We hypothesized that an early event in parturition is an increased responsiveness of peripheral leukocytes to chemotactic stimuli expressed by reproductive tissues, and this precedes expression of tissue chemotactic activity, uterine activation and the systemic progesterone/estradiol shift. Methods Tissues and blood were collected from pregnant Long-Evans rats on gestational days (GD 17, 20 and 22 (term gestation. We employed a validated Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results We found that GD20 maternal peripheral leukocytes migrated more than those from GD17 when these were tested with GD22 uterus and cervix extracts. Leukocytes on GD20 also displayed a significant increase in chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 gene expression and this correlated with an increase in peripheral granulocyte proportions and a decrease in B cell and monocyte proportions. Tissue chemotactic activity and specific chemokines (CCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1/CXCL1, and CXCL10 were mostly unchanged from GD17 to GD20 and increased only on GD22. CXCL10 peaked on GD20 in cervical tissues. As expected, prostaglandin F2α receptor and oxytocin receptor gene expression increased dramatically between GD20 and 22. Progesterone concentrations fell and estradiol-17β concentrations increased in peripheral serum, cervical and uterine tissue extracts between GD20 and 22. Conclusion Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness, which leads to their infiltration into the uterus where they may participate in the process of parturition.

  19. Activation of farnesoid X receptor downregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in murine macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Jiahe; Jiang, Chanjui; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Lili; Dong, Jinyu; Wang, Yongchao; Jiang, Yu, E-mail: yujiang0207@163.com

    2015-11-27

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays important roles in bile acids/lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to macrophage infiltration into body tissues during inflammation. Here we investigated whether FXR can regulate MCP-1 expression in murine macrophage. FXR activation down regulate MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in ANA-1 and Raw264.7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay, Gel shift and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have revealed that the activated FXR bind to the FXR element located in −738 bp ∼  −723 bp in MCP-1 promoter. These results suggested that FXR may serve as a novel target for regulating MCP-1 levels for the inflammation related diseases therapies. - Highlights: • FXR is expressed in murine macrophage cell line. • FXR down regulates MCP-1 expression. • FXR binds to the DR4 in MCP-1 promoter.

  20. Deficiency of the Chemotactic Factor Inactivator in Human Sera with α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter A.; Talamo, Richard C.

    1973-01-01

    As revealed by appropriate fractionation procedures, human serum deficient in α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) is also deficient in the naturally occurring chemotactic factor inactivator. These serum donors had severe pulmonary emphysema. Serum from patients with clinically similar pulmonary disease, but with presence of α1-AT in the serum, showed no such deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. When normal human serum and α1-AT-deficient human sera are chemotactically activated by incubation with immune precipitates, substantially more chemotactic activity is generated in α1-AT-deficient serum. These data indicate that in α1-AT-deficient serum there is an imbalance in the generation and control of chemotactic factors. It is suggested that the theory regarding development of pulmonary emphysema in patients lacking the α1-antitrypsin in their serum should be modified to take into account a deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. PMID:4683887

  1. Urease Plays an Important Role in the Chemotactic Motility of Helicobacter pylori in a Viscous Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Mizote, Tomoko; Okita, Kiwamu; Nakazawa, Teruko

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the ...

  2. Global solution for a chemotactic haptotactic model of cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Youshan; Wang, Mingjun

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with a mathematical model of cancer invasion of tissue recently proposed by Chaplain and Lolas. The model consists of a reaction-diffusion-taxis partial differential equation (PDE) describing the evolution of tumour cell density, a reaction-diffusion PDE governing the evolution of the proteolytic enzyme concentration and an ordinary differential equation modelling the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition to random motion, the tumour cells are directed not only by haptotaxis (cellular locomotion directed in response to a concentration gradient of adhesive molecules along the ECM) but also by chemotaxis (cellular locomotion directed in response to a concentration gradient of the diffusible proteolytic enzyme). In one space dimension, the global existence and uniqueness of a classical solution to this combined chemotactic-haptotactic model is proved for any chemotactic coefficient χ > 0. In two and three space dimensions, the global existence is proved for small χ/μ (where μ is the logistic growth rate of the tumour cells). The fundamental point of proof is to raise the regularity of a solution from L1 to Lp (p > 1). Furthermore, the existence of blow-up solutions to a sub-model in two space dimensions for large χ shows, to some extent, that the condition that χ/μ is small is necessary for the global existence of a solution to the full model.

  3. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenberg, F.G. [Div. of Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Tait, J.F. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  4. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenberg, F.G.; Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A.; Tait, J.F.; Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  5. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  6. Radioassay of granulocyte chemotaxis. Studies of human granulocytes and chemotactic factors. [/sup 51/Cr tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallin, J I

    1974-01-01

    The above studies demonstrate that the /sup 51/Cr radiolabel chemotactic assay is a relatively simple and objective means for studying leukocyte chemotaxis in both normal and pathological conditions. Application of this method to studies of normal human chemotaxis revealed a relatively narrow range of normal and little day-to-day variability. Analysis of this variability revealed that there is more variability among the response of different granulocytes to a constant chemotactic stimulus than among the chemotactic activity of different sera to a single cell source. Utilizing the /sup 51/Cr radioassay, the abnormal granulocyte chemotactic behavior reported in Chediak-Higashi syndrome and a patient with recurrent pyogenic infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis has been confirmed. The /sup 51/Cr chemotactic assay has also been used to assess the generation of chemotactic activity from human serum and plasma. The in vitro generation of two distinct chemotactic factors were examined; the complement product (C5a) and kallikrein, an enzyme of the kinin-generating pathway. Kinetic analysis of complement-related chemotactic factor formation, utilizing immune complexes or endotoxin to activate normal sera in the presence or absence of EGTA as well as kinetic analysis of activation of C2-deficient human serum, provided an easy means of distinguishing the classical (antibody-mediated) complement pathway from the alternate pathway. Such kinetic analysis is necessary to detect clinically important abnormalities since, after 60 min of generation time, normal chemotactic activity may be present despite complete absence or inhibition of one complement pathway. The chemotactic factor generated by either pathway of complement activation appears to be predominately attributable to C5a.

  7. Substrate-driven chemotactic assembly in an enzyme cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Palacci, Henri; Yadav, Vinita; Spiering, Michelle M.; Gilson, Michael K.; Butler, Peter J.; Hess, Henry; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Sen, Ayusman

    2018-03-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is essential to cell survival. In many instances, enzymes that participate in reaction cascades have been shown to assemble into metabolons in response to the presence of the substrate for the first enzyme. However, what triggers metabolon formation has remained an open question. Through a combination of theory and experiments, we show that enzymes in a cascade can assemble via chemotaxis. We apply microfluidic and fluorescent spectroscopy techniques to study the coordinated movement of the first four enzymes of the glycolysis cascade: hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase and aldolase. We show that each enzyme independently follows its own specific substrate gradient, which in turn is produced by the preceding enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, we find that the chemotactic assembly of enzymes occurs even under cytosolic crowding conditions.

  8. Meisoindigo, but not its core chemical structure indirubin, inhibits zebrafish interstitial leukocyte chemotactic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baixin; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Deng, Xu; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi; Gao, Xiang; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Yueying

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory disease is a big threat to human health. Leukocyte chemotactic migration is required for efficient inflammatory response. Inhibition of leukocyte chemotactic migration to the inflammatory site has been shown to provide therapeutic targets for treating inflammatory diseases. Our study was designed to discover effective and safe compounds that can inhibit leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. In this study, we used transgenic zebrafish model (Tg:zlyz-EGFP line) to visualize the process of leukocyte chemotactic migration. Then, we used this model to screen the hit compound and evaluate its biological activity on leukocyte chemotactic migration. Furthermore, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the hit compound on the AKT or ERK-mediated pathway, which plays an important role in leukocyte chemotactic migration. In this study, using zebrafish-based chemical screening, we identified that the hit compound meisoindigo (25 μM, 50 μM, 75 μM) can significantly inhibit zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.01, p = 0.0006, p migration (p = 0.43). Furthermore, our results unexpectedly showed that indirubin, the core structure of meisoindigo, had no significant effect on zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration (p = 0.6001). Additionally, our results revealed that meisoindigo exerts no effect on the Akt or Erk-mediated signalling pathway. Our results suggest that meisoindigo, but not indirubin, is effective for inhibiting leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing a potential therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory diseases.

  9. Chemotactic Activity on Human Neutrophils to Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemotactic activity o neutrophil to S. mutans. Chemotaxis assay was performed in blind well chambers. Materials and Methods: Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS containing 106 S. mutans,  108 S. mutans, 10-8 M fMLP, or HBSS alone were placed in the lower wells of the chamber and covered with polycorbonate membrane filter. Neutrophils suspension (2x105 cells was then placed in the upper compartment. After incubation for 60 mins at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2, the filters were removed and stained with Giemsa. Result: ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.05, indicating that S. mutans induced neutrophils chemotaxis. The number of neutrophils migration in response to 108 S. mutans and 106 S. mutans were signifiantly greater compared to fMLP (p<0.05. Conclusion: S. mutans may activate human neutrophils, resulting in the chemotaxis of the neutrophils.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.99

  10. Sperm from sneaker male squids exhibit chemotactic swarming to CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Alvarez, Luis; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujiwara, Eiji; Iwata, Yoko; Mohri, Tatsuma; Inaba, Kazuo; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Ochi, Hiroe; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kotzur, Nico; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Baba, Shoji A

    2013-05-06

    Behavioral traits of sperm are adapted to the reproductive strategy that each species employs. In polyandrous species, spermatozoa often form motile clusters, which might be advantageous for competing with sperm from other males. Despite this presumed advantage for reproductive success, little is known about how sperm form such functional assemblies. Previously, we reported that males of the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri produce two morphologically different euspermatozoa that are linked to distinctly different mating behaviors. Consort and sneaker males use two distinct insemination sites, one inside and one outside the female's body, respectively. Here, we show that sperm release a self-attracting molecule that causes only sneaker sperm to swarm. We identified CO2 as the sperm chemoattractant and membrane-bound flagellar carbonic anhydrase as its sensor. Downstream signaling results from the generation of extracellular H(+), intracellular acidosis, and recovery from acidosis. These signaling events elicit Ca(2+)-dependent turning behavior, resulting in chemotactic swarming. These results illuminate the bifurcating evolution of sperm underlying the distinct fertilization strategies of this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu, E-mail: amorooka@gunma-u.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Ueguri, Kei [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Yee, Karen Kar Lye [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Human Resources Cultivation Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryushi, Gunma, 376-8515 (Japan); Yanase, Toshihiko [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan)

    2016-09-02

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  12. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu; Ueguri, Kei; Yee, Karen Kar Lye; Yanase, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  13. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity after bronchial challenge in subjects with grain dust-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jung, K S

    1998-03-01

    There have been few reports suggesting involvement of neutrophils in induction of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust. To understand the role of neutrophils in pathogenesis of grain dust-induced asthma. We observed serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during grain dust-bronchoprovocation tests in six asthmatic subjects with positive bronchial challenges (group I). They were compared with those of six symptomatic subjects from the same workplace with negative bronchial challenges (group II). After grain dust inhalation, serum neutrophil chemotactic activity significantly increased at 30 minutes (P = .028), and then decreased to baseline level at 240 minutes (P = .028) in five subjects of group I having isolated early asthmatic responses. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity was persistent for up to 240 minutes in one asthmatic subject having both early and late asthmatic responses. There was, however, no significant change in serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during bronchial challenges in subjects of group II. Pre-incubation of sera with anti-interleukin-8 (IL-8) antibody did not affect the neutrophil chemotactic activity results of group I subjects. These results suggest that enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity distinct from IL-8 may contribute to significant bronchoconstriction induced by grain dust.

  14. A novel dioxygenation product of arachidonic acid possesses potent chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, S; Perez, H D; Goldstein, I M

    1983-12-25

    We have found that a novel dioxygenation product of arachidonic acid, 8(S),15(S)-dihydroxy-5,11-cis-9,13-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid (8,15-diHETE), possesses chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes comparable to that of leukotriene B4. Authentic 8,15-diHETE, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was prepared by treating arachidonic acid with soybean lipoxygenase and was purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Using a "leading front" assay, 8,15-diHETE exhibited significant chemotactic activity at a concentration of 5.0 ng/ml. Maximum chemotactic activity was observed at a concentration of 30 ng/ml. The 8,15-diHETE generated by mixed human leukocytes after stimulation with arachidonic acid and the calcium ionophore, A23187, exhibited quantitatively similar chemotactic activity. Two synthetic all-trans conjugated isomers of 8,15-diHETE, however, were not chemotactic at concentrations up to 500 ng/ml. In contrast to its potent chemotactic activity, 8,15-diHETE (at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml) was relatively inactive with respect to its ability to provoke either degranulation or generation of superoxide anion radicals by cytochalasin B-treated leukocytes. Both leukotriene B4 and 8,15-diHETE may be important mediators of inflammation.

  15. Actin cytoskeleton of chemotactic amoebae operates close to the onset of oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorf, Christian; Negrete, Jose; Bae, Albert J.; Sandmann, Rabea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external stimuli is an essential property of many motile eukaryotic cells. Here, we report evidence that the actin machinery of chemotactic Dictyostelium cells operates close to an oscillatory instability. When averaging the actin response of many cells to a short pulse of the chemoattractant cAMP, we observed a transient accumulation of cortical actin reminiscent of a damped oscillation. At the single-cell level, however, the response dynamics ranged from short, strongly damped responses to slowly decaying, weakly damped oscillations. Furthermore, in a small subpopulation, we observed self-sustained oscillations in the cortical F-actin concentration. To substantiate that an oscillatory mechanism governs the actin dynamics in these cells, we systematically exposed a large number of cells to periodic pulse trains of different frequencies. Our results indicate a resonance peak at a stimulation period of around 20 s. We propose a delayed feedback model that explains our experimental findings based on a time-delay in the regulatory network of the actin system. To test the model, we performed stimulation experiments with cells that express GFP-tagged fusion proteins of Coronin and actin-interacting protein 1, as well as knockout mutants that lack Coronin and actin-interacting protein 1. These actin-binding proteins enhance the disassembly of actin filaments and thus allow us to estimate the delay time in the regulatory feedback loop. Based on this independent estimate, our model predicts an intrinsic period of 20 s, which agrees with the resonance observed in our periodic stimulation experiments. PMID:23431176

  16. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Tu, Jiagang; Xiong, Yang; Lan, Jiangfeng; Dong, Xing Xing; Liu, Xiaoling; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Mei, Jie; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA), a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS). The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals) at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:27589721

  17. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  18. The actin cytoskeleton of chemotactic amoebae operates close to the onset of oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorf, Christian; Negrete, Jose, Jr.; Bae, Albert; Sandmann, Rabea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2013-03-01

    We report evidence that the actin machinery of chemotactic Dictyostelium cells operates close to an oscillatory instability. The averaged F-actin response of many cells to a short-time pulse of cAMP is reminiscent of a damped oscillation. At the single-cell level, however, the response dynamics ranged from short, strongly damped responses to slowly decaying, weakly damped oscillations. Furthermore, in a small subpopulation, we observed self-sustained oscillations in the cortical F-actin concentration. We systematically exposed a large number of cells to periodic pulse trains. The results indicate a resonance peak at periodic inputs of around 20 s. We propose a delayed feedback model that explains our experimental findings based on a time-delay in the actin regulatory network. To quantitatively test the model, we performed stimulation experiments with cells that express GFP-tagged fusion proteins of Coronin and Aip1. These served as markers of the F-actin disassembly process and thus allow us to estimate the delay time. Based on this independent estimate, our model predicts an intrinsic period of 20 s, which agrees with the resonance observed experimentally. Financial support by the Max-Planck Society and the DFG (SFB 937).

  19. The interaction between circulating complement proteins and cutaneous microvascular endothelial cells in the development of childhood Henoch-Schonlein Purpura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Hsu Yang

    Full Text Available In addition to IgA, the deposition of complement (C3 in dermal vessels is commonly found in Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of circulating complement proteins in the pathogenesis of childhood HSP.Plasma levels of C3a, C4a, C5a, and Bb in 30 HSP patients and 30 healthy controls were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The expression of C3a receptor (C3aR, C5a receptor (CD88, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, C3, C5, interleukin (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, and RANTES by human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d was evaluated either by flow cytometry or by ELISA.At the acute stage, HSP patients had higher plasma levels of C3a (359.5 ± 115.3 vs. 183.3 ± 94.1 ng/ml, p < 0.0001, C5a (181.4 ± 86.1 vs. 33.7 ± 26.3 ng/ml, p < 0.0001, and Bb (3.7 ± 2.6 vs. 1.0 ± 0.6 μg/ml, p < 0.0001, but not C4a than healthy controls. Although HSP patient-derived acute phase plasma did not alter the presentation of C3aR and CD88 on HMVEC-d, it enhanced the production of endothelial C3 and C5. Moreover, C5a was shown in vitro to up-regulate the expression of IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 by HMVEC-d with a dose-dependent manner.In HSP, the activation of the complement system in part through the alternative pathway may have resulted in increased plasma levels of C3a and C5a, which, especially C5a, may play a role in the disease pathogenesis by activating endothelium of cutaneous small vessels.

  20. Association of Canine Osteosarcoma and Monocyte Phenotype and Chemotactic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, J L; Lascelles, B D X; Griffith, E H; Fogle, J E

    2016-07-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are likely key cells in immune modulation in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA). Increased peripheral monocyte counts are negatively correlated with shorter disease-free intervals in dogs with OSA. Understanding the monocyte/macrophage's modulatory role in dogs with OSA can direct further studies in immunotherapy development for OSA. That OSA evades the immune response by down-regulating monocyte chemokine receptor expression and migratory function, and suppresses host immune responses. Eighteen dogs with OSA that have not received definitive treatment and 14 healthy age-matched controls Clinical study-expression of peripheral blood monocyte cell surface receptors, monocyte mRNA expression and cytokine secretion, monocyte chemotaxis, and survival were compared between clinical dogs with OSA and healthy control dogs. Cell surface expression of multiple chemokine receptors is significantly down-regulated in peripheral blood monocytes of dogs with OSA. The percentage expression of CCR2 (median 58%, range 2-94%) and CXCR2 expression (median 54%, range 2-92%) was higher in control dogs compared to dogs with OSA (CCR2 median 29%, range 3-45%, P = 0.0006; CXCR2 median 23%, range 0.2-52%, P = 0.0007). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) (OSA, median 347.36 pg/mL, range 103.4-1268.5; control, 136.23 pg/mL, range 69.93-542.6, P = .04) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (P = .02) levels are increased in OSA monocyte culture supernatants compared to controls. Peripheral blood monocytes of dogs with OSA exhibit decreased chemotactic function when compared to control dogs (OSA, median 1.2 directed to random migration, range 0.8-1.25; control, 1.6, range of 0.9-1.8, P = .018). Dogs with OSA have decreased monocyte chemokine receptor expression and monocyte chemotaxis, potential mechanisms by which OSA might evade the immune response. Reversal of monocyte dysfunction using immunotherapy could improve survival in dogs with OSA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of

  1. Neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Kharazmi, A; Larsen, C G

    1997-01-01

    been shown to confer a poor prognosis in PCP. We therefore investigated the potential of BAL fluid from 17 patients with PCP to induce neutrophil chemotaxis. BAL fluid from patients induced considerable neutrophil chemotactic activity compared to normal controls. Elevated levels of IL-8 were detected...... in patient samples as compared to controls. A specific anti-IL-8 antibody significantly reduced chemotactic activity of patient samples by more than 50%. In conclusion, IL-8 appears to be a significant participant of neutrophil chemotaxis in AIDS-associated PCP, and may participate in the recruitment...

  2. Colloidal silver nanoparticles/rhamnolipid (SNPRL) composite as novel chemotactic antibacterial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, P; Saikia, J P; Paul, S; Konwar, B K

    2013-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles and rhamnolipid are well known individually. In the present research, antibacterial and chemotactic activity due to colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP), rhamnolipid (RL) and silver nanoparticles/rhamnolipid composite (SNPRL) were evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC3160), Escherichia coli (MTCC40), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC8163) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441) as test strains. Further, the SNPRL nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation clearly indicates that SNPRL shows prominent antibacterial and chemotactic activity in comparison to all of its individual precursor components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons

  4. Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar Perumal Samy

    Full Text Available Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW, and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. CaTx-II was not cytotoxic on lung (MRC-5, skin fibroblast (HEPK cells and in mice. CaTx-II-treated mice showed significant wound closure and complete healing by 16 days as compared to untreated controls (**P<0.01. Histological examination revealed enhanced collagen synthesis and neovascularization after treatment with CaTx-II versus 2% Fusidic Acid ointment (FAO treated controls. Measurement of tissue cytokines revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β expression in CaTx-II treated mice was significantly suppressed versus untreated controls. In contrast, cytokines involved in wound healing and cell migration i.e., monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-b, chemokine (KC, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF were significantly enhanced in CaTx-II treated mice, but not in the controls. CaTx-II also modulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation during skin wound healing. The CaTx-II protein highlights distinct snake proteins as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents with significant therapeutic application for bacterial skin infections.

  5. Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Release From 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: A New Treatment Opportunity for Obesity-Related Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Stabler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL to determine its impact on MCP-1 release. Chondroitin sulfate, a natural glycosaminoglycan of connective tissue including the cartilage extracellular matrix, was chosen on the basis of our previous studies demonstrating its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages. Because the main action of MCP-1 is to induce monocyte migration, cultured THP-1 monocytes were used to test whether CS at the highest physiologically relevant concentration could inhibit cell migration induced by human recombinant MCP-1. Chondroitin sulfate (100-200 µg/mL inhibited MCP-1 release from inflamed adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner ( P  < .01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.89 to −3.858 at 100 µg/mL and P  < .001, 95% CI: −6.028 to −3.996 at 200 µg/mL but had no effect on MCP-1–driven chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes. In summary, CS could be expected to reduce macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by reduction in adipocyte expression and release of MCP-1 and as such might reduce adipose tissue inflammation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, now increasingly recognized to be relevant in vivo.

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethel-Brown Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB. We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays demonstrated increased binding of NFκB to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs, an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R blocker. PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte

  7. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promoter -2518 polymorphism and susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) promoter -2518 A/G polymorphism (rs1024611) is associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or multiple sclerosis (MS). A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis, RA, and MS. Fourteen studies from 13 articles, including six on vasculitis, five on RA, and three on MS, consisting of 3,038 patients and 3,545 controls were available for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and vasculitis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.990, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.749-1.309, p = 0.943). Stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the G allele of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and vasculitis in Asians and Caucasians. Meta-analysis by vasculitis type revealed an association between the GG+GA genotype of the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism and Behçet's disease (BD; OR = 1.349, 95% CI = 1.013-1.796, p = 0.040). However, sensitivity analysis showed that the association was not statistically significant after removing a study that was conducted in China (OR = 1.030, 95% CI = 0.667-1.590, p = 0.895), which indicated that the association was not statistically robust. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the MCP-1 -2518 G allele and RA (OR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.890-1.093, p = 0.793) or MS (OR = 1.281, 95% CI = 0.802-2.046, p = 0.301). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to vasculitis, RA, or MS.

  8. Influence of HFE variants and cellular iron on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Zachary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are relatively common in the general population and are most commonly associated with iron overload, but can promote subclinical cellular iron loading even in the absence of clinically identified disease. The effects of the variants as well as the resulting cellular iron dyshomeostasis potentially impact a number of disease-associated pathways. We tested the hypothesis that the two most common HFE variants, H63D and C282Y, would affect cellular secretion of cytokines and trophic factors. Methods We screened a panel of cytokines and trophic factors using a multiplexed immunoassay in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing different variants of HFE. The influence of cellular iron secretion on the potent chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 was assessed using ferric ammonium citrate and the iron chelator, desferroxamine. Additionally, an antioxidant, Trolox, and an anti-inflammatory, minocycline, were tested for their effects on MCP-1 secretion in the presence of HFE variants. Results Expression of the HFE variants altered the labile iron pool in SH-SY5Y cells. Of the panel of cytokines and trophic factors analyzed, only the release of MCP-1 was affected by the HFE variants. We further examined the relationship between iron and MCP-1 and found MCP-1 secretion tightly associated with intracellular iron status. A potential direct effect of HFE is considered because, despite having similar levels of intracellular iron, the association between HFE genotype and MCP-1 expression was different for the H63D and C282Y HFE variants. Moreover, HFE genotype was a factor in the effect of minocycline, a multifaceted antibiotic used in treating a number of neurologic conditions associated with inflammation, on MCP-1

  9. LEGO bricks used as chemotactic chambers: evaluation by a computer-assisted image analysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarà, A; Chimenti, M

    2004-01-01

    One of the main techniques used to explore neutrophil motility, employs micropore filters in chemotactic chambers. Many new models have been proposed, in order to perform multiple microassays in a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible way. In this work, LEGO bricks have been used as chemotactic chambers in the evaluation of neutrophil random motility and chemotaxis and compared with conventional Boyden chambers in a "time-response" experiment. Neutrophil motility throughout the filters was evaluated by means of an image-processing workstation, in which a dedicated algorithm recognizes and counts the cells in several fields and focal planes throughout the whole filter; correlates counts and depth values; performs a statistical analysis of data; calculates the true value of neutrophil migration; determines the distribution of cells; and displays the migration pattern. By this method, we found that the distances travelled by the cells in conventional chambers and in LEGO bricks were perfectly identical, both in random migration and under chemotactic conditions. Moreover, no interference with the physiological behaviour of neutrophils was detectable. In fact, the kinetics of migration was identical both in random migration (characterized by a gaussian pattern) and in chemotaxis (characterized by a typical stimulation peak, previously identified by our workstation). In conclusion, LEGO bricks are extremely precise devices. They are simple to use and allow the use of small amounts of chemoattractant solution and cell suspension, supplying by itself a triplicate test. LEGO bricks are inexpensive, fast and suitable for current diagnostic activity or for research investigations in every laboratory.

  10. Downregulation of the S1P Transporter Spinster Homology Protein 2 (Spns2 Exerts an Anti-Fibrotic and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Blanchard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinase (SK catalyses the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, which acts as a key regulator of inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, mainly via S1P receptor activation. Here, we show that in the human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK2, the profibrotic mediator transforming growth factor β (TGFβ induces SK-1 mRNA and protein expression, and in parallel, it also upregulates the expression of the fibrotic markers connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and fibronectin. Stable downregulation of SK-1 by RNAi resulted in the increased expression of CTGF, suggesting a suppressive effect of SK-1-derived intracellular S1P in the fibrotic process, which is lost when SK-1 is downregulated. In a further approach, the S1P transporter Spns2, which is known to export S1P and thereby reduces intracellular S1P levels, was stably downregulated in HK2 cells by RNAi. This treatment decreased TGFβ-induced CTGF and fibronectin expression, and it abolished the strong induction of the monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNFα and interleukin (IL-1β. Moreover, it enhanced the expression of aquaporin 1, which is an important water channel that is expressed in the proximal tubules, and reverted aquaporin 1 downregulation induced by IL-1β/TNFα. On the other hand, overexpression of a Spns2-GFP construct increased S1P secretion and it resulted in enhanced TGFβ-induced CTGF expression. In summary, our data demonstrate that in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, SK-1 downregulation accelerates an inflammatory and fibrotic reaction, whereas Spns2 downregulation has an opposite effect. We conclude that Spns2 represents a promising new target for the treatment of tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in alcoholics: support for a neuroinflammatory model of chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhau, John C; Schwandt, Melanie; Solomon, Matthew G; Yuan, Peixiong; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C; Hall, Samuel D; George, David T; Heilig, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Liver inflammation in alcoholism has been hypothesized to influence the development of a neuroinflammatory process in the brain characterized by neurodegeneration and altered cognitive function. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) elevations have been noted in the alcoholic brain at autopsy and may have a role in this process. We studied cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of MCP-1 as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in 13 healthy volunteers and 28 alcoholics during weeks 1 and 4 following detoxification. Serum liver enzymes were obtained as markers of alcohol-related liver inflammation. Compared to healthy volunteers, MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in alcoholics both on day 4 and day 25 (p alcohol-induced liver inflammation, as defined by peripheral concentrations of GGT and AST/GOT. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Tao, Yong; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2010-10-01

    To examine intraocular concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The investigation included a study group of 28 patients (28 eyes) with exudative AMD and a control group of 25 patients (25 eyes) with cataract. The concentrations of MCP-1, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and VEGF in aqueous humor samples obtained during surgery were measured using a solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. The study group as compared with the control group had higher aqueous concentrations of sICAM-1 (mean [SD], 844 [2073] vs 246 [206] pg/mL, respectively; P < .001), sVCAM-1 (mean [SD], 7978 [7120] vs 2999 [1426] pg/mL, respectively; P < .001), and MCP-1 (mean [SD], 587 [338] vs 435 [221] pg/mL, respectively; P = .07). The concentration of VEGF did not vary significantly between the groups (P = .76). The MCP-1 concentration was significantly associated with macular thickness (r = 0.40; P = .004). It decreased significantly with the type of subfoveal neovascular membrane (classic membrane type, occult membrane, retinal pigment epithelium detachment) (P = .009). The concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and VEGF were not significantly associated with membrane type and macular thickness (P ≥ .18). Concentrations of MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 are significantly associated with exudative AMD, even in the presence of normal VEGF concentrations. Intraocular MCP-1 concentrations are correlated with the subfoveal neovascular membrane type and the amount of macular edema. One may infer that MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 could potentially be additional target molecules in therapy for exudative AMD.

  13. Enhanced basophil histamine release and neutrophil chemotactic activity predispose grain dust-induced airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Jung, K; Kang, K; Nahm, D; Cho, S; Kim, Y

    1999-04-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma (OA) remains unclear. To understand further the mechanism of GD-induced OA. Fifteen employees working in a same GD industry, complaining of work-related respiratory symptoms, were enrolled and were divided into two groups according to the GD-bronchoprovocation test (BPT) result: six positive responders were grouped as group III, nine negative responders as group II and five healthy controls as group I. Serum GD-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E (sIgE), specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Basophil histamine release was measured by the autofluorometric method, and changes of serum neutrophil chemotactic activity were observed by the Boyden chamber method. For clinical parameters such as degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, duration of respiratory symptoms, exposure duration, and prevalences of serum sIgE, sIgG and sIgG4 antibodies, there were no significant differences between group II and III (P > 0.05, respectively). Serum neutrophil chemotactic activity increased significantly at 30 min and decreased at 240 min after the GD-BPT in group III subjects (P 0.05). Basophil histamine release induced by GD was significantly higher in group III than those of group I or group II (P < 0.05, respectively), while minimal release of anti-IgG4 antibodies was noted in all three groups. These results suggest that enhanced basophil histamine release and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity might contribute to the development of GD-induced occupational asthma.

  14. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M H

    2015-10-09

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue.

  15. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F. David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M. H.

    2015-01-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol re...

  16. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Mori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1 was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue.

