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Sample records for chemosensory anxiety signals

  1. Context counts! Social anxiety modulates the processing of fearful faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals

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    Dirk eAdolph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated.Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA and low socially anxious (LSA participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I, and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while Late Positive Potential (LPP activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II, as well as larger startle responses towards faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I. Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II. In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.

  2. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

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    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  3. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball.

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    Wudarczyk, Olga A; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion-Cyberball-to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples) and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus), social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus) and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation. PMID:26500572

  4. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    OpenAIRE

    Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E.; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 h...

  5. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anna Wudarczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signalling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus, social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation.

  6. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E.; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples) and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus), social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus) and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation. PMID:26500572

  7. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Anna Wudarczyk; Nils eKohn; Rene eBergs; Raquel eGur; Bruce eTuretsky; Frank eSchneider; Ute eHabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signalling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 ...

  8. GABAergic mechanisms contributing to categorical amygdala responses to chemosensory signals.

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    Westberry, Jenne M; Meredith, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Chemosensory stimuli from conspecific and heterospecific animals, elicit categorically different immediate-early gene response-patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. We previously showed that conspecific signals activate posterior (MeP) as well as anterior medial amygdala (MeA), and especially relevant heterospecific signals such as chemosensory stimuli from potential predators also activate MeP in mice. Other heterospecific chemosignals activate MeA, but not MeP. Here we show that male hamster amygdala responds significantly differentially to different conspecific signals, by activating different proportions of cells of different phenotype, possibly leading to differential activation of downstream circuits. Heterospecific signals that fail to activate MeP do activate GABA-immunoreactive cells in the adjacent caudal main intercalated nucleus (mICNc) and elicit selective suppression of MeP cells bearing GABA-Receptors, suggesting GABA inhibition in MeP by GABAergic cells in mICNc. Overall, work presented here suggests that medial amygdala may discriminate between important conspecific social signals, distinguish them from the social signals of other species and convey that information to brain circuits eliciting appropriate social behavior. PMID:27329335

  9. Architecture and signal transduction mechanism of the bacterial chemosensory array: progress, controversies, and challenges.

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    Falke, Joseph J; Piasta, Kene N

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has deepened our understanding of the ancient, conserved chemosensory array that detects small molecule attractants and repellents, and directs the chemotaxis of bacterial and archaeal cells towards an optimal chemical environment. Here we review advances towards a molecular description of the ultrastable lattice architecture and ultrasensitive signal transduction mechanism of the chemosensory array, as well as controversies and challenges requiring further research. Ultimately, a full molecular understanding of array structure and on-off switching will foster (i) the design of novel therapies that block pathogenic wound seeking and infection, (ii) the development of highly specific, sensitive, stable biosensors, and (iii) the elucidation of general functional principles shared by receptor patches in all branches of life.

  10. Chemosensory signals and their receptors in the olfactory neural system.

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    Ihara, S; Yoshikawa, K; Touhara, K

    2013-12-19

    Chemical communication is widely used among various organisms to obtain essential information from their environment required for life. Although a large variety of molecules have been shown to act as chemical cues, the molecular and neural basis underlying the behaviors elicited by these molecules has been revealed for only a limited number of molecules. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the signaling molecules whose flow from receptor to specific behavior has been characterized. Discussing the molecules utilized by mice, insects, and the worm, we focus on how each organism has optimized its reception system to suit its living style. We also highlight how the production of these signaling molecules is regulated, an area in which considerable progress has been recently made.

  11. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wudarczyk, O.A.; Kohn, N.; Bergs, R.; Gur, R.E.; Turetsky, B.; Schneider, F.; Habel, U.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely

  12. Reduced recruitment of orbitofrontal cortex to human social chemosensory cues in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wen; HOU, PING; Zhou, Yuxiang; Chen, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety refers to the prevalent and debilitating experience of fear and anxiety of being scrutinized in social situations. It originates from both learned (e.g. adverse social conditioning) and innate (e.g. shyness) factors. Research on social anxiety has traditionally focused on negative emotions induced by visual and auditory social cues in socially anxious clinical populations, and posits a dysfunctional orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit as a primary etiological mechanism. Yet as a tra...

  13. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

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    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  14. Extensive local adaptation within the chemosensory system following Drosophila melanogaster's global expansion.

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    Arguello, J Roman; Cardoso-Moreira, Margarida; Grenier, Jennifer K; Gottipati, Srikanth; Clark, Andrew G; Benton, Richard

    2016-01-01

    How organisms adapt to new environments is of fundamental biological interest, but poorly understood at the genetic level. Chemosensory systems provide attractive models to address this problem, because they lie between external environmental signals and internal physiological responses. To investigate how selection has shaped the well-characterized chemosensory system of Drosophila melanogaster, we have analysed genome-wide data from five diverse populations. By couching population genomic analyses of chemosensory protein families within parallel analyses of other large families, we demonstrate that chemosensory proteins are not outliers for adaptive divergence between species. However, chemosensory families often display the strongest genome-wide signals of recent selection within D. melanogaster. We show that recent adaptation has operated almost exclusively on standing variation, and that patterns of adaptive mutations predict diverse effects on protein function. Finally, we provide evidence that chemosensory proteins have experienced relaxed constraint, and argue that this has been important for their rapid adaptation over short timescales. PMID:27292132

  15. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anxiety disorder. As many as 14% of older adults have anxiety disorders. These disorders are more common among older women than older men. In later life, people may develop anxiety disorders during stressful events such as a serious illness, the loss of ...

  16. Examination of Human Chemosensory Function

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    Smutzer, Gregory; Sayed, Samir; Sayed, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    An increased understanding of olfaction and gustation has underlined the critical importance of these two chemical senses in determining how humans respond to their environment. In this article, recent advances in chemosensory research are summarized. The use of a smell identification test, an odor discrimination test, and a test for anosmia to a…

  17. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...

  18. Gender differences in chemosensory function

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    Olofsson, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of two studies, in which gender differences in nasal chemosensory function are investigated. The first study assesses odor identification ability in a populationbased sample, varying from 45 to 90 yrs, screened for cognitive impairment and severe olfactory dysfunction. Results show that women are generally better than men at identifying odors, but there is no significant interaction of gender by age. Although odoridentification is influenced by semantic memory and cogniti...

  19. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Child Anxiety: Signal Detection Analysis Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale

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    Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…

  20. Genetic Disruption of 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Synthesis Reveals a Key Role for Endocannabinoid Signaling in Anxiety Modulation

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    Brian C. Shonesy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoid (eCB signaling has been heavily implicated in the modulation of anxiety and depressive behaviors and emotional learning. However, the role of the most-abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG in the physiological regulation of affective behaviors is not well understood. Here, we show that genetic deletion of the 2-AG synthetic enzyme diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα in mice reduces brain, but not circulating, 2-AG levels. DAGLα deletion also results in anxiety-like and sex-specific anhedonic phenotypes associated with impaired activity-dependent eCB retrograde signaling at amygdala glutamatergic synapses. Importantly, acute pharmacological normalization of 2-AG levels reverses both phenotypes of DAGLα-deficient mice. These data suggest 2-AG deficiency could contribute to the pathogenesis of affective disorders and that pharmacological normalization of 2-AG signaling could represent an approach for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

  1. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

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    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  2. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system

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    Alexander eVergara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research effort performed on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors, environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks, and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents, simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro/nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change.The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to adapt in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the

  3. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

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    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  4. Dietary counselling and psycho-social aspects of chemosensory disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Vissink, A.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R. van; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Chemosensory disorders may result in loss of body weight and sometimes in gain of body weight. Therefore, dietary advice is an essential part of the counselling and treatment of patients with a chemosensory disorder. In cases involving a chemosensory disorder, a distinction has to be made between ge

  5. The cornucopia of intestinal chemosensory transduction

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    Paul P Bertrand

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemosensory transduction mechanisms that the gastrointestinal (GI tract uses to detect chemical and nutrient stimuli are poorly understood. The GI tract is presented with a wide variety of stimuli including potentially harmful chemicals or toxins as well as 'normal' stimuli including nutrients, bacteria and mechanical forces. Sensory transduction is at its simplest the conversion of these stimuli into a neural code in afferent nerves. Much of the information encoded is used by the enteric nervous system (ENS to generate local reflexes while complementary information is sent to the central nervous system (CNS via afferents or by release of hormones to affect behaviour. This review focuses on the chemosensory transduction mechanisms present in the GI tract. It examines the expression and localisation of the machinery for chemosensory transduction. It summarises the types of cells which might be involved in detecting stimuli and releasing neuroactive transmitters. Finally, it highlights the idea that chemosensory transduction mechanisms in the GI tract utilise many overlapping and complementary mechanisms for detecting and transducing stimuli into reflex action.

  6. Candidate chemoreceptor subfamilies differentially expressed in the chemosensory organs of the mollusc Aplysia

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    Cummins Scott F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones that are detected by sensory structures called rhinophores. The expression of G protein and phospholipase C signaling molecules in this organ is consistent with chemosensory detection being via a G-protein-coupled signaling mechanism. Results Here we show that novel multi-transmembrane proteins with similarity to rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptors are expressed in sensory epithelia microdissected from the Aplysia rhinophore. Analysis of the A. californica genome reveals that these are part of larger multigene families that possess features found in metazoan chemosensory receptor families (that is, these families chiefly consist of single exon genes that are clustered in the genome. Phylogenetic analyses show that the novel Aplysia G-protein coupled receptor-like proteins represent three distinct monophyletic subfamilies. Representatives of each subfamily are restricted to or differentially expressed in the rhinophore and oral tentacles, suggesting that they encode functional chemoreceptors and that these olfactory organs sense different chemicals. Those expressed in rhinophores may sense water-borne pheromones. Secondary signaling component proteins Gαq, Gαi, and Gαo are also expressed in the rhinophore sensory epithelium. Conclusion The novel rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptor-like gene subfamilies identified here do not have closely related identifiable orthologs in other metazoans, suggesting that they arose by a lineage-specific expansion as has been observed in chemosensory receptor families in other bilaterians. These candidate chemosensory receptors are expressed and often restricted to rhinophores and oral tentacles, lending support to the notion that water-borne chemical detection in Aplysia involves

  7. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition.

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    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-06-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota-inflammasome-brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  8. Functional organization of a multimodular bacterial chemosensory apparatus.

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    Audrey Moine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemosensory systems (CSS are complex regulatory pathways capable of perceiving external signals and translating them into different cellular behaviors such as motility and development. In the δ-proteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, chemosensing allows groups of cells to orient themselves and aggregate into specialized multicellular biofilms termed fruiting bodies. M. xanthus contains eight predicted CSS and 21 chemoreceptors. In this work, we systematically deleted genes encoding components of each CSS and chemoreceptors and determined their effects on M. xanthus social behaviors. Then, to understand how the 21 chemoreceptors are distributed among the eight CSS, we examined their phylogenetic distribution, genomic organization and subcellular localization. We found that, in vivo, receptors belonging to the same phylogenetic group colocalize and interact with CSS components of the respective phylogenetic group. Finally, we identified a large chemosensory module formed by three interconnected CSS and multiple chemoreceptors and showed that complex behaviors such as cell group motility and biofilm formation require regulatory apparatus composed of multiple interconnected Che-like systems.

  9. Differential expression patterns in chemosensory and non-chemosensory tissues of putative chemosensory genes identified by transcriptome analysis of insect pest the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker.

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    Ya-Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 39 for odorant receptors (ORs and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs. The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as

  10. Time-course of trigeminal versus olfactory stimulation: evidence from chemosensory evoked potentials.

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    Flohr, Elena L R; Boesveldt, Sanne; Haehner, Antje; Iannilli, Emilia; Sinding, Charlotte; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Habituation of responses to chemosensory signals has been explored in many ways. Strong habituation and adaptation processes can be observed at the various levels of processing. For example, with repeated exposure, amplitudes of chemosensory event-related potentials (ERP) decrease over time. However, long-term habituation has not been investigated so far and investigations of differences in habituation between trigeminal and olfactory ERPs are very rare. The present study investigated habituation over a period of approximately 80 min for two olfactory and one trigeminal stimulus, respectively. Habituation was examined analyzing the N1 and P2 amplitudes and latencies of chemosensory ERPs and intensity ratings. It was shown that amplitudes of both components - and intensity ratings - decreased from the first to the last block. Concerning ERP latencies no effects of habituation were seen. Amplitudes of trigeminal ERPs diminished faster than amplitudes of olfactory ERPs, indicating that the habituation of trigeminal ERPs is stronger than habituation of olfactory ERPs. Amplitudes of trigeminal ERPs were generally higher than amplitudes of olfactory ERPs, as it has been shown in various studies before. The results reflect relatively selective central changes in response to chemosensory stimuli over time.

  11. Candidate chemosensory cells in the porcine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Patricia; Breer, Heinz; Hass, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    A continuous chemosensory monitoring of the ingested food is of vital importance for adjusting digestive processes according to diet composition. Although any dysfunction of this surveillance system may be the cause of severe gastrointestinal disorders, information about the cellular and molecular basis of chemosensation in the gastrointestinal tract is limited. The porcine alimentary canal is considered as an appropriate model for the human gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the gastric mucosa of swine for cells which express gustatory transduction elements such as TRPM5 or PLCβ2, and thus may represent candidate "chemosensors". It was found that the porcine stomach indeed contains cells expressing gustatory marker molecules; however, the morphology and topographic distribution of putative chemosensory cells varied significantly from that in mice. Whereas in the murine stomach these cells were clustered at a distinct region near the gastric entrance, no such compact cell cluster was found in the pig stomach. These results indicate substantial differences regarding the phenotype of candidate chemosensory cells of mice and swine and underline the importance of choosing the most suitable model organisms. PMID:21667283

  12. Transcriptome profiling of chemosensory appendages in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae reveals tissue- and sex-specific signatures of odor coding

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    Rokas Antonis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemosensory signal transduction guides the behavior of many insects, including Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the molecular basis of mosquito chemosensation we have used whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to compare transcript expression profiles between the two major chemosensory tissues, the antennae and maxillary palps, of adult female and male An. gambiae. Results We compared chemosensory tissue transcriptomes to whole body transcriptomes of each sex to identify chemosensory enhanced genes. In the six data sets analyzed, we detected expression of nearly all known chemosensory genes and found them to be highly enriched in both olfactory tissues of males and females. While the maxillary palps of both sexes demonstrated strict chemosensory gene expression overlap, we observed acute differences in sensory specialization between male and female antennae. The relatively high expression levels of chemosensory genes in the female antennae reveal its role as an organ predominately assigned to chemosensation. Remarkably, the expression of these genes was highly conserved in the male antennae, but at much lower relative levels. Alternatively, consistent with a role in mating, the male antennae displayed significant enhancement of genes involved in audition, while the female enhancement of these genes was observed, but to a lesser degree. Conclusions These findings suggest that the chemoreceptive spectrum, as defined by gene expression profiles, is largely similar in female and male An. gambiae. However, assuming sensory receptor expression levels are correlated with sensitivity in each case, we posit that male and female antennae are perceptive to the same stimuli, but possess inverse receptive prioritizations and sensitivities. Here we have demonstrated the use of RNA-seq to characterize the sensory specializations of an important disease vector and

  13. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: Attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities

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    Jony eSheynin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability, due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during safe periods. Healthy young adults (n=122 were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms.

  14. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

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    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  15. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor J Fraser

    Full Text Available Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE and the vomeronasal organ (VNO in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse.

  16. Candidate chemosensory genes in the Stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides.

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    Glaser, Nicolas; Gallot, Aurore; Legeai, Fabrice; Montagné, Nicolas; Poivet, Erwan; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    The stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides is an important pest of maize in the Mediterranean Basin. Like other moths, this noctuid uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, very little is known on the molecular mechanisms that underlie chemosensation in this species. Here, we used next-generation sequencing (454 and Illumina) on different tissues from adult and larvae, including chemosensory organs and female ovipositors, to describe the chemosensory transcriptome of S. nonagrioides and identify key molecular components of the pheromone production and detection systems. We identified a total of 68 candidate chemosensory genes in this species, including 31 candidate binding-proteins and 23 chemosensory receptors. In particular, we retrieved the three co-receptors Orco, IR25a and IR8a necessary for chemosensory receptor functioning. Focusing on the pheromonal communication system, we identified a new pheromone-binding protein in this species, four candidate pheromone receptors and 12 carboxylesterases as candidate acetate degrading enzymes. In addition, we identified enzymes putatively involved in S. nonagrioides pheromone biosynthesis, including a ∆11-desaturase and different acetyltransferases and reductases. RNAseq analyses and RT-PCR were combined to profile gene expression in different tissues. This study constitutes the first large scale description of chemosensory genes in S. nonagrioides. PMID:23781142

  17. Genetic deletion of monoacylglycerol lipase leads to impaired cannabinoid receptor CB₁R signaling and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Roberta; Morello, Giovanna; Luongo, Livio; Taschler, Ulrike; Romano, Rosaria; De Gregorio, Danilo; Belardo, Carmela; Maione, Sabatino; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Cristino, Luigia

    2015-11-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCB) are key regulators of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission at cannabinoid-1-receptor (CB1 R)-expressing axon terminals. The most abundant eCB in the brain, that is 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), is hydrolyzed by the enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), whose chronic inhibition in the brain was reported to cause CB1 R desensitization. We employed the MAGL knock-out mouse (MAGL-/-), a genetic model of congenital and sustained elevation of 2-AG levels in the brain, to provide morphological and biochemical evidence for β-arrestin2-mediated CB1 R desensitization in brain regions involved in the control of emotional states, that is, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex. We found a widespread CB1 R/β-arrestin2 co-expression in the mPFC, amygdala and hippocampus accompanied by impairment of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and elevation of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT1) at CB1 R-positive excitatory terminals in the mPFC, or vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) at CB1 R-positive inhibitory terminals in the amygdala and hippocampus. The impairment of CB1 R signaling in MAGL-/- mice was also accompanied by enhanced excitatory drive in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-mPFC circuit, with subsequent elevation of glutamate release to the mPFC and anxiety-like and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, as assessed by the light/dark box and marble burying tests, respectively. Collectively, these data provide evidence for a β-arrestin2-mediated desensitization of CB1 R in MAGL-/- mice, with impact on the synaptic plasticity of brain circuits involved in emotional functions. In this study, the authors provide evidence that congenitally enhanced endocannabinoid levels in the neuronal circuits underlying anxiety-like behavioral states (mainly medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) lead to CB1R desenistization and anxiety and depression. MAGL-/- mice, a model of congenital overactivity of the e

  18. Human gender differences in the perception of conspecific alarm chemosensory cues.

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    Anca R Radulescu

    Full Text Available It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei. When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether gender differences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals, we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender.

  19. Chemogenetic and Optogenetic Activation of Gαs Signaling in the Basolateral Amygdala Induces Acute and Social Anxiety-Like States.

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    Siuda, Edward R; Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Bhatti, Dionnet L; Bruchas, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are debilitating psychiatric illnesses with detrimental effects on human health. These heightened states of arousal are often in the absence of obvious threatening cues and are difficult to treat owing to a lack of understanding of the neural circuitry and cellular machinery mediating these conditions. Activation of noradrenergic circuitry in the basolateral amygdala is thought to have a role in stress, fear, and anxiety, and the specific cell and receptor types responsible is an active area of investigation. Here we take advantage of two novel cellular approaches to dissect the contributions of G-protein signaling in acute and social anxiety-like states. We used a chemogenetic approach utilizing the Gαs DREADD (rM3Ds) receptor and show that selective activation of generic Gαs signaling is sufficient to induce acute and social anxiety-like behavioral states in mice. Second, we use a recently characterized chimeric receptor composed of rhodopsin and the β2-adrenergic receptor (Opto-β2AR) with in vivo optogenetic techniques to selectively activate Gαs β-adrenergic signaling exclusively within excitatory neurons of the basolateral amygdala. We found that optogenetic induction of β-adrenergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala is sufficient to induce acute and social anxiety-like behavior. These findings support the conclusion that activation of Gαs signaling in the basolateral amygdala has a role in anxiety. These data also suggest that acute and social anxiety-like states may be mediated through signaling pathways identical to β-adrenergic receptors, thus providing support that inhibition of this system may be an effective anxiolytic therapy. PMID:26725834

  20. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

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    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  1. Glutamatergic signaling and low prodynorphin expression are associated with intact memory and reduced anxiety in rat models of healthy aging

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    Caroline eMenard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The LOU/C/Jall (LOU rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6-42 months were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn, an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non obese aging

  2. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  3. Anxiety Disorders

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    ... press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults Click for more information Studies estimate that anxiety ... anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In older adults, anxiety disorders often occur at the same time as depression, ...

  4. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health...

  5. Genetic Analysis of Chemosensory Traits in Human Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapila, Antti; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Lysenko, Anna; Duke, Fujiko F.; Fesi, Brad; Khoshnevisan, Amin; James, Rebecca S.; Wysocki, Charles J.; Rhyu, MeeRa; Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime; Danielle R Reed

    2012-01-01

    We explored genetic influences on the perception of taste and smell stimuli. Adult twins rated the chemosensory aspects of water, sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, ethanol, quinine hydrochloride, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), potassium chloride, calcium chloride, cinnamon, androstenone, Galaxolide™, cilantro, and basil. For most traits, individual differences were stable over time and some traits were heritable (h2 from 0.41 to 0.71). Subjects were genotyped for 44 single nucleotide polymor...

  6. Mutations Affecting the Chemosensory Neurons of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Starich, T. A.; Herman, R. K.; Kari, C. K.; Yeh, W. H.; Schackwitz, W. S.; Schuyler, M. W.; Collet, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Riddle, D L

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditio...

  7. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Linda M Bartoshuk; Mennella, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches inc...

  8. CRDB: Database of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Families in Vertebrate

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Dong; Ke Jin; Xiaoli Wu; Yang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously u...

  9. Is TrpM5 a reliable marker for chemosensory cells? Multiple types of microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium of mice

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    Finger Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, ciliated receptor neurons, basal cells, and supporting cells were considered the principal components of the main olfactory epithelium. Several studies reported the presence of microvillous cells but their function is unknown. A recent report showed cells in the main olfactory epithelium that express the transient receptor potential channel TrpM5 claiming that these cells are chemosensory and that TrpM5 is an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs. We asked whether the TrpM5-positive cells in the olfactory epithelium are microvillous and whether they belong to a chemosensory system, i.e. are olfactory neurons or trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells. Results We investigated the main olfactory epithelium of mice at the light and electron microscopic level and describe several subpopulations of microvillous cells. The ultrastructure of the microvillous cells reveals at least three morphologically different types two of which express the TrpM5 channel. None of these cells have an axon that projects to the olfactory bulb. Tests with a large panel of cell markers indicate that the TrpM5-positive cells are not sensory since they express neither neuronal markers nor are contacted by trigeminal nerve fibers. Conclusion We conclude that TrpM5 is not a reliable marker for chemosensory cells. The TrpM5-positive cells of the olfactory epithelium are microvillous and may be chemoresponsive albeit not part of the sensory apparatus. Activity of these microvillous cells may however influence functionality of local elements of the olfactory system.

  10. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

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    Ashiq Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR, and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides, which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny.

  11. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ashiq; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  12. Mutations in chemosensory cilia cause resistance to paraquat in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Michihiko; Matsumoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Nanae; Miki, Kensuke; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Ishii, Naoaki; Ayusawa, Dai

    2004-05-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and longevity is a matter of concern in various organisms. We isolated mutants resistant to paraquat from nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. One mutant named mev-4 was long-lived and showed cross-resistance to heat and Dyf phenotype (defective in dye filling). Genetic and sequence analysis revealed that mev-4 had a nonsense mutation on the che-11 gene, homologues of which are involved in formation of cilia and flagella in other organisms. The paraquat resistance was commonly observed in various Dyf mutants and did not depend on the daf-16 gene, whereas the extension of life span did depend on it. Expression of antioxidant enzyme genes seemed normal. These results suggest that chemosensory neurons are a target of oxidative stress and influence longevity dependent on the daf-16 signaling in C. elegans. PMID:14982934

  13. Regulation of lifespan by chemosensory and thermosensory systems: findings in invertebrates and their implications in mammalian aging

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    Dae-Eun eJeong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors that dynamically change in nature influence various aspects of animal physiology. Animals are equipped with sensory neuronal systems that help them properly sense and respond to environmental factors. Several studies have shown that chemosensory and thermosensory neurons affect the lifespan of invertebrate model animals including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Although the mechanisms by which these sensory systems modulate lifespan are incompletely understood, hormonal signaling pathways have been implicated in sensory system-mediated lifespan regulation. In this review, we describe findings regarding how sensory nervous system components elicit physiological changes to regulate lifespan in invertebrate models, and discuss their implications in mammalian aging.

  14. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  15. Chronic exercise improves repeated restraint stress-induced anxiety and depression through 5HT1A receptor and cAMP signaling in hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mun Hee; Leem, Yea Hyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Mood disorders such as anxiety and depression are prevalent psychiatric illness, but the role of 5HT1A in the anti-depressive effects of exercise has been rarely known yet. We investigated whether long-term exercise affected a depressive-like behavior and a hippocampal 5HT1A receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling in depression mice model. [Methods] To induce depressive behaviors, mice were subjected to 14 consecutive days of restraint stress (2 hours/day). Depression-like behavio...