  17. Defect of netrophil chemotactic function is one of the etiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Rusyanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of progressive destructive periodontal tissue in Aggressive Periodontitis is a features of disruption of the host-homeostasis as the results of imbalance between host response and specific bacterial pathogenic which presents at gingival sulcus. The objective of this study was to evaluate netrophil function of  Aggressive periodontitis molecularly by means of gen polimorphism of Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR1 at the surface of netrophil cell, the level of IL-8 and netrophil chemotactic. The results of  the study  can be used as an early detection, prevention or to arrest tissue destruction and to restore a health-associated homeostasis in order to get better prognosis of Aggressive Periodontitis. The study was conducted during 20 months in Periodontic Clinic Dental Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Padjadjaran University, Genetica Moleculer Medical Laboratory of Research Institution Padjadjaran University Bandung. Research design used case control methode and sample selection is done in concecutive sampling of 32 aggressive periodontitis patients and 29 non aggressive periodontitis patients who were included in the inclusion criteria. Research materials were venous blood and gingival crevicular fluid. PCR-Sequensing methode was used to asses of gene FPR1 Polimorphism. ELISA methode was used to measure IL-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid, and Human CD66abce Microbead Kit by MACS Separation methode was used to asses netrophil chemotactic. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact, unpaired t tests were employed to analyse the differences of  characteristic, allele frequencies and genotypic, bivariate analysis to analyse of risk factors and biserial point correlation to analyse correlation between risk factors. The results showed the existence of c576T>C>G gene FPR1 polymorphism 5.040 time-fold (p=0.006; OR=5.040 while the down regulation of IL-8( ≤0.064 pg/µl is 34.5 times-fold of having aggressive periodontitis (OR=34, and c576T

  18. Up-regulation of endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by coplanar PCB77 is caveolin-1-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, Zuzana; Smart, Eric; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of heart disease and stroke is initiated in the vascular endothelium, and risk factors for its development include environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Caveolae are membrane microdomains involved in regulation of many signaling pathways, and in particular in endothelial cells. We tested the hypothesis that intact caveolae are required for coplanar PCB77-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endothelium-derived chemokine that attracts monocytes into sub-endothelial space in early stages of the atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis-prone LDL-R -/- mice (control) or caveolin-1 -/- /LDL-R -/- mice were treated with PCB77. PCB77 induced aortic mRNA expression and plasma protein levels of MCP-1 in control, but not caveolin-1 -/- /LDL-R -/- mice. To study the mechanism of this effect, primary endothelial cells were used. PCB77 increased MCP-1 levels in endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by caveolin-1 silencing using siRNA. Also, MCP-1 up-regulation by PCB77 was prevented by inhibiting p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK1/2, suggesting regulatory functions via p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Finally, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) partially blocked MCP-1 up-regulation. Thus, our data demonstrate that coplanar PCB77 can induce MCP-1 expression by endothelial cells and that this effect is mediated by AhR, as well as p 38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Intact caveolae are required for these processes both in vivo and in vitro. This further supports a key role for caveolae in vascular inflammation induced by persistent organic pollutants.

  19. Chemotactic behavior of deep subsurface bacteria toward carbohydrates, amino acids and a chlorinated alkene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Victoria, G. (Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Biology)

    1989-02-01

    The chemotactic behavior of deep terrestrial subsurface bacteria toward amino acids, carbohydrates and trichloroethylene was assayed using a modification of the capillary method and bacterial enumeration by acridine orange direct counts. Eleven isolates of bacteria isolated from six different geological formations were investigated. A bimodal response rather than an absolute positive or negative response was observed in most assays. Most of the isolates were positively chemotactic to low concentrations of substrates and were repelled by high concentrations of the same substrate. However, this was not the case for trichloroethylene (TCE) which was mostly an attractant and elicited the highest responses in all the isolates when compared with amino acids and carbohydrates. The movement rates of these isolates in aseptic subsurface sediments in the absence and presence of TCE were also determined using a laboratory model. All of the isolates showed distinct response range, peak, and threshold concentrations when exposed to the same substrates suggesting that they are possibly different species as has been inferred from DNA homology studies. 101 refs., 4 figs., 57 tabs.

  20. Effects of Garlic Oil on the Migration of Neutrophil-Like Cell Studied by Using a Chemotactic Gradient Labchip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chen Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and fabricated a novel chemotactic gradient Labchip for studying cell migration quantitatively. Owing to the great potential of garlic and its preparations in developing antiinflammatory drugs, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of garlic oil on the locomotion of a neutrophil-like cell by measuring the dynamic features of cell migration including migration direction, average migration speed, chemotactic index (CI, and motility index (MI with the newly designed Labchip. We found that garlic oil treatment lowered the values of CI and MI and reduced the average speed of cell migration from 13 to 8 μm/min. The results indicate that garlic oil is a potential inhibitor for neutrophil-like cell migration and chemotactic responsiveness. By comparing with the effects of nocodazole and cytochalasin B, we also suggest that the antiinflammatory activity exhibited by garlic oil was mainly through inhibiting the assembly-disassembly processes of the cytoskeleton.

  1. L-4F Inhibits Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-induced Inflammatory Adipokine Secretion via Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A-CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhu Xie

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it.

  2. Adiponectin, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regional fat mass during 12-month randomized treatment with metformin and/or oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if improved body composition during treatment with metformin (M) vs. oral contraceptive pills (OCP) was associated...... with changes in circulating adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with M (2 g/day), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 microgram ethinylestradiol) or OCP. Adiponectin, IL-6, MCP-1...... during the three types of medical intervention. Treatment with M and M + OCP was superior to OCP regarding decreased regional fat mass. Baseline adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with BMI, waist, and trunk fat mass. Changes in trunk fat were significantly associated with changes in IL-6 and MCP-1...

  3. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 levels in urine and serum of patents with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, P A; van Hinsbergh, V W; van den Heuvel, L P; Preyers, F; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; van der Velden, T J; Monnens, L A

    1998-06-01

    The epidemic form of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is hallmarked by endothelial cell damage, most predominantly displayed by the glomerular capillaries. The influx of mononuclear (MO) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) into the glomeruli may be an important event in the initiation, prolongation, and progression of glomerular endothelial cell damage in HUS patients. The molecular mechanisms for the recruitment of these leukocytes into the kidney are unclear, but monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 are suggested to be prime candidates. In this study, we analyzed the presence of both chemokines in 24-h urinary (n = 15) and serum (n = 14) samples of HUS children by specific ELISAs. Furthermore, kidney biopsies of three different HUS children were examined for MO and PMN cell infiltration by histochemical techniques and electron microscopy. Whereas the chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 were present in only very limited amounts in urine of 17 normal control subjects, serial samples of HUS patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of both chemokines. HUS children with anuria showed higher initial and maximum chemokine levels than their counterparts without anuria. A strong positive correlation was observed between urinary MCP-1 and IL-8 levels. Whereas initial serum IL-8 levels were significantly increased in HUS children, serum MCP-1 levels were only slightly elevated compared with serum MCP-1 in control children. No correlation was found between urinary and serum chemokine concentrations. Histologic and EM studies of HUS biopsy specimens clearly showed the presence of MOs and to a lesser extent of PMNs in the glomeruli. The present data suggest an important local role for MOs and PMNs in the process of glomerular endothelial-cell damage. The chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 may possibly be implicated in the pathogenesis of HUS through the recruitment and activation of MOs and PMNs, respectively.

  4. Chemotactic preferences govern competition and pattern formation in simulated two-strain microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centler, Florian; Thullner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Substrate competition is a common mode of microbial interaction in natural environments. While growth properties play an important and well-studied role in competition, we here focus on the influence of motility. In a simulated two-strain community populating a homogeneous two-dimensional environment, strains competed for a common substrate and only differed in their chemotactic preference, either responding more sensitively to a chemoattractant excreted by themselves or responding more sensitively to substrate. Starting from homogeneous distributions, three possible behaviors were observed depending on the competitors' chemotactic preferences: (i) distributions remained homogeneous, (ii) patterns formed but dissolved at a later time point, resulting in a shifted community composition, and (iii) patterns emerged and led to the extinction of one strain. When patterns formed, the more aggregating strain populated the core of microbial aggregates where starving conditions prevailed, while the less aggregating strain populated the more productive zones at the fringe or outside aggregates, leading to a competitive advantage of the less aggregating strain. The presence of a competitor was found to modulate a strain's behavior, either suppressing or promoting aggregate formation. This observation provides a potential mechanism by which an aggregated lifestyle might evolve even if it is initially disadvantageous. Adverse effects can be avoided as a competitor hinders aggregate formation by a strain which has just acquired this ability. The presented results highlight both, the importance of microbial motility for competition and pattern formation, and the importance of the temporal evolution, or history, of microbial communities when trying to explain an observed distribution.

  5. Transverse Chemotactic Migration of Bacteria from High to Low Permeability Regions in a Dual Permeability Porous Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Low permeability regions sandwiched between high permeability regions such as clay lenses are difficult to treat using conventional treatment methods. Trace concentrations of contaminants such as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) remain trapped in these regions and over the time diffuse out into surrounding water thereby acting as a long term source of groundwater contamination. Bacterial chemotaxis (directed migration toward a contaminant source), may be helpful in enhancing bioremediation of such contaminated sites. This study is focused on simulating a two-dimensional dual-permeability groundwater contamination scenario using microfluidic devices and evaluating transverse chemotactic migration of bacteria from high to low permeability regions. A novel bi-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device was fabricated using photolithography and soft lithography techniques to simulate contamination of a dual- permeability region due to leakage from an underground storage tank into a low permeability region. This device consists of a porous channel through which a bacterial suspension (Escherchia Coli HCB33) is flown and another channel for injecting contaminant/chemo-attractant (DL-aspertic acid) into the porous channel. The pore arrangement in the porous channel contains a 2-D low permeability region surrounded by high permeability regions on both sides. Experiments were performed under chemotactic and non-chemotactic (replacing attractant with buffer solution in the non porous channel) conditions. Images were captured in transverse pore throats at cross-sections 4.9, 9.8, and 19.6 mm downstream from the attractant injection point and bacteria were enumerated in the middle of each pore throat. Bacterial chemotaxis was quantified in terms of the change in relative bacterial counts in each pore throat at cross-sections 9.8 and 19.6 mm with respect to counts at the cross-section at 4.9 mm. Under non-chemotactic conditions, relative bacterial count was observed

  6. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  7. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. ► Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  8. Incidence and dynamics of active cytomegalovirus infection in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients according to single nucleotide polymorphisms in donor and recipient CCR5, MCP-1, IL-10, and TLR9 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Giménez, Estela; Solano, Carlos; Amat, Paula; de la Cámara, Rafael; Nieto, José; Garcia-Noblejas, Ana; Navarro, David

    2015-02-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the activation or regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses may modulate the susceptibility to and the natural history of certain chronic viral infections. The current study aimed to investigate whether donor and recipient SNPs in the chemokine receptor 5 (rs1800023), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (rs13900), interleukin-10 (rs1878672), and Toll-like receptor 9 (rs352140) genes would exert any influence on the rate of incidence and features of CMV DNAemia in the allogeneic stem cell transplantation setting. This was a retrospective observational multicenter study. The cohort consisted of 102 non-consecutive allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. SNP genotyping was performed by allele-specific real-time PCR. CMV surveillance was performed by the pp65 antigenemia assay/and or by real-time PCR. Seventy-three patients developed CMV DNAemia within the first 100 days after transplantation (71.5%). Neither donor nor recipient SNPs were associated significantly with the rate of incidence of active CMV infection, nor with the need for pre-emptive antiviral therapy. Both the duration of CMV DNAemia and the plasma CMV DNA peak load during episodes were significantly higher in patients harboring the donor (but not the recipient) chemokine receptor 5 A/A genotype, than in their A/G and G/G counterparts (P = 0.022 and P = 0.045, respectively). The data reported suggest that SNPs in chemokine receptor 5 may influence the dynamics of CMV infection in the Allo-SCT setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Alessandra C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  10. Investigations into the design principles in the chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Sung Hoon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the recent studies on the analysis of biased random walk behavior of Escherichia coli[Passino, K.M., 2002. Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control. IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 22 (3), 52-67; Passino, K.M., 2005. Biomimicry for Optimization, Control and Automation. Springer-Verlag, pp. 768-798; Liu, Y., Passino, K.M., 2002. Biomimicry of social foraging bacteria for distributed optimization: models, principles, and emergent behaviors. J. Optim. Theory Appl. 115 (3), 603-628], we have developed a model describing the motile behavior of E. coli by specifying some simple rules on the chemotaxis. Based on this model, we have analyzed the role of some key parameters involved in the chemotactic behavior to unravel the underlying design principles. By investigating the target tracking capability of E. coli in a maze through computer simulations, we found that E. coli clusters can be controlled as target trackers in a complex micro-scale-environment. In addition, we have explored the dynamical characteristics of this target tracking mechanism through perturbation of parameters under noisy environments. It turns out that the E. coli chemotaxis mechanism might be designed such that it is sensitive enough to efficiently track the target and also robust enough to overcome environmental noises.

  11. Squid-derived chitin oligosaccharides are a chemotactic signal during colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Mark J; Schaefer, Amy L; Brennan, Caitlin A; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Deloney-Marino, Cindy R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2012-07-01

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae ("vibrios"), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone.

  12. Synergic production of neutrophil chemotactic activity by colonic epithelial cells and eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Gordon; Loweth, Sam C; Hasan, Anwar Matar; Leslie, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The presence of eosinophils in the lumen and mucosa of the intestine is characteristic of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). There is evidence of eosinophil activation in the intestine during acute inflammatory episodes of these diseases; these episodes are also characterized by an influx of neutrophils, which have the potential to cause extensive tissue damage. We undertook a study to determine whether eosinophils in contact with colonic epithelial cells produce factors that may attract neutrophils in response to immunological stimulation. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and concentrations of three neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines - CXCL1 (Groα), CXCL5 (Ena78) and CXCL8 (IL8) - were measured in supernatants of T84 colonic epithelial cells and blood eosinophils or eosinophil-like myeloid leukaemia cells (AML14.3D10), alone or in combination. Cells were stimulated with serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) particles. NCA (Peosinophil co-cultures were significantly higher than in the supernatants of either cell type alone. Release of CXCL1 (Peosinophils but not higher than from OZ-stimulated epithelial cells. Eosinophils and colonic epithelial cells exhibit synergy in production of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to immunological stimulation. This may represent a mechanism for exaggerated recruitment of neutrophils to the intestine in response to acute infection in conditions that are characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the bowel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The photosensor protein Ppr of Rhodocista centenaria is linked to the chemotaxis signalling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Dorothee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhodocista centenaria is a phototrophic α-proteobacterium exhibiting a phototactic behaviour visible as colony movement on agar plates directed to red light. As many phototrophic purple bacteria R. centenaria possesses a soluble photoactive yellow protein (Pyp. It exists as a long fusion protein, designated Ppr, consisting of three domains, the Pyp domain, a putative bilin binding domain (Bbd and a histidine kinase domain (Pph. The Ppr protein is involved in the regulation of polyketide synthesis but it is still unclear, how this is connected to phototaxis and chemotaxis. Results To elucidate the possible role of Ppr and Pph in the chemotactic network we studied the interaction with chemotactic proteins in vitro as well as in vivo. Matrix-assisted coelution experiments were performed to study the possible communication of the different putative binding partners. The kinase domain of the Ppr protein was found to interact with the chemotactic linker protein CheW. The formation of this complex was clearly ATP-dependent. Further results indicated that the Pph histidine kinase domain and CheW may form a complex with the chemotactic kinase CheAY suggesting a role of Ppr in the chemotaxis signalling pathway. In addition, when Ppr or Pph were expressed in Escherichia coli, the chemotactic response of the cells was dramatically affected. Conclusions The Ppr protein of Rhodocista centenaria directly interacts with the chemotactic protein CheW. This suggests a role of the Ppr protein in the regulation of the chemotactic response in addition to its role in chalcone synthesis.

  14. Decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors in chronic neutropenia with defective chemotaxis: spontaneous recovery from the neutrophil abnormalities during early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, K.; Yamazaki, M.; Miyagawa, Y.; Komiyama, A.; Akabane, T.

    1987-01-01

    Childhood chronic neutropenia with decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors as well as defective chemotaxis was first demonstrated in an 8-month-old girl. Chemotactic factor receptors on neutrophils were assayed using tritiated N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine ( 3 H-FMLP). The patient's neutrophils had decreased numbers of the receptors: numbers of the receptors were 20,000 (less than 3 SD) as compared with those of control cells of 52,000 +/- 6000 (mean +/- SD) (n = 10). The neutropenia disappeared spontaneously by 28 months of age parallel with the improvement of chemotaxis and increase in numbers of chemotactic factor receptors. These results demonstrate a transient decrease of neutrophil chemotactic factor receptors as one of the pathophysiological bases of a transient defect of neutrophil chemotaxis in this disorder

  15. Magnetic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Peptides Derived from Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 as a Tool for Targeting Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wei Kao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that may progress silently for long period, and it is also widely accepted as the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. To prevent atherosclerotic plaques from generating, imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression are desired. During inflammation, circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into incipient lipid accumulation in the artery wall, following conditioning by local growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines; therefore, monocyte accumulation in the arterial wall can be observed in fatty streaks, rupture-prone plaques, and experimental atherosclerosis. In this work, we synthesized monocyte-targeting iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, which were incorporated with the peptides derived from the chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2-binding motif of monocytes chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 as a diagnostic tool for potential atherosclerosis. MCP-1-motif MNPs co-localized with monocytes in in vitro fluorescence imaging. In addition, with MNPs injection in ApoE knockout mice (ApoE KO mice, the well-characterized animal model of atherosclerosis, MNPs were found in specific organs or regions which had monocytes accumulation, especially the aorta of atherosclerosis model mice, through in vivo imaging system (IVIS imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We also performed Oil Red O staining and Prussian Blue staining to confirm the co-localization of MCP-1-motif MNPs and atherosclerosis. The results showed the promising potential of MCP-1-motif MNPs as a diagnostic agent of atherosclerosis.

  16. Plant-Adapted Escherichia coli Show Increased Lettuce Colonizing Ability, Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Chemotactic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublan, Maria de los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Lett, Lina; Curatti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is a widespread gut commensal and often a versatile pathogen of public health concern. E. coli are also frequently found in different environments and/or alternative secondary hosts, such as plant tissues. The lifestyle of E. coli in plants is poorly understood and has potential implications for food safety. Methods/Principal Findings This work shows that a human commensal strain of E. coli K12 readily colonizes lettuce seedlings and produces large microcolony-like cell aggregates in leaves, especially in young leaves, in proximity to the vascular tissue. Our observations strongly suggest that those cell aggregates arise from multiplication of single bacterial cells that reach those spots. We showed that E. coli isolated from colonized leaves progressively colonize lettuce seedlings to higher titers, suggesting a fast adaptation process. E. coli cells isolated from leaves presented a dramatic rise in tolerance to oxidative stress and became more chemotactic responsive towards lettuce leaf extracts. Mutant strains impaired in their chemotactic response were less efficient lettuce colonizers than the chemotactic isogenic strain. However, acclimation to oxidative stress and/or minimal medium alone failed to prime E. coli cells for enhanced lettuce colonization efficiency. Conclusion/Significance These findings help to understand the physiological adaptation during the alternative lifestyle of E. coli in/on plant tissues. PMID:25313845

  17. Phospholipase D catalyzes phospholipid metabolism in chemotactic peptide-stimulated HL-60 granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, J.K.; Siegel, M.I.; Egan, R.W.; Billah, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There exists circumstantial evidence for activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in intact cells. However, because of the complexity of phospholipid remodeling processes, it is essential to distinguish PLD clearly from other phospholipases and phospholipid remodeling enzymes. Therefore, to establish unequivocally PLD activity in dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 granulocytes, to demonstrate the relative contribution of PLD to phospholipid turnover, and to validate the hypothesis that the formation of phosphatidylethanol is an expression of PLD-catalyzed transphosphatidylation, we have developed methodologies to label HL-60 granulocytes in 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-PC) with 32P without labeling cellular ATP. These methodologies involve (a) synthesis of alkyl-lysoPC containing 32P by a combination of enzymatic and chemical procedures and (b) incubation of HL-60 granulocytes with this alkyl-[32P] lysoPC which enters the cell and becomes acylated into membrane-associated alkyl-[32P]PC. Upon stimulation of these 32P-labeled cells with the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), alkyl-[32P]phosphatidic acid (alkyl-[32P]PA) is formed rapidly. Because, under these conditions, cellular ATP has not been labeled with 32P, alkyl-[32P]PA must be formed via PLD-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkyl-[32P]PC at the terminal phosphodiester bond. This result conclusively demonstrates fMLP-induced activation of PLD in HL-60 granulocytes. These 32P-labeled HL-60 granulocytes have also been stimulated in the presence of ethanol to produce alkyl-[32P]phosphatidylethanol (alkyl-[32P]PEt). Formation of alkyl-[32P]PEt parallels that of alkyl-[32P]PA with respect to time course, fMLP concentration, inhibition by a specific fMLP antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), and Ca2+ concentration

  18. Coccidioides Endospores and Spherules Draw Strong Chemotactic, Adhesive, and Phagocytic Responses by Individual Human Neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuk Lee

    Full Text Available Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic pathogenic fungi whose parasitic forms cause coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever in mammalian hosts. We use an innovative interdisciplinary approach to analyze one-on-one encounters between human neutrophils and two forms of Coccidioides posadasii. To examine the mechanisms by which the innate immune system coordinates different stages of the host response to fungal pathogens, we dissect the immune-cell response into chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Our single-cell technique reveals a surprisingly strong response by initially quiescent neutrophils to close encounters with C. posadasii, both from a distance (by complement-mediated chemotaxis as well as upon contact (by serum-dependent adhesion and phagocytosis. This response closely resembles neutrophil interactions with Candida albicans and zymosan particles, and is significantly stronger than the neutrophil responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Rhizopus oryzae under identical conditions. The vigorous in vitro neutrophil response suggests that C. posadasii evades in vivo recognition by neutrophils through suppression of long-range mobilization and recruitment of the immune cells. This observation elucidates an important paradigm of the recognition of microbes, i.e., that intact immunotaxis comprises an intricate spatiotemporal hierarchy of distinct chemotactic processes. Moreover, in contrast to earlier reports, human neutrophils exhibit vigorous chemotaxis toward, and frustrated phagocytosis of, the large spherules of C. posadasii under physiological-like conditions. Finally, neutrophils from healthy donors and patients with chronic coccidioidomycosis display subtle differences in their responses to antibody-coated beads, even though the patient cells appear to interact normally with C. posadasii endospores.

  19. Adiponectin, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regional fat mass during 12-month randomized treatment with metformin and/or oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Richelsen, Bjørn; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, Marianne

    2014-08-01

    Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To evaluate if improved body composition during treatment with metformin (M) vs. oral contraceptive pills (OCP) was associated with changes in circulating adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with M (2 g/day), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 microgram ethinylestradiol) or OCP. Adiponectin, IL-6, MCP-1, whole body DXA scans, and clinical evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period in the 65 study completers. Changes in inflammatory markers and changes in total and regional fat mass estimates. Adiponectin, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were unchanged during the three types of medical intervention. Treatment with M and M + OCP was superior to OCP regarding decreased regional fat mass. Baseline adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with BMI, waist, and trunk fat mass. Changes in trunk fat were significantly associated with changes in IL-6 and MCP-1 during M + OCP. Long-term treatment with M alone or in combination with OCP was associated with improved body composition compared to OCP, whereas inflammatory markers were unchanged. OCP was not associated with increased inflammatory markers despite a small but significant weight gain.

  20. Expression of EMAP-II in the rat dental follicle and its potential role in tooth eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawen; Wise, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II) is an inflammatory cytokine with chemotactic activity. Because the dental follicle (DF) recruits mononuclear cells (osteoclast precursors) to promote the osteoclastogenesis needed for tooth eruption, it was the aim of this study to determine if EMAP-II may contribute to this recruitment. Using a DNA microarray, EMAP-II was found to be highly expressed in vivo in the DFs of day 1 to day 11 postnatal rats, with its expression elevated at days 1 and 3. Using a siRNA to knock down EMAP-II expression also resulted in a reduction in expression of CSF-1 and MCP-1 in the DF cells. Addition of EMAP-II protein to the DF cells partially restored the expression of CSF-1 and MCP-1. In chemotaxis assays using either conditioned medium of the DF cells with anti-EMAP-II antibody added or conditioned medium of DF cells with EMAP-II knocked down by siRNA, migration indexes of bone marrow mononuclear cells were significantly reduced. These results suggest that EMAP-II is another chemotactic molecule in the dental follicle involved in recruitment of mononuclear cells, and that EMAP-II may exert its chemotactic function directly by recruiting mononuclear cells and indirectly by enhancing the expression of other chemotactic molecules (CSF-1 and MCP-1). PMID:18705801

  1. The Leptospira outer membrane protein LipL32 induces tubulointerstitial nephritis-mediated gene expression in mouse proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Wu, Mai-Szu; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Hsieh, Wang-Ju; Vandewalle, Alain; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a main renal manifestation caused by pathogenic leptospira that accumulate mostly in the proximal tubules, thereby inducing tubular injury and tubulointerstitial nephritis. To elucidate the role of leptospira outer membrane proteins in tubulointerstitial nephritis, outer membrane proteins from pathogenic Leptospira shermani and nonpathogenic Leptospira patoc extracted by Triton X-114 were administered to cultured mouse proximal tubule cells. A dose-dependent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, nitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the culture supernatant was observed 48 h after incubating Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins with mouse proximal tubule cells. RT competitive-PCR experiments showed that Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins (0.2 microg/ml) increased the expression of MCP-1, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), RANTES, and TNF-alpha mRNA by 3.0-, 9.4-, 2.5-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared with untreated cells. Outer membrane proteins extract from avirulent Leptospira patoc did not induce significant effects. The pathogenic outer membrane proteins extract contain a major component of a 32-kD lipoprotein (LipL32), which is absent in the nonpathogenic leptospira outer membrane. An antibody raised against LipL32 prevented the stimulatory effect of Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins extract on MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in cultured proximal tubule cells, whereas recombinant LipL32 significantly stimulated the expression of MCP-1 and iNOS mRNAs and augmented nuclear binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1 transcription factors in proximal tubule cells. An antibody raised against LipL32 also blunted the effects induced by the recombinant LipL32. This study demonstrates that LipL32 is a major component of pathogenic leptospira outer membrane proteins involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  2. Amplification of the spleen macrophage population in malaria: possible role of a factor chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyler, D.J.; Gallin, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of amplification of the splenic macrophages' population was investigated using mice infected with malaria as a model of an obligate intravascular infection. It was observed that these macrophages derived from blood monocytes rather than by local proliferation in the spleen. A factor, chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells, was present in spleen cells shortly after infection and preceded detectable increases in spleen macrophage number by 48 hours. This factor, in concert with spleen derived macrophage migration inhibition factor, may be important in the amplification of splenic macrophage population in intravascular infections

  3. Simulation of self-propelled chemotactic bacteria in a stokes flow*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maury B.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We prescrit a method to simulate the motion of self-propelled rigid particles in a twodimensional Stokesian fluid, taking into account chemotactic behaviour. Self-propulsion is modelled as a point force associated to each particle, placed at a certain distance from its gravity centre. The method for solving the fluid flow and the motion of the bacteria is based on a variational formulation on the whole domain, including fluid and particles: rigid motion is enforced by penalizing the strain rate tensor on the rigid domain, while incompressibility is treated by duality. This leads to a minimisation problem over unconstrained functional spaces which cari lie easily implemented from any finite element Stokes solver. In order to ensure robustness, a projection algorithm is used to deal with contacts between particles. The particles are meant to represent bacteria of the Escherichia coli type, which interact with their chemical environment through consumption of nutrients and orientation in some favorable direction. Our mode’ takes into account the interaction with oxygen. An advection-diffusion equation on the oxygen concentration is solved in the fluid domain, with a source term accounting for oxygen consumption by the bacteria. In addition, self-propulsion is deactivated for those particles which cannot consume enough oxygen. Finally, the mode’ includes random changes in the orientation of the individual bacteria, with a frequency that depends on the surrounding oxygen concentration, in order to favor the direction of the concentration gradient and thus to reproduce chemotactic behaviour. Numerical simulations implemented with FreeFem++ are presented. Nous présentons une méthode de simulation du mouvement de particules rigides autopropulsées dans un fluide de Stokes en dimension 2. en prenant en compte leur comportement chimiotactique. L’auto-propulsion est modélisée par une force (presque ponctuelle associée à chaque particule et plac

  4. MCP/CCR2 signaling is essential for recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early phase of fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate chemokine profiles and their functional roles in the early phase of fracture healing in mouse models. METHODS: The expression profiles of chemokines were examined during fracture healing in wild-type (WT mice using a polymerase chain reaction array and histological staining. The functional effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 on primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs was evaluated using an in vitro migration assay. MCP-1-/- and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2-/- mice were fractured and evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. RS102895, an antagonist of CCR2, was continuously administered in WT mice before or after rib fracture and evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. Bone graft exchange models were created in WT and MCP-1-/- mice and were evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. RESULTS: MCP-1 and MCP-3 expression in the early phase of fracture healing were up-regulated, and high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-3 protein expression observed in the periosteum and endosteum in the same period. MCP-1, but not MCP-3, increased migration of mBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Fracture healing in MCP-1-/- and CCR2-/- mice was delayed compared with WT mice on day 21. Administration of RS102895 in the early, but not in the late phase, caused delayed fracture healing. Transplantation of WT-derived graft into host MCP-1-/- mice significantly increased new bone formation in the bone graft exchange models. Furthermore, marked induction of MCP-1 expression in the periosteum and endosteum was observed around the WT-derived graft in the host MCP-1-/- mouse. Conversely, transplantation of MCP-1-/- mouse-derived grafts into host WT mice markedly decreased new bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in the periosteum and endosteum is essential for the recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the early phase of fracture healing.

  5. Neutrophilic nodules in the intestinal walls of Japanese monkeys associated with the neutrophil chemotactic activity of larval extracts and secretions of Oesophagostomum aculeatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Y; Ishii, A; Owhashi, M; Miyoshi, M; Usui, M

    1985-01-01

    High neutrophil chemotactic activity was detected in the culture medium from Oesophagostomum aculeatum larvae in vitro using blind-well chambers with Millipore filters, and guinea pig leucocytes as indicator cells. Neutrophil chemotactic activity was also detected in the extract from larval worms in a dose dependent fashion. This activity was detected in the low molecular weight fractions adjacent to a sodium chloride marker by gel filtration on Sephadex G200. These results were further confirmed with monkey neutrophils. The possible role of this activity in the formation of granulomatous lesions rich in neutrophils found in O aculeatum infections in the Japanese monkey is discussed.

  6. Evidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Daha, Mohamed R; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2009-02-01

    In vertebrates, central nervous system (CNS) protection is dependent on many immune cells including microglial cells. Indeed, activated microglial cells are involved in neuroinflammation mechanisms by interacting with numerous immune factors. Unlike vertebrates, some lophotrochozoan invertebrates can fully repair their CNS following injury. In the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, the recruitment of microglial cells at the lesion site is essential for sprouting of injured axons. Interestingly, a new molecule homologous to vertebrate C1q was characterized in leech, named HmC1q (for H. medicinalis) and detected in neurons and glial cells. In chemotaxis assays, leech microglial cells were demonstrated to respond to human C1q. The chemotactic activity was reduced when microglia was preincubated with signaling pathway inhibitors (Pertussis Toxin or wortmannin) or anti-human gC1qR antibody suggesting the involvement of gC1qR in C1q-mediated migration in leech. Assays using cells preincubated with NO chelator (cPTIO) showed that C1q-mediated migration was associated to NO production. Of interest, by using anti-HmC1q antibodies, HmC1q released in the culture medium was shown to exhibit a similar chemotactic effect on microglial cells as human C1q. In summary, we have identified, for the first time, a molecule homologous to mammalian C1q in leech CNS. Its chemoattractant activity on microglia highlights a new investigation field leading to better understand leech CNS repair mechanisms.