  16. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33 years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100 μl (psleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  17. Chemosensory receptor genes in the Oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Papanicolaou, A; Liu, N-Y; Dong, S-L; Anderson, A

    2015-04-01

    The Oriental tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa assulta) is a specialist herbivore moth and its larvae feed on Solanaceous plants. (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) is the major sex pheromone component in H. assulta but the specific pheromone receptor (PR) against Z9-16: Ald has not yet been identified. In the present study, we integrated transcriptomic, bioinformatic and functional characterization approaches to investigate the chemosensory receptor genes of H. assulta. We identified seven potential PRs with 44 olfactory receptors, 18 gustatory receptors and 24 ionotropic receptors, which were further studied by in silico gene expression profile, phylogenetic analysis, reverse transcription PCR and calcium imaging assays. The candidate PR, HassOR13, showed a strong response to the minor sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but not the major component, Z9-16: Ald, in calcium imaging assays. This study provides the molecular basis for comparative studies of chemosensory receptors between H. assulta and other Helicoverpa species and will advance our understanding of the evolution and function of Lepidoptera insect chemosensation. PMID:25430896

  18. Gastrointestinal chemosensation: chemosensory cells in the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breer, H; Eberle, J; Frick, C; Haid, D; Widmayer, P

    2012-07-01

    Sensing potentially beneficial or harmful constituents in the luminal content by specialized cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa is an essential prerequisite for governing digestive processes, initiating protective responses and regulating food intake. Until recently, it was poorly understood how the gastrointestinal tract senses and responds to nutrients and non-nutrients in the diet; however, the enormous progress in unraveling the molecular machinery underlying the responsiveness of gustatory cells in the lingual taste buds to these compounds has been an important starting point for studying intestinal chemosensation. Currently, the field of nutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract is evolving rapidly and is benefiting from the deorphanization of previously unliganded G-protein-coupled receptors which respond to important nutrients, such as protein degradation products and free fatty acids as well as from the FACS-assisted isolation of distinct cell populations. This review focuses on mechanisms and principles underlying the chemosensory responsiveness of the alimentary tract. It describes the cell types which might potentially contribute to chemosensation within the gut: cells that can operate as specialized sensors and transducers for luminal factors and which communicate information from the gut lumen by releasing paracrine or endocrine acting messenger molecules. Furthermore, it addresses the current knowledge regarding the expression and localization of molecular elements that may be part of the chemosensory machinery which render some of the mucosal cells responsive to constituents of the luminal content, concentrating on candidate receptors and transporters for sensing nutrients. PMID:22527698

  19. Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

    Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological

  20. Identification of chemosensory receptor genes in Manduca sexta and knockdown by RNA interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Natalie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects detect environmental chemicals via a large and rapidly evolving family of chemosensory receptor proteins. Although our understanding of the molecular genetic basis for Drosophila chemoreception has increased enormously in the last decade, similar understanding in other insects remains limited. The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has long been an important model for insect chemosensation, particularly from ecological, behavioral, and physiological standpoints. It is also a major agricultural pest on solanaceous crops. However, little sequence information and lack of genetic tools has prevented molecular genetic analysis in this species. The ability to connect molecular genetic mechanisms, including potential lineage-specific changes in chemosensory genes, to ecologically relevant behaviors and specializations in M. sexta would be greatly beneficial. Results Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from adult and larval chemosensory tissues and identified chemosensory genes based on sequence homology. We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues. Conclusions We report identification of new chemosensory receptor genes including 17 novel odorant receptors and one novel gustatory receptor. Further, we demonstrate that systemic RNA interference can be used in larval olfactory neurons to reduce expression of chemosensory receptor transcripts. Together, our results further the development of M. sexta as a model for functional analysis of insect chemosensation.

  1. Transcriptome based identification and tissue expression profiles of chemosensory genes in Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Blattalla germanica is one of the most notorious household insect pests, and evolutionally more primitive than those well studied moths and flies, regarding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensation. In this study, we sequenced, for the first time, the antennal transcriptome of B. germanica using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform and then conducted the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In total, we identified 73 putative chemosensory genes, with 62 genes being novel in this species. These chemosensory genes included 48 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 9 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 6 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 5 odorant receptors (ORs) and 5 ionotropic receptors (IRs). Notably, Plus-C OBPs account for an exceptionally high proportion (39.58%) of the total 48 OBPs in this primitive insect. To predict the chemosensory functions of the genes, a detailed global tissue expression profiling was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Most OBP genes showed a chemosensory tissue biased profile, while CSP transcripts were widely and evenly expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, we found that more than half the chemosensory genes were expressed in the cerci, implying the important chemosensory functions of the organ in B. germanica. Taken together, our study provides important bases for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of insect chemosensation, and for development of the chemosensation based techniques to control B. germanica.

  2. Transcriptome based identification and tissue expression profiles of chemosensory genes in Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Blattalla germanica is one of the most notorious household insect pests, and evolutionally more primitive than those well studied moths and flies, regarding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensation. In this study, we sequenced, for the first time, the antennal transcriptome of B. germanica using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform and then conducted the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In total, we identified 73 putative chemosensory genes, with 62 genes being novel in this species. These chemosensory genes included 48 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 9 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 6 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 5 odorant receptors (ORs) and 5 ionotropic receptors (IRs). Notably, Plus-C OBPs account for an exceptionally high proportion (39.58%) of the total 48 OBPs in this primitive insect. To predict the chemosensory functions of the genes, a detailed global tissue expression profiling was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Most OBP genes showed a chemosensory tissue biased profile, while CSP transcripts were widely and evenly expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, we found that more than half the chemosensory genes were expressed in the cerci, implying the important chemosensory functions of the organ in B. germanica. Taken together, our study provides important bases for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of insect chemosensation, and for development of the chemosensation based techniques to control B. germanica. PMID:26994445

  3. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: Attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Jony eSheynin; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain) and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate exper...

  4. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of vomeronasal signaling in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Cichy, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ plays a critical role in chemosensory communication and regulates diverse social and sexual behaviors. However, many physiological mechanisms underlying vomeronasal chemosensory signaling remain elusive. Therefore, the overall aim of my thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of the basic mechanisms that control VNO physiology. Specifically, my research focused on HCN channel-mediated vomeronasal proton-sensing and its potential role in sensory gain control of so...

  5. Mutations affecting the chemosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starich, T.A.; Herman, R.K.; Kari, C.K. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditions of starvation and overcrowding. Seventy-five of the mutations are alleles of 12 previously defined genes, mutations which were previously shown to lead to defects in amphid ultrastructure. We have assigned 20 mutations to 13 new genes, called dyf-1 through dyf-13. We expect that the genes represented by dye-filling defective mutants are important for the differentiation of amphid and phasmid chemosensilla. 58 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Mutations affecting the chemosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starich, T A; Herman, R K; Kari, C K; Yeh, W H; Schackwitz, W S; Schuyler, M W; Collet, J; Thomas, J H; Riddle, D L

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditions of starvation and overcrowding. Seventy-five of the mutations are alleles of 12 previously defined genes, mutations which were previously shown to lead to defects in amphid ultrastructure. We have assigned 20 mutations to 13 new genes, called dyf-1 through dyf-13. We expect that the genes represented by dye-filing defective mutants are important for the differentiation of amphid and phasmid chemosensilla. PMID:7705621

  7. The forkhead domain gene unc-130 generates chemosensory neuron diversity in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Sarafi-Reinach, Trina R.; Sengupta, Piali

    2000-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans responds to its complex chemical environment using a small number of chemosensory neurons. Each of these neurons exhibits a unique sensory response repertoire. The developmental mechanisms that generate this diversity of function are largely unknown. Many C. elegans chemosensory neurons, including the AWA and ASG neurons, arise as lineal sisters of an asymmetric division. Here we describe the gene unc-130, which plays a role in the generation of the AWA and ASG neurons....

  8. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are...

  9. Bitter triggers acetylcholine release from polymodal urethral chemosensory cells and bladder reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    Deckmann, Klaus; Filipski, Katharina; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike; Rafiq, Amir; Papadakis, Tamara; Renno, Liane; Jurastow, Innokentij; Wessels, Lars; Wolff, Miriam; Schütz, Burkhard; Weihe, Eberhard; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of a previously unidentified cholinergic, polymodal chemosensory cell in the mammalian urethra, the potential portal of entry for bacteria and harmful substances into the urogenital system. These cells exhibit structural markers of respiratory chemosensory cells (“brush cells”). They use the classical taste transduction cascade to detect potential hazardous compounds (bitter, umami, uropathogenic bacteria) and release acetylcholine in response. They lie next to sensory ...

  10. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eIturriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.

  11. Antennal RNA-sequencing analysis reveals evolutionary aspects of chemosensory proteins in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru K. Hojo; Kenichi Ishii; Midori Sakura; Katsushi Yamaguchi; Shuji Shigenobu; Mamiko Ozaki

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is essential for the coordination of complex organisation in ant societies. Recent comparative genomic approaches have revealed that chemosensory genes are diversified in ant lineages, and suggest that this diversification is crucial for social organisation. However, how such diversified genes shape the peripheral chemosensory systems remains unknown. In this study, we annotated and analysed the gene expression profiles of chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which transport l...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapies Join a Study Learn More Anxiety Disorders Definition Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. ... and sharing their problems and achievements with others. Internet chat rooms might also be useful, but any ...

  13. Single ionic channels of two Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory neurons in native membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, W T; Pun, R Y K; Bargmann, C I; Kleene, S J

    2002-09-01

    The genome of Caenorhabditis elegans contains representatives of the channel families found in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. However, it lacks the ubiquitous Hodgkin-Huxley Na+ channel that is integral to long-distance signaling in other animals. Nematode neurons are presumed to communicate by electrotonic conduction and graded depolarizations. This fundamental difference in operating principle may require different channel populations to regulate transmission and transmitter release. We have sampled ionic channels from the somata of two chemosensory neurons (AWA and AWC) of C. elegans. A Ca2+-activated, outwardly rectifying channel has a conductance of 67 pS and a reversal potential indicating selectivity for K+. An inwardly rectifying channel is active at potentials more negative than -50 mV. The inward channel is notably flickery even in the absence of divalent cations; this prevented determination of its conductance and reversal potential. Both of these channels were inactive over a range of membrane potentials near the likely cell resting potential; this would account for the region of very high membrane resistance observed in whole-cell recordings. A very-large-conductance (> 100 pS), inwardly rectifying channel may account for channel-like fluctuations seen in whole-cell recordings.

  14. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  15. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  16. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  17. CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Dong

    Full Text Available Chemosensory receptors (CR are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates.

  18. CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dong; Jin, Ke; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates. PMID:22393364

  19. Chemosensory cues from the lacrimal and preputial glands stimulate production of IP3 in the vomeronasal organ and aggression in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Roger N.; Napier, Audrey; Wekesa, Kennedy S.

    2007-01-01

    The social and reproductive behaviors of most mammals are modulated by chemosensory cues. The perception of some of these cues is mediated by the vomeronasal organ, which is a cartilage-encased elongated organ associated with the vomer bone in the rostral nasal cavity. Several studies have shown that chemosensory cues are present in urine, seminal fluid or vaginal secretions but only a few studies have focused on exocrine glands as a source of chemosensory cues. Here we show that chemosensory...

  20. The chemosensory protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana: Molecular cloning of cDNA, immunocytochemical localization and expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongLiang; LOU BingGan; CHENG Jia'An; GAO QiKang

    2007-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication.Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs,called Ac-ASP3,cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee,Apis cerana cerana.The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons,with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa.Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence.The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects.Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica,whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea.Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs,but expression is lower on antenna.Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees,cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb.The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen.Rather,the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees' cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.

  1. ANXIETY, REPRESSION AND FORECLOSURE: SOME REMARKS TO THE CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Leite

    2009-01-01

    The paper focus on Freud’s studies on anxiety and highlights Lacan’s contributions to the subject. It emphasizes the clinical importance of freudian distinction between anxiety as a signal and realistic – or automatic – anxiety in order to answer the question: assuming that, concerning neurosis, what causes repression is a signal of anxiety, could it also be said that, in psychosis, it is realistic anxiety that produces foreclosure?

  2. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.

  3. Chemoreception regulates chemical access to mouse vomeronasal organ: role of solitary chemosensory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Ogura

    Full Text Available Controlling stimulus access to sensory organs allows animals to optimize sensory reception and prevent damage. The vomeronasal organ (VNO detects pheromones and other semiochemicals to regulate innate social and sexual behaviors. This semiochemical detection generally requires the VNO to draw in chemical fluids, such as bodily secretions, which are complex in composition and can be contaminated. Little is known about whether and how chemical constituents are monitored to regulate the fluid access to the VNO. Using transgenic mice and immunolabeling, we found that solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs reside densely at the entrance duct of the VNO. In this region, most of the intraepithelial trigeminal fibers innervate the SCCs, indicating that SCCs relay sensory information onto the trigeminal fibers. These SCCs express transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5 and the phospholipase C (PLC beta2 signaling pathway. Additionally, the SCCs express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT for synthesizing and packaging acetylcholine, a potential transmitter. In intracellular Ca2+ imaging, the SCCs responded to various chemical stimuli including high concentrations of odorants and bitter compounds. The responses were suppressed significantly by a PLC inhibitor, suggesting involvement of the PLC pathway. Further, we developed a quantitative dye assay to show that the amount of stimulus fluid that entered the VNOs of behaving mice is inversely correlated to the concentration of odorous and bitter substances in the fluid. Genetic knockout and pharmacological inhibition of TRPM5 resulted in larger amounts of bitter compounds entering the VNOs. Our data uncovered that chemoreception of fluid constituents regulates chemical access to the VNO and plays an important role in limiting the access of non-specific irritating and harmful substances. Our results also provide new insight into the emerging role of SCCs in

  4. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  5. A reference gene set for chemosensory receptor genes of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Christopher; Hirsh, Ariana; Bucks, Sascha; Klinner, Christian; Vogel, Heiko; Shukla, Aditi; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Morton, Brian; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The order of Lepidoptera has historically been crucial for chemosensory research, with many important advances coming from the analysis of species like Bombyx mori or the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Specifically M. sexta has long been a major model species in the field, especially regarding the importance of olfaction in an ecological context, mainly the interaction with its host plants. In recent years transcriptomic data has led to the discovery of members of all major chemosensory receptor families in the species, but the data was fragmentary and incomplete. Here we present the analysis of the newly available high-quality genome data for the species, supplemented by additional transcriptome data to generate a high quality reference gene set for the three major chemosensory receptor gene families, the gustatory (GR), olfactory (OR) and antennal ionotropic receptors (IR). Coupled with gene expression analysis our approach allows association of specific receptor types and behaviors, like pheromone and host detection. The dataset will provide valuable support for future analysis of these essential chemosensory modalities in this species and in Lepidoptera in general. PMID:26365739

  6. Anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which may include: Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle Genetics. Anxiety disorders may run in families. Traumatic events. Experiencing abuse, an attack, or sexual assault can lead to serious health problems, including ...

  7. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation, and affects a person's daily life and happiness. Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can come on ... letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD ...

  8. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Carotid Body Chemosensory Potentiation and Hypertension Are Critically Dependent on Peroxynitrite Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the development of carotid body (CB chemosensory potentiation and systemic hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea. We tested whether peroxynitrite (ONOO−, a highly reactive nitrogen species, is involved in the enhanced CB oxygen chemosensitivity and the hypertension during CIH. Accordingly, we studied effects of Ebselen, an ONOO− scavenger, on 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (3-NT-ir in the CB, the CB chemosensory discharge, and arterial blood pressure (BP in rats exposed to CIH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (5% O2, 12 times/h, 8 h/day for 7 days. Ebselen (10 mg/kg/day was administrated using osmotic minipumps and BP measured with radiotelemetry. Compared to the sham animals, CIH-treated rats showed increased 3-NT-ir within the CB, enhanced CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia, increased BP response to acute hypoxia, and hypertension. Rats treated with Ebselen and exposed to CIH displayed a significant reduction in 3-NT-ir levels (60.8 ± 14.9 versus 22.9 ± 4.2 a.u., reduced CB chemosensory response to 5% O2 (266.5 ± 13.4 versus 168.6 ± 16.8 Hz, and decreased mean BP (116.9 ± 13.2 versus 82.1 ± 5.1 mmHg. Our results suggest that CIH-induced CB chemosensory potentiation and hypertension are critically dependent on ONOO− formation.

  9. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaline Macharia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae, vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393, Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246 and Anopheles gambiae (n>247. We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control.

  10. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Rosaline; Mireji, Paul; Murungi, Edwin; Murilla, Grace; Christoffels, Alan; Aksoy, Serap; Masiga, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393), Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246) and Anopheles gambiae (n>247). We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a) were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control. PMID:26886411

  11. Genre Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alacovska, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the concept of genre can enrich our understanding of gender inequality in media industries. All media work takes place within genre-specific production worlds, which seem to be gender-segregated. By examining the gendered and gendering ideology of genres, an outcome of g...... anxiety and constrains female travel writers’ biographical identity work. By treating genres as mediators of work experiences and practices, I elucidate how contemporary female travel writers experience and cope with genre-induced anxiety....

  12. Inflammation in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Samina; Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The idea of the existence of an interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) has prompted extensive research interest into the subject of "Psychoneuroimmunology" taking the field to an interesting level where new hypotheses are being increasingly tested. Specifically, exactly how the cross talk of pathways and mechanisms enable immune system to influence our brain and behavior is a question of immense significance. Of particular relevance to this topic is the role of cytokines in regulating functions within the CNS that ultimately modulate behavior. Interestingly, psychological stress is reported to modulate cytokine production, suggesting potential relevance of this mediator to mental health. In fact, cytokine signaling in the brain is known to regulate important brain functions including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, as well as the neural circuitry of mood. It is rather obvious to expect an aberrant behavioral outcome as a result of a dysregulation in cytokine signaling which might lead to occurrence of depression, anxiety, and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system influences behavior would reveal targets for potential therapeutic development as well as strategies for the prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, the presence of inflammatory responses and the crucial role of cytokines in depression have received most attention. However, considering a big socioeconomic impact due to an alarming increase in anxiety disorder patients, there is an urgent research need for a better understanding of the role of cytokines in anxiety. In this review, we discuss recent research on the role of neuroimmunology in anxiety. At the end, we offer an "oxidative stress theory," which we propose works perhaps as a "sensor of distress," the imbalance of which leads to neuroinflammation and causes anxiety disorders. Much research is needed to extensively

  13. Antennal RNA-sequencing analysis reveals evolutionary aspects of chemosensory proteins in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Ishii, Kenichi; Sakura, Midori; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is essential for the coordination of complex organisation in ant societies. Recent comparative genomic approaches have revealed that chemosensory genes are diversified in ant lineages, and suggest that this diversification is crucial for social organisation. However, how such diversified genes shape the peripheral chemosensory systems remains unknown. In this study, we annotated and analysed the gene expression profiles of chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which transport lipophilic compounds toward chemosensory receptors in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Transcriptome analysis revealed 12 CSP genes and phylogenetic analysis showed that 3 of these are lineage-specifically expanded in the clade of ants. RNA sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that, among the ant specific CSP genes, two of them (CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13) were specifically expressed in the chemosensory organs and differentially expressed amongst ant castes. Furthermore, CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 had a ratio of divergence at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dN/dS) greater than 1, and they were co-expressed with CjapCSP1, which is known to bind cuticular hydrocarbons. Our results suggested that CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 were functionally differentiated for ant-specific chemosensory events, and that CjapCSP1, CjapCSP12, and CjapCSP13 work cooperatively in the antennal chemosensilla of worker ants. PMID:26310137

  14. Antennal RNA-sequencing analysis reveals evolutionary aspects of chemosensory proteins in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Ishii, Kenichi; Sakura, Midori; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-08-27

    Chemical communication is essential for the coordination of complex organisation in ant societies. Recent comparative genomic approaches have revealed that chemosensory genes are diversified in ant lineages, and suggest that this diversification is crucial for social organisation. However, how such diversified genes shape the peripheral chemosensory systems remains unknown. In this study, we annotated and analysed the gene expression profiles of chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which transport lipophilic compounds toward chemosensory receptors in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Transcriptome analysis revealed 12 CSP genes and phylogenetic analysis showed that 3 of these are lineage-specifically expanded in the clade of ants. RNA sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that, among the ant specific CSP genes, two of them (CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13) were specifically expressed in the chemosensory organs and differentially expressed amongst ant castes. Furthermore, CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 had a ratio of divergence at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dN/dS) greater than 1, and they were co-expressed with CjapCSP1, which is known to bind cuticular hydrocarbons. Our results suggested that CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 were functionally differentiated for ant-specific chemosensory events, and that CjapCSP1, CjapCSP12, and CjapCSP13 work cooperatively in the antennal chemosensilla of worker ants.

  15. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  16. Chemosensory gene families in adult antennae of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    Full Text Available The metallic green beetle, Anomala corpulenta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae, is a destructive pest in agriculture and horticulture throughout Asia, including China. Olfaction plays a crucial role in the survival and reproduction of A. corpulenta. As a non-model species, A. corpulenta is poorly understood, and information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying olfaction in A. corpulenta and other scarab species is scant.We assembled separate antennal transcriptome for male and female A. corpulenta using Illumina sequencing technology. The relative abundance of transcripts with gene ontology annotations, including those related to olfaction in males and females was highly similar. Transcripts encoding 15 putative odorant binding proteins, five chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 43 odorant receptors, eight gustatory receptors, and five ionotropic receptors were identified. The sequences of all of these chemosensory-related transcripts were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and direct DNA sequencing. The expression patterns of 54 putative chemosensory genes were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Antenna-specific expression was detected for many of these genes, suggesting that they may have important functions in semiochemical detection.The identification of a large number of chemosensory proteins provides a major resource for the study of the molecular mechanism of odorant detection in A. corpulenta and its chemical ecology. The genes identified, especially those that were expressed at high levels in the antennae may represent novel molecular targets for the development of population control strategies based on the manipulation of chemoreception-driven behaviors.

  17. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaline Macharia; Paul Mireji; Edwin Murungi; Grace Murilla; Alan Christoffels; Serap Aksoy; Daniel Masiga

    2016-01-01

    For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation...

  18. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on alertness and chemosensory function in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D; Pawlik, M Kate

    2004-03-01

    Ginkgo biloba is reported to enhance cognitive function in patients with selected neural disorders. Its effects in healthy, young adults are less well characterized. This work explored whether Ginkgo biloba could ameliorate decrements in alertness post-prandially and/or enhance chemosensory function. Both are functions that could be influenced by enhanced cerebral blood flow and neuronal metabolism, reported properties of the compound. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted with 19 males and 20 females with a mean age of 23.6 +/- 5.4 years and mean weight of 70.0 +/- 1.9 kg. Participants were supplemented for 13 weeks with either Ginkgo biloba (mean dose 184.5 mg/d (range 130-234 mg/d)) or placebo and administered various alertness, performance, affective state and chemosensory tests at weeks 1, 5, 9 and 13. Participants did experience the post-prandial affective state decrement (i.e. post-lunch dip), but not the performance decrement. Performance on the chemosensory tests improved over the 13-week study. However, Ginkgo biloba was ineffective at alleviating the symptoms of the post-lunch dip or at enhancing taste and smell function. PMID:14994317

  19. Use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey: Potential directions for population management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, I.; Brown, G.E.; Bergstedt, R.A.; McDonald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sea lamprey invaded the Great Lakes in the early 20th century and caused an abrupt decline in the population densities of several native fish species. The integrated management of this invasive species is composed of chemical (lampricide) applications, low-head barrier dams, adult trapping and sterile male release. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of control methods alternative to lampricide applications. We propose as an alternative-control method the use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey population management. Based on the available evidence at this time, we suggest that injury-released chemical alarm cues show promise as repellents for sea lamprey and further research should be directed at determining whether sea lamprey show an avoidance response to these types of chemosensory cues. From a management perspective, these chemosensory cues could be used to restrict sea lamprey access to spawning grounds. Repellents could also be used together with attractants like sex pheromones to manipulate sea lamprey behavior, similar to the "push-pull" strategies utilized with insect pests. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Strong links between genomic and anatomical diversity in both mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    Mammalian olfaction comprises two chemosensory systems: the odorant-detecting main olfactory system (MOS) and the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal system (VNS). Mammals are diverse in their anatomical and genomic emphases on olfactory chemosensation, including the loss or reduction of these systems in some orders. Despite qualitative evidence linking the genomic evolution of the olfactory systems to specific functions and phenotypes, little work has quantitatively tested whether the genomic aspects of the mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems are correlated to anatomical diversity. We show that the genomic and anatomical variation in these systems is tightly linked in both the VNS and the MOS, though the signature of selection is different in each system. Specifically, the MOS appears to vary based on absolute organ and gene family size while the VNS appears to vary according to the relative proportion of functional genes and relative anatomical size and complexity. Furthermore, there is little evidence that these two systems are evolving in a linked fashion. The relationships between genomic and anatomical diversity strongly support a role for natural selection in shaping both the anatomical and genomic evolution of the olfactory chemosensory systems in mammals. PMID:24718758

  1. Differential expression of the chemosensory transcriptome in two populations of the stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Nicolas; Gallot, Aurore; Legeai, Fabrice; Harry, Myriam; Kaiser, Laure; Le Ru, Bruno; Calatayud, Paul-André; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-01

    Among the proposed mechanisms of local adaptation to different ecological environments, transcriptional changes may play an important role. In this study, we investigated whether such variability occurred within the chemosensory organs of a herbivorous insect, for which chemosensation guides most of its host preferences. A European and an African population of the noctuid Sesamia nonagrioides that display significant differences in their ecological preferences were collected on Zea mays and Typha domingensis, respectively. RNAseq were used between the two populations for digital expression profiling of chemosensory organs from larval antennae and palps. Preliminary data on adult female antennae and ovipositors were also collected. We found 6,550 differentially expressed transcripts in larval antennae and palps. Gene ontology enrichment analyses suggested that transcriptional activity was overrepresented in the French population and that virus and defense activities were overrepresented in the Kenyan population. In addition, we found differential expression of a variety of cytochrome P450s, which may be linked to the different host-plant diets. Looking at olfactory genes, we observed differential expression of numerous candidate odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, and one olfactory receptor, suggesting that differences in olfactory sensitivity participate in insect adaptation. PMID:26316282

  2. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, ... Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce Your Anxiety Anxiety and Stress in the Workplace Exercise for Stress and Anxiety ...