  7. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1: a proinflammatory cytokine elevated in sarcopenic obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim JP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jun Pei Lim,1,2 Bernard P Leung,3 Yew Yoong Ding,1,2 Laura Tay,1,2 Noor Hafizah Ismail,2,4 Audrey Yeo,2 Suzanne Yew,2 Mei Sian Chong1,2 1Department of Geriatric Medicine, 2Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, 3Department of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, 4Department of Community and Continuing Care, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Objective: Sarcopenic obesity (SO is associated with poorer physical outcomes and functional status in the older adult. A proinflammatory milieu associated with central obesity is postulated to enhance muscle catabolism. We set out to examine associations of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in groups of older adults, with sarcopenia, obesity, and the SO phenotypes.Methods: A total of 143 community dwelling, well, older adults were recruited. Cross-sectional clinical data, physical performance, and muscle mass measurements were collected. Obesity and sarcopenia were defined using revised National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP obesity guidelines and those of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Serum levels of MCP-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: In all, 25.2% of subjects were normal, 15.4% sarcopenic, 48.3% obese, and 11.2% were SO. The SO groups had the lowest appendicular lean mass, highest percentage body fat, and lowest performance scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery and grip strength. The MCP-1 levels were significantly different, with the highest levels found in SO participants (P<0.05.Conclusion: Significantly raised MCP-1 levels in obese and SO subjects support the theory of chronic inflammation due to excess adiposity. Longitudinal studies will reveal whether SO represents a continuum of obesity causing accelerated sarcopenia and cardiovascular events, or the coexistence of two separate conditions with synergistic effects affecting functional performance. Keywords: chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL-2, elderly

  8. The anti-ALS drug riluzole attenuates pericyte loss in the diabetic retinopathy of streptozotocin-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong A. [Neural Injury Research Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yoo-Ri [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hyae-Ran [Neural Injury Research Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hwangseo [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jae-Young, E-mail: jkko@amc.seoul.kr [Neural Injury Research Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Hee, E-mail: yhyoon@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Loss of pericytes, considered an early hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, is thought to involve abnormal activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We previously showed that the anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) drug riluzole functions as a PKC inhibitor. Here, we examined the effects of riluzole on pathological changes in diabetic retinopathy. Pathological endpoints examined in vivo included the number of pericytes and integrity of retinal vessels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. In addition, PKC activation and the induction of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP1) were assessed in diabetic mice and in human retinal pericytes exposed to advanced glycation end product (AGE) or modified low-density lipoprotein (mLDL). The diameter of retinal vessels and the number of pericytes were severely reduced, and the levels of MCP1 and PKC were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Administration of riluzole reversed all of these changes. Furthermore, the increased expression of MCP1 in AGE- or mLDL-treated cultured retinal pericytes was inhibited by treatment with riluzole or the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In silico modeling showed that riluzole fits well within the catalytic pocket of PKC. Taken together, our results demonstrate that riluzole attenuates both MCP1 induction and pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy, likely through its direct inhibitory effect on PKC. - Highlights: • The effects of riluzole were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. • The diameter of retinal vessels and the number of pericytes were severely reduced. • The levels of MCP1 and PKC were increased, while riluzole reversed all changes. • Riluzole attenuated the level of MCP1 in AGE- or mLDL-treated retinal pericytes. • Riluzole attenuated both MCP1 induction and pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy.

  9. The anti-ALS drug riluzole attenuates pericyte loss in the diabetic retinopathy of streptozotocin-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong A.; Chung, Yoo-Ri; Byun, Hyae-Ran; Park, Hwangseo; Koh, Jae-Young; Yoon, Young Hee

    2017-01-01

    Loss of pericytes, considered an early hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, is thought to involve abnormal activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We previously showed that the anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) drug riluzole functions as a PKC inhibitor. Here, we examined the effects of riluzole on pathological changes in diabetic retinopathy. Pathological endpoints examined in vivo included the number of pericytes and integrity of retinal vessels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. In addition, PKC activation and the induction of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP1) were assessed in diabetic mice and in human retinal pericytes exposed to advanced glycation end product (AGE) or modified low-density lipoprotein (mLDL). The diameter of retinal vessels and the number of pericytes were severely reduced, and the levels of MCP1 and PKC were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Administration of riluzole reversed all of these changes. Furthermore, the increased expression of MCP1 in AGE- or mLDL-treated cultured retinal pericytes was inhibited by treatment with riluzole or the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In silico modeling showed that riluzole fits well within the catalytic pocket of PKC. Taken together, our results demonstrate that riluzole attenuates both MCP1 induction and pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy, likely through its direct inhibitory effect on PKC. - Highlights: • The effects of riluzole were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. • The diameter of retinal vessels and the number of pericytes were severely reduced. • The levels of MCP1 and PKC were increased, while riluzole reversed all changes. • Riluzole attenuated the level of MCP1 in AGE- or mLDL-treated retinal pericytes. • Riluzole attenuated both MCP1 induction and pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy.

  10. Influence of prosthetic radioiodination on the chemical and biological behavior of chemotactic peptides labeled at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Oscar R.; Sajaroff, Elisa O.; Edreira, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of radioiodination made through prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-3-[ 131 I]iodo-benzoate ([ 131 I]SIB) on the behavior of small peptides was investigated using as model the chemotactic hexapeptide Nα-for-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys. No carrier added labeled peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with coupling efficiencies up to 59-75%. Biodistribution in normal and infected C57 mice showed mainly a hepatobiliary clearance, a very low thyroid uptake and the highest uptake at the infection site was within 1h of injection. Superoxide production and competitive binding assays studies in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed a preserved biological activity and high-affinity specific binding. However, the results indicated that the changes observed in the receptor-binding properties with an IC 50 almost twice than the unlabeled peptide and the increasing in the hepatobiliary excretion could be the consequence of the increased lipophicity observed due to the presence of the prosthetic group together with a strong influence of the radioisotope per se

  11. Influence of prosthetic radioiodination on the chemical and biological behavior of chemotactic peptides labeled at high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Oscar R. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: oscar.pozzi@duke.edu; Sajaroff, Elisa O. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Edreira, Martin M. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-06-15

    The influence of radioiodination made through prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-3-[{sup 131}I]iodo-benzoate ([{sup 131}I]SIB) on the behavior of small peptides was investigated using as model the chemotactic hexapeptide N{alpha}-for-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys. No carrier added labeled peptide was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with coupling efficiencies up to 59-75%. Biodistribution in normal and infected C57 mice showed mainly a hepatobiliary clearance, a very low thyroid uptake and the highest uptake at the infection site was within 1h of injection. Superoxide production and competitive binding assays studies in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed a preserved biological activity and high-affinity specific binding. However, the results indicated that the changes observed in the receptor-binding properties with an IC{sub 50} almost twice than the unlabeled peptide and the increasing in the hepatobiliary excretion could be the consequence of the increased lipophicity observed due to the presence of the prosthetic group together with a strong influence of the radioisotope per se.

  12. Characterization of the formyl peptide chemotactic receptor appearing at the phagocytic cell surface after exposure to phorbol myristate acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.P.; Melnick, D.A.; Malech, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    The biochemistry and subcellular source of new formyl peptide chemotactic receptor appearing at the human neutrophil and differentiated HL-60 (d-HL-60) cell surface after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were examined. Formyl peptide receptor was analyzed by affinity labeling with formyl-norleu-leu-phe-norleu- [ 125 I]iodotyr-lys and ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometric analysis of autoradiographs. PMA, a specific granule secretagogue, increases affinity labeling of formyl peptide receptors on the neutrophil surface by 100%, and on d-HL-60, which lack specific granule markers, by 20%. Papain treatment markedly reduces surface labeling of formyl peptide receptor in both neutrophils and d-HL-60, and results in the appearance of a lower m.w. membrane-bound receptor fragment. PMA stimulation of papain-treated cells increases uncleaved surface receptor on neutrophils by 400%, and on D-HL-60 by only 45%. This newly appearing receptor is the same apparent m.w. (55,000 to 75,000 for neutrophils; 62,000 to 80,000 for d-HL-60) and yields the same papain cleavage product as receptor on the surface of unstimulated cells. These observations suggest that specific granule membranes contain large amounts of formyl peptide receptor, which is biochemically identical to that found on the cell surface and can be mobilized to the cell surface with appropriate stimulation

  13. Reduction of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Interleukin-8 Levels by Ticlopidine in TNF-α Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaur-Jong Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis and its associated complications represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized or Western countries. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is critical for the initiating and developing of atherosclerotic lesions. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, a CXC chemokine, stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis. Ticlopidine is one of the antiplatelet drugs used to prevent thrombus formation relevant to the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis. In this study, we found that ticlopidine dose-dependently decreased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α-stimulated MCP-1, IL-8, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Ticlopidine declined U937 cells adhesion and chemotaxis as compared to TNF-α stimulated alone. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects were neither due to decreased HUVEC viability, nor through NF-kB inhibition. These results suggest that ticlopidine decreased TNF-α induced MCP-1, IL-8, and VCAM-1 levels in HUVECs, and monocyte adhesion. Therefore, the data provide additional therapeutic machinery of ticlopidine in treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.

  14. Murine macrophage response from peritoneal cavity requires signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR-2 during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-02-01

    C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2) is a cognate receptor for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and recent studies revealed that MCP-1-CCR-2 signaling is involved in several inflammatory diseases characterized by macrophage infiltration. Currently, there is no study on the involvement of CCR-2 in the killing of S. aureus by macrophages of Swiss albino mice, and its substantial role in host defense against S. aureus infection in murine macrophages is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the functional and interactive role of CCR-2 and MCP-1 in regulating peritoneal macrophage responses with respect to acute S. aureus infection. We found that phagocytosis of S. aureus can serve as an important stimulus for MCP-1 production by peritoneal macrophages, which is dependent directly or indirectly on cytokines, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Neutralization of CCR-2 in macrophages leads to increased production of IL-10 and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-6. In CCR-2 blocked macrophages, pretreatment with specific blocker of NF-κB or p38-MAPK causes elevation in MCP-1 level and subsequent downregulation of CCR-2 itself. We speculate that CCR-2 is involved in S. aureus-induced MCP-1 production via NF-κB or p38-MAPK signaling. We also hypothesized that unnaturally high level of MCP-1 that build up upon CCR-2 neutralization might allow promiscuous binding to one or more other chemokine receptors, a situation that would not occur in CCR-2 non-neutralized condition. This may be the plausible explanation for such observed Th-2 response in CCR-2 blocked macrophages infected with S. aureus in the present study.

  15. Myosin-II sets the optimal response time scale of chemotactic amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    The response dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton to external chemical stimuli plays a fundamental role in numerous cellular functions. One of the key players that governs the dynamics of the actin network is the motor protein myosin-II. Here we investigate the role of myosin-II in the response of the actin system to external stimuli. We used a microfluidic device in combination with a photoactivatable chemoattractant to apply stimuli to individual cells with high temporal resolution. We directly compare the actin dynamics in Dictyostelium discodelium wild type (WT) cells to a knockout mutant that is deficient in myosin-II (MNL). Similar to the WT a small population of MNL cells showed self-sustained oscillations even in absence of external stimuli. The actin response of MNL cells to a short pulse of chemoattractant resembles WT during the first 15 sec but is significantly delayed afterward. The amplitude of the dominant peak in the power spectrum from the response time series of MNL cells to periodic stimuli with varying period showed a clear resonance peak at a forcing period of 36 sec, which is significantly delayed as compared to the resonance at 20 sec found for the WT. This shift indicates an important role of myosin-II in setting the response time scale of motile amoeba. Institute of Physics und Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

  16. Role for macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Shanley, T P; Jones, M L

    1996-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is a C-X-C chemokine that possesses chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Rat MIP-2 was cloned and expressed as a 7.9-kDa peptide that exhibited dose-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity at concentrations from 10 to 250 nM. Rabbit polyclonal Ab to th...... instillation of LPS was found to be MIP-2-dependent. These data indicate that MIP-2 plays a significant role in LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat lungs and is required for the full recruitment of neutrophils....

  17. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in the choroid plexus: a potential link between vascular pro-inflammatory mediators and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K.; Yang, H.-Y. T.; Berk, J. D.; Tran, J. H.; Iadarola, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    During peripheral tissue inflammation, inflammatory processes in the CNS can be initiated by blood-borne pro-inflammatory mediators. The choroid plexus, the site of CSF production, is a highly specialized interface between the vascular system and CNS, and thus, this structure may be an important element in communication between the vascular compartment and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation. We investigated the potential participation of the choroid plexus in this process during peripheral tissue inflammation by examining expression of the SCYA2 gene which codes for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 protein was previously reported to be induced in a variety of cells during peripheral tissue inflammation. In the basal state, SCYA2 is highly expressed in the choroid plexus as compared to other CNS tissues. During hind paw inflammation, SCYA2 expression was significantly elevated in choroid plexus, whereas it remained unchanged in a variety of brain regions. The SCYA2-expressing cells were strongly associated with the choroid plexus as vascular depletion of blood cells by whole-body saline flush did not significantly alter SCYA2 expression in the choroid plexus. In situ hybridization suggested that the SCYA2-expressing cells were localized to the choroid plexus stroma. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of SCYA2 increase, we examined genes in the NF-κβ signaling cascade including TNF-α, IL-1β and IκBα in choroid tissue. Given that we also detected increased levels of MCP-1 protein by ELISA, we sought to identify potential downstream targets of MCP-1 and observed altered expression levels of mRNAs encoding tight junction proteins TJP2 and claudin 5. Finally, we detected a substantial up-regulation of the transcript encoding E-selectin, a molecule which could participate in leukocyte recruitment to the choroid plexus along with MCP-1. Together, these results suggest that profound changes occur in the choroid plexus during

  18. An investigation on the chemotactic responses of different entomopathogenic nematode strains to mechanically damaged maize root volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laznik, Z; Trdan, S

    2013-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) respond to a variety of stimuli when foraging. In a laboratory investigation, we tested the chemotactic responses of 8 EPN strains (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) to three mechanically damaged maize root compounds (linalool, α-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene). We hypothesized that the EPN directional response to the tested volatile compounds would vary among the species and volatile compound and may be related to foraging strategies. The nematodes with an intermediate foraging strategy (Steinernema feltiae) proved to be less active in their movement toward volatile compounds in a comparison with the ambushers (Steinernema carpocapsae) and cruisers (Steinernema kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora); β-caryophyllene was found to be the most attractive substance in our experiment. The results of our investigation showed that the cruisers were more attracted to β-caryophyllene than the ambushers and intermediates. The foraging strategy did not affect the movement of the IJs toward the other tested volatile compounds or the control. Our results suggest that the response to different volatile cues is more a strain-specific characteristic than a different host-searching strategy. Only S. carpocapsae strain B49 displayed an attraction to linalool, whereas S. kraussei showed a retarded reaction to β-caryophyllene and α-caryophyllene in our experiment. The EPN strains showed only a weak attraction to α-caryophyllene, suggesting that this volatile compound could not have an important role in the orientation of IJs to the damaged roots of maize plants. These results expand our knowledge of volatile compounds as the cues that may be used by EPNs for finding hosts or other aspects of navigation in the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research.

  20. CD147 and CD98 complex-mediated homotypic aggregation attenuates the CypA-induced chemotactic effect on Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Zhang, Kui; Lv, Minghua; Miao, Jinlin; Chen, Zhinan; Zhu, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Homotypic cell aggregation plays important roles in physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, immune responses, angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and metastasis. CD147 has been implicated in most of these phenomena, and it was identified as a T cell activation-associated antigen due to its obvious up-regulation in activated T cells. However, the explicit function and mechanism of CD147 in T cells have not been fully elucidated. In this study, large and compact aggregates were observed in Jurkat T cells after treatment with the specific CD147 monoclonal antibody HAb18 or after the expression of CD147 was silenced by RNA interference, which indicated an inhibitory effect of CD147 in T cell homotypic aggregation. Knocking down CD147 expression resulted in a significant decrease in CD98, along with prominent cell aggregation, similar to that treated by CD98 and CD147 monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, decreased cell chemotactic activity was observed following CD147- and CD98-mediated cell aggregation, and increased aggregation was correlated with a decrease in the chemotactic ability of the Jurkat T cells, suggesting that CD147- and CD98-mediated homotypic cell aggregation plays a negative role in T cell chemotaxis. Our data also showed that p-ERK, p-ZAP70, p-CD3ζ and p-LCK were significantly decreased in the CD147- and CD98-knocked down Jurkat T cells, which suggested that decreased CD147- and/or CD98-induced homotypic T cell aggregation and aggregation-inhibited chemotaxis might be associated with these signaling pathways. A role for CD147 in cell aggregation and chemotaxis was further indicated in primary CD4(+) T cells. Similarly, low expression of CD147 in primary T cells induced prominent cell aggregation and this aggregation attenuated primary T cell chemotactic ability in response to CypA. Our results have demonstrated the correlation between homotypic cell aggregation and the chemotactic response of T cells to CypA, and these data

  1. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Michael; Taylor, Brad; Lukacs, Nicholas; Fidel, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, our data suggest that systemic CMI is ineffective against C. albicans vaginal infections. Thus, we have postulated that local immune mechanisms are critical for protection against infection. In the present study, the kinetic production of chemokines normally associated with the chemotaxis of T cells, macrophages (RANTES, MIP-1α, MCP-1), and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MIP-2) was examined following intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans in estrogen-treated or untreated mice. Results showed significant increases in MCP-1 protein and mRNA in vaginal tissue of infected mice as early as 2 and 4 days postinoculation, respectively, that continued through a 21-day observation period, irrespective of estrogen status. No significant changes were observed with RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-2, although relatively high constitutive levels of RANTES mRNA and MIP-2 protein were observed. Furthermore, intravaginal immunoneutralization of MCP-1 with anti-MCP-1 antibodies resulted in a significant increase in vaginal fungal burden early during infection, suggesting that MCP-1 plays some role in reducing the fungal burden during vaginal infection. However, the lack of changes in leukocyte profiles in vaginal lavage fluids collected from infected versus uninfected mice suggests that MCP-1 functions to control vaginal C. albicans titers in a manner independent of cellular chemotactic activity. PMID:10531235

  2. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  3. Loss of PPAR gamma in immune cells impairs the ability of abscisic acid to improve insulin sensitivity by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Ferrer, Gerardo; Casagran, Oriol; Wankhade, Umesh; Noble, Alexis M; Eizirik, Decio L; Ortis, Fernanda; Cnop, Miriam; Liu, Dongmin; Si, Hongwei; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural phytohormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist that significantly improves insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Although it has become clear that obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), the phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the mechanisms by which insulin-sensitizing compounds modulate their infiltration remain unknown. We used a loss-of-function approach to investigate whether ABA ameliorates insulin resistance through a mechanism dependent on immune cell PPARgamma. We characterized two phenotypically distinct ATM subsets in db/db mice based on their surface expression of F4/80. F4/80(hi) ATMs were more abundant and expressed greater concentrations of chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 and CCR5 when compared to F4/80(lo) ATMs. ABA significantly decreased CCR2(+) F4/80(hi) infiltration into WAT and suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in WAT and plasma. Furthermore, the deficiency of PPARgamma in immune cells, including macrophages, impaired the ability of ABA to suppress the infiltration of F4/80(hi) ATMs into WAT, to repress WAT MCP-1 expression and to improve glucose tolerance. We provide molecular evidence in vivo demonstrating that ABA improves insulin sensitivity and obesity-related inflammation by inhibiting MCP-1 expression and F4/80(hi) ATM infiltration through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  4. Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Individuals and Correlation with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 and Interferon Gamma from Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Centre in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha Pushpanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and obesity are associated with changes in gut microbiota and characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interferon gamma (IFNγ are proinflammatory cytokines which play an important role in the development of T2DM. We undertook this study to analyze the gut microbiota of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects and to determine the profile of MCP 1 and IFNγ in the same subjects attending a tertiary care center in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study included 30 subjects with clinical details. Stool and blood samples were collected from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and polymerase chain reaction was done using fusion primers. Metagenomic analysis was performed using ion torrent sequencing. The reads obtained were in FASTA format and reported as operational taxonomic units. Human MCP 1 and IFNγ enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were performed for 23 serum samples. Results: The study consisted of 30 subjects; 17 were T2DM and 13 were nondiabetics. The gut microbiota among T2DM consisted predominantly of Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia and Prevotella, when compared with the nondiabetic group with predominantly Gram positive organisms suchas Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. The mean MCP-1 values in the diabetic group were 232.8 pg/ml and in the nondiabetic group 170.84 pg/ml. IFNγ (mean 385.5 pg/ml was raised in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c group of 6.5–7.5% which was statistically significant. Association of Escherichia with T2DM and association of Bifidobacteria in the nondiabetics were also statistically significant. Conclusion: Escherichia counts were elevated in T2DM with HbA1c of 6.5–8.5% which was statistically significant suggesting that lipopolysaccharides present in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria may be responsible for low-grade inflammation as evidenced by elevated MCP-1 and

  5. ASIC proteins regulate smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; Jernigan, Nikki L; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated that Epithelial Na(+)Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration; however, the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence individual ASIC expression and determine the importance of ASIC proteins in wound healing and chemotaxis (PDGF-bb)-initiated migration. We found ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, expression in A10 cells. ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 siRNA molecules significantly suppressed expression of their respective proteins compared to non-targeting siRNA (RISC) transfected controls by 63%, 44%, and 55%, respectively. Wound healing was inhibited by 10, 20, and 26% compared to RISC controls following suppression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, respectively. Chemotactic migration was inhibited by 30% and 45%, respectively, following suppression of ASIC1 and ASIC3. ASIC2 suppression produced a small, but significant, increase in chemotactic migration (4%). Our data indicate that ASIC expression is required for normal migration and may suggest a novel role for ASIC proteins in cellular migration.

  6. cDNA-AFLP analysis of differential gene expression related to cell chemotactic and encystment of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huamin; Cui, Yanhua; Wu, Lixian; Tu, Ran; Chen, Sanfeng

    2011-12-20

    Our previous study indicated org35 was involved in chemotaxis and interacted with nitrogen fixation transcriptional activator NifA via PAS domain. In order to reveal the role of org35 in nitrogen regulation, the downstream target genes of org35 were identified. We here report differentially expressed genes in org35 mutants comparing with wild type Sp7 by means of cDNA-AFLP. Four up-regulated transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) homologues of chemotaxis transduction proteins were found, including CheW, methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein and response regulator CheY-like receiver. Three distinct TDFs (AB46, AB58 and AB63) were similar to PHB de-polymerase C-terminus, cell shape-determining protein and flagellin domain protein. And 11 TDFs showed similarities with signal transduction proteins, including homologous protein of the nitrogen regulation protein NtrY and nitrate/nitrite response regulator protein NarL. These data suggested that the Azospirillum brasilense org35 was a multi-effecter and involved in chemotaxis, cyst development and regulation of nitrogen fixation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients on the release of monocyte-specific chemokines by leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Seung-Chul; Joo, Jong-Kil; Wang, Ji-Won; Jin, Jun-O; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2011-06-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathological process of endometriosis. We compared the effects of peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) and controls without endometriosis (cPF) on the release of monocyte-specific CC chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) by neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells. Moreover, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of chemokines in ePF and their release by these cells. Cells were obtained from healthy young volunteers and cultured with ePF (n = 12) or cPF (n = 8). The chemokine levels in the ePF and the supernatants of cultured cells with ePF were then measured by ELISA. There was a positive correlation between the levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α in ePF. The addition of ePF to the cell cultures failed to increase the release of MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α when compared to cPF, but the levels of RANTES in ePF were positively correlated with the release of RANTES by ePF-treated monocytes and T cells. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the levels of RANTES and MIP-1α released by neutrophils and between the levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α released by T cells. Finally, the levels of RANTES released by monocyte-derived macrophages and monocytes cultured with ePF were positively correlated. These findings suggest that monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells release differential levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α in response to stimulation with ePF.

  8. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  9. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  10. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  11. Comparisons of the Postprandial Inflammatory and Endotoxaemic Responses to Mixed Meals in Young and Older Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Milan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20–25 and 60–75 years (n = 15/group consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1 but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates chemotactic migration of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells through directly transactivating the CX3CR1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansuo Zhao

    Full Text Available CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor and regulates the chemotactic migration of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells. Up to now, its regulatory mechanism remains largely undefined. Here, we report that hypoxia upregulates the expression of CX3CR1 in pancreatic cancer cells. When hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α expression was knocked down in vitro and in vivo, the expression of CX3CR1 was significantly decreased. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α bound to the hypoxia-response element (HRE; 5'-A/GCGTG-3' of CX3CR1 promoter under normoxia, and this binding was significantly enhanced under hypoxia. Overexpression of HIF-1α significantly upregulated the expression of luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CX3CR1 promoter in pancreatic cancer cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that HIF-1α may regulate cancer cell migration through CX3CR1. The HIF-1α/CX3CR1 pathway might represent a valuable therapeutic target to prevent invasion and distant metastasis in PDAC.

  13. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  14. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Renoprotective Effects of Low-protein Diet with the Use of Keto-analogues of Essential Amino Acids Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Romadanova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of low-protein diet and keto-analogues of essential amino acids in patients with impaired renal function. On the basis of results of the study on regularities of monocyte chemoattractant protein level (MCP-1, depending on the origin of glomerular damage and stage of chronic kidney disease and the dynamics of its changes under the influence of different approaches in complex treatment, it is concluded that administration of low-protein diet with inclusion of Ketosteril is necessary already at the early stages of the diseases for renoprotective action. Use of Ketosteril should be prolonged and continuous in order to increase the predialysis period and improve the quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  16. Cafestol Inhibits Cyclic-Strain-Induced Interleukin-8, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wen-Rui; Sung, Li-Chin; Chen, Chun-Chao; Chen, Jin-Jer

    2018-01-01

    Moderate coffee consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality; however, mechanisms underlying this causal effect remain unclear. Cafestol, a diterpene found in coffee, has various properties, including an anti-inflammatory property. This study investigated the effect of cafestol on cyclic-strain-induced inflammatory molecule secretion in vascular endothelial cells. Cells were cultured under static or cyclic strain conditions, and the secretion of inflammatory molecules was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of cafestol on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. Cafestol attenuated cyclic-strain-stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, and interleukin- (IL-) 8 secretion. Cafestol inhibited the cyclic-strain-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 MAPK. By contrast, cafestol upregulated cyclic-strain-induced HO-1 and Sirt1 expression. The addition of zinc protoporphyrin IX, sirtinol, or Sirt1 silencing (transfected with Sirt1 siRNA) significantly attenuated cafestol-mediated modulatory effects on cyclic-strain-stimulated ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-8 secretion. This is the first study to report that cafestol inhibited cyclic-strain-induced inflammatory molecule secretion, possibly through the activation of HO-1 and Sirt1 in endothelial cells. The results provide valuable insights into molecular pathways that may contribute to the effects of cafestol. PMID:29854096

  17. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of Serum and Oxygen Concentration on Gene Expression and Secretion of Paracrine Factors by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Page

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC secrete paracrine factors that may exert a protective effect on the heart after coronary artery occlusion. This study was done to determine the effect of hypoxia and serum levels on the mRNA expression and secretion of paracrine factors. Mouse bone marrow MSC were cultured with 5% or 20% serum and in either normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions. Expression of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 was determined by RT-qPCR. Secretion into the culture media was determined by ELISA. Hypoxia caused a reduction in gene expression for MCP-1 and an increase for VEGF (5% serum, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MMP-2. Serum reduction lowered gene expression for VEGF (normoxia, MCP-1 (hypoxia, MIP-1α (hypoxia, MIP-1β (hypoxia, and MMP-2 (hypoxia and increased gene expression for MMP-2 (normoxia. The level of secretion of these factors into the media generally paralleled gene expression with some exceptions. These data demonstrate that serum and oxygen levels have a significant effect on the gene expression and secretion of paracrine factors by MSC which will affect how MSC interact in vivo during myocardial ischemia.

  19. Protein phosphorylation and bacterial chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J.F.; Bourret, R.B.; Oosawa, K.; Simon, M.I.; Matsumura, P.

    1988-01-01

    Bacteria are able to respond to changes in concentration of a large variety of chemicals and to changes in physical parameters, including viscosity, osmolarity, and temperature, by swimming toward a more favorable location (for review, see Stewart and Dahlquist 1987). Most chemotactic responses are mediated by a series of transmembrane receptor proteins that interact with or bind specific chemicals and thus monitor environmental conditions. Over the past 10 years, work in a number of laboratories has resulted in the identification and characterization of many of the genes and proteins required for the signal transduction process. The authors postulated that rapid and transient covalent modification of the chemotaxis gene products could function to transmit information from the receptor by regulating protein-protein interaction between the chemotaxis gene products. To test this idea, the authors purified the proteins corresponding to the cheA, cheY, cheZ, cheW, and cheB genes and tested the purified polypeptides to determine whether they could be covalently modified and whether they would interact with each other in vitro

  20. Capillary arterialization requires the bone-marrow-derived cell (BMC)-specific expression of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2, but BMCs do not transdifferentiate into microvascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Meghan M; Burke, Caitlin W; Meisner, Joshua K; Shuptrine, Casey W; Song, Ji; Price, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2 (CCR2) regulates arteriogenesis and angiogenesis, facilitating the MCP-1-dependent recruitment of growth factor-secreting bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the BMC-specific expression of CCR2 is also required for new arteriole formation via capillary arterialization. Following non-ischemic saphenous artery occlusion, we measured the following in gracilis muscles: monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6J mice by ELISA, and capillary arterialization in WT-WT and CCR2(-/-)-WT (donor-host) bone marrow chimeric mice, as well as BMC transdifferentiation in EGFP(+)-WT mice, by smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin immunochemistry. MCP-1 levels were significantly elevated 1 day after occlusion in WT mice. In WT-WT mice at day 7, compared to sham controls, arterial occlusion induced a 34% increase in arteriole length density, a 46% increase in SM alpha-actin(+) vessels, and a 45% increase in the fraction of vessels coated with SM alpha-actin, indicating significant capillary arterialization. However, in CCR2(-/-)-WT mice, no differences were observed between arterial occlusion and sham surgery. In EGFP(+)-WT mice, EGFP and SM alpha-actin never colocalized. We conclude that BMC-specific CCR2 expression is required for skeletal muscle capillary arterialization following arterial occlusion; however, BMCs do not transdifferentiate into smooth muscle.

  1. Glatiramer acetate (GA) prevents TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to primary endothelial cells through interfering with the NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Guoqian; Zhang, Xueyan; Su, Zhendong; Li, Xueqi, E-mail: xueqili075@yeah.net

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • GA inhibited TNF-α-induced binding of monocytes to endothelial cells. • GA inhibited the induction of adhesion molecules MCP-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. • GA inhibits NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. • GA inhibits TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation. - Abstract: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is considered to be the major one contributing to the process of development of endothelial dysfunction. Exposure to TNF-α induces the expression of a number of proinflammatory chemokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, which mediate the interaction of invading monocytes with vascular endothelial cells. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a licensed clinical drug for treating patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). The effects of GA in vascular disease have not shown before. In this study, we found that GA significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced binding of monocytes to endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we found that GA ameliorated the upregulation of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin induced by TNF-α. Notably, this process is mediated by inhibiting the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB. Our results also indicate that GA pretreatment attenuates the up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS. These data suggest that GA might have a potential benefit in therapeutic endothelial dysfunction related diseases.