  3. Health Anxiety, Hypochondriasis, and the Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2007-01-01

    Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…

  4. [Social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used. PMID:20623894

  5. Identification of putative chemosensory receptor genes from yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) antennae transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xing; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, is an extremely important polyphagous insect in Asia. The chemosensory systems of moth play an important role in detecting food, oviposition sites and mate attraction. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in odor detection. Our study aims to identify chemosensory receptor genes for potential applications in behavioral responses of yellow peach moth. By transcriptomic analysis of male and female antennae, 83 candidate chemosensory receptors, including 62 odorant receptors, 11 ionotropic receptors and 10 gustatory receptors were identified. Through Blast and sequence alignment, the highly conserved co-receptor Orco was annotated, eight unigenes clustered into pheromone receptors, and two clustered as sugar receptor. Among the IRs, one unigenes was similar with co-receptors IR25a. Expression levels of 50 odorant receptors were further evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in antennae. All the ORs tested were detected in antennae and some of which were associated with sex-biased expression. The chemosensory receptors identified in C. punctiferalis provide a foundational resource for further analysis on olfaction for behavior. The expression profiles of ORs in antennae indicated variant functions in olfactory recognition, and our results provided the possibility for the potential application of semiochemical to control this pest moth. PMID:27659493

  6. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHohenbrink

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83% – 97% of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29% to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information.

  7. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83-97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

  8. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiq Hussain; Mo Zhang; Üçpunar, Habibe K.; Thomas Svensson; Elsa Quillery; Nicolas Gompel; Rickard Ignell; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C.

    2016-01-01

    Author Summary Animals, including humans, evaluate food by its smell and taste. Odors and tastes not only signal the presence of food, they also reveal details about the type and amount of nutrients contained in it. A preference for certain foods frequently reflects the specific metabolic needs of an animal. Among the important but less known compounds that animals consume with their diet are polyamines. These pungent smelling molecules are essential for reproduction, development, and cogniti...

  9. A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Naoko; Iwata, Ryo; Yokoi, Saori; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Clardy, Jon; Tomioka, Masahiro; Iino, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communicati...

  10. A sexually conditioned switch of chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Sakai

    Full Text Available In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s. Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.

  11. Neuronal representation and processing of chemosensory communication signals in the ant brain

    OpenAIRE

    Zube, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Ants heavily rely on olfaction for communication and orientation and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. Olfaction plays a key role in mediating caste-specific behaviours. I investigated whether caste- and sex-specific differences in odor driven behavior are reflected in specific differences and/or adaptations in the ant olfactory system. In particular, I asked the question whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exh...

  12. Stop Performance Anxiety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Mark C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can help music students overcome performance anxiety. Divides performance anxiety into four major components: physiological, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological. Suggests fighting anxiety with relaxation techniques, imagery, cognitive statements, positive thinking, practice, and preparation. Discourages use of…

  13. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  14. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. How Separation Anxiety Develops Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. ...

  15. Clinical Diagnosis of Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadirian, A M

    1981-01-01

    Although anxiety constitutes the chief symptom of neuroses and functional psychoses, there is little agreement on its definition. This article reviews such definitions, the epidemiology of anxiety, and distinguishes between anxiety, depression and stress.

  16. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  17. Expression Divergence of Chemosensory Genes between Drosophila sechellia and Its Sibling Species and Its Implications for Host Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Meng-Shin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Fan, Wen-Lang; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Notredame, Cedric; Fang, Shu; Kondo, Rumi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila sechellia relies exclusively on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, which are toxic to most insects, including its sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Although several odorant binding protein (Obp) genes and olfactory receptor (Or) genes have been suggested to be associated with the D. sechellia host shift, a broad view of how chemosensory genes have contributed to this shift is still lacking. We therefore studied the transcriptomes of antennae, the main organ responsible for detecting food resource and oviposition, of D. sechellia and its two sibling species. We wanted to know whether gene expression, particularly chemosensory genes, has diverged between D. sechellia and its two sibling species. Using a very stringent definition of differential gene expression, we found a higher percentage of chemosensory genes differentially expressed in the D. sechellia lineage (7.8%) than in the D. simulans lineage (5.4%); for upregulated chemosensory genes, the percentages were 8.8% in D. sechellia and 5.2% in D. simulans. Interestingly, Obp50a exhibited the highest upregulation, an approximately 100-fold increase, and Or85c—previously reported to be a larva-specific gene—showed approximately 20-fold upregulation in D. sechellia. Furthermore, Ir84a (ionotropic receptor 84a), which has been proposed to be associated with male courtship behavior, was significantly upregulated in D. sechellia. We also found expression divergence in most of the chemosensory gene families between D. sechellia and the two sibling species. Our observations suggest that the host shift of D. sechellia was associated with the enrichment of differentially expressed, particularly upregulated, chemosensory genes. PMID:26430061

  18. Expression of taste receptors in Solitary Chemosensory Cells of rodent airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbarbati Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs. The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. Methods We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. Results Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Conclusions Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and

  19. Bioinformatics-Based Identification of Chemosensory Proteins in African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengxi Li; Zuorui Shen; Jingjiang Zhou; Lin Field

    2003-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are identifiable by four spatially conserved Cysteine residues in their primary structure or by two disulfide bridges in their tertiary structure according to the previously identified olfactory specific-D related proteins. A genomics- and bioinformatics-based approach is taken in the present study to identify the putative CSPs in the malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The results show that five out of the nine annotated candidates are the most possible Anopheles CSPs of A. gambiae. This study lays the foundation for further functional identification of Anopheles CSPs, though all of these candidates need additional experimental verification.

  20. Chemosensory discrimination of identity and familiarity in koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous descriptive accounts of scent marking in marsupials, rigorous experimentation is rare, and relatively little evidence exists to show that conspecifics use chemical signals to distinguish between individuals or different social groups. In this study a series of olfactory discrimination tests sought to determine whether: (1) male koala sternal scent gland secretions are individually distinctive; and (2) male koalas can differentiate between the scent of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. In the first experiment a habituation-discrimination trial demonstrated that male koalas discriminate between the scent gland secretions of different unfamiliar individuals. In a second experiment male koalas spent significantly more time investigating scent from unfamiliar males than familiar males, supporting the hypothesis that they differentiate between conspecifics based on their familiarity. Taken together these results suggest that male koalas are able to discriminate the identity and familiarity of conspecifics using chemical cues, and provide a platform for further studies investigating the functional role of olfactory communication in this species.

  1. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Thrive Managing Anxiety Exercise for Stress and Anxiety Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part ...

  2. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  3. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. PMID:26419601

  4. Candidate chemosensory genes in female antennae of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Legeai, Fabrice; Montagné, Nicolas; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; Poulain, Julie; Gavory, Frédéric; Walker, William B; Hansson, Bill S; Larsson, Mattias C

    2012-01-01

    Chemical senses are crucial for all organisms to detect various environmental information. Different protein families, expressed in chemosensory organs, are involved in the detection of this information, such as odorant-binding proteins, olfactory and gustatory receptors, and ionotropic receptors. We recently reported an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) approach on male antennae of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, with which we could identify a large array of chemosensory genes in a species for which no genomic data are available.Here we describe a complementary EST project on female antennae in the same species. 18,342 ESTs were sequenced and their assembly with our previous male ESTs led to a total of 13,685 unigenes, greatly improving our description of the S. littoralis antennal transcriptome. Gene ontology comparison between male and female data suggested a similar complexity of antennae of both sexes. Focusing on chemosensation, we identified 26 odorant-binding proteins, 36 olfactory and 5 gustatory receptors, expressed in the antennae of S. littoralis. One of the newly identified gustatory receptors appeared as female-enriched. Together with its atypical tissue-distribution, this suggests a role in oviposition. The compilation of male and female antennal ESTs represents a valuable resource for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction in S. littoralis. PMID:22904672

  5. Candidate chemosensory Genes in Female Antennae of the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Fabrice Legeai, Nicolas Montagné, Christelle Monsempes, Marie-Christine François, Julie Poulain, Frédéric Gavory, William B. Walker III, Bill S. Hansson, Mattias C. Larsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical senses are crucial for all organisms to detect various environmental information. Different protein families, expressed in chemosensory organs, are involved in the detection of this information, such as odorant-binding proteins, olfactory and gustatory receptors, and ionotropic receptors. We recently reported an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST approach on male antennae of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, with which we could identify a large array of chemosensory genes in a species for which no genomic data are available.Here we describe a complementary EST project on female antennae in the same species. 18,342 ESTs were sequenced and their assembly with our previous male ESTs led to a total of 13,685 unigenes, greatly improving our description of the S. littoralis antennal transcriptome. Gene ontology comparison between male and female data suggested a similar complexity of antennae of both sexes. Focusing on chemosensation, we identified 26 odorant-binding proteins, 36 olfactory and 5 gustatory receptors, expressed in the antennae of S. littoralis. One of the newly identified gustatory receptors appeared as female-enriched. Together with its atypical tissue-distribution, this suggests a role in oviposition. The compilation of male and female antennal ESTs represents a valuable resource for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction in S. littoralis.

  6. Tonic activation of peripheral chemosensory function modulates vagal heart rate control in heart failure patients with paroxysmal atrialfibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexel, T.; Eickholt, C.; Muehlsteff, J.; Ritz, A.; Siekiera, M.; Kirmanoglou, K.; Shin, D.I.; Balzer, J.; Rassaf, T.; Kelm, M.; Meyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Tonic activation of peripheral chemosensory function modulates vagalheart rate control in heart failure patients with paroxysmal atrialfibrillation Thomas Drexel1, Christian Eickholt1, Jens Mühlsteff2,Anita Ritz1, Markus Siekiera1, Kiriakos Kirmanoglou1, Dong-In Shin1,Jan Balzer1, Tienush Rassaf1, M

  7. The chemosensory appendage proteome of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) reveals putative odorant-binding and other chemoreception-related proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomic analyses were done on 2 chemosensory appendages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Proteins in the fore tarsi, which contain the olfactory Haller's organ, and in the palps, that include gustatory sensilla, were compared with proteins in the third tarsi. Also, male and female tick...

  8. Anxiety at outpatient hysteroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises current understanding and research on the association between anxiety and outpatient hysteroscopy. Women undergoing hysteroscopy suffer from significant levels of anxiety, with repercussions on pain perception, success rates and satisfaction. Using validated tools such as the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the outpatient hysteroscopy setting, average state anxiety scores similar or greater than those m...

  9. Anxiety as social practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, P.; Everts, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper advances a theory of anxiety as social practice. Distinguishing between individual anxieties and anxiety as a social condition, the paper suggests that anxiety has not been subject to the same level of theoretical scrutiny as related concepts such as risk, trust, or fear. Drawing on the existential philosophy of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger, the paper shows how contemporary anxieties involve the recognition of our own mortality and the destabilisation of established system...

  10. APPROACHES TO SOCIAL ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Abdülkadir

    2014-01-01

    The communication process that influences human lives is negatively affected by social anxiety. There have been many studies conducted and perspectives introduced about social anxiety. The purpose of this study is to explain social anxiety through examining approaches regarding social anxiety and investigate the sufficiency of those approaches. In this study, approaches about social anxiety are categorized in five groups. These categories are biological approach, psychological approach, cult...

  11. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Arya Ashwani; Kumar Tarun; Malik Ajay; Hooda Anil

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher prepo...

  12. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  13. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  14. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 46 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 gustatory receptors (GRs, 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs, 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs: 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs, 12 esterase (ESTs, and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9, 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12, 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35, and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57 were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this

  15. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  16. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  17. Turbidity interferes with foraging success of visual but not chemosensory predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Jessica; Smee, Delbert L

    2015-01-01

    Predation can significantly affect prey populations and communities, but predator effects can be attenuated when abiotic conditions interfere with foraging activities. In estuarine communities, turbidity can affect species richness and abundance and is changing in many areas because of coastal development. Many fish species are less efficient foragers in turbid waters, and previous research revealed that in elevated turbidity, fish are less abundant whereas crabs and shrimp are more abundant. We hypothesized that turbidity altered predatory interactions in estuaries by interfering with visually-foraging predators and prey but not with organisms relying on chemoreception. We measured the effects of turbidity on the predation rates of two model predators: a visual predator (pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides) and a chemosensory predator (blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus) in clear and turbid water (0 and ∼100 nephelometric turbidity units). Feeding assays were conducted with two prey items, mud crabs (Panopeus spp.) that rely heavily on chemoreception to detect predators, and brown shrimp (Farfantepenaus aztecus) that use both chemical and visual cues for predator detection. Because turbidity reduced pinfish foraging on both mud crabs and shrimp, the changes in predation rates are likely driven by turbidity attenuating fish foraging ability and not by affecting prey vulnerability to fish consumers. Blue crab foraging was unaffected by turbidity, and blue crabs were able to successfully consume nearly all mud crab and shrimp prey. Turbidity can influence predator-prey interactions by reducing the feeding efficiency of visual predators, providing a competitive advantage to chemosensory predators, and altering top-down control in food webs. PMID:26401444

  18. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation.

  19. "Library Anxiety" and "Computer Anxiety": Measures, Validity, and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, J. Ann; Meyer, Linda S.; Kordinak, S. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of library anxiety and computer anxiety focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated the construct validity of the Computer Anxiety Index and the Library Anxiety Scale. Explains the use of the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) Anxiety Scale for the criterion measure of anxiety. (Author/LRW)

  20. Pou2f3/Skn-1a Is Necessary for the Generation or Differentiation of Solitary Chemosensory Cells in the Anterior Nasal Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; YAMASHITA, Junpei; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Hirota, Junji; Matsumoto, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Solitary chemosensory cells in the non-neuronal epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity have bitter taste cell-like molecular characteristics and are involved in the detection of noxious substances. Here, we demonstrate that Pou2f3/Skn-1a, which is necessary for generation of sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells, is also necessary for the generation or differentiation of solitary chemosensory cells.

  1. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  2. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  3. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  4. Prenatal Psychobiological Predictors of Anxiety Risk in Preadolescent Children

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-chil...

  5. Genes encoding Cher-TPR fusion proteins are predominantly found in gene clusters encoding chemosensory pathways with alternative cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; García-Fontana, Cristina; Rico-Jiménez, Miriam; Alfonso, Carlos; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory pathways correspond to major signal transduction mechanisms and can be classified into the functional families flagellum-mediated taxis, type four pili-mediated taxis or pathways with alternative cellular functions (ACF). CheR methyltransferases are core enzymes in all of these families. CheR proteins fused to tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains have been reported and we present an analysis of this uncharacterized family. We show that CheR-TPRs are widely distributed in GRAM-negative but almost absent from GRAM-positive bacteria. Most strains contain a single CheR-TPR and its abundance does not correlate with the number of chemoreceptors. The TPR domain fused to CheR is comparatively short and frequently composed of 2 repeats. The majority of CheR-TPR genes were found in gene clusters that harbor multidomain response regulators in which the REC domain is fused to different output domains like HK, GGDEF, EAL, HPT, AAA, PAS, GAF, additional REC, HTH, phosphatase or combinations thereof. The response regulator architectures coincide with those reported for the ACF family of pathways. Since the presence of multidomain response regulators is a distinctive feature of this pathway family, we conclude that CheR-TPR proteins form part of ACF type pathways. The diversity of response regulator output domains suggests that the ACF pathways form a superfamily which regroups many different regulatory mechanisms, in which all CheR-TPR proteins appear to participate. In the second part we characterize WspC of Pseudomonas putida, a representative example of CheR-TPR. The affinities of WspC-Pp for S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were comparable to those of prototypal CheR, indicating that WspC-Pp activity is in analogy to prototypal CheRs controlled by product feed-back inhibition. The removal of the TPR domain did not impact significantly on the binding constants and consequently not on the product feed-back inhibition. WspC-Pp was found to be

  6. Genes encoding Cher-TPR fusion proteins are predominantly found in gene clusters encoding chemosensory pathways with alternative cellular functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Muñoz-Martínez

    Full Text Available Chemosensory pathways correspond to major signal transduction mechanisms and can be classified into the functional families flagellum-mediated taxis, type four pili-mediated taxis or pathways with alternative cellular functions (ACF. CheR methyltransferases are core enzymes in all of these families. CheR proteins fused to tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domains have been reported and we present an analysis of this uncharacterized family. We show that CheR-TPRs are widely distributed in GRAM-negative but almost absent from GRAM-positive bacteria. Most strains contain a single CheR-TPR and its abundance does not correlate with the number of chemoreceptors. The TPR domain fused to CheR is comparatively short and frequently composed of 2 repeats. The majority of CheR-TPR genes were found in gene clusters that harbor multidomain response regulators in which the REC domain is fused to different output domains like HK, GGDEF, EAL, HPT, AAA, PAS, GAF, additional REC, HTH, phosphatase or combinations thereof. The response regulator architectures coincide with those reported for the ACF family of pathways. Since the presence of multidomain response regulators is a distinctive feature of this pathway family, we conclude that CheR-TPR proteins form part of ACF type pathways. The diversity of response regulator output domains suggests that the ACF pathways form a superfamily which regroups many different regulatory mechanisms, in which all CheR-TPR proteins appear to participate. In the second part we characterize WspC of Pseudomonas putida, a representative example of CheR-TPR. The affinities of WspC-Pp for S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were comparable to those of prototypal CheR, indicating that WspC-Pp activity is in analogy to prototypal CheRs controlled by product feed-back inhibition. The removal of the TPR domain did not impact significantly on the binding constants and consequently not on the product feed-back inhibition. WspC-Pp was

  7. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  8. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yong-Jun; Dong Shuang-Lin; Fang Shao-Qing; Zhang Lan; He Peng; Xu Ya-Long; Li Fei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined ...

  9. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expr...

  10. MEK Inhibitors Reverse cAMP-Mediated Anxiety in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Pia R.; Anastasaki, Corina; Grant, Nicola J.;

    2015-01-01

    Altered phosphodiesterase (PDE)-cyclic AMP (cAMP) activity is frequently associated with anxiety disorders, but current therapies act by reducing neuronal excitability rather than targeting PDE-cAMP-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we report the novel repositioning of anti-cancer MEK inhibitors...... as anxiolytics in a zebrafish model of anxiety-like behaviors. PDE inhibitors or activators of adenylate cyclase cause behaviors consistent with anxiety in larvae and adult zebrafish. Small-molecule screening identifies MEK inhibitors as potent suppressors of cAMP anxiety behaviors in both larvae and adult...... zebrafish, while causing no anxiolytic behavioral effects on their own. The mechanism underlying cAMP-induced anxiety is via crosstalk to activation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. We propose that targeting crosstalk signaling pathways can be an effective strategy for mental health disorders, and advance...

  11. Family size evolution in Drosophila chemosensory gene families: a comparative analysis with a critical appraisal of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francisca C; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Campos, Jose Luis; Rozas, Julio

    2014-07-01

    Gene turnover rates and the evolution of gene family sizes are important aspects of genome evolution. Here, we use curated sequence data of the major chemosensory gene families from Drosophila-the gustatory receptor, odorant receptor, ionotropic receptor, and odorant-binding protein families-to conduct a comparative analysis among families, exploring different methods to estimate gene birth and death rates, including an ad hoc simulation study. Remarkably, we found that the state-of-the-art methods may produce very different rate estimates, which may lead to disparate conclusions regarding the evolution of chemosensory gene family sizes in Drosophila. Among biological factors, we found that a peculiarity of D. sechellia's gene turnover rates was a major source of bias in global estimates, whereas gene conversion had negligible effects for the families analyzed herein. Turnover rates vary considerably among families, subfamilies, and ortholog groups although all analyzed families were quite dynamic in terms of gene turnover. Computer simulations showed that the methods that use ortholog group information appear to be the most accurate for the Drosophila chemosensory families. Most importantly, these results reveal the potential of rate heterogeneity among lineages to severely bias some turnover rate estimation methods and the need of further evaluating the performance of these methods in a more diverse sampling of gene families and phylogenetic contexts. Using branch-specific codon substitution models, we find further evidence of positive selection in recently duplicated genes, which attests to a nonneutral aspect of the gene birth-and-death process. PMID:24951565

  12. Chemosensory communication of gender information: Masculinity bias in body odor perception and femininity bias introduced by chemosignals during social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana eMutic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes and affective introspection (mood by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in association with both male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication.

  13. Comparative genomics of chemosensory protein genes reveals rapid evolution and positive selection in ant-specific duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, J; Wurm, Y; Pamilo, P

    2013-06-01

    Gene duplications can have a major role in adaptation, and gene families underlying chemosensation are particularly interesting due to their essential role in chemical recognition of mates, predators and food resources. Social insects add yet another dimension to the study of chemosensory genomics, as the key components of their social life rely on chemical communication. Still, chemosensory gene families are little studied in social insects. Here we annotated chemosensory protein (CSP) genes from seven ant genomes and studied their evolution. The number of functional CSP genes ranges from 11 to 21 depending on species, and the estimated rates of gene birth and death indicate high turnover of genes. Ant CSP genes include seven conservative orthologous groups present in all the ants, and a group of genes that has expanded independently in different ant lineages. Interestingly, the expanded group of genes has a differing mode of evolution from the orthologous groups. The expanded group shows rapid evolution as indicated by a high dN/dS (nonsynonymous to synonymous changes) ratio, several sites under positive selection and many pseudogenes, whereas the genes in the seven orthologous groups evolve slowly under purifying selection and include only one pseudogene. These results show that adaptive changes have played a role in ant CSP evolution. The expanded group of ant-specific genes is phylogenetically close to a conservative orthologous group CSP7, which includes genes known to be involved in ant nestmate recognition, raising an interesting possibility that the expanded CSPs function in ant chemical communication. PMID:23403962

  14. A review of chemosensory perceptions, food preferences and food-related behaviours in subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Haqq, Andrea M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2016-04-01

    Hyperphagia and obsessive preoccupation with food are hallmark characteristics of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Although hyperphagia in PWS is linked to hypothalamic dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms behind this problem are poorly understood. Moreover, our understanding of how chemosensory perceptions and food choice/preferences relate to hyperphagia in individuals with PWS is very limited. This narrative review synthesizes studies that assessed chemosensory perceptions, food choices and food-related behaviours in PWS individuals and highlights knowledge gaps in research for further exploration. Twenty seven publications from relevant databases met inclusion criteria and were organized thematically by study technique in the review. Results suggested that PWS individuals have consistent preferences for sweet tastes and in most studies have exhibited a preference for calorie-dense foods over lower calorie foods. No firm conclusions were drawn concerning the chemosensory perceptions of PWS individuals and their influence on food preferences or choices; chemosensation among PWS individuals is an understudied topic. Current evidence suggests that eating behaviour in PWS is a complex phenomenon that involves a dysfunctional satiation and not excessive hunger. Food preferences, choices, and related behaviours and the impact of these on obesity management in those with PWS remain poorly understood and require further study using validated tools and methodologies. PMID:26713776

  15. Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

  16. Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M

    1997-01-23

    In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features.

  17. Chemosensory proteins of the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana: Identification, tissue distribution and olfactory related functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Liang; Ni, Cui-Xia; Tan, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Ya; Hu, Fu-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs), a class of small soluble proteins, are thought to be involved in insect chemoreceptive behavior. Here, six CSP genes, AcerCSP1-6 from Apis cerana, were cloned and characterized from worker bees' antennae. Results revealed that the AcerCSPs' amino acid sequences shared high similarity with the homologous genes of Apis mellifera, but low similarity with other insect species. Compared with corresponding CSPs of A. mellifera, AcerCSPs (1, 3, 4, and 6) exhibit quite similar gene expression profiling. On the contrary, AcerCSP2 showed a higher expression level in the forager antennae and legs than CSP2 of A. mellifera. Furthermore, AcerCSP5 was not specifically expressed in larvae, unlike CSP5 of A. mellifera. In a ligand-binding assay, AcerCSP1 and AcerCSP2, which exhibited the highest expression in antennae of A. cerana, had a stronger affinity with candidate floral chemicals and pheromones than AcerCSP4, the results of which was supported by docking analysis, suggesting that the relevance of them with A. cerana olfactory functions. Taken together, these results suggest that despite the quasi-similarity of protein sequences between A. cerana and A. mellifera, differences in tissue expression and functional characteristics between the two species still exist, indicating that homologous proteins potentially perform different tasks even in related species. PMID:26773657

  18. Functional Characteristics of a Novel Chemosensory Protein in the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-tao; WANG Wei-xuan; ZHANG Zi-ding; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    A chemosensory protein named HarmCSP5 in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was obtained from antennal cDNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated that HarmCSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae but also expressed in female legs and wings. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant HarmCSP5 to 60 odor molecules including some cotton volatiles. The resules showed that HarmCSP5 showed strong binding abilities to 4-ehtylbenzaldehyde and 3,4-dimethlbenz aldehyde, whereas methyl phenylacetate, 2-decanone, 1-pentanol, carvenol, isoborneol, nerolidol, 2-nonanone and ethyl heptanoate have relatively weak binding affinity. Moreover, the predicted 3D model of HarmCSP5 consists of sixα-helices located among residues 33-38 (α1), 40-48 (α2), 62-72 (α3), 80-96 (α4), 98-108 (α5), and 116-119 (α6), two pairs of disulfide bridges Cys49-Cys55, Cys75-Cys78. The two amino acid residues, Ile94 and Trp101, may play crucial roles in HarmCSP5 binding with ligands and need further study for confirmation.

  19. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhao

    Full Text Available Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury, an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions.

  20. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanni; Wang, Fengzhu; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhang, Suhua; Guo, Shilong; Zhu, Gengping; Liu, Qiang; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury), an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions. PMID:26841106

  1. Oxidative stress and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal ...

  2. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, “normal anxiety” does not equal “pathological anxiety” although many phenomena are evident in ...