  2. MyD88 expression in the rat dental follicle: Implications for osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawen; Yao, Shaomian; Wise, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a key adaptor molecule in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-18 Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Because it is present in dental follicle (DF) cells in vitro, the purpose of this study was to determine its chronological expression in vivo, as well as its possible role in osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption. An oligo DNA microarray was used to determine gene expression of MyD88 in vivo in the DFs from the first mandibular molars of postnatal rats from days 1–11. The results showed that MyD88 was expressed maximally at day 3. Using siRNA to knock down MyD88 expression in the DF cells also reduced the gene expression of nuclear factor-kappa B-1 (NFKB1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). IL-1α up-regulated the expression of NFKB1, MCP-1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), but knockdown of MyD88 nullified this IL-1α effect. Conditioned medium from DF cells with MyD88 knocked down reduced chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells and reduced osteoclastogenesis as opposed to controls. In conclusion, the maximal expression of MyD88 at day 3 in the DF may contribute to the major burst of osteoclastogenesis needed for eruption by up-regulating MCP-1 and RANKL expression. PMID:20662905

  3. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  4. Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-κB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen; Fischaeder, Gundula; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Feltens, Ralph; Kohse, Franziska; Bergen, Martin von; Moerbt, Nora; Eder, Klaus; Duschl, Albert; Lehmann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent in many industrial settings. Chronic exposure to styrene can result in irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Contact of styrene with epithelial cells stimulates the expression of a variety of inflammatory mediators, including the chemotactic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). To characterise the underlying mechanisms of the induction of inflammatory signals by styrene, we investigated the influence of this compound on the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The results demonstrate that styrene-induced MCP-1 expression, as well as the expression of the oxidative stress marker glutathione S-transferase (GST), is associated with a concentration dependent pattern of NF-κB activity. An inhibitor of NF-κB, IKK-NBD, and the anti-inflammatory antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were both effective in suppressing styrene-induced MCP-1 secretion. In addition, NAC was capable of inhibiting the upregulation of GST expression. Our findings suggest that the activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway by styrene is mediated via a redox-sensitive mechanism

  5. NF-κB activity in muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects under basal and exercise-stimulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwong, Puntip; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Monroy, Adriana; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Li, Mengyao; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Mohan, Sumathy; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    NF-κB is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several proinflammatory proteins. Cell culture and animal studies have implicated increased NF-κB activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether insulin-resistant human subjects have abnormal NF-κB activity in muscle. The effect that exercise has on NF-κB activity/signaling also is not clear. We measured NF-κB DNA-binding activity and the mRNA level of putative NF-κB-regulated myokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in muscle samples from T2DM, obese, and lean subjects immediately before, during (40 min), and after (210 min) a bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise. At baseline, NF-κB activity was elevated 2.1- and 2.7-fold in obese nondiabetic and T2DM subjects, respectively. NF-κB activity was increased significantly at 210 min following exercise in lean (1.9-fold) and obese (2.6-fold) subjects, but NF-κB activity did not change in T2DM. Exercise increased MCP-1 mRNA levels significantly in the three groups, whereas IL-6 gene expression increased significantly only in lean and obese subjects. MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression peaked at the 40-min exercise time point. We conclude that insulin-resistant subjects have increased basal NF-κB activity in muscle. Acute exercise stimulates NF-κB in muscle from nondiabetic subjects. In T2DM subjects, exercise had no effect on NF-κB activity, which could be explained by the already elevated NF-κB activity at baseline. Exercise-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression precedes increases in NF-κB activity, suggesting that other factors promote gene expression of these cytokines during exercise.

  6. Induction of macrophage chemotaxis by aortic extracts from patients with Marfan syndrome is related to elastin binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guo

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of connective tissue with prominent skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular manifestations. Aortic aneurysm and dissection are the major determinants of premature death in untreated patients. In previous work, we showed that extracts of aortic tissues from the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome showed increased chemotactic stimulatory activity related to the elastin-binding protein. Aortic samples were collected from 6 patients with Marfan syndrome and 8 with isolated aneurysms of the ascending aorta. Control samples were obtained from 11 organ donors without known vascular or connective tissue diseases. Soluble proteins extracted from the aortic samples of the two patient groups were compared against buffer controls and against the aortic samples from controls with respect to the ability to induce macrophage chemotaxis as measured using a modified Boyden chamber, as well as the reactivity to a monoclonal antibody BA4 against bioactive elastin peptides using ELISA. Samples from Marfan patients displayed a statistically significant increase in chemotactic inductive activity compared to control samples. Additionally, reactivity to BA4 was significantly increased. Similar statistically significant increases were identified for the samples from patients with idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm. There was a significant correlation between the chemotactic index and BA4 reactivity, and the increases in chemotactic activity of extracts from Marfan patients could be inhibited by pretreatment with lactose, VGVAPG peptides, or BA4, which indicates the involvement of EBP in mediating the effects. Our results demonstrate that aortic extracts of patients with Marfan syndrome can elicit macrophage chemotaxis, similar to our previous study on aortic extracts of the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome (Guo et al., Circulation 2006; 114:1855-62.

  7. Induction of Macrophage Chemotaxis by Aortic Extracts from Patients with Marfan Syndrome Is Related to Elastin Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao; Gehle, Petra; Doelken, Sandra; Martin-Ventura, José Luis; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Hetzer, Roland; Robinson, Peter N.

    2011-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of connective tissue with prominent skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular manifestations. Aortic aneurysm and dissection are the major determinants of premature death in untreated patients. In previous work, we showed that extracts of aortic tissues from the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome showed increased chemotactic stimulatory activity related to the elastin-binding protein. Aortic samples were collected from 6 patients with Marfan syndrome and 8 with isolated aneurysms of the ascending aorta. Control samples were obtained from 11 organ donors without known vascular or connective tissue diseases. Soluble proteins extracted from the aortic samples of the two patient groups were compared against buffer controls and against the aortic samples from controls with respect to the ability to induce macrophage chemotaxis as measured using a modified Boyden chamber, as well as the reactivity to a monoclonal antibody BA4 against bioactive elastin peptides using ELISA. Samples from Marfan patients displayed a statistically significant increase in chemotactic inductive activity compared to control samples. Additionally, reactivity to BA4 was significantly increased. Similar statistically significant increases were identified for the samples from patients with idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm. There was a significant correlation between the chemotactic index and BA4 reactivity, and the increases in chemotactic activity of extracts from Marfan patients could be inhibited by pretreatment with lactose, VGVAPG peptides, or BA4, which indicates the involvement of EBP in mediating the effects. Our results demonstrate that aortic extracts of patients with Marfan syndrome can elicit macrophage chemotaxis, similar to our previous study on aortic extracts of the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome (Guo et al., Circulation 2006; 114:1855-62). PMID:21647416

  8. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pocheć, Ewa

    2016-12-15

    Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7) following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL) which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1) upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500-1000 nM), accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  9. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4–1000 nM affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, transforming growth factor–beta 1 (TGFβ, interleukin 10 (IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitric oxide (NO, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1 upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500–1000 nM, accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  10. Role of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) in lung injury in response to acute ozone exposure of SP-A deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Rizwanul; Umstead, Todd M.; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Guo Xiaoxuan; Hawgood, Samuel; Phelps, David S.; Floros, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Millions are exposed to ozone levels above recommended limits, impairing lung function, causing epithelial damage and inflammation, and predisposing some individuals to pneumonia, asthma, and other lung conditions. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) plays a role in host defense, the regulation of inflammation, and repair of tissue damage. We tested the hypothesis that the lungs of SP-A(-/-) (KO) mice are more susceptible to ozone-induced damage. We compared the effects of ozone on KO and wild type (WT) mice on the C57BL/6 genetic background by exposing them to 2 parts/million of ozone for 3 or 6 h and sacrificing them 0, 4, and 24 h later. Lungs were subject to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or used to measure endpoints of oxidative stress and inflammation. Despite more total protein in BAL of KO mice after a 3 h ozone exposure, WT mice had increased oxidation of protein and had oxidized SP-A dimers. In KO mice there was epithelial damage as assessed by increased LDH activity and there was increased phospholipid content. In WT mice there were more BAL PMNs and elevated macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Changes in MIP-2 and MCP-1 were observed in both KO and WT, however mRNA levels differed. In KO mice MIP-2 mRNA levels changed little with ozone, but in WT levels they were significantly increased. In summary, several aspects of the inflammatory response differ between WT and KO mice. These in vivo findings appear to implicate SP-A in regulating inflammation and limiting epithelial damage in response to ozone exposure

  11. Suppression of the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of MARCKS-related protein (MRP) affects transmigration in activated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang-Rok; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2009-01-01

    The molecular action mechanism of MRP, one of the protein kinase C (PKC) substrates, has been under intense investigation, but reports on its role in macrophage function remain controversial. The treatment of macrophage cell lines with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a high level of MRP expression suggesting that MRP plays a role in the function of activated macrophages. In order to investigate the role of MRP in activated RAW264.7 cells, we stably transfected MRP-specific shRNA expression constructs and tested for alterations in macrophage-related functions. The down-regulation of MRP expression resulted in a marked reduction in chemotaxis toward MCP-1 or extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of PKC significantly inhibited the chemotaxis in RAW264.7 cells. These data reveals the pivotal role of MRP in the transmigration of activated RAW264.7 cells.

  12. Retinoic acid suppresses growth of lesions, inhibits peritoneal cytokine secretion, and promotes macrophage differentiation in an immunocompetent mouse model of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Friedrich; Wu, Juanjuan; Shen, Zhaoju; Taylor, Robert N; Sidell, Neil

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on establishment and growth of endometrial lesions, peritoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage chemotactic factor-1 (MCP-1) concentrations, and CD38, CD11b, and F4/80 expression on peritoneal macrophages in an immunocompetent mouse model of endometriosis. Experimental transplantation study using mice. Academic medical center. C57BL/6 recipient mice and syngeneic green fluorescent protein transgenic (GFP+) mice. Recipient mice were inoculated with GFP+ minced uterine tissue to induce endometriosis and treated with RA (400 nmol/day) or vehicle for 17 days (3 days before to 14 days after tissue injection). Total number of GFP+ implants in recipient mice, number of implants showing visible blood vessels, total volume of established lesions per mouse, concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 in peritoneal fluid, and expression of CD11b, F4/80, and CD38 on peritoneal macrophages. Retinoic acid treatment for 17 days reduced the number of implants versus controls and decreased the frequency of lesions with vessels. Peritoneal washings in RA-treated animals had lower concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 than controls 3 days after endometrial inoculation and lower levels of IL-6 on day 14 after inoculation. Concomitant with these effects on day 14, CD38, CD11b, and F4/80 were higher on macrophages from RA-treated mice versus controls. The development of endometriotic implants is inhibited by RA. This effect may be caused, at least in part, by reduced IL-6 and MCP-1 production and enhanced differentiation of peritoneal macrophages. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Shao, Rong; Rao, C V; Akoum, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Deep functional changes occurring within the endometrium during implantation are orchestrated by embryonic and maternal signals. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major embryonic signal, plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL) 1, one of the earliest embryonic signals, appears to exert a direct impact on the receptive endometrium and to induce major molecular changes that are essential for embryo implantation. Herein we investigate whether hCG can modulate endometrial stromal cell (ESC) receptivity to IL1 during the implantation window and assess the impact on angiogenesis in vitro. Primary cultures of ESCs from normal fertile women during the implantation window were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of hCG (0-100 ng/ml) and stimulated for 24 h with IL1B (0-0.1 ng/ml). IL1 receptors (IL1Rs), IL1R antagonist (IL1RA), and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 were analyzed by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The angiogenic activity in vitro was studied using human microvascular endothelial cell line, scratch wound assay, and cell proliferation via BrdU incorporation into DNA. Human CG induced a dose-dependent imbalance in ESC receptivity to IL1 by significantly upregulating the functional signaling IL1R1 and concomitantly downregulating the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and IL1RA upon subsequent exposure to IL1B. Prior exposure to hCG amplified MCP1 secretion by ESCs in response to IL1B and triggered the release of angiogenic activity in vitro in which MCP1 appeared to play a significant role. Overexpression of IL1R2 using cell transfection inhibited IL1 and hCG/IL1B-mediated MCP1 secretion. These findings suggest that hCG coordinates embryonic signal interaction with the maternal endometrium, and point to a new possible pathway by which it may promote embryonic growth.

  14. Impact of anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia technique on the inflammatory cytokine profile in a rodent model of severe burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Kulp, Gabriela A; Branski, Ludwik K; Kraft, Robert; Mecott, Gabriel A; Williams, Felicia N; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2010-09-01

    Anesthetics used in burn and trauma animal models may be influencing results by modulating inflammatory and acute-phase responses. Accordingly, we determined the effects of various anesthetics, analgesia, and euthanasia techniques in a rodent burn model. Isoflurane (ISO), ketamine-xylazine (KX), or pentobarbital (PEN) with or without buprenorphine were administered before scald-burn in 72 rats that were euthanized without anesthesia by decapitation after 24 h and compared with unburned shams. In a second experiment, 120 rats underwent the same scald-burn injury using KX, and 24 h later were euthanized under anesthesia or carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, we compared euthanasia by exsanguination with that of decapitation. Serum cytokine levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the first experiment, ISO was associated with elevation of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 2 (CINC-2) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and KX and PEN was associated with elevation of CINC-1,CINC-2, IL-6, and MCP-1. Pentobarbital also decreased IL-1". IL-6 increased significantly when ISO or PEN were combined with buprenorphine. In the second experiment, euthanasia performed by exsanguination under ISO was associated with reduced levels of IL-1", CINC-1, CINC-2, and MCP-1, whereas KX reduced CINC-2 and increased IL-6 levels. Meanwhile, PEN reduced levels of IL-1" and MCP-1, and CO2 reduced CINC-2 and MCP-1. In addition,decapitation after KX, PEN, or CO2 decreased IL-1" and MCP-1, although we found no significant difference between ISO and controls. Euthanasia by exsanguination compared with decapitation using the same agent also led to modulation of several cytokines. Differential expression of inflammatory markers with the use of anesthetics and analgesics should be considered when designing animal studies and interpreting results because these seem to have a significant modulating impact. Our findings indicate that brief anesthesia with ISO

  15. Circulating interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein decrease after periodontal therapy in otherwise healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaccini, Andrea M; Meschiari, César A; Sorgi, Carlos A; Saraiva, Maria C P; de Souza, Ana M; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Novaes, Arthur B; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2009-04-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with many chronic inflammatory systemic diseases, and a common chronic inflammation pathway has been suggested for these conditions. However, few studies have evaluated whether periodontal disease, in the absence of other known inflammatory conditions and smoking, affects circulating markers of chronic inflammation. This study compared chronic inflammation markers in control individuals and patients with periodontal disease and observed whether non-surgical periodontal therapy affected inflammatory disease markers after 3 months. Plasma and serum of 20 controls and 25 patients with periodontal disease were obtained prior to and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. All patients were non-smokers, they did not use any medication, and they had no history or detectable signs and symptoms of systemic diseases. Periodontal and systemic parameters included probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, hematologic parameters, as well as the following inflammatory markers: interleukin (IL)-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), CD40 ligand, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. There were no differences in the hematologic parameters of the patients in the control and periodontal disease groups. Among the tested inflammatory markers, IL-6 concentrations were higher in the periodontal disease group at baseline compared to the controls (P = 0.006). Therapy was highly effective (P periodontal disease groups prior to the therapy (P = 0.009). In apparently otherwise healthy patients, periodontal disease is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IL-6 and hs-CRP, which decreased 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. With regard to the CD40 ligand, MCP-1, sP-selectin, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1, no changes were seen in the periodontal disease group

  16. The alpha hemolysin of Escherichia Coli power the metabolism oxidative of neutrophils human beings in response to the peptide chemotactic FMLP: comparison with the ionophore of calcium A23187

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    The calcium ionophore ionomycin primes polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) for increased superoxide production upon stimulation with the chemotactic peptide FMLP (Helman Finkel, T. et al J Biol Chem 1987; 262: 12589-12596) In this investigation we assessed the effect of PMN priming with either alpha hemolysin (AH) or the calcium ionophore A23187, both of which increase intracellular calcium, on the oxidative metabolism of PMN (as measured by chemiluminescence) in response to secondary stimulation with FMLP. Both A23187 and AH priming increased, the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in response to secondary stimulation with FMLP, indicating overstimulation of PMLP oxidative metabolism. Additional experiments using lucigenin as chemiluminescence enhancer showed that A23187, but not AH priming of PMN, increased superoxide release in a manner similar to that reported for ionomycin. These results are discussed in reference to infectious processes involving hemolytic E. coli (Author) [es

  17. SGLT2 Protein Expression Is Increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin X.; Levi, Jonathan; Luo, Yuhuan; Myakala, Komuraiah; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Qiu, Liru; Wang, Dong; Peng, Yingqiong; Grenz, Almut; Lucia, Scott; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Koepsell, Hermann; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Levi, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    There is very limited human renal sodium gradient-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. The first aim of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice that had no changes in renal SGLT2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known. The second aim of this study was to determine the potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition in the progression of diabetic renal disease. We treated db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor JNJ 39933673. We found that SGLT2 inhibition caused marked decreases in systolic blood pressure, kidney weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. SGLT2 inhibition prevented renal lipid accumulation via inhibition of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-β, pyruvate kinase L, SCD-1, and DGAT1, key transcriptional factors and enzymes that mediate fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SGLT2 inhibition also prevented inflammation via inhibition of CD68 macrophage accumulation and expression of p65, TLR4, MCP-1, and osteopontin. These effects were associated with reduced mesangial expansion, accumulation of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and type IV collagen, and loss of podocyte markers WT1 and synaptopodin, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In summary, our study showed that SGLT2 inhibition modulates renal lipid metabolism and inflammation and prevents the development of nephropathy in db/db mice. PMID:28196866

  18. The anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on early atherosclerosis in high cholesterol fed rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis has been widely accepted as an inflammatory disease of vascular, adhesion molecules play an important role in the early progression of it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on the inflammatory molecules such as E-selectin (E-sel), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesionmolecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in high cholesterol induced atherosclerosis rabbit models. Methods Thirty male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were randomly divided into five groups, control group, model group, fenofibrate (12mg/kg) group and kaempferol groups (150 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The rabbits were fed with a normal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Levels of blood lipids, serum tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were detected at the end of the sixth and tenth week. Malonaldehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum were also determined. Lesion areas of the aorta were measured with morphometry analysis after ten weeks. Gene expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas was determined by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Immunohistochemical staining was employed to measure protein expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1. Results Model rabbits fed with ten weeks of high-cholesterol diet developed significant progression of atherosclerosis. Compared with the control, levels of blood lipids, TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA increased markedly in serum of model rabbits, while SOD levels decreased. Gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in atherosclerotic aortas increased remarkably in model group. However, comparing to the model rabbits, levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA decreased significantly and serum SOD activity increased, gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas decreased significantly with the treatment of

  19. Blood-flow restricted training leads to myocelullar macrophage infiltration and upregulation of heat-shock proteins, but no apparent muscle damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob L; Aagaard, Per; Prokhorova, Tatyana A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that low-load muscle contractions performed under local blood-flow restriction (BFR) may initially induce muscle damage and stress. However, whether these factors are evoked with longitudinal BFR training remains unexplored at the myocellular level. Two distinct study...... into the intervention (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days after training cessation (Post3,Post10) to examine macrophage (M1/M2) content as well as heat-shock protein (HSP27/70) and tenascin-C expression. Blood samples (1 wk) were collected before and after (0.1-24 h) the first and last training session to examine markers...... of muscle damage (CK), oxidative stress (TAC,GSH) and inflammation (MCP1,IL-6,TNFa). M1-macrophage content increased 108-165% with BFRE and LLE at Post3 (P

  20. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein hydrolysate from canned sardine and brewing by-products improves TNF-α-induced inflammation in an intestinal-endothelial co-culture cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elsa F; Van Camp, John; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Grootaert, Charlotte

    2017-07-17

    The anti-inflammatory activity of sardine protein hydrolysates (SPH) obtained by hydrolysis with proteases from brewing yeast surplus was ascertained. For this purpose, a digested and desalted SPH fraction with molecular weight lower than 10 kDa was investigated using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) as such and in a co-culture model with an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Effects of SPH <10 kDa on nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chemokine IL-8 (IL-8) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated in TNF-α-treated and untreated cells. Upon TNF-α treatment, levels of NO, MCP-1, VEGF, IL-8, ICAM-1 and endothelial ROS were significantly increased in both mono- and co-culture models. Treatment with SPH <10 kDa (2.0 mg peptides/mL) significantly decreased all the inflammation markers when compared to TNF-α-treated control. This protective effect was more pronounced in the co-culture model, suggesting that SPH <10 kDa Caco-2 cells metabolites produced in the course of intestinal absorption may provide a more relevant protective effect against endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, indirect cross-talk between two cell types was established, suggesting that SPH <10 kDa may also bind to receptors on the Caco-2 cells, thereby triggering a pathway to secrete the pro-inflammatory compounds. Overall, these in vitro screening results, in which intestinal digestion, absorption and endothelial bioactivity are simulated, show the potential of SPH to be used as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  4. Nigella sativa oil attenuates chronic nephrotoxicity induced by oral sodium nitrite: Effects on tissue fibrosis and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H; Hassan, Hanan M; Alyoussef, Abdullah; Abbas, Ahmed; Darweish, Mohamed M; El-Hawwary, Amany A

    2016-03-01

    Sodium nitrite, a food preservative, has been reported to increase oxidative stress indicators such as lipid peroxidation, which can affect different organs including the kidney. Here, we investigated the toxic effects of oral sodium nitrite on kidney function in rats and evaluated potential protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO). Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 80 mg/kg sodium nitrite orally in the presence or absence of NSO (2.5, 5, and 10 ml/kg) for 12 weeks. Morphological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory trichome, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Renal tissues were used for measurements of oxidative stress markers, C-reactive protein, cytochrome C oxidase, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, pJNK/JNK, and caspase-3. NSO significantly reduced sodium nitrite-induced elevation in serum urea and creatinine, as well as increasing normal appearance of renal tissue. NSO also prevented reductions in glycogen levels caused by sodium nitrite alone. Moreover, NSO treatment resulted in dose-dependent significant reductions in fibrosis markers after sodium nitrite-induced 3- and 2.7-fold increase in MCP-1 and TGF-beta1, respectively. Finally, NSO partially reduced the elevated caspase-3 and pJNK/JNK. NSO ameliorates sodium nitrite-induced nephrotoxicity through blocking oxidative stress, attenuation of fibrosis/inflammation, restoration of glycogen level, amelioration of cytochrome C oxidase, and inhibition of apoptosis.

  5. Cytokine and nitric oxide levels in patients with sepsis--temporal evolvement and relation to platelet mitochondrial respiratory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander

    2014-01-01

    the correlation between observed changes in platelet mitochondrial respiration and a set of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as NO plasma levels in patients with sepsis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Platelet mitochondrial respiration and levels of TNFα, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), INFγ (interferon......-γ), IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17 and NO were analyzed in 38 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at three time points during one week following admission to the ICU. Citrate synthase, mitochondrial DNA and cytochrome c were measured as markers of cellular mitochondrial content....... All mitochondrial respiratory states increased over the week analyzed (prespiration on day 6-7 (p = 0.02, r2 = 0.22) and was also higher in non-survivors compared to survivors on day 3-4 and day 6-7 (p = 0.03 respectively). Neither NO nor any...

  6. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  7. Identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measurement of plasma biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, S.B.; Wachenfeldt, K.A. von; Larsson, S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is an important constituent of the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to alveolar destruction and airway remodelling. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the difference in plasma biomarkers of inflammation between asymptomatic...... smokers and patients with COPD. Methods: We used commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to measure the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tissue inhibitor...... of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) on two occasions with a 2-week interval in patients with COPD (n = 20), asymptomatic smokers (n = 10) and healthy life-long non-smokers (n = 10). The participants were characterised clinically, physiologically and by quantitative...

  8. Characterization of a proteolytically stable multifunctional host defense peptidomimetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus D; Haney, Evan F; Franzyk, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a host defense peptidomimetic (HDM-4) was investigated. The compound exhibited an antimicrobial activity profile against a range of Gram-negative bacteria. HDM-4 permeabilized the outer membrane and partly depolarized the inner membrane at its minimal inhibitory...... concentration (MIC). Moreover, it was demonstrated that HDM-4 was distributed widely in the bacterial cell at lethal concentrations, and that it could bind to DNA. It was confirmed that the multimodal action of HDM-4 resulted in it being less likely to lead to resistance development as compared to single......-target antibiotics. HDM-4 exhibited multispecies anti-biofilm activity at sub-MIC levels. Furthermore, HDM-4 modulated the immune response by inducing the release of the chemoattractants interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and MCP-3 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition...

  9. An activated unfolded protein response promotes retinal degeneration and triggers an inflammatory response in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, T; Shinde, V M; Starr, C R; Kruglov, A A; Boitet, E R; Kotla, P; Zolotukhin, S; Gross, A K; Gorbatyuk, M S

    2014-12-18

    Recent studies on the endoplasmic reticulum stress have shown that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of inherited retinal degeneration caused by mutant rhodopsin. However, the main question of whether UPR activation actually triggers retinal degeneration remains to be addressed. Thus, in this study, we created a mouse model for retinal degeneration caused by a persistently activated UPR to assess the physiological and morphological parameters associated with this disease state and to highlight a potential mechanism by which the UPR can promote retinal degeneration. We performed an intraocular injection in C57BL6 mice with a known unfolded protein response (UPR) inducer, tunicamycin (Tn) and examined animals by electroretinography (ERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and histological analyses. We detected a significant loss of photoreceptor function (over 60%) and retinal structure (35%) 30 days post treatment. Analysis of retinal protein extracts demonstrated a significant upregulation of inflammatory markers including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IBA1. Similarly, we detected a strong inflammatory response in mice expressing either Ter349Glu or T17M rhodopsin (RHO). These mutant rhodopsin species induce severe retinal degeneration and T17M rhodopsin elicits UPR activation when expressed in mice. RNA and protein analysis revealed a significant upregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-1β, IL-6, p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and MCP-1, as well as activation of F4/80 and IBA1 microglial markers in both the retinas expressing mutant rhodopsins. We then assessed if the Tn-induced inflammatory marker IL-1β was capable of inducing retinal degeneration by injecting C57BL6 mice with a recombinant IL-1β. We observed ~19% reduction in ERG a-wave amplitudes and a 29% loss of photoreceptor cells compared with

  10. Statins, inflammation and deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, April L.; Wojcik, Brandon M.; Wrobleski, Shirley K.; Myers, Daniel D.; Wakefield, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. The 2009 JUPITER trial showed a significant decrease in DVT in non-hyperlipidemic patients, with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, treated with rosuvastatin. The effects of statins on thrombosis are unclear, prompting this literature review. A literature search was performed (1950 to February 2011) with MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PUBMED databases including the following keywords: “statins”, “hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors”, “VTE”, “PE”, “DVT”, and either “anti-coagulation” or “inflammation”. Editorials, reviews, case reports, meta-analysis and duplicates were excluded. Inflammatory biomarkers of DVT, include interleukin (IL)-6, CRP, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Statin therapy reduces IL-6 expression of CRP and MCP-1, usually elevated in VTE. Reduction of IL-6 induced MCP-1 has been linked to vein wall fibrosis, promoting post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and recurrent DVT in patients. Also, our review suggests that the anti-thrombotic effects are likely exhibited through the anti-inflammatory properties of statins. This work supports that statin therapy has the ability to decrease the incidence and recurrence of VTE and the potential to decrease PTS. This is mainly due to the anti-inflammatory effects of statins and may explain why normolipidemic patients, with elevated CRP, appear to have the greatest reduction in VTE. Given their low risk of bleeding, statins have the potential to serve as a safe adjunctive pharmacological therapy to current treatments in select patients with VTE, however further investigations into this concept are needed and essential. PMID:22278047

  11. Comparative gene and protein expression analyses of a panel of cytokines in acute and chronic drug-induced liver injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Yuji; Uehara, Takeki; Kaneto, Masako; Ono, Atsushi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant safety issue associated with medication use, and is the major cause of failures in drug development and withdrawal in post marketing. Cytokines are signaling molecules produced and secreted by immune cells and play crucial roles in the progression of DILI. Although there are numerous reports of cytokine changes in several DILI models, a comprehensive analysis of cytokine expression changes in rat liver injury induced by various compounds has, to the best of our knowledge, not been performed. In the past several years, we have built a public, free, large-scale toxicogenomics database, called Open TG-GATEs, containing microarray data and toxicity data of the liver of rats treated with various hepatotoxic compounds. In this study, we measured the protein expression levels of a panel of 24 cytokines in frozen liver of rats treated with a total of 20 compounds, obtained in the original study that formed the basis of the Open TG-GATEs database and analyzed protein expression profiles combined with mRNA expression profiles to investigate the correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels. As a result, we demonstrated significant correlations between mRNA and protein expression changes for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, monocyte chemo-attractant protein (MCP)-1/CC-chemokine ligand (Ccl)2, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/Ccl5 in several different types of DILI. We also demonstrated that IL-1β protein and MCP-1/Ccl2 mRNA were commonly up-regulated in the liver of rats treated with different classes of hepatotoxicants and exhibited the highest accuracy in the detection of hepatotoxicity. The results also demonstrate that hepatic mRNA changes do not always correlate with protein changes of cytokines in the liver. This is the first study to provide a comprehensive analysis of mRNA–protein correlations of factors involved in

  12. Desloratadine citrate disodium injection, a potent histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, inhibits chemokine production in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pig model and histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells via inhibiting the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Zhou, Peipei; He, Guangwei; Jie, Qiong; Wu, Yulin

    2015-11-15

    Chemokines have chemotactic properties on leukocyte subsets whose modulation plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory processes. Our present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-allergic effects of DLC were evaluated based on allergic symptoms, serological marker production and histological changes of the nasal mucosa in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were explored by studying the regulation of a set of chemokines and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, after DLC treatment in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis in vivo and histamine-activated human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in vitro. In vivo model in guinea pigs, DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms, inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and histamine, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTEs) and interleukin (IL)-8 release in sera and P-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in nasal mucosa. In vitro, DLC markedly inhibited histamine-induced production of MCP-1, RANTEs and IL-8 and suppressed c-Raf, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation in HNECs. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action underlying DLC in allergic inflammation appears to be inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in addition to blocking of the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Brucella abortus Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance (Ohr) Protein Protects Against a Virulent Brucella abortus 544 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Brucella abortus ohr gene coding for an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system (pMAL), inserted into Escherichia coli, and purified, and its immunogenicity was evaluated by western blot analysis using Brucella-positive mouse sera. The purified recombinant Ohr (rOhr) was treated with adjuvant and injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. A protective immune response analysis revealed that rOhr induced a significant increase in both the IgG1 and IgG2a titers, and IgG2a reached a higher level than IgG1 after the second and third immunizations. Additionally, immunization with rOhr induced high production of IFN-γ as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, MCP-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6, but a lesser amount of IL-10, suggesting that rOhr predominantly elicited a cell-mediated immune response. In addition, immunization with rOhr caused a significantly higher degree of protection against a virulent B. abortus infection compared with a positive control group consisting of mice immunized with maltose-binding protein. These findings showed that B. abortus rOhr was able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice, which suggested that this recombinant protein could be a potential vaccine candidate for animal brucellosis.

  14. Effects of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium alloys on cytokine gene expression and protein secretion in J774A.1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Stig S; Larsen, A; Stoltenberg, M; Bruun, J M; Soballe, K

    2007-09-11

    Insertion of metal implants is associated with a possible change in the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins, probably leading to an unfavourable predominantly pro-inflammatory milieu. The most likely cause is an inappropriate activation of macrophages in close relation to the metal implant and wear-products. The aim of the present study was to compare surfaces of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (TiAlV) alloy when incubated with mouse macrophage J774A.1 cell cultures. Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10) and proteins known to induce proliferation (M-CSF), chemotaxis (MCP-1) and osteogenesis (TGF-beta, OPG) were determined by ELISA and Real Time reverse transcriptase - PCR (Real Time rt-PCR). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in the medium to asses the cell viability. Surface properties of the discs were characterised with a profilometer and with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We here report, for the first time, that the prosthetic material surface (non-phagocytable) of as-cast high carbon CoCrMo reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 transcription, the chemokine MCP-1 secretion, and M-CSF secretion by 77%, 36%, and 62%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that reducing surface roughness did not affect this reduction. The results suggest that as-cast CoCrMo alloy is more inert than wrought CoCrMo and wrought TiAlV alloys and could prove to be a superior implant material generating less inflammation which might result in less osteolysis.