  3. MicroRNA Regulators of Anxiety and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Chanan; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Soreq, Hermona

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety-related and metabolic disorders are under intense research focus. Anxiety-induced microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as regulators that are not only capable of suppressing inflammation but can also induce metabolic syndrome-related processes. We summarize here evidence linking miRNA pathways which share regulatory networks in metabolic and anxiety-related conditions. In particular, miRNAs involved in these disorders include regulators of acetylcholine signaling in the nervous system and their accompanying molecular machinery. These have been associated with anxiety-prone states in individuals, while also acting as inflammatory suppressors. In peripheral tissues, altered miRNA pathways can lead to dysregulated metabolism. Common pathways in metabolic and anxiety-related phenomena might offer an opportunity to reclassify 'healthy' and 'unhealthy', as well as metabolic and anxiety-prone biological states, and inform putative strategies to treat these disorders. PMID:27496210

  4. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.

  5. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definitionof anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers andlearners.

  6. Electrocardiographic anxiety profiles improve speech anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seung Ae; Jung, Keun-Hwa

    2012-12-01

    The present study was to set out in efforts to determine the effect of electrocardiographic (ECG) feedback on the performance in speech anxiety. Forty-six high school students participated in a speech performance educational program. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group with ECG feedback (N = 21) and a control group (N = 25). Feedback was given with video recording in the control, whereas in the experimental group, an additional ECG feedback was provided. Speech performance was evaluated by the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) speech ability test, which determines the 10 different speaking categories. ECG was recorded during rest and speech, together with a video recording of the speech performance. Changes in R-R intervals were used to reflect anxiety profiles. Three trials were performed for 3-week program. Results showed that the subjects with ECG feedback revealed a significant improvement in speech performance and anxiety states, which compared to those in the control group. These findings suggest that visualization of the anxiety profile feedback with ECG can be a better cognitive therapeutic strategy in speech anxiety. PMID:22714138

  7. Anxiety in Children with Headaches

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Vulić-Prtorić; Slavka Galić; Renata Coha; Marina Grubić; Josip Lopižić; Patricija Padelin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different aspects of anxiety symptoms: separation anxiety, social anxiety, test anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, worry, anxiety sensitivity, somatic symptoms in four groups of subjects: 1) children with headaches in pediatric care, 2) nonclinical headachers, 3) subjects with anxiety disorders, and 4) healthy controls. The sample consisted of 187 schoolchildren: 43 patients with headaches as a primary complaint, 59 headachers recruited from th...

  8. Chemosensation of bacterial secondary metabolites modulates neuroendocrine signaling and behavior of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Joshua D; Panda, Oishika; Mahanti, Parag; Schroeder, Frank C; Kim, Dennis H

    2014-10-01

    Discrimination between pathogenic and beneficial microbes is essential for host organism immunity and homeostasis. Here, we show that chemosensory detection of two secondary metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates a neuroendocrine signaling pathway that promotes avoidance behavior in the simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans. Secondary metabolites phenazine-1-carboxamide and pyochelin activate a G-protein-signaling pathway in the ASJ chemosensory neuron pair that induces expression of the neuromodulator DAF-7/TGF-β. DAF-7, in turn, activates a canonical TGF-β signaling pathway in adjacent interneurons to modulate aerotaxis behavior and promote avoidance of pathogenic P. aeruginosa. Our data provide a chemical, genetic, and neuronal basis for how the behavior and physiology of a simple animal host can be modified by the microbial environment and suggest that secondary metabolites produced by microbes may provide environmental cues that contribute to pathogen recognition and host survival. PMID:25303524

  9. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  10. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...

  11. Is pregnancy anxiety a distinctive syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Robles de Medina, P.G.R.; Visser, G.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of general anxiety during pregnancy may underestimate anxiety specifically related to pregnancy. Pregnancy anxiety rather than general anxiety has been shown to predict birth outcome and neuroendocrine changes during pregnancy. Therefore, a questionnaire on pregnancy anxieties

  12. Age-related trends in gene expression in the chemosensory-nasal mucosae of senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Thomas V; Peng, Xuejun; Stromberg, Arnold J; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Paul Green, C; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Shah, Dharmen S; Mattson, Mark P; Getchell, Marilyn L

    2003-04-01

    We have utilized high-density GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays to investigate the use of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) as a biogerontological resource to identify patterns of gene expression in the chemosensory-nasal mucosa. Gene profiling in chronologically young and old mice of the senescence-resistant (SAMR) and senescence-prone (SAMP) strains revealed 133 known genes that were modulated by a three-fold or greater change either in one strain or the other or in both strains during aging. We also identified known genes in our study which based on their encoded proteins were identified as aging-related genes in the aging neocortex and cerebellum of mice as reported by Lee et al. (2000) [Nat. Genet. 25 (2000) 294]. Changes in gene profiles for chemosensory-related genes including olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, sensory transduction-associated proteins, and odor and pheromone transport molecules in the young SAMR and SAMP were compared with age-matched C57BL/6J mice. An analysis of known gene expression profiles suggests that changes in the expression of immune factor genes and genes associated with cell cycle progression and cell death were particularly prominent in the old SAM strains. A preliminary cellular validation study supported the dysregulation of cell cycle-related genes in the old SAM strains. The results of our initial study indicated that the use of the SAM models of aging could provide substantive information leading to a more fundamental understanding of the aging process in the chemosensory-nasal mucosa at the genomic, molecular, and cellular levels. PMID:12605961

  13. [Separation anxiety. Theoretical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, N; Parquet, P J; Bailly, D

    1994-01-01

    The interest in separation anxiety is nowadays increasing: this disorder appearing during childhood may predispose to the occurrence of anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and agoraphobia) and major depression into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theories differ on the nature of separation anxiety and its place in child development. For some authors, separation anxiety must be understood as resulting from the unconscious internal conflicts inherent in the individuation process and gradual attainment of autonomy. From this point of view, the fear of loss of mother by separation is not regarded as resulting from a real danger. However, Freud considers the primary experience of separation from protecting mother as the prototype situation of anxiety and compares the situations generating fear to separation experiences. For him, anxiety originates from two factors: the physiological fact is initiated at the time of birth but the primary traumatic situation is the separation from mother. This point of view may be compared with behavioral theories. Behavioral theories suggest that separation anxiety may be conditioned or learned from innate fears. In Freud's theory, the primary situation of anxiety resulting from the separation from mother plays a role comparable to innate fears. Grappling with the problem of separation anxiety, Bowlby emphasizes then the importance of the child's attachment to one person (mother or primary caregiver) and the fact that this attachment is instinctive. This point of view, based on the watch of infants, is akin to ethological theories on behaviour of non human primates. Bowlby especially shows that the reactions of infant separated from mother evolve on three stages: the phase of protestation which may constitute the prototype of adulthood anxiety, the phase of desperation which may be the prototype of depression, and the phase of detachment. He emphasizes so the role of early separations in the development of vulnerability to depression

  14. Genetic Analysis of the Regulation of Type IV Pilus Function by the Chp Chemosensory System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Jacob J.; West, Joyce T.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2009-01-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the coordinate expression of many virulence factors, including type IV pili, which are required for colonization of host tissues and for twitching motility. Type IV pilus function is controlled in part by the Chp chemosensory system, which includes a histidine kinase, ChpA, and two CheY-like response regulators, PilG and PilH. How the Chp components interface with the type IV pilus motor proteins PilB, PilT, and PilU ...

  15. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  16. CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM IN ANXIETY AND ANXIETY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Roy J.

    1994-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are some of the commonest psychiatric disorders and anxiety commonly co-exists with other psychiatric conditions. Anxiety can also be a normal emotion. Thus, study of the neurobiological effects of anxiety is of considerable significance. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMR) serve as indices of brain function. CBF/CMR research is expected to provide new insight into alterations in brain function in anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disord...

  17. [Semeiology of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M

    1983-01-01

    The difference of concept between somatic anxiety (" angoisse ") and psychic anxiety (" anxi été") as it was considered by authors in the past, has now fallen into disuse. However, it is worth considering this difference on the basis of the recent data relative to the selective effect that certain antidepressant drugs may have on panic attacks, while they have no effect on the basic anxiety. Consequently, a new nosography could then be considered in function of several factors: the reaction to imipramine, the preponderance in the disorders of their acuity and of the somatic impact, the spontaneous appearance of these same disorders.

  18. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  19. Foreign and Second Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…

  20. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoxia; Ma, Hongmei; Xie, Hongyan; Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Fan, Zhongxue; Rajashekar, Balaji; Arnaud, Philippe; Offmann, Bernard; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1) was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde). This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity. PMID:27167733

  1. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoxia; Ma, Hongmei; Xie, Hongyan; Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Fan, Zhongxue; Rajashekar, Balaji; Arnaud, Philippe; Offmann, Bernard; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1) was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde). This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity. PMID:27167733

  2. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  3. Parenting and Social Anxiety: Fathers' versus Mothers' Influence on Their Children's Anxiety in Ambiguous Social Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogels, Susan; Stevens, Juliette; Majdandzic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of parenting in child social anxiety was examined in an information processing experiment. We tested the relative weight that children in general, and high versus low socially anxious children in particular, put on fathers' versus mothers' signal about whether a social situation is safe or a threat. Method: Children aged 8-12…

  4. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child experiences anxiety when separated from the primary caregiver (usually the mother). ... Excessive distress when separated from the primary caregiver ... of separation Reluctance to go to sleep without the primary ...

  5. Anxiety Around Medical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  6. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... expect. For instance, a person who has generalized anxiety disorder may constantly worry about a child who is perfectly healthy. About 4 million adults in the United States have GAD. Women are ...

  7. SOCIAL ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Avakyan, Tamara; Volikova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanag...

  8. Anxiety and DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Kupfer, David J

    2015-01-01

    The DSM-5 process, and the publication of DSM-5 in 2013, have had a considerable impact on the classification of anxiety disorders. Major changes included the reorganization of the chapter structure, individual groupings of disorders within each chapter from a life span viewpoint, and the use of specifiers. The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders does not include obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The chapter itself now reflects a developmental approach. The text ...

  9. Expression profiling of prospero in the Drosophila larval chemosensory organ: Between growth and outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharijaona Mahatsangy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antenno-maxilary complex (AMC forms the chemosensory system of the Drosophila larva and is involved in gustatory and olfactory perception. We have previously shown that a mutant allele of the homeodomain transcription factor Prospero (prosVoila1, V1, presents several developmental defects including abnormal growth and altered taste responses. In addition, many neural tracts connecting the AMC to the central nervous system (CNS were affected. Our earlier reports on larval AMC did not argue in favour of a role of pros in cell fate decision, but strongly suggested that pros could be involved in the control of other aspect of neuronal development. In order to identify these functions, we used microarray analysis of larval AMC and CNS tissue isolated from the wild type, and three other previously characterised prospero alleles, including the V1 mutant, considered as a null allele for the AMC. Results A total of 17 samples were first analysed with hierarchical clustering. To determine those genes affected by loss of pros function, we calculated a discriminating score reflecting the differential expression between V1 mutant and other pros alleles. We identified a total of 64 genes in the AMC. Additional manual annotation using all the computed information on the attributed role of these genes in the Drosophila larvae nervous system, enabled us to identify one functional category of potential Prospero target genes known to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic transmission and more specifically in neuronal connectivity remodelling. The second category of genes found to be differentially expressed between the null mutant AMC and the other alleles concerned the development of the sensory organs and more particularly the larval olfactory system. Surprisingly, a third category emerged from our analyses and suggests an association of pros with the genes that regulate autophagy, growth and insulin pathways. Interestingly, EGFR and

  10. The impact of chemosensory and food-related changes in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer treated with capecitabine and oxaliplatin: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.C.; Helmich, M.P.A.C.; Karsten, Matty; Boesveldt, S.; Winkels, R.M.; Laarhoven, van H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chemosensory changes are frequently observed side
    effects of cytotoxic treatment and have an impact on daily life
    by altering food-related behaviour and daily practices. For
    oesophagogastric cancer patients, these changes can be particularly
    important as they may have specifi

  11. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Stockton, Dara; Meikle, William G; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Adamczyk, John J

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid's host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid's primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal. PMID:26462949

  12. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Patt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid’s primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal.

  13. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Stockton, Dara; Meikle, William G; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Adamczyk, John J

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid's host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid's primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal.

  14. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that ...

  15. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce Your Anxiety Anxiety and Stress in the Workplace Exercise for Stress and Anxiety ...