  15. A multifunctional multimaterial system for on-demand protein release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncaboylu, Deniz Ceylan; Friess, Fabian; Wischke, Christian; Lendlein, Andreas

    2018-06-15

    In order to provide best control of the regeneration process for each individual patient, the release of protein drugs administered during surgery may need to be timely adapted and/or delayed according to the progress of healing/regeneration. This study aims to establish a multifunctional implant system for a local on-demand release, which is applicable for various types of proteins. It was hypothesized that a tubular multimaterial container kit, which hosts the protein of interest as a solution or gel formulation, would enable on-demand release if equipped with the capacity of diameter reduction upon external stimulation. Using devices from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) networks, it could be demonstrated that a shape-memory effect activated by heat or NIR light enabled on-demand tube shrinkage. The decrease of diameter of these shape-memory tubes (SMT) allowed expelling the payload as demonstrated for several proteins including SDF-1α, a therapeutically relevant chemotactic protein, to achieve e.g. continuous release with a triggered add-on dosing (open tube) or an on-demand onset of bolus or sustained release (sealed tube). Considering the clinical relevance of protein factors in (stem) cell attraction to lesions and the progress in monitoring biomarkers in body fluids, such on-demand release systems may be further explored e.g. in heart, nerve, or bone regeneration in the future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The natural compound berberine positively affects macrophage functions involved in atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimetti, F; Adorni, M P; Ronda, N; Gatti, R; Bernini, F; Favari, E

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effect of berberine (BBR), an alkaloid showing antiatherogenic properties beyond the cholesterol lowering capacity, on macrophage cholesterol handling upon exposure to human serum and on macrophage responses to excess free cholesterol (FC) loading. Mouse and human macrophages were utilized as cellular models. Cholesterol content was measured by a fluorimetric assay; cholesterol efflux, cytotoxicity and membrane FC distribution were evaluated by radioisotopic assays. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion was measured by ELISA; membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis were visualized by confocal microscopy. Exposure of cholesterol-enriched MPM to serum in the presence of 1 μM BBR resulted in a reduction of intracellular cholesterol content twice greater than exposure to serum alone (-52%; p microscope analysis revealed that BBR inhibited macropinocytosis, an independent-receptor process involved in LDL internalization. Macrophage FC-enrichment increased MCP-1 release by 1.5 folds, increased cytotoxicity by 2 fold, and induced membrane ruffling; all these responses were markedly inhibited by BBR. FC-enrichment led to an increase in plasma membrane cholesterol by 4.5 folds, an effect counteracted by BBR. We showed novel potentially atheroprotective activities of BBR in macrophages, consisting in the inhibition of serum-induced cholesterol accumulation, occurring at least in part through an impairment of macropinocytosis, and of FC-induced deleterious effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adipose Extracellular Matrix/Stromal Vascular Fraction Gel Secretes Angiogenic Factors and Enhances Skin Wound Healing in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive cell type for cytotherapy in wound healing. The authors recently developed a novel, adipose-tissue-derived, injectable extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel (ECM/SVF-gel for stem cell therapy. This study was designed to assess the therapeutic effects of ECM/SVF-gel on wound healing and potential mechanisms. ECM/SVF-gel was prepared for use in nude mouse excisional wound healing model. An SVF cell suspension and phosphate-buffered saline injection served as the control. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in ECM/SVF-gel were analyzed at different time points. Angiogenesis (tube formation assays of ECM/SVF-gel extracts were evaluated, and vessels density in skin was determined. The ECM/SVF-gel extract promoted tube formation in vitro and increased the expression of the angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF compared with those in the control. The expression of the inflammatory chemoattractant MCP-1 was high in ECM/SVF-gel at the early stage and decreased sharply during the late stage of wound healing. The potent angiogenic effects exerted by ECM/SVF-gel may contribute to the improvement of wound healing, and these effects could be related to the enhanced inflammatory response in ECM/SVF-gel during the early stage of wound healing.

  18. Dietary lactoferrin alleviates age-related lacrimal gland dysfunction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is related to age-induced dry eye disease. Lactoferrin, the main glycoprotein component of tears, has multiple functions, including anti-inflammatory effects and the promotion of cell growth. We investigated how oral administration of lactoferrin affects age-related lacrimal dysfunction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twelve-month-old male C57BL/6Cr Slc mice were randomly divided into a control fed group and an oral lactoferrin treatment group. Tear function was measured at a 6-month time-point. After euthanasia, the lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG antibodies, and serum concentrations of 8-OHdG and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL were evaluated. Additionally, monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α gene expression levels were determined by real-time PCR. The volume of tear secretion was significantly larger in the treated group than in the control. Lactoferrin administration reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and the MCP-1 and TNF-α expression levels. Serum concentrations of 8-OHdG and HEL in the lactoferrin group were lower than those in the control group and were associated with attenuated 8-OHdG immunostaining of the lacrimal glands. CONCLUSION: Oral lactoferrin administration preserves lacrimal gland function in aged mice by attenuating oxidative damage and suppressing subsequent gland inflammation.

  19. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC and morbidly obese (MO patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Methods Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers, 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD. Results Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p Conclusions The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology.

  20. Biological ageing and frailty markers in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Barbara; Dalmasso, Bruna; Hatse, Sigrid; Laenen, Annouschka; Kenis, Cindy; Swerts, Evalien; Neven, Patrick; Smeets, Ann; Schöffski, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Older cancer patients are a highly heterogeneous population in terms of global health and physiological reserves, and it is often difficult to determine the best treatment. Moreover, clinical tools currently used to assess global health require dedicated time and lack a standardized end score. Circulating markers of biological age and/or fitness could complement or partially substitute the existing screening tools. In this study we explored the relationship of potential ageing/frailty biomarkers with age and clinical frailty. On a population of 82 young and 162 older non-metastatic breast cancer patients, we measured mean leukocyte telomere length and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). We also developed a new tool to summarize clinical frailty, designated Leuven Oncogeriatric Frailty Score (LOFS), by integrating GA results in a single, semi-continuous score. LOFS' median score was 8, on a scale from 0=frail to 10=fit. IL-6 levels were associated with chronological age in both groups and with clinical frailty in older breast cancer patients, whereas telomere length, IGF-1 and MCP-1 only correlated with age. Plasma IL-6 should be further explored as frailty biomarker in cancer patients.

  1. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Fassler, Juliane; Huber, Nadine; Xu, Pengfei; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Templin, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Wolf, Anna Maria; Knippschild, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) and morbidly obese (MO) patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers), 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD). Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p<0.002) and grading (p=0.015) of rectal tumor patients. The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology

  2. RELATIONSHIP OF ADIPOKINES AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG ASIAN INDIANS WITH OBESITY AND YOUTH ONSET TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Ranjani, Harish; Bibin, Subramanian Y; Balakumar, Mahalingam; Pandey, Gautam Kumar; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that inflammation is associated with diabetes, but it is unclear whether obesity mediates this association in individuals with youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y). We recruited individuals with T2DM-Y (age at onset obesity and categorized as: nonobese NGT (n = 100), Obese NGT (n = 50), nonobese T2DM-Y (n = 50), and obese T2DM-Y (n = 50). We compared adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]) across groups. Compared to nonobese NGT, the other 3 groups (obese NGT, nonobese T2DM-Y, and obese T2DM-Y) were found to have lower adiponectin (7.7 vs. 5.7, 4.2, 3.8 μg/mL, Pobese T2DM-Y (141 pg/mL, Pobese T2DM, respectively. However, adjusted for same factors, leptin, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were associated with markedly higher odds (5- to 14-fold) of nonobese and obese T2DM. In young Asian Indians, leptin and proinflammatory cytokines are positively, and adiponectin negatively, associated with both nonobese and obese T2DM-Y compared to nonobese NGT individuals.

  3. Proliferative and inflammatory factors in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Chernykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to measure the concentrations of various cytokines and growth factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF] in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and to investigate interaction between inflammatory and proliferative factors in the genesis of PDR. Materials and Methods : Vitreous samples from 32 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes without diabetes mellitus and signs of DR (control were collected. Vitreous concentrations of VEGF, PEDF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were simultaneously measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results : Vitreous levels of VEGF, PEDF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, and sIgA were significantly (Π < 0.05 higher in eyes with PDR compared to control. The concentration of VEGF was more than 17-times higher than in control, and the concentration of PEDF was not changed oppositely and was also higher (1.45-times compared to control, that may indicate disturbances of compensatory mechanisms in angiogenesis regulation in PDR. Significant (Π < 0.05 positive correlations were observed between vitreous concentrations of VEGF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.45, VEGF and IL-8 (r = 0.48, VEGF and IL-4 (r = 0.51, PEDF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.48, PEDF and IL-8 (r = 0.59, MCP-1 and PEDF (r = 0.72, MCP-1 and IL-8 (r0 = 0.45, IL-4 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.65, IL-4 and IL-8 (r = 0.71, IL-8 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.59. Conclusions: Significantly raised levels of inflammatory and proliferative factors and numerous positive correlations between them may demonstrate a significant role of activation of vascular proliferation and local inflammation in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  4. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Anagliptin Prevents Intracranial Aneurysm Growth by Suppressing Macrophage Infiltration and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Minami, Manabu; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Hayashi, Kosuke; Nagata, Manabu; Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Yasui, Mika; Aoki, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Miyuki; Yokode, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-06-19

    Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects, including suppressing macrophage infiltration, in various inflammatory models. We examined whether a DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, could suppress the growth of IAs in a rodent aneurysm model. IAs were surgically induced in 7-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats, followed by oral administration of 300 mg/kg anagliptin. We measured the morphologic parameters of aneurysms over time and their local inflammatory responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we used lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the anagliptin-treated group, aneurysms were significantly smaller 2 to 4 weeks after IA induction. Anagliptin inhibited the accumulation of macrophages in IAs, reduced the expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, anagliptin treatment significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor α, MCP-1, and IL-6 (interleukin 6) independent of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), the key mediator in the antidiabetic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, anagliptin activated ERK5 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5), which mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of statins, in RAW264.7 macrophages. Preadministration with an ERK5 inhibitor blocked the inhibitory effect of anagliptin on MCP-1 and IL-6 expression. Accordingly, the ERK5 inhibitor also counteracted the suppression of p65 phosphorylation in vitro. A DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, prevents the growth of IAs via its anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Subclinical chronic kidney disease modifies the diagnosis of experimental acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succar, Lena; Pianta, Timothy J; Davidson, Trent; Pickering, John W; Endre, Zoltán H

    2017-09-01

    Extensive structural damage within the kidney must be present before serum creatinine increases. However, a subclinical phase of chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually goes undetected. Here we tested whether experimental subclinical CKD would modify functional and damage biomarker profiles of acute kidney injury (AKI). Subclinical CKD was induced in rats by adenine or aristolochic acid models but without increasing serum creatinine. After prolonged recovery (three to six weeks), AKI was induced with a subnephrotoxic dose of cisplatin. Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), cytochrome C, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), clusterin, and interleukin-18 increased during CKD induction, without an increase in serum creatinine. After AKI in adenine-induced CKD, serum creatinine increased more rapidly, while increased urinary KIM-1, clusterin, and MCP-1 were delayed and reduced. Increased serum creatinine and biomarker excretion were associated with diffuse tubulointerstitial injury in the outer stripe of outer medulla coupled with over 50% cortical damage. Following AKI in aristolochic acid-induced CKD, increased serum creatinine, urinary KIM-1, clusterin, MCP-1, cytochrome C, and interleukin-18 concentrations and excretion were greater at day 21 than day 42 and inversely correlated with cortical injury. Subclinical CKD modified functional and damage biomarker profiles in diametrically opposite ways. Functional biomarker profiles were more sensitive, while damage biomarker diagnostic thresholds and increases were diminished and delayed. Damage biomarker concentrations and excretion were inversely linked to the extent of prior cortical damage. Thus, thresholds for AKI biomarkers may need to be lower or sampling delayed in the known presence of CKD. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The human MCP-2 gene (SCYA8): Cloning, sequence analysis, tissue expression, and assignment to the CC chemokine gene contig on chromosome 17q11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Coillie, E.; Fiten, P.; Van Damme, J.; Opdenakker, G. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) form a subfamily of chemokines that recruit leukocytes to sites of inflammation and that may contribute to tumor-associated leukocyte infiltration and to the antiviral state against HIV infection. With the use of degenerate primers that were based on CC chemokine consensus sequences, the known MIP-1{alpha}/LD78{alpha}, MCP-1, and MCP-3 genes and the previously unidentified eotaxin and MCP-2 genes were isolated from a YAC contig from human chromosome 17q11.2. The amplified genomic MCP-2 fragment was used to isolate an MCP-2 cosmid from which the gene sequence was determined. The MCP-2 gene shares with the MCP-1 and MCP-3 genes a conserved intron-exon structure and a coding nucleotide sequence homology of 77%. By Northern blot analysis the 1.0-kb MCP-2 mRNA was predominantly detectable in the small intestine, peripheral blood, heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, ovary, colon, spinal cord, pancreas, and thymus. Transcripts of 1.5 and 2.4 kb were found in the testis, the small intestine, and the colon. The isolation of the MCP-2 gene from the chemokine contig localized it on YAC clones of chromosome 17q11.2, which also contain the eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-3, and NCC-1/MCP-4 genes. The combination of using degenerate primer PCR and YACs illustrates that novel genes can efficiently be isolated from gene cluster contigs with less redundancy and effort than the isolation of novel ESTs. 42 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A Staphylococcus aureus TIR domain protein virulence factor blocks TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Fatemeh; van Sorge, Nina M; Sangvik, Maria; Beasley, Federico C; Henriksen, Jørn R; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Strijp, Jos A G; Nizet, Victor; Johannessen, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), crucial molecules in the induction of host defense responses, requires adaptor proteins that contain a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces several innate immune-evasion molecules that interfere with the host's innate immune response. A database search analysis suggested the presence of a gene encoding a homologue of the human TIR domain in S. aureus MSSA476 which was named staphylococcal TIR domain protein (TirS). Ectopic expression of TirS in human embryonic kidney, macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines interfered with signaling through TLR2, including MyD88 and TIRAP, NF-κB and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Moreover, the presence of TirS reduced the levels of cytokines MCP-1 and G-CSF secreted in response to S. aureus. The effects on NF-κB pathway were confirmed using S. aureus MSSA476 wild type, an isogenic mutant MSSA476ΔtirS, and complemented MSSA476ΔtirS +pTirS in a Transwell system where bacteria and host cells were physically separated. Finally, in a systematic mouse infection model, TirS promoted bacterial accumulation in several organs 4 days postinfection. The results of this study reveal a new S. aureus virulence factor that can interfere with PAMP-induced innate immune signaling in vitro and bacterial survival in vivo. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Chemotactic waves of bacteria at the mesoscale

    OpenAIRE

    Calvez, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The existence of travelling waves for a model of concentration waves of bacteria is investigated. The model consists in a kinetic equation for the biased motion of cells following a run-and-tumble process, coupled with two reaction-diffusion equations for the chemical signals. Strong mathematical difficulties arise in comparison with the diffusive regime which was studied in a previous work. The cornerstone of the proof consists in establishing monotonicity properties of the spatial density o...

  9. Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielpos, Maria Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Falivene, Juliana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Comerci, Diego J; Baldi, Pablo C

    2017-01-01

    Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 10 6  CFU of B. abortus , the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i.) was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortus is caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS). We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps) A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro , may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB -infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune modulation

  10. Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Hielpos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 106 CFU of B. abortus, the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i. was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortusis caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS. We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro, may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB-infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune

  11. Reduced immune responses to purified protein derivative and Candida albicans in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte; Eklund, Christina

    2013-10-01

    Impairment of cellular immunity is reported in lichen planus, an autoimmune disease affecting mucosae and skin. Our aim was to investigate immune responses directed against a set of microbial antigens in patients with oral lichen planus and in matched controls. Venous blood was obtained, and the mononuclear cells were enriched by density gradient centrifugation. The proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed, following stimulation with purified protein derivative (PPD), Candida albicans, phytohemagglutinin or when cells were left unstimulated, after three or six days of cell culture. The production of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-ß was assessed in supernatants using the Bio-plex(®) assay and was complemented with ELISA for selected cytokines. Patients with oral lichen planus demonstrated reduced proliferative responses against PPD (P stimulated supernatants from patients with oral lichen planus. Collectively, the findings suggested that memory lymphocytes from patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) may have an impaired functional ability to react against certain recall antigens, as part of a generalized response, which may reflect immune regulatory processes. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of down-regulation in OLP pathogenesis and progression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A TLR4/MD2 fusion protein inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brandl, Katharina; Fink, Marina; Gross, Philipp; Taura, Kojiro; Gaebele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Falk, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In injured liver they are the main extracellular matrix protein producing cell type and further perpetuate hepatic injury by secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Since LPS-mediated signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as key fibrogenic signal in HSCs we aimed to test TLR4 as potential target of therapy via ligand-binding soluble receptors. Incubation of human HSCs with a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of TLR4 and MD2 which binds LPS inhibited LPS-induced NFκB and JNK activation. TLR4/MD2 abolished LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, and RANTES in HSCs. In addition, TLR4/MD2 fused to human IgG-Fc neutralized LPS activity. Since TLR4 mutant mice are resistant to liver fibrosis, the TLR4/MD2 soluble receptor might represent a new therapeutic molecule for liver fibrogenesis in vivo

  13. Rice bran protein hydrolysates attenuate diabetic nephropathy in diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Mi Hye; Kim, You Mi; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Lee, Eun Young; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Chung, Choon Hee

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. The features of DN include albuminuria, extracellular matrix alterations, and progressive renal insufficiency. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPs) have been reported to have antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic rats. Our study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of RBP in diabetic animals and mesangial cultured cells. Eight-week-old male db/m and db/db mice were orally treated with tap water or RBP (100 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, diabetic nephropathy in kidney tissues was investigated for histological, ultrastructural, and clinical chemistry changes, and biomarkers of angiogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, and antioxidant in kidney were analyzed by Western blotting. Protection against proangiogenic proteins and induction of cytoprotection by RBP in cultured mesangial cells was evaluated. RBP treatment improved insulin sensitivity, decreased elevated fasting serum glucose levels, and improved serum lipid levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios in diabetic mice. RBP ameliorated the decreases in podocyte slit pore numbers, thickening of glomerular basement membranes, and mesangial matrix expansion and suppressed elevation of MCP-1, ICAM-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-β, p-Smad2/3, and type IV collagen expression. Moreover, RBP restored suppressed antioxidant Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. In cultured mesangial cells, RBP inhibited high glucose-induced angiogenic protein expression and induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. RBP attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy and restored renal function by suppressing the expression of proangiogenic and profibrotic proteins, inhibiting proinflammatory mediators, and restoring the antioxidant and cytoprotective system.

  14. Role of Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome protein in translation machinery and cell chemotaxis: a comparative genomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasieva O

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Olga VasievaInstitute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Fellowship for the Interpretation of Genomes, Burr Ridge, IL, USAAbstract: Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS is linked to a mutation in a single gene. The SBDS proinvolved in RNA metabolism and ribosome-associated functions, but SBDS mutation is primarily linked to a defect in polymorphonuclear leukocytes unable to orient correctly in a spatial gradient of chemoattractants. Results of data mining and comparative genomic approaches undertaken in this study suggest that SBDS protein is also linked to tRNA metabolism and translation initiation. Analysis of crosstalk between translation machinery and cytoskeletal dynamics provides new insights into the cellular chemotactic defects caused by SBDS protein malfunction. The proposed functional interactions provide a new approach to exploit potential targets in the treatment and monitoring of this disease.Keywords: Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome, wybutosine, tRNA, chemotaxis, translation, genomics, gene proximity

  15. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors MS-275 and SAHA Suppress the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway and Chemotaxis in Rheumatoid Arthritic Synovial Fibroblastic E11 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Shu Lin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MS-275 (entinostat and SAHA (vorinostat, two histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors currently in oncological trials, have displayed potent anti-rheumatic activities in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To further elucidate their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, the impact of MS-275 and SAHA on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis was assessed in human rheumatoid arthritic synovial fibroblastic E11 cells. MS-275 and SAHA significantly suppressed the expression of p38α  MAPK, but induced the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, an endogenous suppressor of p38α  in E11 cells. At the same time, the association between p38α and MKP-1 was up-regulated and consequently, the activation (phosphorylation of p38α  was inhibited. Moreover, MS-275 and SAHA suppressed granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in E11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, E11-driven migration of THP-1 and U937 monocytes was inhibited. In summary, suppression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis appear to be important anti-rheumatic mechanisms of action of these HDAC inhibitors.

  16. Study of some biochemical and genetic risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) ( both serum levels and the genotypes of the MCP-1 A-2518G polymorphism) with the development of carotid atherosclerosis in systemic ...

  17. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  18. Defective chemokine signal integration in leukocytes lacking activator of G protein signaling 3 (AGS3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham-O'Connor, Melissa; Robichaux, William G; Zhang, Xian-Kui; Cho, Hyeseon; Kehrl, John H; Lanier, Stephen M; Blumer, Joe B

    2014-04-11

    Activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3, gene name G-protein signaling modulator-1, Gpsm1), an accessory protein for G-protein signaling, has functional roles in the kidney and CNS. Here we show that AGS3 is expressed in spleen, thymus, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and is up-regulated upon leukocyte activation. We explored the role of AGS3 in immune cell function by characterizing chemokine receptor signaling in leukocytes from mice lacking AGS3. No obvious differences in lymphocyte subsets were observed. Interestingly, however, AGS3-null B and T lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exhibited significant chemotactic defects as well as reductions in chemokine-stimulated calcium mobilization and altered ERK and Akt activation. These studies indicate a role for AGS3 in the regulation of G-protein signaling in the immune system, providing unexpected venues for the potential development of therapeutic agents that modulate immune function by targeting these regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovsky

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. RESULTS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  20. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Celec, Peter; Vlkova, Barbora; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Cobo, Teresa; Jacobsson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  1. Extracellular cyclophilin levels associate with parameters of asthma in phenotypic clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmy, Erik J; Benton, Angela S; Lerner, Jennifer; Alcala, Sarah; Constant, Stephanie L; Freishtat, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Leukocyte persistence during chronic (quiescent) phases of asthma is a major hallmark of the disease. The mechanisms regulating these persistent leukocyte populations are not clearly understood. An alternative family of chemoattracting proteins, cyclophilins (Cyps), has recently been shown to contribute to leukocyte recruitment in animal models of allergic asthma. The goals of this study were to determine whether Cyps are present in asthma patients during the chronic phase of the disease and to investigate whether levels of Cyps associate with clinical parameters of disease severity. Nasal wash samples from an urban cohort of 137 patients of age 6-20 years with physician-diagnosed asthma were examined for the presence of cyclophilin A (CypA), cyclophilin B (CypB), as well as several other classical chemokines. Linear, logistic, or ordinal regressions were performed to identify associations between Cyps, chemokines, and clinical parameters of asthma. The asthma cohort was further divided into previously established phenotypic clusters (cluster 1: n = 55; cluster 2: n = 31; and cluster 3: n = 51) and examined for associations. Levels of CypB in the asthma group were highly elevated compared to nonasthmatic controls, while a slight increase in Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) was also observed. CypA and MCP-1 were associated with levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP; a marker of eosinophil activation). Cluster-specific associations were found for CypA and CypB and clinical asthma parameters [e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and ECP]. Cyps are present in nasal wash samples of asthma patients and may be a novel biomarker for clinical parameters of asthma severity.

  2. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. Proteins engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the - Departement d'Ingenierie et d'etudes de proteines (Deip) of the CEA more than seventy researchers are working hard to understand the function of proteins. For that they use the molecular labelling technique (F.M.)

  5. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reliable information about the safety of taking whey protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Milk allergy: If you are allergic to cow's milk, avoid using whey protein.

  6. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NF?B-Dependent Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was anal...

  7. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-β-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-γ release from natural killer cells in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Rachael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ. IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10, expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2 by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  8. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-gamma release from natural killer cells in the brain

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Anthony

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ). IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ) on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10)), expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK) cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2) by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  9. Asian sand dust enhances ovalbumin-induced eosinophil recruitment in the alveoli and airway of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyoshi, Kyoko; Ichinose, Takamichi; Sadakane, Kaori; Takano, Hirohisa; Nishikawa, Masataka; Mori, Ikuko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Yoshida, Seiichi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Tomura, Shigeo; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    Asian sand dust (ASD) containing sulfate (SO 4 2- ) reportedly causes adverse respiratory health effects but there is no experimental study showing the effect of ASD toward allergic respiratory diseases. The effects of ASD and ASD plus SO 4 2- toward allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated in this study. ICR mice were administered intratracheally with saline; ASD alone (sample from Shapotou desert); and ASD plus SO 4 2- (ASD-SO 4 ); OVA+ASD; OVA+ASD-SO 4 . ASD or ASD-SO 4 alone caused mild nutrophilic inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli. ASD and ASD-SO 4 increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as Keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). ASD and ASD-SO 4 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the alveoli and in the submucosa of the airway, which has a goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. However, a further increase of eosinophils by addition of SO 4 2- was not observed. The two sand dusts synergistically increased interleukin-5 (IL-5) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which were associated with OVA, in BALF. However, the increased levels of IL-5 were lower in the OVA+ASD-SO 4 group than in the OVA+ASD group. ASD caused the adjuvant effects to specific-IgG1 production by OVA, but not to specific-IgE. These results suggest that the enhancement of eosinophil recruitment in the lung is mediated by synergistically increased IL-5 and MCP-1. IgG1 antibodies may play an important role in the enhancement of allergic reaction caused by OVA and sand dust. However, extra sulfate may not contribute to an increase of eosinophils

  10. (−-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits endotoxin-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jieliang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background (−-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol component of green tea that has antioxidant activities. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces inflammatory cytokine production and impairs blood–brain barrier (BBB integrity. We examined the effect of EGCG on LPS-induced expression of the inflammatory cytokines in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMECs and BBB permeability. Methods The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 was determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR and ELISA. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM in hCMECs were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Monocytes that adhered to LPS-stimulated endothelial cells were measured by monocyte adhesion assay. Tight junctional factors were detected by qRT-PCR (Claudin 5 and Occludin and immunofluorescence staining (Claudin 5 and ZO-1. The permeability of the hCMEC monolayer was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry of transmembrane fluorescin and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER. NF-kB activation was measured by luciferase assay. Results EGCG significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in hCMECs. EGCG also inhibited the expression of MCP-1/CCL2, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Functional analysis showed that EGCG induced the expression of tight junction proteins (Occludin and Claudin-5 in hCMECs. Investigation of the mechanism showed that EGCG had the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. In addition, 67-kD laminin receptor was involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of EGCG. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that LPS induced inflammatory cytokine production in hCMECs, which could be attenuated by EGCG. These data indicate that EGCG has a therapeutic potential for endotoxin-mediated endothelial inflammation.

  11. A novel peptide derived from human pancreatitis-associated protein inhibits inflammation in vivo and in vitro and blocks NF-kappa B signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP is a pancreatic secretory protein belongs to the group VII of C-type lectin family. Emerging evidence suggests that PAP plays a protective effect in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we newly identified a 16-amino-acid peptide (named PAPep derived from C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD of human PAP with potent anti-inflammatory activity using both in vivo and in vitro assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of PAPep on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU in rats and demonstrated that intravitreal pretreatment of PAPep concentration-dependently attenuated clinical manifestation of EIU rats, reduced protein leakage and cell infiltration into the aqueous humor (AqH, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production in ocular tissues, and improved histopathologic manifestation of EIU. Furthermore, PAPep suppressed the LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells, inhibited protein expression of ICAM-1 in TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs as well as U937 cells adhesion to HUVECs. Western blot analysis in ocular tissues and different cell lines revealed that the possible mechanism for this anti-inflammatory effect of PAPep may depend on its ability to inhibit the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies provide the first evidence that the sequence of PAPep is within the critically active region for the anti-inflammatory function of PAP and the peptide may be a promising candidate for the management of ocular inflammatory diseases.

  12. Dusuqing granules (DSQ) suppress inflammation in Klebsiella pneumonia rat via NF-κB/MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao-Xun; Li, Jian-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Lu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Ya; Zhang, Wei-Yu; Tian, Yan-Ge

    2017-04-17

    Dusuqing granules (DSQ) have been used in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia clinically, with remarkable benefits. This study was initiated to explore the effects of DSQ on pulmonary inflammation by regulating nuclear factor (NF)-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bacterial pneumonia rats. Rat model was duplicated with Klebsiella pneumonia by a one-time intratracheal injection. Rats were randomized into control, model, DSQ and levofloxacin (LVX) groups. After administrated with appropriate medicines for 7 days, lung tissues were harvested and prepared for pathological analysis, and interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 detections. NF-κB mRNA was measured by real-time qPCR, and the phosphorylation and total proteins of P38MAPK, JNK46/54, ERK42/44 were determined by Western blotting. Marked pathological impairments were observed in model rats, whereas were improved in DSQ group. The cytokines levels, NF-κB mRNA expression and the phosphorylation of P38MAPK, JNK46/54 and ERK42/44 proteins were significantly higher in model group, and were significantly depressed in DSQ group. The protective effects of DSQ on Klebsiella pneumonia might be attributed to its inactivative effects of NF-κB/ MAPK pathway.

  13. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-12-06

    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glomerular cell death and inflammation with high-protein diet and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rick L; LeBoeuf, Renee C; Saha, Sandeep A; Alpers, Charles E; Hudkins, Kelly L; Cooney, Sheryl K; Anderberg, Robert J; Tuttle, Katherine R

    2013-07-01

    Overfeeding amino acids (AAs) increases cellular exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a mechanism for protein intake to worsen diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study assessed receptor for AGE (RAGE)-mediated apoptosis and inflammation in glomerular cells exposed to metabolic stressors characteristic of high-protein diets and/or diabetes in vitro with proof-of-concept appraisal in vivo. Mouse podocytes and mesangial cells were cultured under control and metabolic stressor conditions: (i) no addition; (ii) increased AAs (4-6-fold>control); (iii) high glucose (HG, 30.5 mM); (iv) AA/HG combination; (v) AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, 300 µg/mL); (vi) BSA (300 µg/mL). RAGE was inhibited by blocking antibody. Diabetic (streptozotocin) and nondiabetic mice (C57BL/6J) consumed diets with protein calories of 20 or 40% (high) for 20 weeks. People with DKD and controls provided 24-h urine samples. In podocytes and mesangial cells, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL) increased in all metabolic stressor conditions. Both inflammatory mediator expression (real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: serum amyloid A, caspase-4, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and RAGE (immunostaining) also increased. RAGE inhibition prevented apoptosis and inflammation in podocytes. Among mice fed high protein, podocyte number (WT-1 immunostaining) decreased in the diabetic group, and only these diabetic mice developed albuminuria. Protein intake (urea nitrogen) correlated with AGE excretion (carboxymethyllysine) in people with DKD and controls. High-protein diet and/or diabetes-like conditions increased glomerular cell death and inflammation, responses mediated by RAGEs in podocytes. The concept that high-protein diets exacerbate early indicators of DKD is supported by data from mice and people.

  15. Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Bilski, Jan; Wojcik, Dagmara; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Surmiak, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Chmura, Anna; Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. PMID:28425943

  16. Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ataka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(lowCCR2(+CXCR4(high, as distinct from CX3CR1(highCCR2(-CXCR4(low resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+ monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN. CONCLUSION: Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.

  17. Effects of nitrous oxide on the production of cytokines and chemokines by the airway epithelium during anesthesia with sevoflurane and propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Seiichiro; Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Sugasawa, Yusuke; Murakami, Taisuke; Kikuchi, Toshihiro; Inada, Eiichi; Nagaoka, Isao

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrous oxide (a gaseous anesthetic) on the in vivo production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the airway epithelium, when combined with sevoflurane or propofol. Subjects undergoing simple or segmental mastectomy were randomly assigned to the sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, sevoflurane and air, propofol and nitrous oxide, or propofol and air group (all n=13). Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was obtained using the bronchoscopic microsampling method prior to and following the mastectomy to enable measurement of the pre- and post-operative levels of certain inflammatory cytokines and chemokines using a cytometric bead array system. Notably, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the ELF were significantly increased following the operations which involved the inhalation of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, although the levels of these molecules were not significantly changed by the inhalation of sevoflurane and air. Furthermore, the IL-12p70 levels were significantly reduced in the ELF following the operations that involved the inhalation of sevoflurane and air, although the IL-12p70 levels were not significantly changed by the inhalation of nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. These observations suggest that the combination of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide induces an inflammatory response (increased production of IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1) and suppresses the anti-inflammatory response (reduced production of IL-12p70) in the local milieu of the airway. Thus, the combination of these compounds should be carefully administered for anesthesia.

  18. Voluntary running of defined distances reduces body adiposity and its associated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Sundaram, Sneha; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of voluntary running of defined distances on body adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were assigned to 6 groups and fed a standard AIN93G diet (sedentary) or a modified high-fat AIN93G diet (sedentary; unrestricted running; or 75%, 50%, or 25% of unrestricted running) for 12 weeks. The average running distance was 8.3, 6.3, 4.2, and 2.1 km/day for the unrestricted, 75%, 50%, and 25% of unrestricted runners, respectively. Body adiposity was 46% higher in sedentary mice when fed the high-fat diet instead of the standard diet. Running decreased adiposity in mice fed the high-fat diet in a dose-dependent manner but with no significant difference between sedentary mice and those running 2.1 km/day. In sedentary mice, the high-fat instead of the standard diet increased insulin resistance, hepatic triacylglycerides, and adipose and plasma concentrations of leptin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Running reduced these variables in a dose-dependent manner. Adipose adiponectin was lowest in sedentary mice fed the high-fat diet; running raised adiponectin in both adipose tissue and plasma. Running 8.3 and 6.3 km/day had the greatest, but similar, effects on the aforementioned variables. Running 2.1 km/day did not affect these variables except, when compared with sedentariness, it significantly decreased MCP-1. The findings showed that running 6.3 kg/day was optimal for reducing adiposity and associated inflammation that was increased in mice by feeding a high-fat diet. The findings suggest that voluntary running of defined distances may counteract the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet.

  19. Effect of centrifugation and washing on adipose graft viability: a new method to improve graft efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Laurence; Bencharif, Karima; Girard, Anne-Claire; Gence, Lydie; Delarue, Pierre; Hulard, Olivier; Festy, Franck; Roche, Regis

    2013-05-01

    Adipose tissue grafting is a promising method in the field of surgical filling. We studied the effect of centrifugation on fat grafts, and we propose an optimised protocol for the improvement of adipose tissue viability. Adipose tissue was subjected to different centrifugations, and the volumes of interstitial liquid and oil released were measured to choose the optimal condition. Tissue from this condition was then compared to tissue obtained from two traditional techniques: strong centrifugation (commonly 3 min at 3000 rpm/900 g), and decantation, by injecting into immunodeficient mice. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed 24 h post-injection, and after 1 month of grafting the state of the lipografts was evaluated through macroscopic and histological analysis, with oil gap area measurement. Strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious for adipose tissue because it leads to until threefold more adipocyte death compared to low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In addition, mice injected with strong centrifuged and non-centrifuged adipose tissue have higher rates of blood IL-6 and MCP-1, compared to those grafted with soft centrifuged fat. Moreover, extensive lipid vacuoles were detectable on histological sections of the non-centrifuged lipografts, whereas lipografts from soft centrifugation contain a higher amount of connective tissue containing collagen fibres. It is necessary to wash and centrifuge adipose tissue before reinjection in order to remove infiltration liquid and associated toxic molecules, which in the long term are deleterious for the graft. However, strong centrifugation is not recommended since it leads very quickly to greater adipocyte death. Thus, soft centrifugation (400 g/1 min), preceded by washings, seems to be the most appropriate protocol for the reinjection of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published

  20. Effects of sustained sleep restriction on mitogen-stimulated cytokines, chemokines and T helper 1/ T helper 2 balance in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Axelsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that acute sleep deprivation disrupts cellular immune responses by shifting T helper (Th cell activity towards a Th2 cytokine profile. Since little is known about more long-term effects, we investigated how five days of sleep restriction would affect pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, Th1- and Th2 cytokine secretion. METHODS: Nine healthy males participated in an experimental sleep protocol with two baseline sleep-wake cycles (sleep 23.00-07.00 h followed by 5 days with restricted sleep (03.00-07.00 h. On the second baseline day and on the fifth day with restricted sleep, samples were drawn every third hour for determination of cytokines/chemokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL -1β, IL-2, IL-4 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 after in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA. Also leukocyte numbers, mononuclear cells and cortisol were analysed. RESULTS: 5-days of sleep restriction affected PHA-induced immune responses in several ways. There was a general decrease of IL-2 production (p<.05. A shift in Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was also evident, as determined by a decrease in IL2/IL4 ratio. No other main effects of restricted sleep were shown. Two significant interactions showed that restricted sleep resulted in increased TNF-α and MCP-1 in the late evening and early night hours (p's<.05. In addition, all variables varied across the 24 h day. CONCLUSIONS: 5-days of sleep restriction is characterized by a shift towards Th2 activity (i.e. lower 1L-2/IL-4 ratio which is similar to the effects of acute sleep deprivation and psychological stress. This may have implications for people suffering from conditions characterized by excessive Th2 activity like in allergic disease, such as asthma, for whom restricted sleep could have negative consequences.

  1. Comparative study of the protective capacity against Salmonella infection between probiotic and nonprobiotic Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, N A; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; M Galdeano, C; Perdigón, G

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the immunoprotective ability of three Lactobacilli strains against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a mouse model. To identify the probiotic properties involved in the protection against infection caused by this pathogen. The immunomodulatory effect of three different lactobacilli strains: Lactobacillus (Lact.) casei CRL 431 (probiotic bacterium), Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 423 (Lact. bulgaricus) and Lact.acidophilus CRL 730 was compared using a mouse model of Salmonella infection. Lactobacillus casei continuous administration improved animal survival, diminished pathogen spreading outside the intestine, attenuated the intestinal inflammation, modulated cytokine profile previous and postinfection and increased the expression and secretion of IgA in the gut. Additionally, the administration of this lactobacilli increased peritoneal, Peyer's patches and spleen macrophages' phagocytic activity in healthy mice and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) released by intestinal epithelial cells in an in vitro assay. Although Lact. acidophilus increased the number of IgA-secreting cells previous and postinfection, and Lact. bulgaricus increased MCP-1 released by intestinal epithelial cells and the phagocytic activity of macrophages, these effects alone were not enough to confer protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mouse. Probiotic strain Lact. casei CRL 431 was the one that induced protection against Salmonella, by increasing the intestinal barrier function and by decreasing the local inflammatory response. Salmonella spp. constitutes an important agent of foodborne diseases in the world. Not all lactobacilli, even with some immunostimulating properties at gut level, can protect against Salmonella infection. Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, a probiotic bacterium, could be useful as an oral mucosal adjuvant of the immune system to improve gut health, especially in the prevention or amelioration of Salmonella infections. We

  2. In vivo confocal microscopy and tear cytokine analysis in post-LASIK ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Natasha Kishore; Shetty, Rohit; Deshmukh, Rashmi; Sharma, Anupam; Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Jhanji, Vishal; Sethu, Swaminathan; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2017-12-01

    Corneal keratectasia is one of the complications associated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) that results in vision impairment. The pathogenesis of post-LASIK ectasia (PLE) remains underexplored. We report the tear cytokine profile and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in eyes with PLE. This retrospective study included age-matched 7 (14 eyes) post-LASIK controls (PLCs) and 6 (12 eyes) PLE subjects. Corneal topography was used to categorise the subjects into PLC and PLE groups. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores obtained were based on standard questionnaire and IVCM images were used to determine corneal dendritic cells density (DCD) and sub-basal nerve plexus morphology. Inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the tears were quantified using flow cytometry based cytometric bead array. Pentacam-based scores, OSDI scores and corneal DCD were significantly (pPLE compared with PLC. Discomfort-related subscale of OSDI score exhibited a positive correlation with total corneal DCD in the PLE cohort. The fold difference of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP1) (3.4±0.6) was found to be significantly (pPLE cohorts and a positive correlation between CCL2/MCP1 levels and total corneal DCD was also observed in the PLE cohort. The current study found a significant difference in the tear film cytokine profile between normal and PLE eyes. Presence of increased corneal dendritic cells and altered tear cytokines suggests an ongoing inflammatory response in PLE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Deferiprone attenuates inflammation and myocardial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Chunbo; Liu, Xiaogang; Xie, Rujuan; Bao, Yushi; Jin, Qing; Jia, Xibei; Li, Li; Liu, Ruichan

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to investigate the therapeutic effects of deferiprone on DC rats and explore the underlying mechanism. Total 24 6-week-old male Wistar rats (weighing from 180 g to 220 g) were subjected to DC model construction and then randomly divided to three groups (8 rats per group): DC group, DC + 50 mg, and DC + 100 mg deferiprone treatment group. The 8 normal rats were considered as controls. After deferiprone treatment for 20 weeks, the blood samples were collected for the biochemical parameters test, including fasting glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of the insulin resistance), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS). The oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histopathologic changes were determined by Masson's trichrome staining and electron microscopy imaging. The expression levels of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), COX2 (cytochrome c oxidase), tenascin C, collagen IV were measured by RT-PCR and western blotting. The expression of nitrotyrosine and MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Deferiprone treatment reduced iron deposition and IR in DC rats except for blood glucose. After deferiprone treatment, MDA level was significantly decreased and SOD level was increased significantly. The level of NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, tenascin C, collagen IV MCP-1 and nitrotyrosine were significantly reduced. There was no significant difference in the effect of deferiprone at 50 and 100 mg doses. Deferiprone showed therapeutic effects on DC by regulating the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors. - Highlights: • The expression of serum iron, ferritin and TS were elevated in DC rats. • Oxidative stress related MDA and SOD were upregulated in DC rats. • NF-κB, COX2, tenascin C, collagen IV were accumulated in DC rats. • All the changes were reversed by deferiprone treatment.

  4. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi [Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko, E-mail: saho@gene.mie-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  5. Identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measurement of plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; von Wachenfeldt, Karin A; Larsson, Susanne; Mile, Iréne; Persdotter, Sofia; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Broberg, Per; Stoel, Berend; Bach, Karen S; Hestad, Marianne; Fehniger, Thomas E; Dirksen, Asger

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation is an important constituent of the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to alveolar destruction and airway remodelling. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in plasma biomarkers of inflammation between asymptomatic smokers and patients with COPD. We used commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to measure the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) on two occasions with a 2-week interval in patients with COPD (n = 20), asymptomatic smokers (n = 10) and healthy lifelong non-smokers (n = 10). The participants were characterised clinically, physiologically and by quantitative computed tomography by measuring the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910). The results of the biomarker measurements on the two occasions were highly reproducible. Patients with COPD had significantly higher plasma levels of IL-8 (P = 0.004) and significantly lower levels of TIMP-1 (P = 0.02) than smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in the level of TNF-alpha, MMP-9, MCP-1 and TIMP-2. The IL-8/TIMP-1 ratio correlated significantly with the degree of airway obstruction measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) % predicted (r = -0.47, P < 0.01); with the diffusion capacity (r = -0.41, P < 0.01); and with the grade of emphysema measured as RA-910 (r = 0.39, P = 0.01). These findings suggest that the measurement of plasma biomarkers, such as IL-8/TIMP-1, may aid to discriminate patients with COPD from smokers at lower risk of developing COPD.

  6. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  8. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  9. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  10. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G. H.; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S.; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. PMID:26797121

  11. Production of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun Jung; Lim, Sung Sam

    2002-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to secrete Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta after stimulation with Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Escherichia coli LPS was used as a positive control. Venous blood was collected and PMNs were isolated from healthy volunteers. Cells were cultured with various concentrations of LPS for different periods of time. Cell supernatants were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of chemokine secretion in PMNs stimulated with each LPS were found to be significantly higher than in the unstimulated control cells (p endodontalis LPS. These findings demonstrated that P. endodontalis LPS is capable of stimulating PMNs to produce chemotactic cytokines and suggested that PMNs stimulated with P. endodontalis LPS may play a crucial role in the inflammatory and immunopathological reactions of pulpal and periapical diseases.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages Stimulated with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansu Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Myristicin (1-allyl-5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene is an active aromatic compound found in nutmeg (the seed of Myristica fragrans, carrot, basil, cinnamon, and parsley. Myristicin has been known to have anti-cholinergic, antibacterial, and hepatoprotective effects, however, the effects of myristicin on virus-stimulated macrophages are not fully reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of myristicin on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-stimulated macrophages was examined. Myristicin did not reduce the cell viability of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages at concentrations of up to 50 µM. Myristicin significantly inhibited the production of calcium, nitric oxide (NO, interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, interferon inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, MCP-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and leukemia inhibitory factor in dsRNA [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid]-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.05. In conclusion, myristicin has anti-inflammatory properties related with its inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA-stimulated macrophages via the calcium pathway.

  13. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  14. Ureaplasma isolates stimulate pro-inflammatory CC chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neonatal and adult monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwedel, Christine; Fehrholz, Markus; Henrich, Birgit; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Claus, Heike; Speer, Christian P.

    2018-01-01

    Being generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma species has long been debated. Recently, we confirmed Ureaplasma–driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and a disturbance of cytokine equilibrium in primary human monocytes in vitro. The present study addressed the expression of CC chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in purified term neonatal and adult monocytes stimulated with serovar 8 of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and serovar 3 of U. parvum (Up). Using qRT-PCR and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed mRNA and protein expression of the monocyte chemotactic proteins 1 and 3 (MCP-1/3), the macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β (MIP-1α/β) as well as MMP-9. For the most part, both isolates stimulated mRNA expression of all given chemokines and MMP-9 in cord blood and adult monocytes (pUreaplasma isolates in vitro, adding to our previous data. Findings from co-stimulated cells indicate that Ureaplasma may modulate monocyte immune responses to a second stimulus. PMID:29558521

  15. Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 (TieA) interacts with mouse TNFR1 and triggers proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling pathways in cultured macrophage cells (RAW 264.7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Suhail A; Devi, Savita; Tenguria, Shivendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    HP0986 protein of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to trigger induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α) through the activation of NF-κB and also to induce Fas mediated apoptosis of human macrophage cells (THP-1). In this study, we unravel mechanistic details of the biological effects of this protein in a murine macrophage environment. Up regulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α in HP0986-induced RAW 264.7 cells occurred subsequent to the activation and translocation of NF-κB to the cell nucleus. Further, HP0986 induced apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells through Fas activation and this was in agreement with previous observations made with THP-1 cells. Our studies indicated activation of TNFR1 through interaction with HP0986 and this elicited the aforementioned responses independent of TLR2, TLR4 or TNFR2. We found that mouse TNFR1 activation by HP0986 facilitates formation of a complex comprising of TNFR1, TRADD and TRAF2, and this occurs upstream of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, FADD also forms a second complex, at a later stage, together with TNFR1 and TRADD, resulting in caspase-8 activation and thereby the apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells. In summary, our observations reveal finer details of the functional activity of HP0986 protein in relation to its behavior in a murine macrophage cell environment. These findings reconfirm the proinflammatory and apoptotic role of HP0986 signifying it to be an important trigger of innate responses. These observations form much needed baseline data entailing future in vivo studies of the functions of HP0986 in a murine model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of α5β1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed β1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface α5β1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of α5β1, without altering cell surface expression of α2β1 integrin or α3β1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  17. Psoriasis-like skin disease and arthritis caused by inducible epidermal deletion of Jun proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Kenner, Lukas; Florin, Lore; Hummerich, Lars; Mehic, Denis; Scheuch, Harald; Angel, Peter; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2005-09-15

    Psoriasis is a frequent, inflammatory disease of skin and joints with considerable morbidity. Here we report that in psoriatic lesions, epidermal keratinocytes have decreased expression of JunB, a gene localized in the psoriasis susceptibility region PSORS6. Likewise, inducible epidermal deletion of JunB and its functional companion c-Jun in adult mice leads (within two weeks) to a phenotype resembling the histological and molecular hallmarks of psoriasis, including arthritic lesions. In contrast to the skin phenotype, the development of arthritic lesions requires T and B cells and signalling through tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). Prior to the disease onset, two chemotactic proteins (S100A8 and S100A9) previously mapped to the psoriasis susceptibility region PSORS4, are strongly induced in mutant keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. We propose that the abrogation of JunB/activator protein 1 (AP-1) in keratinocytes triggers chemokine/cytokine expression, which recruits neutrophils and macrophages to the epidermis thereby contributing to the phenotypic changes observed in psoriasis. Thus, these data support the hypothesis that epidermal alterations are sufficient to initiate both skin lesions and arthritis in psoriasis.

  18. Evidence for methyl group transfer between the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedale, W.A.; Nettleton, D.O.; Sopata, C.S.; Thoelke, M.S.; Ordal, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present evidence for methyl (as methyl or methoxy) transfer from the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins H1 and possibly H3 of Bacillus subtilis to the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein H2. This methyl transfer, which has been observed in vitro was strongly stimulated by the chemoattractant aspartate and thus may plan an important role in the sensory processing system of this organism. Although radiolabeling of H1 and H3 began at once after the addition of [ 3 H] methionine, radiolabeling of H2 showed a lag. Furthermore, the addition of excess nonradioactive methionine caused immediate exponential delabeling of H1 and H3 while labeling of H2 continued to increase. Methylation of H2 required the chemotactic methyltransferase, probably to first methylate H1 and H3. Aspartate caused increased labeling of H2 and strongly decreased labeling of H1 and H3 after the addition of nonradioactive methionine. Without the addition of nonradioactive methionine, aspartate caused demethylation of H1 and to a lesser extent H3, with an approximately equal increase of methylation of H2

  19. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Debón, R; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Aragonès, G; Rodríguez-Medina, I; Rull, A; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Camps, J; Joven, J

    2010-03-01

    Diet supplementation and/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cellular death induced by H(2)O(2) and a significant role in the production of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, the extract promotes the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and decreases the concentration of MCP-1 in supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. In humans, the ingestion of an acute dose of the extract (10g) was well tolerated and decreased plasma MCP-1 concentrations significantly without further effects on other cytokines. This effect was not due to a concomitant increase in the antioxidant capacity of plasma. Instead, its mechanisms probably involve a direct inhibition of inflammatory and/or metabolic pathways responsible for MCP-1 production, and may be relevant in inflammatory and chronic conditions in which the role of MCP-1 is well established. If beneficial effects are confirmed in patients, Hibiscus sabdariffa could be considered a valuable traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with the advantage of being devoid of caloric value or potential alcohol toxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Tick saliva increases production of three chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a histamine-releasing cytokine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Helena; Bopp, T.; Schmitt, E.; Kopecký, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2015), s. 92-96 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/11/J029 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chemokine * histamine * Ixodes ricinus * mcp-1 * Th2 response * tick saliva Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.917, year: 2015

  1. Silica-induced Chronic Inflammation Promotes Lung Carcinogenesis in the Context of an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Freire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The association between inflammation and lung tumor development has been clearly demonstrated. However, little is known concerning the molecular events preceding the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize a chemically induced lung cancer mouse model in which lung cancer developed in the presence of silicotic chronic inflammation. Silica-induced lung inflammation increased the incidence and multiplicity of lung cancer in mice treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine, a carcinogen found in tobacco smoke. Histologic and molecular analysis revealed that concomitant chronic inflammation contributed to lung tumorigenesis through induction of preneoplastic changes in lung epithelial cells. In addition, silica-mediated inflammation generated an immunosuppressive microenvironment in which we observed increased expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, transforming growth factor-β1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3, and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3, as well as the presence of regulatory T cells. Finally, the K-RAS mutational profile of the tumors changed from Q61R to G12D mutations in the inflammatory milieu. In summary, we describe some of the early molecular changes associated to lung carcinogenesis in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment and provide novel information concerning the mechanisms underlying the formation and the fate of preneoplastic lesions in the silicotic lung.

  2. Atherogenic ω-6 Lipids Modulate PPAR- EGR-1 Crosstalk in Vascular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Fei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherogenic ω-6 lipids are physiological ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and elicit pro- and antiatherogenic responses in vascular cells. The objective of this study was to investigate if ω-6 lipids modulated the early growth response-1 (Egr-1/PPAR crosstalk thereby altering vascular function. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs were exposed to ω-6 lipids, linoleic acid (LA, or its oxidized form, 13-HPODE (OxLA in the presence or absence of a PPARα antagonist (MK886 or PPARγ antagonist (GW9662 or PPAR-specific siRNA. Our results demonstrate that ω-6 lipids, induced Egr-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels at the acute phase (1–4 hrs when PPARα was downregulated and at subacute phase (4–12 hrs by modulating PPARγ, thus resulting in altered monocyte adhesion to RASMCs. We provide novel insights into the mechanism of action of ω-6 lipids on Egr-1/PPAR interactions in vascular cells and their potential in altering vascular function.

  3. Autoantibodies Targeting AT1 Receptor from Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Upregulate Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression in Endothelial Cells Involving NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study intended to prove whether agonistic autoantibodies to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AAs exist in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and affect the human endothelial cell (HEC by upregulating proinflammatory cytokines expression involved in NF-κB pathway. Antibodies were determined by chronotropic responses of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes coupled with receptor-specific antagonists (valsartan and AT1-EC2 as described previously. Interleukin-6 (IL-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 expression were improved at both mRNA and protein levels in HEC, while NF-κB in the DNA level was improved detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These improvements could be inhibited by specific AT1 receptor blocker valsartan, NF-κB blocker pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, and specific short peptides from the second extracellular loop of AT1 receptor. These results suggested that AT1-AAs, via the AT1 receptor, induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the activation of NF-κB. AT1-AAs may play a great role in the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndrome by mediating vascular inflammatory effects involved in the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Meloxicam blocks neuroinflammation, but not depressive-like behaviors, in HIV-1 transgenic female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Nemeth

    Full Text Available Adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV comprise approximately 12% of the HIV-positive population worldwide. HIV-positive adolescents experience a higher rate of clinical depression, a greater risk of sexual and drug abuse behaviors, and a decreased adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART. Using adolescent HIV-1 transgenic rats (HIV-1 tg that display related immune response alterations and pathologies, this study tested the hypothesis that developmental expression of HIV-1-related proteins induces a depressive-like phenotype that parallels a decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus. Consistent with this hypothesis, adolescent HIV-1 tg rats demonstrated a depressive-like behavioral phenotype, had decreased levels of cell proliferation, and exhibited elevated expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1 in the hippocampus relative to controls. Subsequently, we tested the ability of meloxicam, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, to attenuate behavioral deficits via inflammatory mechanisms. Daily meloxicam treatments did not alter the behavioral profile despite effectively reducing hippocampal inflammatory gene expression. Together, these data support a biological basis for the co-morbid manifestation of depression in HIV-positive patients as early as in adolescence and suggest that modifications in behavior manifest independent of inflammatory activity in the hippocampus.

  5. Angiopoietin-2 impairs collateral artery growth associated with the suppression of the infiltration of macrophages in mouse hindlimb ischaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, a ligand of the Tie-2 receptor, plays an important role in maintaining endothelial cells and in destabilizing blood vessels. Collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis is a key adaptive response to arterial occlusion. It is unknown whether the destabilization of blood vessels by Ang-2 can affect arteriogenesis and modulate mononuclear cell function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Ang-2 on collateral artery growth. Methods Hindlimb ischaemia model was produced in C57BL/6 mice by femoral artery ligation. Blood flow perfusion was measured using a laser Doppler perfusion imager quantitative RT-PCR analysis was applied to identify the level of angiogenic factors. Results After the induction of hindlimb ischaemia, blood flow recovery was impaired in mice treated with recombinant Ang-2 protein; this was accompanied by a reduction of peri-collateral macrophage infiltration. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Ang-2 treatment decreased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB mRNA levels in ischaemic adductor muscles. Ang-2 can lead to macrophage M1/M2 polarization shift inhibition in the ischaemic muscles. Furthermore, Ang-2 reduced the in vitro inflammatory response in macrophages and vascular cells involved in arteriogenesis. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Ang-2 is essential for efficient arteriogenesis, which controls macrophage infiltration.

  6. Stroke Status Evoked Adhesion Molecule Genetic Alterations in Astrocytes Isolated from Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Apigenin Inhibition of Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the possibility that the expression of adhesion molecules is regulated differently in cultured astrocytes from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/IZM rats than in those from Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/IZM by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- or hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R and the inhibitory effects of apigenin. It was found that the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 by TNF- in astrocytes isolated from SHRSP/IZM was increased compared with that in WKY/IZM. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 mRNA induced by H/R in SHRSP/IZM astrocytes was increased compared with that in normal oxygen concentrations. Apigenin strongly attenuated TNF--induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression and suppressed the adhesion of U937 cells and SHRSP/IZM astrocytes. These results suggest that the expression levels of adhesion molecules during H/R affect disease outcome and can drive SHRSP/IZM to stroke. It is suggested that apigenin regulates adhesion molecule expression in reactive astrocytes during ischemia.

  7. Resident Arterial Cells and Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Cells both Contribute to Intimal Hyperplasia in a Rat Allograft Carotid Transplantation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neointimal formation following vascular injury remains a major mechanism of restenosis, whereas the precise sources of neointimal cells are still uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that both injured arterial cells and non-arterial cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Following allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery (n = 3-6, the cellular composition of the transplant grafts and the origins of neointimal cells were measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: Smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive and CD68-positive cells were clearly observed 14 days later in the neointima after allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery, where re-endothelialization was not yet complete. Green fluorescent protein (GFP and wild-type (WT allograft transplantation revealed that the majority of the neointima cells were apparently from the recipient (≈85% versus the donor (≈15%. Both monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCR2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling were involved in intimal hyperplasia, with bone marrow-derived cells also playing a role. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that intimal hyperplasia could develop in our novel rat allograft transplantation model of arterial injury, where neointima is attributable not only to local arterial cells but also non-arterial cells including the bone marrow.

  8. Circulating cytokine concentrations in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Moesgaard, Sophia Gry; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    , IL-15, IL-18, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interferon-c-induced protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. CHF dogs had significantly higher MCP-1 concentrations than dogs with no or minimal MR. Among the CKCS, IL-2 and IL-7...... decreased with increasing left atrial size and IL-7 also decreased with increasing MR. IL-8 decreased with increasing left ventricular end-systolic internal dimensions. MCP-1 was increased in CHF dogs compared to healthy control dogs and IL-2, IL-7 and IL-8 decreased with increasing indices of disease...

  9. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  10. Microaerophilic conditions permit to mimic in vitro events occurring during in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection and to identify Rho/Ras-associated proteins in cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Sandra; Corthésy-Theulaz, Irène; Spertini, François; Corthésy, Blaise

    2002-09-13

    Molecular dissection of the mechanisms underlying Helicobacter pylori infection suffers from the lack of in vitro systems mimicking in vivo observations. A system was developed whereby human epithelial cells (Caco-2) grown as polarized monolayers and bacteria can communicate with each other under culture conditions optimal for each partner. Caco-2 cells grown on filter supports were inserted in a vertical position into diffusion chambers equilibrated with air and 5% CO(2) at their basolateral surface (aerophilic conditions) and 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) (microaerophilic conditions) in the apical compartment. Remarkably, the epithelial polarized layer was stable under these asymmetric culture conditions for at least 24 h, and the presence of Caco-2 cells was necessary to maintain H. pylori growth. In contrast to previous studies conducted with non-polarized Caco-2 cells and other cell lines kept under aerophilic conditions, we found H. pylori-dependent stimulation of cytokine secretion (MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), GRO-alpha (growth-regulated oncogene-alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)). This correlated with nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 subunits. Tyrosine phosphorylation of nine cellular proteins was induced or enhanced; we identified p120(RasGAP), p190(RhoGAP), p62dok (downstream of tyrosine kinases), and cortactin as H. pylori-inducible targets. Moreover, reduction of H. pylori urease expression was observed in adherent bacteria as compared with bacteria in suspension. In addition to mimicking several observations seen in the inflamed gastric mucosa, the novel in vitro system was allowed to underscore complex cellular events not seen in classical in vitro analyses of microaerophilic bacteria-epithelial cell cross-talk.

  11. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pérez-Bosque

    Full Text Available Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w or milk proteins (Control diet, from day 21 (weaning until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p < 0.05. The increased neutrophil recruitment and activation observed in KO mice correlated with increased colon oxidative stress (p < 0.05 and SBI supplementation reduced this variable (p < 0.05. The Tact/Treg lymphocyte ratios in MLN and lamina propria were also increased in KO animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05. In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold, IL-6 (26-fold and IL-17 (19-fold, and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold and MCP-1 (7.2-fold. These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05. SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis.

  12. Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation. To investigate the effects of, and potential interaction between, a dietary supplementation with whey protein and milk fat, naturally enriched in medium-chain SFA (MC-SFA), on inflammatory markers in abdominal obese adults. The study was a 12-week, randomized, double-blinded, intervention study. Sixty-three adults were equally allocated to one of four groups which received a supplement of either 60 g/day whey or 60 g/day casein plus 63 g/day milk fat either high or low in MC-SFA content. Fifty-two subjects completed the study. Before and after the intervention, changes in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Changes in inflammatory genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue were also documented. There were no differences in circulating inflammatory markers between protein types or fatty acid compositions in abdominally obese subjects, with the exception of an increase in adiponectin in response to high compared to low MC-SFA consumption in women. We found that combined dairy proteins and MC-SFAs influenced inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue, while no effect was detected by dairy proteins or MC-SFA per se. Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in

  13. Multifunctional Thioredoxin-Like Protein from the Gastrointestinal Parasitic Nematodes Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis Affects Mucosal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ditgen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite’s mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM. Further analysis applying an in vitro mucosal 3D-cell culture model revealed that the secreted Trx-lps were able to bind to monocytic and intestinal epithelial cells and induce the time-dependent release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-22, and TSLP. In addition, the redox proteins also possessed chemotactic activity for monocytic THP-1 cells and fostered epithelial wound healing activity. These results confirm that the parasite-secreted Trx-lps are multifunctional proteins that can affect the host intestinal mucosa.

  14. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  15. Crevicular and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Minal; Pradeep, A R; Priyanka, N; Kalra, Nitish; Naik, Savitha B

    2014-06-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that are involved in destruction of the periodontal structures. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of MCP-4 and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in periodontal health and disease and to find a correlation between MCP-4 and hsCRP in GCF and serum. 40 subjects (20 males and 20 females) were selected and divided into three groups based on clinical parameters and radiologic parameters: Group 1 (10 healthy); Group 2 (15 gingivitis subjects) and Group 3 (15 chronic periodontitis subjects). The levels of serum and GCF MCP-4 were determined by ELISA and hsCRP levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry method. The mean GCF and serum concentration of MCP-4 were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and least in group 1. Similarly, the mean hsCRP concentrations were highest for group 3 and least in group 1. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between serum and GCF MCP-4 and hsCRP levels and periodontal parameters. The levels of MCP-4 and hsCRP increased from healthy to periodontitis. It can be proposed that MCP-4 and hsCRP are the potential biomarkers of inflammation in periodontal health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor: EFFECT ON PKA LOCALIZATION AND P-Rex1 SIGNALING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G H; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-03-18

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  18. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  19. Anti-Biofilm and Immunomodulatory Activities of Peptides That Inhibit Biofilms Formed by Pathogens Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César de la Fuente-Núñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF patients often acquire chronic respiratory tract infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc species. In the CF lung, these bacteria grow as multicellular aggregates termed biofilms. Biofilms demonstrate increased (adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotics, and there are currently no available biofilm-specific therapies. Using plastic adherent, hydroxyapatite and flow cell biofilm models coupled with confocal and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that an anti-biofilm peptide 1018 prevented biofilm formation, eradicated mature biofilms and killed biofilms formed by a wide range of P. aeruginosa and B. cenocepacia clinical isolates. New peptide derivatives were designed that, compared to their parent peptide 1018, showed similar or decreased anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms, but increased activity against biofilms formed by the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, some of these new peptide derivatives retained the immunomodulatory activity of 1018 since they induced the production of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and were non-toxic towards these cells. Peptide 1018 and its derivatives provide promising leads for the treatment of chronic biofilm infections and hyperinflammatory lung disease in CF patients.

  20. Apple Polysaccharide inhibits microbial dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulates gut permeability in HFD-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Qian; Zang, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Nan; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Xiaotao; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing

    2017-06-01

    The saying "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" has been known for over 150 years, and numerous studies have shown that apple consumption is closely associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. It has been well accepted that dysbiosis is the reflection of various chronic diseases. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of apple polysaccharides (AP) on gut dysbiosis. High-fat diet (HFD) fed rats were treated for 14 weeks with AP. The microbiota composition, microbiota-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gut permeability and chronic inflammation were analyzed. AP treatment showed higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus while lower Firmicutes and Fusobacteium. AP significantly increased total SCFAs level that contributed by acetic acid and isobutyric acid. Moreover, AP dramatically alleviated dysbiosis-associated gut permeability and chronic inflammation with decreased plasma LBP, up-regulation of Occludin, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The potential mechanism is due to the fact that AP reduces gut permeability, which involves the induction of autophagy in goblet cells. Therefore, AP exerts health benefits through inhibiting gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulating gut permeability in HFD-induced dysbiosis rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of macrophages by a laccase-polymerized polyphenol is dependent on phosphorylation of Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Katsuya; Akanuma, Satoshi; Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2018-01-15

    Various physiologically active effects of polymerized polyphenols have been reported. In this study, we synthesized a polymerized polyphenol (mL2a-pCA) by polymerizing caffeic acid using mutant Agaricus brasiliensis laccase and analyzed its physiological activity and mechanism of action. We found that mL2a-pCA induced morphological changes and the production of cytokines and chemokines in C3H/HeN mouse-derived resident peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The mechanisms of action of polymerized polyphenols on in vitro mouse resident peritoneal cells have not been characterized in detail previously. Herein, we report that the mL2a-pCA-induced production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in C3H/HeN mouse-derived resident peritoneal cells was inhibited by treatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 trihydrochloride. In addition, we found that mL2a-pCA activated the phosphorylation Rac1. Taken together, the results show that mL2a-pCA induced macrophage activation via Rac1 phosphorylation-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-fat-diet-induced obesity causes an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment in the rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stemmer

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and concomitant comorbidities have emerged as public health problems of the first order. For instance, obese individuals have an increased risk for kidney cancer. However, direct mechanisms linking obesity with kidney cancer remain elusive. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity (DIO promotes renal carcinogenesis by inducing an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment. We compared chow-fed lean Wistar rats with those that were sensitive (DIOsens or partially resistant (DIOres to DIO to investigate the impact of body adiposity versus dietary nutrient overload in the development of renal preneoplasia and activation of tumor-promoting signaling pathways. Our data clearly show a correlation between body adiposity, the severity of nephropathy, and the total number and incidence of preneoplastic renal lesions. However, similar plasma triglyceride, plasma free fatty acid and renal triglyceride levels were found in chow-fed, DIOres and DIOsens rats, suggesting that lipotoxicity is not a critical contributor to the renal pathology. Obesity-related nephropathy was further associated with regenerative cell proliferation, monocyte infiltration and higher renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6, IL-6 receptor and leptin receptor. Accordingly, we observed increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR phosphorylation in tubules with preneoplastic phenotypes. In summary, our results demonstrate that high body adiposity induces an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment in rat kidneys that promotes the development of preneoplastic lesions, potentially via activation of the STAT3 and mTOR signaling pathways.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of obesity induced osteoporosis and muscle atrophy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipradas Roy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are two alarming health disorders prominent among middle and old age populations, and the numbers of those affected by these two disorders are increasing. It is estimated that more than 600 million adults are obese and over 200 million people have osteoporosis worldwide. Interestingly, both of these abnormalities share some common features including a genetic predisposition, and a common origin: bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Obesity is characterized by the expression of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 10 (IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, growth hormone (GH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, angiotensin II (Ang II, 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT, Advance glycation end products (AGE, and myostatin, which exert their effects by modulating the signaling pathways within bone and muscle. Chemical messengers (eg. TNF-α, IL-6, AGE, leptins that are upregulated or downregulated as a result of obesity have been shown to act as negative regulators of osteoblasts, osteocytes and muscles, as well as positive regulators of osteoclasts. These additive effects of obesity ultimately increase the risk for osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. The aim of this review is to identify the potential cellular mechanisms through which obesity may facilitate osteoporosis, muscle atrophy and bone fractures.

  4. Fractalkine in human inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, F; Vetter, R; Kühl, U; Westermann, D; Schultheiss, H-P; Tschöpe, C

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac inflammation is important for the prognosis of patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (CMi), but the mechanisms leading to it are not fully elucidated. To study the role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in chemotactic and adhesive properties of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with CMi. Patients with enterovirus (EV)-positive CMi, patients with virus-negative CMi, patients with parvovirus B19 (B19) genomes with low intramyocardial inflammation and patients without cardiac inflammation and viral infection in the endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) were enrolled (n=10/group). The expression of CX3CL1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) in EMBs was significantly increased in EV-positive and virus-negative patients with CMi in contrast to controls and B19-positive patients (EV+ vs controls: CX3CL1-area fraction (AF) % 0.078±0.012 vs 0.009±0.003 pattenuated positive chronotropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol. The cardiac and plasma CX3CL1/CX3CR1 system is upregulated in CMi and this affects the functional potential of PBMCs. Moreover, a direct cardiodepressive effect of CX3CL1 in cardiac tissue was demonstrated since neonatal cardiomyocytes exhibited an attenuated positive chronotropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation.

  5. Synergistic effect of bolus exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on bleomycin-induced secretion of pro-fibrotic cytokines without lasting fibrotic changes in murine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenting; Ichihara, Gaku; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Suzuki, Yuka; Chang, Jie; Kato, Masashi; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2014-12-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in various products, and the safety evaluation of this manufactured material is important. The present study investigated the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by constant subcutaneous infusion of bleomycin (BLM). Female C57BL/6Jcl mice were divided into BLM-treated and non-treated groups. In each treatment group, 0, 10, 20 or 30 µg of ZnO nanoparticles were delivered into the lungs through pharyngeal aspiration. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lungs were sampled at Day 10 or 14 after administration. Pulmonary exposure by a single bolus of ZnO nanoparticles resulted in severe, but transient inflammatory infiltration and thickening of the alveolar septa in the lungs, along with the increase of total and differential cell counts in BLAF. The BALF level of interleukin (IL)-1β and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased at Day 10 and 14, respectively. At Day 10, the synergistic effect of BLM and ZnO exposure was detected on IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in BALF. The present study demonstrated the synergistic effect of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and subcutaneous infusion of BLM on the secretion of pro-fibrotic cytokines in the lungs.

  6. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  7. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  8. Neurotropism In Vitro and Mouse Models of Severe and Mild Infection with Clinical Strains of Enterovirus 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a common etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and fatal neurological diseases in children. The neuropathogenicity of severe EV71 infection has been documented, but studies comparing mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the neurovirulence of EV71 strains and the differences in serum cytokine and chemokine levels in mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection. Nine EV71 isolates belonging to the C4 subgenogroup (proposed as genotype D displayed infectivity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells; moreover, ultrastructural observation confirmed viral particle replication. The survival rate of the severe model was 71.43% (5/7, and 60% (3/5 of the surviving severe model mice displayed sequelae of paralysis, whereas the only symptom in mild model mice was ruffled fur. Dynamic detection of serum cytokine and chemokine levels demonstrated that interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (also called Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES were significantly up-regulated at the early period of infection, indicating that these factors might herald a severe outcome. Our findings suggest that elevated cytokines and chemokines may have potential value as prognostic markers in mouse models.

  9. Interleukin-4 and 13 induce the expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-6 and stem cell factor from human detrusor smooth muscle cells: synergy with interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andresen, Lars; Alvarez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development,......, signaling and function. We investigated whether HDSMCs are capable of expressing and releasing MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF in response to IL-4, IL-13, IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.......Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development...

  10. Circulating cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia determined by multiplex suspension array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekő Gabriella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy characterized by an excessive maternal systemic inflammatory response with activation of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules are central to innate and adaptive immune processes. The purpose of this study was to determine circulating levels of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia in a comprehensive manner, and to investigate their relationship to the clinical features and laboratory parameters of the study participants, including markers of overall inflammation (C-reactive protein, endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor antigen and endothelial injury (fibronectin, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and trophoblast debris (cell-free fetal DNA. Results Serum levels of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-18, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1, interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 were measured in 60 preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women by multiplex suspension array and ELISA. In normal pregnancy, the relative abundance of circulating IL-18 over IL-12p70 and the relative deficiency of the bioactive IL-12p70 in relation to IL-12p40 might favour Th2-type immunity. Although decreased IL-1ra, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 concentrations of healthy pregnant relative to non-pregnant women reflect anti-inflammatory changes in circulating cytokine profile, their decreased serum IL-10 and increased IP-10 levels might drive pro-inflammatory responses. In addition to a shift towards Th1-type immunity (expressed by the increased IL-2/IL-4 and IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratios, circulating levels of

  11. Noisy Oscillations in the Actin Cytoskeleton of Chemotactic Amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Jose; Pumir, Alain; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-09-01

    Biological systems with their complex biochemical networks are known to be intrinsically noisy. Here we investigate the dynamics of actin polymerization of amoeboid cells, which are close to the onset of oscillations. We show that the large phenotypic variability in the polymerization dynamics can be accurately captured by a generic nonlinear oscillator model in the presence of noise. We determine the relative role of the noise with a single dimensionless, experimentally accessible parameter, thus providing a quantitative description of the variability in a population of cells. Our approach, which rests on a generic description of a system close to a Hopf bifurcation and includes the effect of noise, can characterize the dynamics of a large class of noisy systems close to an oscillatory instability.

  12. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...

  13. Chemotactic response and adaptation dynamics in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Clausznitzer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of the chemotaxis sensory pathway of the bacterium Escherichia coli is integral for detecting chemicals over a wide range of background concentrations, ultimately allowing cells to swim towards sources of attractant and away from repellents. Its biochemical mechanism based on methylation and demethylation of chemoreceptors has long been known. Despite the importance of adaptation for cell memory and behavior, the dynamics of adaptation are difficult to reconcile with current models of precise adaptation. Here, we follow time courses of signaling in response to concentration step changes of attractant using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. Specifically, we use a condensed representation of adaptation time courses for efficient evaluation of different adaptation models. To quantitatively explain the data, we finally develop a dynamic model for signaling and adaptation based on the attractant flow in the experiment, signaling by cooperative receptor complexes, and multiple layers of feedback regulation for adaptation. We experimentally confirm the predicted effects of changing the enzyme-expression level and bypassing the negative feedback for demethylation. Our data analysis suggests significant imprecision in adaptation for large additions. Furthermore, our model predicts highly regulated, ultrafast adaptation in response to removal of attractant, which may be useful for fast reorientation of the cell and noise reduction in adaptation.

  14. Involvement of Ubiquitin-Editing Protein A20 in Modulating Inflammation in Rat Cochlea Associated with Silver Nanoparticle-Induced CD68 Upregulation and TLR4 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were shown to temporarily impair the biological barriers in the skin of the external ear canal, mucosa of the middle ear, and inner ear, causing partially reversible hearing loss after delivery into the middle ear. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism, emphasizing the TLR signaling pathways in association with the potential recruitment of macrophages in the cochlea and the modulation of inflammation by ubiquitin-editing protein A20. Molecules potentially involved in these signaling pathways were thoroughly analysed using immunohistochemistry in the rat cochlea exposed to AgNPs at various concentrations through intratympanic injection. The results showed that 0.4 % AgNPs but not 0.02 % AgNPs upregulated the expressions of CD68, TLR4, MCP1, A20, and RNF11 in the strial basal cells, spiral ligament fibrocytes, and non-sensory supporting cells of Corti's organ. 0.4 % AgNPs had no effect on CD44, TLR2, MCP2, Rac1, myosin light chain, VCAM1, Erk1/2, JNK, p38, IL-1β, TNF-α, TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-10, or TGF-β. This study suggested that AgNPs might confer macrophage-like functions on the strial basal cells and spiral ligament fibrocytes and enhance the immune activities of non-sensory supporting cells of Corti's organ through the upregulation of CD68, which might be involved in TLR4 activation. A20 and RNF11 played roles in maintaining cochlear homeostasis via negative regulation of the expressions of inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Macrophage inflammatory protein-3α influences growth of K562 leukemia cells in co-culture with anticancer drug-pretreated HS-5 stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.C.; Chiou, T.-J.; Tzeng, W.-F.; Chu, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    Stromal cell monolayers have been an important means of studying the regulation of hematopoiesis, because they produce cytokines. Cytosine arabinoside, vincristine, daunorubicin, and doxorubicin are common drugs for hematological cancer therapy, and they may have some effects on bone marrow stroma during chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to elucidate interactions between the bone marrow stromal microenvironment and leukemic cells after drug treatment. We tested the hypothesis that human HS-5 stromal cells, pretreated with anticancer drugs, affected the growth of leukemic K562 cells by changing the cytokines in the culture microenvironment. Thereafter, proliferation of K562 cells increased nearly 2.5-fold compared the co-cultivation with drugs-pretreated HS-5 stromal cells and drugs-untreated HS-5 stromal cells. The results indicated that co-cultivation with HS-5 stromal cells pretreated with drugs caused significant K562 cell proliferation. Cytokines in the microenvironment were detected via the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array Membrane. The levels of the cytokines CKβ, IL-12, IL-13, IGFBP-2, MCP-1, MCP-3, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1β and MIP-1δ were decreased, with a particularly marked decrease in MIP-3α. In co-culture medium, there was a 20-fold decrease in MIP-3α in daunorubicin-pretreated HS-5 cells and at least a 3-fold decrease in Ara-C-pretreated cells. This indicated a significant effect of anticancer drugs on the stromal cell line. Using phosphorylated Erk and pRb proteins as cell proliferation markers, we found that phosphorylation of these markers in K562 cells was inhibited during co-cultivation with drug-pretreated stromal cells in MIP-3α-supplemented medium and restored by MIP-3α antibody supplement. In conclusion, anticancer drug pretreatment suppresses the negative control exerted by HS-5 cells on leukemic cell proliferation, via modulation of cytokines in the microenvironment, especially at the level of MIP-3α

  16. A phylogenomic profile of hemerythrins, the nonheme diiron binding respiratory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuguchi Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemerythrins, are the non-heme, diiron binding respiratory proteins of brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans; they are also found in annelids and bacteria, where their functions have not been fully elucidated. Results A search for putative Hrs in the genomes of 43 archaea, 444 bacteria and 135 eukaryotes, revealed their presence in 3 archaea, 118 bacteria, several fungi, one apicomplexan, a heterolobosan, a cnidarian and several annelids. About a fourth of the Hr sequences were identified as N- or C-terminal domains of chimeric, chemotactic gene regulators. The function of the remaining single domain bacterial Hrs remains to be determined. In addition to oxygen transport, the possible functions in annelids have been proposed to include cadmium-binding, antibacterial action and immunoprotection. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree revealed a split into two clades, one encompassing archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the other comprising the remaining eukaryotes. The annelid and sipunculan Hrs share the same intron-exon structure, different from that of the cnidarian Hr. Conclusion The phylogenomic profile of Hrs demonstrated a limited occurrence in bacteria and archaea and a marked absence in the vast majority of multicellular organisms. Among the metazoa, Hrs have survived in a cnidarian and in a few protostome groups; hence, it appears that in metazoans the Hr gene was lost in deuterostome ancestor(s after the radiata/bilateria split. Signal peptide sequences in several Hirudinea Hrs suggest for the first time, the possibility of extracellular localization. Since the α-helical bundle is likely to have been among the earliest protein folds, Hrs represent an ancient family of iron-binding proteins, whose primary function in bacteria may have been that of an oxygen sensor, enabling aerophilic or aerophobic responses. Although Hrs evolved to function as O2 transporters in brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans, their function in

  17. Delayed brain ischemia tolerance induced by electroacupuncture pretreatment is mediated via MCP-induced protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging studies have demonstrated that pretreatment with electroacupuncture (EA) induces significant tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia. The present study seeks to determine the involvement of monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), a recently identified novel modulator of inflammatory reactions, in the cerebral neuroprotection conferred by EA pretreatment in the animal model of focal cerebral ischemia and to elucidate the mechanisms of EA pretreatment-induced ischemic brain tolerance. Methods Twenty-four hours after the end of the last EA pretreatment, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 minutes in male C57BL/6 mice and MCPIP1 knockout mice. Transcription and expression of MCPIP1 gene was monitored by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in brain and NF-κB signaling were evaluated after ischemia/reperfusion. Results MCPIP1 protein and mRNA levels significantly increased specifically in mouse brain undergoing EA pretreatment. EA pretreatment significantly attenuated the infarct volume, neurological deficits, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the brain of wild-type mice after MCAO compared with that of the non-EA group. MCPIP1-deficient mice failed to evoke EA pretreatment-induced tolerance compared with that of the control MCPIP1 knockout group without EA treatment. Furthermore, the activation of NF-κB signaling was significantly reduced in EA-pretreated wild-type mice after MCAO compared to that of the non-EA control group and MCPIP1-deficient mice failed to confer the EA pretreatment-induced inhibition of NF-κB signaling after MCAO. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that MCPIP1 deficiency caused significant lack of EA pretreatment-induced cerebral protective effects after MCAO compared with the control group and that MCPIP1 is

  18. Towards neuroimmunotherapy for cancer: the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GnRH-II augment substantially the ability of T cells of few head and neck cancer patients to perform spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and migration towards the autologous tumor, and also elevate markedly the expression of CD3zeta and CD3epsilon TCR-associated chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussez, Sven; Laumbacher, Barbara; Chantrain, Gilbert; Rodriguez, Alexandra; Gu, Songhai; Wank, Rudolf; Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    In previous studies we found that several Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides among them: Glutamate, Dopamine, Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) I and II, Somatostatin, CGRP and Neuropeptide Y, can each by itself, at low physiological concentration (~10 nM) bind its receptors in human T cells and trigger several key T cell functions. These findings showed that the nervous system, via Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides, can 'talk' directly to the immune system, and stimulate what we coined 'Nerve-Driven Immunity': immune responses dictated by the nervous system. In various human cancers, the immune system of the patients, and their T cells in particular, are not functioning well enough against the cancer due to several reasons, among them the suppressive effects on the immune system induced by: (1) the cancer itself, (2) the chemotherapy and radiotherapy, (3) the ongoing/chronic stress, anxiety, depression and pain felt by the cancer patients. In Head and Neck Cancer (HNC), 5-year survival rate remains below 50%, primarily because of local recurrences or second primary tumors. Two-thirds of HNC patients are diagnosed at advanced clinical stage and have significantly poorer prognosis. Most HNC patients have multiple severe immunological defects especially in their T cells. A major defect in T cells of patients with HNC or other types of cancer is low CD3zeta expression that correlates with poor prognosis, decreased proliferation, apoptotic profile, abnormal cytokine secretion and poor abilities of destructing cancer cells. T cells of cancer patients are often also unable to migrate properly towards the tumor. In this study we asked if Glutamate, Dopamine or GnRH-II can augment the spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and towards autologous HNC migration, and also increase CD3zeta and CD3epsilon expression, of peripheral T cells purified from the blood of five HNC patients. These HNC patients had either primary tumor or recurrence, and have been already

  19. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  20. Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cornea Wound Healing Induced by Acute Alkali Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Li, Zhan-rong; Su, Wen-ru; Li, Yong-ping; Lin, Miao-li; Zhang, Wen-xin; Liu, Yi; Wan, Qian; Liang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subconjunctivally administered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on corneal wound healing in the acute stage of an alkali burn. A corneal alkali burn model was generated by placing a piece of 3-mm diameter filter paper soaked in NaOH on the right eye of 48 Sprague-Dawley female rats. 24 rats were administered a subconjunctival injection of a suspension of 2×106 MSCs in 0.1 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) on day 0 and day 3 after the corneal alkali burn. The other 24 rats were administered a subconjunctival injection of an equal amount of PBS as a control. Deficiencies of the corneal epithelium and the area of corneal neovascularization (CNV) were evaluated on days 3 and 7 after the corneal alkali burn. Infiltrated CD68+ cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA expression levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). In addition, VEGF protein levels were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MSCs significantly enhanced the recovery of the corneal epithelium and decreased the CNV area compared with the control group. On day 7, the quantity of infiltrated CD68+ cells was significantly lower in the MSC group and the mRNA levels of MIP-1α, TNF-α, and VEGF and the protein levels of VEGF were also down-regulated. However, the expression of MCP-1 was not different between the two groups. Our results suggest that subconjunctival injection of MSCs significantly accelerates corneal wound healing, attenuates inflammation and reduces CNV in alkaline-burned corneas; these effects were found to be related to a reduction of infiltrated CD68+ cells and the down-regulation of MIP-1α, TNF-α and VEGF. PMID:22363499

  1. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  2. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    factor [GM-CSF], MCP- 1, MIP-1[ alpha ], RANTES, and tumor necrosis factor -[ alpha ]) were quantified using Beadlyte Human 22- Plex...regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were...NM_013174 Transforming growth factor , beta 3 Involved in embryogenesis and cell differentiation. Tnf NM_012675 Tumor necrosis factor

  3. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  4. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  5. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  6. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  7. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Malínská

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its "pleiotropic" effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP. We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action-studied by gene expression profiling in the liver-revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling

  8. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  9. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  10. N-acetylcysteine and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate: immunomodulatory effects on mononuclear cell culture N-acetilcisteína e frutose-1,6-bisfosfato: efeito imunomodulador em cultura de células mononucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Obalski de Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a complex syndrome caused by an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. Inflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in septic shock pathogenesis. Therapeutic strategies have been tested in order to modulate the excessive generation or function of sepsis mediators. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and its association with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP on T-lymphocytes proliferation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were isolated from healthy individuals. T-lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 96 hours and submitted to different concentrations of NAC or NAC associated with FBP. RESULTS: NAC (10 and 15 mM and NAC (15 mM associated with FBP reduced T-lymphocytes proliferation. IL-1β levels rose in the presence of both NAC (15 mM and NAC with FBP (1.25 mM. MCP-1 levels were reduced only by NAC (15 mM associated with FBP (1.25 mM. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that both NAC itself and NAC associated with FBP inhibit cellular proliferation, acting as potent immunomodulatory agents, which corroborates its use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.INTRODUÇÃO: A sepse é uma síndrome complexa causada pela resposta inflamatória sistêmica descontrolada. As citocinas inflamatórias representam papel central na patogênese do choque séptico. Têm sido testadas estratégias terapêuticas a fim de modular a geração ou a função excessiva de mediadores na sepse. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito terapêutico da N-acetilcisteína (NAC e sua associação com a frutose-1,6-bisfosfato (FBP sobre a proliferação de linfócitos T e a geração de interleucina-1β (IL-1β e proteína quimiotática de monócitos 1 (MCP-1 em cultura celular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram isoladas células mononucleares de

  11. Effect of Sacral Neuromodulation on Outcome Measures and Urine Chemokines in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kenneth M; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Bui, Don; Killinger, Kim; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-05-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may improve interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/BPS) symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency and perhaps even pain, but objective measures of improvement are lacking. We evaluated the potential for urinary chemokines to serve as measures of treatment response over time to SNM. Women with IC/BPS undergoing SNM consented for this study. Three-day bladder/pain diaries were collected at baseline and validated Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Problem Index (ICSPI) scores and mid-stream urine specimens were collected at baseline and at 24 weeks after successful implant. Collected urine was screened for infection by dipstick and analyzed for chemokines by luminex xMAP analysis. At baseline (n = 16), urine levels of CXCL-1 positively correlated with pain score (r = 0.63, P = 0.009), urgency (r = 0.61, P = 0.01), ICSPI (r = 0.43, P = 0.09) and daily voids (r = 0.44, P = 0.08). ICSPI and pain scores also positively correlated with sIL-1ra (r = 0.50, P = 0.04) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) or CCL2 positively correlated with daily voids (r = 0.45, P = 0.07) only. At 24 weeks, the median ICSPI index fell from 28 to 15 (n = 7, P = 0.008). Urine levels of sIL-1ra (633.8 ± 188.2 vs. 149.9 ± 41.62 pg/mL) and MCP-1 (448.3 ± 11.6 vs. 176.9 ± 46.16 pg/mL) and CCL5 (20.78 ± 4.09 vs. 11.21 ± 4.12 pg/mL) were also significantly reduced at the follow-up relative to baseline values (P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis of data revealed that sIL-1ra and MCP-1 together explained the majority of variance in data. Levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, interleukin (IL)-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also reduced at 24 weeks, but differences were not significant. Concomitant decrease in urine levels of chemokines especially MCP-1 was associated with treatment response of SNM. These results

  12. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  13. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  14. High glucose induces activation of NF-κB inflammatory signaling through IκBα sumoylation in rat mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Xueqin; Gao, Chenlin; Yang, Maojun; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Jianhua; Jiang, Lan; Gan, Huakui; Gou, Fang; Feng, Hong; Peng, Juan; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3 under high glucose was obviously enhanced. •High glucose induced degradation of IκBα and activation of NF-κB pathway. •Sumoylation of IκBα in high glucose were significantly decreased. •The proteasome inhibitor MG132 could partially revert the degradation of IκBα. -- Abstract: The posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for the alteration of protein activity, stability, and cellular localization. The latest research demonstrates that sumoylation is extensively involved in the regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and contributes to fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role of sumoylation in the regulation of NF-κB signaling in DN is still unclear. In the present study, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated by high glucose and divided GMCs into six groups: normal glucose group (5.6 mmol/L), high glucose groups (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L), mannitol group (i.e., osmotic control group), and MG132 intervention group (30 mmol/L glucose with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor). The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3, IκBα, NF-κBp65, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was measured by Western blot, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. The interaction between SUMO1, SUMO2/3, and IκBα was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. The results showed that the expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 was dose- and time-dependently enhanced by high glucose (p < 0.05). However, the expression of IκBα sumoylation in high glucose was significantly decreased compared with the normal glucose group (p < 0.05). The expression of IκBα was dose- and time-dependently decreased, and NF-κBp65 and MCP-1 were increased under high glucose conditions, which

  15. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  16. Evidence for an early innate immune response in the motor cortex of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Javier H; Genç, Barış; Stanford, Macdonell J; Pytel, Peter; Roos, Raymond P; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H; Miller, Richard J; Özdinler, P Hande

    2017-06-26

    Recent evidence indicates the importance of innate immunity and neuroinflammation with microgliosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology. The MCP1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and CCR2 (CC chemokine receptor 2) signaling system has been strongly associated with the innate immune responses observed in ALS patients, but the motor cortex has not been studied in detail. After revealing the presence of MCP1 and CCR2 in the motor cortex of ALS patients, to elucidate, visualize, and define the timing, location and the extent of immune response in relation to upper motor neuron vulnerability and progressive degeneration in ALS, we developed MCP1-CCR2-hSOD1 G93A mice, an ALS reporter line, in which cells expressing MCP1 and CCR2 are genetically labeled by monomeric red fluorescent protein-1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively. In the motor cortex of MCP1-CCR2-hSOD1 G93A mice, unlike in the spinal cord, there was an early increase in the numbers of MCP1+ cells, which displayed microglial morphology and selectively expressed microglia markers. Even though fewer CCR2+ cells were present throughout the motor cortex, they were mainly infiltrating monocytes. Interestingly, MCP1+ cells were found in close proximity to the apical dendrites and cell bodies of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN), further implicating the importance of their cellular interaction to neuronal pathology. Similar findings were observed in the motor cortex of ALS patients, where MCP1+ microglia were especially in close proximity to the degenerating apical dendrites of Betz cells. Our findings reveal that the intricate cellular interplay between immune cells and upper motor neurons observed in the motor cortex of ALS mice is indeed recapitulated in ALS patients. We generated and characterized a novel model system, to study the cellular and molecular basis of this close cellular interaction and how that relates to motor neuron vulnerability and progressive degeneration in

  17. Protein surface shielding agents in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hašek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization process can be controlled by protein surface shielding agents blocking undesirable competitive adhesion modes during non-equilibrium processes of deposition of protein molecules on the surface of growing crystalline blocks. The hypothesis is based on a number of experimental proofs from diffraction experiments and also retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The molecules adhering temporarily on the surface of protein molecules change the propensity of protein molecules to deposit on the crystal surface in a definite position and orientation. The concepts of competitive adhesion modes and protein surface shielding agents acting on the surface of molecules in a non-equilibrium process of protein crystallization provide a useful platform for the control of crystallization. The desirable goal, i.e. a transient preference of a single dominating adhesion mode between protein molecules during crystallization, leads to uniform deposition of proteins in a crystal. This condition is the most important factor for diffraction quality and thus also for the accuracy of protein structure determination. The presented hypothesis is a generalization of the experimentally well proven behaviour of hydrophilic polymers on the surface of protein molecules of other compounds

  18. Helicobacter pylori-derived Heat shock protein 60 enhances angiogenesis via a CXCR2-mediated signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Si [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); He, Pei-Juin; Hsu, Wei-Tung [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Shiang [Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chang-Jer [Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Hsiao-Wei [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Chia-Hsiang [Yung-Shin Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., Tachia, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yiu-Kay [Department of Life Science, Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Nu-Man [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liao, Kuang-Wen, E-mail: kitchhen@yahoo.com.tw [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-25

    Helicobacter pylori is a potent carcinogen associated with gastric cancer malignancy. Recently, H. pylori Heat shock protein 60 (HpHSP60) has been reported to promote cancer development by inducing chronic inflammation and promoting tumor cell migration. This study demonstrates a role for HpHSP60 in angiogenesis, a necessary precursor to tumor growth. We showed that HpHSP60 enhanced cell migration and tube formation, but not cell proliferation, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HpHSP60 also indirectly promoted HUVEC proliferation when HUVECs were co-cultured with supernatants collected from HpHSP60-treated AGS or THP-1 cells. The angiogenic array showed that HpHSP60 dramatically induced THP-1 cells and HUVECs to produce the chemotactic factors IL-8 and GRO. Inhibition of CXCR2, the receptor for IL-8 and GRO, or downstream PLC{beta}2/Ca2+-mediated signaling, significantly abolished HpHSP60-induced tube formation. In contrast, suppression of MAP K or PI3 K signaling did not affect HpHSP60-mediated tubulogenesis. These data suggest that HpHSP60 enhances angiogenesis via CXCR2/PLC{beta}2/Ca2+ signal transduction in endothelial cells.

  19. ERK2 protein regulates the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells without affecting their mobilization and differentiation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcamo-Orive, Ivan; Tejados, Naiara; Delgado, Jesus; Gaztelumendi, Ainhoa; Otaegui, David; Lang, Valerie; Trigueros, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), derived mainly from adult bone marrow, are valuable models for the study of processes involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. As the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) signalling pathway is a major contributor to cellular growth, differentiation and survival, we have studied the functions of this kinase in hMSC activity. Ablation of ERK2 gene expression (but not ERK1) by RNA interference significantly reduced proliferation of hMSC. This reduction was due to a defect in Cyclin D1 expression and subsequent arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. hMSC growth is enhanced through culture medium supplementation with growth factors (GFs) such as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) or Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). However, these supplements could not rescue the defect observed after ERK2 knockdown, suggesting a common signalling pathway used by these GFs for proliferation. In contrast, ERK1/2 may be dissociated from chemotactic signalling induced by the same GFs. Additionally, hMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipocytes even in the absence of either ERK1 or ERK2 proteins. Our data show that hMSCs do not require cell division to enter the adipogenic differentiation process, indicating that clonal amplification of these cells is not a critical step. However, cell-cell contact seems to be an essential requirement to be able to differentiate into mature adipocytes

  20. Helicobacter pylori-derived Heat shock protein 60 enhances angiogenesis via a CXCR2-mediated signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chen-Si; He, Pei-Juin; Hsu, Wei-Tung; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wu, Chang-Jer; Shen, Hsiao-Wei; Hwang, Chia-Hsiang; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Tsai, Nu-Man; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a potent carcinogen associated with gastric cancer malignancy. Recently, H. pylori Heat shock protein 60 (HpHSP60) has been reported to promote cancer development by inducing chronic inflammation and promoting tumor cell migration. This study demonstrates a role for HpHSP60 in angiogenesis, a necessary precursor to tumor growth. We showed that HpHSP60 enhanced cell migration and tube formation, but not cell proliferation, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HpHSP60 also indirectly promoted HUVEC proliferation when HUVECs were co-cultured with supernatants collected from HpHSP60-treated AGS or THP-1 cells. The angiogenic array showed that HpHSP60 dramatically induced THP-1 cells and HUVECs to produce the chemotactic factors IL-8 and GRO. Inhibition of CXCR2, the receptor for IL-8 and GRO, or downstream PLCβ2/Ca2+-mediated signaling, significantly abolished HpHSP60-induced tube formation. In contrast, suppression of MAP K or PI3 K signaling did not affect HpHSP60-mediated tubulogenesis. These data suggest that HpHSP60 enhances angiogenesis via CXCR2/PLCβ2/Ca2+ signal transduction in endothelial cells.

  1. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  2. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  3. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  4. Amino acids and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A balanced, safe diet with proteins is important to meet nutritional requirements. Proteins occur in animal as well as vegetable products in important quantities. In some countries, many people obtain much of their protein from animal products. In other regions, the major portion of dietary protein ...

  5. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  6. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  7. Effect of calcium-binding protein S100A8 expression on early phase of radiation pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Yalan; Li Ming; Cong Yue; Li Fengsheng; Chen Xiaohua; Dong Bo; Zhang Junquan; Gao Ling; Mao Bingzhi

    2008-01-01

    The study explores the expression and effect of calcium-binding protein S100A8 on early phase of radiation pulmonary fibrosis via in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiment, the thoracic regions of rats were irradiated under 20Gy 60 Co γ-rays to establish radiation pulmonary fibrosis. After irradiation, the lung specimens of the sacrificed rats were separately harvested by the ends of the first, second, and fourth weeks respectively. The protein expression of S100A8 was tested through immunohistochemistry, the mRNA expression of S100A8 and its heterodimeric S100A9 were investigated by RT-PCR method. In vitro experiment, RT-PCR method was also applied to measure the mRNA expression of S100A8 in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 after γ-rays irradiation and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It shows that the protein expression of S100A8 was increased in the plasma of lung macrophages samples and the mRNA expression of S100A8 and S100A9 was also increased in the lung tissue samples in four weeks after irradiation in vivo experiment. And in vitro experiment it shows that the cooperation between γ-rays and LPS can increase the mRNA expression of S100A8 in RAW264.7. These phenomena suggest that S100A8 can exert the chemotactic activity, participate in the inflammatory response, and influence the establishment of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  8. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...... facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle...

  10. Personalizing Protein Nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355

  11. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Related to Protein Complexes Based on Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting protein-protein interactions based on detected protein complexes is proposed to repair deficient interactions derived from high-throughput biological experiments. Protein complexes are pruned and decomposed into small parts based on the adaptive k-cores method to predict protein-protein interactions associated with the complexes. The proposed method is adaptive to protein complexes with different structure, number, and size of nodes in a protein-protein interaction network. Based on different complex sets detected by various algorithms, we can obtain different prediction sets of protein-protein interactions. The reliability of the predicted interaction sets is proved by using estimations with statistical tests and direct confirmation of the biological data. In comparison with the approaches which predict the interactions based on the cliques, the overlap of the predictions is small. Similarly, the overlaps among the predicted sets of interactions derived from various complex sets are also small. Thus, every predicted set of interactions may complement and improve the quality of the original network data. Meanwhile, the predictions from the proposed method replenish protein-protein interactions associated with protein complexes using only the network topology.

  12. Athoropometric measurements and plasma proteins in protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athoropometric measurements and plasma proteins in protein energy malnutrition. MH Etukudo, EO Agbedana, OO Akinyinka, BOA Osifo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 7-11. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  13. Alveolar macrophage-epithelial cell interaction following exposure to atmospheric particles induces the release of mediators involved in monocyte mobilization and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from our laboratory have shown that human alveolar macrophages (AM and bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC exposed to ambient particles (PM10 in vitro increase their production of inflammatory mediators and that supernatants from PM10-exposed cells shorten the transit time of monocytes through the bone marrow and promote their release into the circulation. Methods The present study concerns co-culture of AM and HBEC exposed to PM10 (EHC-93 and the production of mediators involved in monocyte kinetics measured at both the mRNA and protein levels. The experiments were also designed to determine the role of the adhesive interaction between these cells via the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 in the production of these mediators. Results AM/HBEC co-cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of PM10 for 2 or 24 h increased their levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, M-CSF, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6 and ICAM-1 mRNA, compared to exposed AM or HBEC mono-cultures, or control non-exposed co-cultures. The levels of GM-CSF, M-CSF, MIP-1β and IL-6 increased in co-cultured supernatants collected after 24 h exposure compared to control cells (p 10-induced increase in co-culture mRNA expression. Conclusion We conclude that an ICAM-1 independent interaction between AM and HBEC, lung cells that process inhaled particles, increases the production and release of mediators that enhance bone marrow turnover of monocytes and their recruitment into tissues. We speculate that this interaction amplifies PM10-induced lung inflammation and contributes to both the pulmonary and systemic morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution.

  14. Apigenin inhibits TNFα/IL-1α-induced CCL2 release through IKBK-epsilon signaling in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bauer

    Full Text Available Mortality associated with breast cancer is attributable to aggressive metastasis, to which TNFα plays a central orchestrating role. TNFα acts on breast tumor TNF receptors evoking the release of chemotactic proteins (e.g. MCP-1/CCL2. These proteins direct inward infiltration/migration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, T-regulatory cells (Tregs, T helper IL-17-producing cells (Th17s, metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. Tumor embedded infiltrates collectively enable immune evasion, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In the current study, we investigate the potential of apigenin, a known anti-inflammatory constituent of parsley, to downregulate TNFα mediated release of chemokines from human triple-negative cells (MDA-MB-231 cells. The results show that TNFα stimulation leads to large rise of CCL2, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF, IL-1α and IL-6, all suppressed by apigenin. While many aspects of the transcriptome for NFkB signaling were evaluated, the data show signaling patterns associated with CCL2 were blocked by apigenin and mediated through suppressed mRNA and protein synthesis of IKBKe. Moreover, the data show that the attenuation of CCL2 by apigenin in the presence TNFα paralleled the suppression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK 1/ 2. In summary, the obtained findings suggest that there exists a TNFα evoked release of CCL2 and other LSP recruiting cytokines from human breast cancer cells, which can be attenuated by apigenin.

  15. Evaluation of the PPAR-γ Agonist Pioglitazone in Mild Asthma: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Anderson

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation in models of asthma. To determine whether pioglitazone improves measures of asthma control and airway inflammation, we performed a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.Sixty-eight participants with mild asthma were randomized to 12 weeks pioglitazone (30 mg for 4 weeks, then 45 mg for 8 weeks or placebo. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 at 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes were mean peak expiratory flow (PEF, scores on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (PD20, induced sputum counts, and sputum supernatant interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP levels. Study recruitment was closed early after considering the European Medicines Agency's reports of a potential increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone treatment. Fifty-five cases were included in the full analysis (FA and 52 in the per-protocol (PP analysis.There was no difference in the adjusted FEV1 at 12 weeks (-0.014 L, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.15 to 0.12, p = 0.84 or in any of the secondary outcomes in the FA. The PP analysis replicated the FA, with the exception of a lower evening PEF in the pioglitazone group (-21 L/min, 95% CI -39 to -4, p = 0.02.We found no evidence that treatment with 12 weeks of pioglitazone improved asthma control or airway inflammation in mild asthma.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01134835.

  16. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Moorefield

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem (AFS cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6. AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α, MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and

  17. Maternal Obesity Induces Sustained Inflammation in Both Fetal and Offspring Large Intestine of Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Du, Min; Hess, Bret W.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Both maternal obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are increasing. It was hypothesized that maternal obesity induces an inflammatory response in the fetal large intestine, predisposing offspring to IBDs. Methods Nonpregnant ewes were assigned to a control (Con, 100% of National Research Council [NRC] recommendations) or obesogenic (OB, 150% of NRC) diet from 60 days before conception. The large intestine was sampled from fetuses at 135 days (term 150 days) after conception and from offspring lambs at 22.5 ± 0.5 months of age. Results Maternal obesity enhanced mRNA expression tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)1α, IL1β, IL6, IL8, and monocyte/macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), as well as macrophage markers, CD11b, CD14, and CD68 in fetal gut. mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 was increased in OB versus Con fetuses; correspondingly, inflammatory NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways were also upregulated. Both mRNA expression and protein content of transforming growth factor (TGF) β was increased. The IL-17A mRNA expression and protein content was higher in OB compared to Con samples, which was associated with fibrosis in the large intestine of OB fetuses. Similar inflammatory responses and enhanced fibrosis were detected in OB compared to Con offspring. Conclusions Maternal obesity induced inflammation and enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in fetal and offspring large intestine, which correlated with increased TGFβ and IL17 expression. These data show that maternal obesity may predispose offspring gut to IBDs. PMID:21674707

  18. Serum cytokines in early prediction of anastomotic leakage following low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Marek; Krzystek-Korpacka, Małgorzata; Gamian, Andrzej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2018-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage continues to be one of the most serious complications following low anterior resections. Early diagnosis of a leak is difficult but critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. To evaluate changes in serum concentrations of 27 different cytokines following low anterior resection, with the goal of finding new, early biomarkers of anastomotic leak. This is a prospective observational study that includes 32 patients undergoing elective low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and on postoperative day 3. Five patients developed anastomotic leak (15%). On postoperative day 3, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were significantly higher in patients with anastomotic leak, while IL-9 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 were significantly lower. Analysis of relative changes in the concentration of cytokines from preoperative to postoperative day 3 revealed a significant increase of IL-6 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with an anastomotic leak. Upon receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, the performance of hs-CRP was found to be excellent (AUC = 0.99), and performance of Δ IL-6, IL-6, RANTES, and FGF2 was good (AUC: 0.81-0.87). Patients who developed an anastomotic leak preoperatively had significantly lower levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α (MIP-1 α ), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8, FGF2, and G-CSF. The single most accurate serum biomarker of anastomotic leakage continues to be hs-CRP. However, when analyzing relative changes of cytokine levels, Δ IL-6 appears to be a better leak predictor than CRP.

  19. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  20. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  1. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  2. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ...

  3. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  4. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full

  5. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  6. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interactions with other proteins, or binding of small molecules. Covalent .... vealed through structural elucidation of the protein in free and oxygen-bound forms .... stance, molecular dynamic simulation of glutamine binding pro- tein shows that ...

  7. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-01-03

    Jan 3, 2005 ... covering all the systems, so far discovered.5,7,8,12. With the increasing ... Structural investigations on proteins by NMR are, currently ... rapid analysis of unfolded proteins. ...... and hence help in design of drugs against them.

  8. IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and IL-1RA hold promise as biomarkers for infection with M. tuberculosis in a whole blood based T-cell assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Rabna, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    and mitogen in the Quantiferon In Tube test tubes. Levels of biomarkers were measured using Luminex and ELISA (IFN-gamma). RESULTS: We found all five new biomarkers were expressed in significantly higher concentrations compared to IFN-gamma. IP-10 and MCP-3 levels in the un-stimulated samples were higher...

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus and TNFalpha induction of chemokine gene expression involves differential activation of Rel A and NF-kappaB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roebuck Kenneth A

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection of airway epithelial cells stimulates the expression and secretion of a variety of cytokines including the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Chemokines are important chemoattractants for the recruitment of distinct sets of leukocytes to airway sites of inflammation. Results We have shown previously that chemokine expression is regulated in airway epithelial cells (A549 in a stimulus-specific manner in part through the redox-responsive transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. In this study, we examined the NF-κB-mediated effects of RSV and the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα on the induction of IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES chemokine gene expression in A549 epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that RSV induces chemokine expression with distinct kinetics that is associated with a specific pattern of NF-κB binding activity. This distinction was further demonstrated by the differential effects of the NF-κB inhibitors dexamethasone (DEX and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC. NAC preferentially inhibited RSV induced chemokine expression, whereas DEX preferentially inhibited TNFα induced chemokine expression. DNA binding studies using NF-κB subunit specific binding ELISA demonstrated that RSV and TNFα induced different NF-κB binding complexes containing Rel A (p65 and NF-κB1 (p50. Both TNFα and RSV strongly induced Rel A the activation subunit of NF-κB, whereas only TNFα was able to substantially induce the p50 subunit. Consistent with the expression studies, RSV but not TNFα induction of Rel A and p50 were markedly inhibited by NAC, providing a mechanism by which TNFα and RSV can differentially activate chemokine gene expression via NF-κB. Conclusions These data suggest that RSV induction of chemokine gene expression, in contrast to TNFα, involves redox

  10. Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with HIV disease, methamphetamine use, and neurocognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti AR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ajay R Bharti,1 Steven Paul Woods,2 Ronald J Ellis,3 Mariana Cherner,2 Debra Rosario,3 Michael Potter,3 Robert K Heaton,2 Ian P Everall,4 Eliezer Masliah,5 Igor Grant,2 Scott L Letendre1 On behalf of the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center Group 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 5Department of Pathology, University of Californa San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD. Methods: A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin. Comprehensive NC testing was summarized by global and domain impairment ratings. Results: Sixty-three volunteers were HIV+ and 59 had a history of MAD. FGF-1, FGF-2, and both reference biomarkers differed by HIV and MAD status. For example, FGF-1 levels were lower in subjects who had either HIV or MAD than in HIV– and MAD– controls (P=0.003. Multivariable regression identified that global NC impairment was associated with an interaction between FGF-1 and FGF-2 (model R2=0.09, P=0.01: higher FGF-2 levels were only associated with neurocognitive impairment among subjects who had lower FGF-1 levels. Including other covariates in the model (including antidepressant use strengthened the model (model R2=0.18, P=0.004 but did not weaken the association with FGF-1 and FGF-2. Lower FGF-1 levels were associated with impairment

  11. Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Carol R., E-mail: cgardner@pharmacy.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hankey, Pamela [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yu, Shan [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK{sup −/−} mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK{sup −/−} mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK{sup −/−} mice. Whereas F4/80{sup +} macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK{sup −/−} mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK{sup −/−} mice

  12. Western diet enhances hepatic inflammation in mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton Jeff

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese patients display an exaggerated morbidity during sepsis. Since consumption of a western-style diet (WD is a major factor for obesity in the United States, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of chronic WD consumption on hepatic inflammation in mice made septic via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Feeding mice diets high in fat has been shown to enhance evidence of TLR signaling and this pathway also mediates the hepatic response to invading bacteria. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined effects of sepsis and feeding WD on TRL-4 signaling would exacerbate hepatic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed purified control diet (CD or WD that was enriched in butter fat (34.4% of calories for 3 weeks prior to CLP. Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation. To demonstrate the direct effect of saturated fatty acid on hepatocytes, C3A human hepatocytes were cultured in medium containing 100 μM palmitic acid (PA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 and interleukin-8 (IL-8. Results Feeding WD increased firm adhesion of leukocytes in the sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules by 8-fold six hours after CLP; the increase in platelet adhesion was similar to the response observed with leukocytes. Adhesion was accompanied by enhanced expression of TNF-α, MCP-1 and ICAM-1. Messenger RNA expression of TLR-4 was also exacerbated in the WD+CLP group. Exposure of C3A cells to PA up-regulated IL-8 and TLR-4 expression. In addition, PA stimulated the static adhesion of U937 monocytes to C3A cells, a phenomenon blocked by inclusion of an anti-TLR-4/MD2 antibody in the culture medium. Conclusions These findings indicate a link between obesity-enhanced susceptibility to sepsis and

  13. Accumulation of pro-cancer cytokines in the plasma fraction of stored packed red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Douglas D; Beck, Adam W; Burdine, Marie S; Brekken, Rolf; Silliman, Christopher C; Barnett, Carlton C

    2012-03-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to decreased survival in pancreatic cancer; however, the exact causal mechanism has not been elucidated. Allogeneic transfusions are known to expose patients to foreign cells and lipid mediators. We hypothesize that stored packed red cells (pRBCs) contain pro-cancer cytokines that augment tumor progression. We analyzed the plasma fraction of stored pRBCs for pro-cancer cytokines and evaluated the affect of both storage time and leukocyte reduction on these mediators. Chemiarray™ analysis for pro-cancer cytokines was performed on the acellular plasma fraction of stored leukocyte-reduced (LR) and non-leukocyte-reduced (NLR) pRBCs at day 1 (D.1-fresh) and day 42 (D.42-outdate) of storage. Elevated expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), angiogenin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was found. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for each of these factors in LR and NLR blood at D.1, day 28, and D.42. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant; N ≥ 4 per group. Migration assays were performed using inhibitors of EGF (gefitinib) and PDGF (imatinib) on murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (Pan02) exposed to D.1 and D.42 LR and NLR plasma. Proliferation assays were performed on Pan02 cells to test the inhibition of PDGF. MCP-1 levels increased with storage time in LR blood, 86.3 ± 6.3 pg/ml at D.1 vs. 121.2 ± 6.1 pg/ml at D.42 (p = 0.007), and NLR blood, 78.2 ± 7.3 pg/ml at D.1 vs. 647.8 ± 220.7 pg/ml at D.42 (p = 0.02). RANTES levels are lower in LR compared to NLR stored blood, 3.0 ± 1.9 vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 pg/ml at D.42 (p Pro-cancer cytokines that can augment tumor progression were identified in pRBCs. Some of these factors are present in fresh blood. The soluble factors identified herein may represent

  14. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  15. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  16. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... contact surface from the rest of the protein surface have been used to identify ..... interfaces the contribution of the charged residues, such as. Lys, Asp and ..... Lawrence M C and Colman P M 1993 Shape complementarity at.

  17. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  18. Intracellular protein breakdown. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohley, P.; Kirschke, H.; Langner, J.; Wiederanders, B.; Ansorge, S.

    1976-01-01

    Double-labelled proteins from rat liver cytosol ( 14 C in long-lived, 3 H in short-lived proteins after in-vivo-labelling) are used as substrates for unlabelled proteinases in vitro. Differences in the degradation rates of short-lived and long-lived proteins in vitro by different proteinases and after addition of different effectors allow conclusions concerning their importance for the in-vivo-turnover of substrate proteins. The main activity (>90%) of soluble lysosomal proteinases at pH 6.1 and pH 6.9 is caused by thiolproteinases, which degrade preferentially short-lived cytosol proteins. These proteinases are inhibited by leupeptin. Autolysis of double-labelled cell fractions shows a remarkably faster breakdown of short-lived substrate proteins only in the soluble part of lysosomes. Microsomal fractions degrade in vitro preferentially long-lived substrate proteins. (author)

  19. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  20. Racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2012-01-01

    Although natural proteins are chiral and are all of one "handedness," their mirror image forms can be prepared by chemical synthesis. This opens up new opportunities for protein crystallography. A racemic mixture of the enantiomeric forms of a protein molecule can crystallize in ways that natural proteins cannot. Recent experimental data support a theoretical prediction that this should make racemic protein mixtures highly amenable to crystallization. Crystals obtained from racemic mixtures also offer advantages in structure determination strategies. The relevance of these potential advantages is heightened by advances in synthetic methods, which are extending the size limit for proteins that can be prepared by chemical synthesis. Recent ideas and results in the area of racemic protein crystallography are reviewed.

  1. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 chemotaxis proteins and electron-transport chain components essential for congregation near insoluble electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, H Wayne; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2012-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells utilize a behaviour response called electrokinesis to increase their speed in the vicinity of IEAs (insoluble electron acceptors), including manganese oxides, iron oxides and poised electrodes [Harris, El-Naggar, Bretschger, Ward, Romine, Obraztsova and Nealson (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 326-331]. However, it is not currently understood how bacteria remain in the vicinity of the IEA and accumulate both on the surface and in the surrounding medium. In the present paper, we provide results indicating that cells that have contacted the IEAs swim faster than those that have not recently made contact. In addition, fast-swimming cells exhibit an enhancement of swimming reversals leading to rapid non-random accumulation of cells on, and adjacent to, mineral particles. We call the observed accumulation near IEAs 'congregation'. Congregation is eliminated by the loss of a critical gene involved with EET (extracellular electron transport) (cymA, SO_4591) and is altered or eliminated in several deletion mutants of homologues of genes that are involved with chemotaxis or energy taxis in Escherichia coli. These genes include chemotactic signal transduction protein (cheA-3, SO_3207), methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins with the Cache domain (mcp_cache, SO_2240) or the PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain (mcp_pas, SO_1385). In the present paper, we report studies of S. oneidensis MR-1 that lend some insight into how microbes in this group can 'sense' the presence of a solid substrate such as a mineral surface, and maintain themselves in the vicinity of the mineral (i.e. via congregation), which may ultimately lead to attachment and biofilm formation.

  2. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, or nonfat dried milk were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion

  3. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the circ...... the circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP).......Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  4. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride-induced murine dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon; Yang, Sung Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer's test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  5. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  6. Adipocyte-Macrophage Cross-Talk in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ayse Basak

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by the chronic low-grade activation of the innate immune system. In this respect, macrophage-elicited metabolic inflammation and adipocyte-macrophage interaction has a primary importance in obesity. Large amounts of macrophages are accumulated by different mechanisms in obese adipose tissue. Hypertrophic adipocyte-derived chemotactic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway also promotes more macrophage accumulation into the obese adipose tissue. However, increased local extracellular lipid concentrations is a final mechanism for adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. A paracrine loop involving free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between adipocytes and macrophages establishes a vicious cycle that aggravates inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue. Adipocyte-specific caspase-1 and production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by macrophages; both adipocyte and macrophage induction by toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation; free fatty acid-induced and TLR-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related pro-inflammatory pathways in CD11c+ immune cells; are effective in macrophage accumulation and in the development of adipose tissue inflammation. Old adipocytes are removed by macrophages through trogocytosis or sending an "eat me" signal. The obesity-induced changes in adipose tissue macrophage numbers are mainly due to increases in the triple-positive CD11b+ F4/80+ CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage subpopulation. The ratio of M1-to-M2 macrophages is increased in obesity. Furthermore, hypoxia along with higher concentrations of free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation in obesity. The metabolic status of adipocytes is a major determinant of macrophage inflammatory output. Macrophage/adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins act at the interface of metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Both macrophages and

  7. Knock out of S1P3 receptor signaling attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury mice model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Murakami

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite involved in many critical cellular processes, including proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, through interaction with a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5. Some reports have implicated S1P as an important inflammatory mediator of the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, but the role of S1P3 in the pathogenesis of lung diseases is not completely understood. We used S1P3-deficient (knockout (KO mice to clarify the role of S1P3 receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis using a bleomycin-induced model of lung injury. On the seventh day after bleomycin administration, S1P3 KO mice exhibited significantly less body weight loss and pulmonary inflammation than wild-type (WT mice. On the 28th day, there was less pulmonary fibrosis in S1P3 KO mice than in WT mice. S1P3 KO mice demonstrated a 56% reduction in total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF collected on the seventh day compared with WT mice; however, the differential white blood cell profiles were similar. BALF analysis on the seventh day showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF levels were significantly decreased in S1P3 KO mice compared with WT mice, although no differences were observed in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 or transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 levels. Finally, S1P levels in BALF collected on the 7th day after treatment were not significantly different between WT and S1P3 KO mice. Our results indicate that S1P3 receptor signaling plays an important role in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and that this signaling occurs via CTGF expression. This suggests that this pathway might be a therapeutic target for pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. T-helper cell type 17/regulatory T-cell immunoregulatory balance in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçal, Juliana R B; Samuel, Renata O; Fernandes, Danielle; de Araujo, Marcelo S; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Pereira, Sanivia A L; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; Alves, Polyanna M; Mattar, Rinaldo; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise B R

    2010-06-01

    Cysts and granulomas are chronic periapical lesions mediated by a set of inflammatory mediators that develop to contain a periapical infection. This study analyzed the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of mast cells, and in situ expression of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-17 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta), chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1), and nuclear transcription factor (FoxP3) in human periapical granulomas and cysts compared with a control group. Fifty-five lesions (25 periapical cysts, 25 periapical granulomas, and 5 controls) were analyzed. The type of inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the presence of mast cells was analyzed by toluidine blue staining. Indirect immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and FoxP3. The inflammatory infiltrate mainly consisted of mononuclear cells. In cysts, mononuclear infiltrates were significantly more frequent than mixed (polymorphonuclear/mononuclear) infiltrates (P = .04). Mixed inflammatory infiltrates were significantly more frequent in patients with sinus tract (P = .0001). The number of mast cells was significantly higher in granulomas than in cystic lesions (P = .02). A significant difference in the expression of IL-17 (P = .001) and TGF-beta (P = .003) was observed between cysts and granulomas and the control group. Significantly higher IL-17 levels were also observed in cases of patients with sinus tract (P = .03). We observed that chronic periapical lesions might experience a reagudization process that is correlated with an increased leukocyte infiltration, with the predominance of neutrophils attracted by a chemokine milieu, as well as the increased presence of IL-17. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Growth and the Cytokines Induced by Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Bio-Serotypes 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Haiyan; Sun, Guixiang; Liang, Junrong; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Yuchun; Duan, Ran; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is widely distributed in China where the primary bio-serotypes are 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9. Recently, the distribution of 2/O: 9 strains are being gradually replaced by 3/O: 3 strains where presently 3/O: 3 strains are the major pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in China. To identify the growth conditions and cytokines induced by Y. enterocolitica and providing some clues for this shift, we performed competitive growth in vitro and in vivo for these two bio-serotype strains; and we also compared the cytokines induced by them in infected BALB/C mice. We found 2/O: 9 strains grew more in vitro , while 3/O: 3 strains grew more in vivo regardless of using single cultures or mixed cultures. The cytokines induced by the two strains were similar: interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-9, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), chemokines (KC), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammation protein-1α (MIP-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and RANTES were statistically up-regulated upon activation of normal T cells compared to the control. The cytokine values were higher in mixed infections than in single infections except for IL-6, G-CSF, and KC. The data illustrated the different growth of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9 in vitro and in vivo , and the cytokine changes induced by the two strains in infected BALB/C mice. The growth comparisons of two strains maybe reflect the higher pathogenic ability or resistance to host immune response for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and maybe it as one of the reason for bacteria shift.

  10. Comparison of Growth and the Cytokines Induced by Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Bio-Serotypes 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoshu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is widely distributed in China where the primary bio-serotypes are 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9. Recently, the distribution of 2/O: 9 strains are being gradually replaced by 3/O: 3 strains where presently 3/O: 3 strains are the major pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in China. To identify the growth conditions and cytokines induced by Y. enterocolitica and providing some clues for this shift, we performed competitive growth in vitro and in vivo for these two bio-serotype strains; and we also compared the cytokines induced by them in infected BALB/C mice. We found 2/O: 9 strains grew more in vitro, while 3/O: 3 strains grew more in vivo regardless of using single cultures or mixed cultures. The cytokines induced by the two strains were similar: interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-9, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, chemokines (KC, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammation protein-1α (MIP-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and RANTES were statistically up-regulated upon activation of normal T cells compared to the control. The cytokine values were higher in mixed infections than in single infections except for IL-6, G-CSF, and KC. The data illustrated the different growth of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9 in vitro and in vivo, and the cytokine changes induced by the two strains in infected BALB/C mice. The growth comparisons of two strains maybe reflect the higher pathogenic ability or resistance to host immune response for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and maybe it as one of the reason for bacteria shift.

  11. Adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo-proteinases response after albendazole and albendazole plus steroid therapy in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Aloukick K; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Singh, Amrita; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) varies with location, number and stage of the Taenia solium cysticerci (cysts). Albendazole (ABZ) effectively kills cysticerci, and subsequently induces neuro-inflammation facilitated by leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesize that immune response varies around drug responder (degenerating/dying) and non-responder (viable) cysts after ABZ and ABZ plus steroid (ABZS) therapy, which may determine the disease pathogenesis. Twenty cysticercotic swine were treated with ABZ (n = 10; group1) and ABZS (n = 10; group2). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) was measured by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed to detect the activity of MMP-2 and -9. In group1, ABZ therapy induced higher expressions of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), Eotaxin-1, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), MMP-2 and MMP-9 around ABZ responder (AR) cysts. Three pigs with cyst burdens ≥10 died following ABZ therapy. However, in group2, moderate expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, RANTES and MMP-9 were associated with ABZS responder (ASR), whereas low expressions of these molecules were associated with ABZS non-responder (ASNR) cysts. In conclusion, ABZ alone therapy is not safe since it causes death of pigs due to higher inflammatory immune response around dying cysts. However, combination therapy is an effective treatment regimen even with the high cyst burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  13. PROTEIN - WHICH IS BEST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Falvo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids, whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function are also reviewed

  14. Specificity and affinity quantification of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Guo, Liyong; Hu, Liang; Wang, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Most biological processes are mediated by the protein-protein interactions. Determination of the protein-protein structures and insight into their interactions are vital to understand the mechanisms of protein functions. Currently, compared with the isolated protein structures, only a small fraction of protein-protein structures are experimentally solved. Therefore, the computational docking methods play an increasing role in predicting the structures and interactions of protein-protein complexes. The scoring function of protein-protein interactions is the key responsible for the accuracy of the computational docking. Previous scoring functions were mostly developed by optimizing the binding affinity which determines the stability of the protein-protein complex, but they are often lack of the consideration of specificity which determines the discrimination of native protein-protein complex against competitive ones. We developed a scoring function (named as SPA-PP, specificity and affinity of the protein-protein interactions) by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions show that SPA-PP performs remarkably on both predictions of binding pose and binding affinity. Thus, SPA-PP is a promising quantification of protein-protein interactions, which can be implemented into the protein docking tools and applied for the predictions of protein-protein structure and affinity. The algorithm is implemented in C language, and the code can be downloaded from http://dl.dropbox.com/u/1865642/Optimization.cpp.

  15. General protein-protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a general protein-to-protein cross-linking procedure using the water-soluble amine-reactive homobifunctional BS(3) (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate); however, the protocol can be easily adapted using other cross-linkers of similar properties. BS(3) is composed of two sulfo-NHS ester groups and an 11.4 Å linker. Sulfo-NHS ester groups react with primary amines in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.2-8.5) and yield stable amide bonds. The reaction releases N-hydroxysuccinimide (see an application of NHS esters on Labeling a protein with fluorophores using NHS ester derivitization). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scoring functions for protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Iain H; Moretti, Rocco; Baker, David; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The computational evaluation of protein-protein interactions will play an important role in organising the wealth of data being generated by high-throughput initiatives. Here we discuss future applications, report recent developments and identify areas requiring further investigation. Many functions have been developed to quantify the structural and energetic properties of interacting proteins, finding use in interrelated challenges revolving around the relationship between sequence, structure and binding free energy. These include loop modelling, side-chain refinement, docking, multimer assembly, affinity prediction, affinity change upon mutation, hotspots location and interface design. Information derived from models optimised for one of these challenges can be used to benefit the others, and can be unified within the theoretical frameworks of multi-task learning and Pareto-optimal multi-objective learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational Protein Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe

    Proteins are the major functional