  16. Death Anxiety as a Function of Aging Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…

  17. Statistics Anxiety, State Anxiety during an Examination, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…

  18. Anxiety Disorders Information: Helping Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  19. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  20. Influence of drilling muds on the primary chemosensory neurons in walking legs of the lobster, Homarus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of whole drilling muds on the normal activity of walking leg chemosensory neurons of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were examined using extracellular neurophysiological recording techniques. Exposure of legs for 3-5 min to 10 mg/L drilling mud suspended in seawater altered responses to food odors of 29% of the chemoreceptors examined (data pooled for the two drilling muds tested); similar exposure to 100 mg/L drilling mud resulted in interference with 44% of all receptors studied. The effects of both of these concentrations are statistically significant, although they are not different from each other. Interference was usually manifested as a marked reduction in the number of action potentials in a response. In one preparation, the exposure to drilling mud caused a change in the temporal pattern of the spikes without affecting the total number of spikes. Other chemosensory neurons were excited by 10 mg/L drilling mud itself. However, not all chemoreceptors are inhibited by these drilling muds since responses to feeding stimuli were recorded from the legs of lobsters that had been exposed to drilling mud for 4-8 d before the neurophysiological experiments. Antennular and leg chemoreceptors are important in eliciting normal feeding behavior in lobsters. Although behavioral assays have demonstrated that feeding behavior is altered following exposure to drilling muds and petroleum fractions, there is no conclusive proof for a causal relationship between chemoreceptor interference and behavior deficits. The two techniques complement each other as pollution detection assays, perhaps reflecting a common interference mechanism. 42 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana eTuchina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans.

  2. Oxidative Imbalance and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-ind...

  3. Factors That Explains Student Anxiety toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; Moreno-García, Elena; Santana-Villegas, Josefina del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to test whether anxiety toward mathematics is made up of a five-factor structure: anxiety toward evaluation, anxiety toward temporality, anxiety toward understanding of mathematical problems, anxiety toward numbers and operations, and anxiety toward mathematical situations in real life. Our study sample was formed of…

  4. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  5. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  6. Anxiety in foreign language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  7. Anxiety and Charles Bonnet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geueke, Anna; Morley, Michael G.; Morley, Katharine; Lorch, Alice; Jackson, MaryLou; Lambrou, Angeliki; Wenberg, June; Oteng-Amoako, Afua

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Some persons with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) suffer significant anxiety because of their visual hallucinations, while others do not. The aim of the study presented here was to compare levels of anxiety in persons with low vision with and without CBS. Methods: This retrospective study compared the level of anxiety in 31 persons…

  8. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  9. Mobile Computer Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Patricia Brisotti

    2012-01-01

    As the basis of a society undergoes a fundamental change, such as progression from the industrial age to the knowledge/information age, the massive change affects every aspect of life. Change causes stress in individuals that often manifest itself as anxiety. Using an economic model of the endogenous growth, which includes technology as input,…

  10. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  11. Managing Presentation Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jackie L.; LeMay, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    All business communication professors struggle with anxiety-ridden students when discussing public speaking. To alleviate students' fears of speaking in public a process was designed to allow business communication students to acknowledge, address, and annul their presentation fears. A six-year comparative study using qualitative methods and…

  12. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...

  13. Wedges of Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  14. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were...

  15. Signal processing at mammalian carotid body chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Colin A; Piskuric, Nikol A

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian carotid bodies are richly vascularized chemosensory organs that sense blood levels of O(2), CO(2)/H(+), and glucose and maintain homeostatic regulation of these levels via the reflex control of ventilation. Carotid bodies consist of innervated clusters of type I (or glomus) cells in intimate association with glial-like type II cells. Carotid bodies make afferent connections with fibers from sensory neurons in the petrosal ganglia and receive efferent inhibitory innervation from parasympathetic neurons located in the carotid sinus and glossopharyngeal nerves. There are synapses between type I (chemosensory) cells and petrosal afferent terminals, as well as between neighboring type I cells. There is a broad array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors in the carotid body. This allows for complex processing of sensory stimuli (e.g., hypoxia and acid hypercapnia) involving both autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. This review summarizes and evaluates current knowledge of these pathways and presents an integrated working model on information processing in carotid bodies. Included in this model is a novel hypothesis for a potential role of type II cells as an amplifier for the release of a key excitatory carotid body neurotransmitter, ATP, via P2Y purinoceptors and pannexin-1 channels.

  16. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter; Allen, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The ...

  17. Naturalistic Enactment to Elicit and Recognize Caregiver State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Darien; Favela, Jesus; Ibarra, Catalina; Cruz, Netzahualcoyotl

    2016-09-01

    Caring for people with dementia imposes significant stress on family members and caregivers. Often, these informal caregivers have no coping strategy to deal with these behaviors. Anxiety and stress episodes are often triggered by problematic behaviors exhibited by the person who suffers from dementia. Detecting these behaviors could help them in dealing with them and reduce caregiver burden. However, work on anxiety detection using physiological signals has mostly been done under controlled conditions. In this paper we describe an experiment aimed at inducing anxiety among caregivers of people with dementia under naturalistic conditions. We report an experiment, using the naturalistic enactment technique, in which 10 subjects were asked to care for an older adult who acts as if she experiences dementia. We record physiological signals from the participants (GSR, HR, EEG) during the sessions that lasted for approximately 30 min. We explain how we obtained ground truth from self-report and observation data. We conducted two different tests using the Support Vector Machine technique. We obtained an average precision of 77.8 % and 38.1 % recall when classifying two different possible states: "Anxious" and "Not anxious". Analysis of the data provides evidence that the experiment elicits state anxiety and that it can be detected using wearable sensors. Furthermore, if episodes of problematic behaviors can also be detected, the recognition of anxiety in the caregiver can be improved, leading to the enactment of appropriate interventions to help caregivers cope with anxiety episodes. PMID:27443338

  18. Using decision models to decompose anxiety-related bias in threat classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey N; Skokin, Kimberly; Carlos, Brandon; Weaver, Alexandria

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with high levels of anxiety show preferential processing of threatening information, and this cognitive bias is thought to be an integral component of anxiety disorders. In threat classification tasks, this bias manifests as high-anxiety participants being more likely to classify stimuli as threatening than their low-anxiety counterparts. However, it is unclear which cognitive mechanisms drive this bias in threat classification. To better understand this phenomenon, threat classification data were analyzed with 2 decision models: a signal detection model and a drift-diffusion model. Signal detection models can dissociate measures of discriminability and bias, and diffusion models can further dissociate bias due to response preparation from bias due to stimulus evaluation. Individuals in the study completed a trait anxiety measure and classified threatening and neutral words based on whether they deemed them threatening. Signal detection analysis showed that high-anxiety participants had a bias driven by a weaker threat criterion than low-anxiety participants, but no differences in discriminability. Drift-diffusion analysis further decomposed the threat bias to show that it is driven by both an expectation bias that the threat response was more likely to be correct, and a stimulus bias driven by a weaker criterion for evaluating the stimuli under consideration. These model-based analyses provide valuable insight and show that multiple cognitive mechanisms underlie differential threat processing in anxiety. Implications for theories of anxiety are discussed.

  19. Taste signaling elements expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells regulate nutrient-responsive secretion of gut hormones1234

    OpenAIRE

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Mosinger, Bedrich; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the receptors and downstream signaling elements involved in taste detection and transduction are also expressed in enteroendocrine cells where they underlie the chemosensory functions of the gut. In one well-known example of gastrointestinal chemosensation (the “incretin effect”), it is known that glucose that is given orally, but not systemically, induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (the incretin hormones), which in turn regulate ...

  20. Death and Death Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam

    2012-01-01

    Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...

  1. Chemosensory cues affect amygdaloid neurogenesis and alter behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Jia, X; Curtis, J T; Meredith, M; Wang, Z X

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of pheromonal exposure on adult neurogenesis and revealed the role of the olfactory pathways on adult neurogenesis and behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Subjects were injected with a cell proliferation marker [5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] and then exposed to their own soiled bedding or bedding soiled by a same- or opposite-sex conspecific. Exposure to opposite-sex bedding increased BrdU labeling in the amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus (DG), of female, but not male, voles, indicating a sex-, stimulus-, and brain region-specific effect. The removal of the main olfactory bulbs or lesioning of the vomeronasal organ (VNOX) in females reduced BrdU labeling in the AMY and DG, and inhibited the male bedding-induced BrdU labeling in the AMY, revealing the importance of an intact olfactory pathway for amygdaloid neurogenesis. VNOX increased anxiety-like behavior and altered social preference, but it did not affect social recognition memory in female voles. VNOX also reduced the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that co-expressed the neuronal marker TuJ1 in the AMY, but not the DG. Together, our data indicate the importance of the olfactory pathway in mediating brain plasticity in the limbic system as well as its role in behavior. PMID:24641515

  2. Creating Low-anxiety Learning Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘若芸

    2008-01-01

    Researches show that language class can be anxiety-provoking for students. This paper discusses from a general explanations of language anxiety, to five potential sources of students for language anxiety, to an argument of ways in which anxiety is manifested in learners, and finally to list of suggestions for reducing anxiety.

  3. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  4. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health. PMID:27671918

  5. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  6. Neurobiology of Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Patino, Luis R.; Doyle, Christopher D.; Picard, Lara S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    While the fear-based anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and separation anxiety disorder) are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents, only recently has an integrated understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders developed. In this regard, both structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities within the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in youth with fear-based anxi...

  7. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  8. Marine snow, organic solute plumes, and optimal chemosensory behavior of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jackson, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Leaking organic solutes form an elongated plume in the wake of a sinking aggregate. These solutes may both be assimilated by suspended bacteria and guide bacteria with chemokinetic swimming behavior toward the aggregate. We used modifications of previously published models of the flow...... signal integration time. For a run-and-tumble swimming behavior, the predicted tumbling frequency is between 1 and 10 s(-1), similar to that reported for marine bacteria. The predicted optimal sensitivity to chemical signals is similar to or greater than that known for Escherichia coli. The optimal...

  9. Mindfulness-based therapy for social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Bockstaele; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, a wealth of evidence has accumulated indicating that cognitive processes, such as attention for unwanted stimuli or sensations and the negative interpretation of ambiguous signals, are critically involved in the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Alt

  10. Expression Analysis and Binding Assays in the Chemosensory Protein Gene Family Indicate Multiple Roles in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Jing; Cui, Jin-Jie; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. We identified and cloned 24 CSP genes to better understand the physiological function of CSPs in Helicoverpa armigera. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays indicate that CSP genes are ubiquitously expressed in adult H. armigera tissues. Broad expression patterns in adult tissues suggest that CSPs are involved in a diverse range of cellular processes, including chemosensation as well as other functions not related to chemosensation. The H. armigera CSPs that were highly transcribed in sensory organs or pheromone glands (HarmCSPs 6, 9, 18, 19), were recombinantly expressed in bacteria to explore their function. Fluorescent competitive binding assays were used to measure the binding affinities of these CSPs against 85 plant volatiles and 4 pheromone components. HarmCSP6 displays high binding affinity for pheromone components, whereas the other three proteins do not show affinities for any of the compounds tested. HarmCSP6 is expressed in numerous cells located in or close to long sensilla trichodea on the antennae of both males and females. These results suggest that HarmCSP6 may be involved in transporting female sex pheromones in H. armigera. PMID:25893790

  11. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior.

  12. Parenting and social anxiety: fathers’ versus mothers’ influence on their children’s anxiety in ambiguous social situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bögels; J. Stevens; M. Majdandzic

    2010-01-01

    Background:  The role of parenting in child social anxiety was examined in an information processing experiment. We tested the relative weight that children in general, and high versus low socially anxious children in particular, put on fathers’ versus mothers’ signal about whether a social situatio

  13. Parenting and social anxiety: fathers’ versus mothers’ influence on their children’s anxiety in ambiguous social situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bögels; J. Stevens; M. Majdandžić

    2011-01-01

    The role of parenting in child social anxiety was examined in an information processing experiment. We tested the relative weight that children in general, and high versus low socially anxious children in particular, put on fathers' versus mothers' signal about whether a social situation is safe or

  14. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Print Email Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients ACHE Newsletter Sign ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, ...

  15. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety in Migraine Patients Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, PhD and Steven M. ... health care provider if you experience these symptoms. Migraine, Depression, and Anxiety Many migraine patients suffer from ...

  16. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...

  17. Computer Anxiety: How to Measure It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of five scales that are used to measure computer anxiety: Computer Anxiety Index, Computer Anxiety Scale, Computer Attitude Scale, Attitudes toward Computers, and Blombert-Erickson-Lowrey Computer Attitude Task. Includes background information and scale specifics. (JOW)

  18. Interpopulational Variations in Sexual Chemical Signals of Iberian Wall Lizards May Allow Maximizing Signal Efficiency under Different Climatic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín

    Full Text Available Sexual signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve to maximize efficacy under a given climatic condition. Thus, chemical secretions of lizards might evolve in the evolutionary time to ensure that signals are perfectly tuned to local humidity and temperature conditions affecting their volatility and therefore their persistence and transmission through the environment. We tested experimentally whether interpopulational altitudinal differences in chemical composition of femoral gland secretions of male Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanicus have evolved to maximize efficacy of chemical signals in different environmental conditions. Chemical analyses first showed that the characteristics of chemical signals of male lizards differed between two populations inhabiting environments with different climatic conditions in spite of the fact that these two populations are closely related genetically. We also examined experimentally whether the temporal attenuation of the chemical stimuli depended on simulated climatic conditions. Thus, we used tongue-flick essays to test whether female lizards were able to detect male scent marks maintained under different conditions of temperature and humidity by chemosensory cues alone. Chemosensory tests showed that chemical signals of males had a lower efficacy (i.e. detectability and persistence when temperature and dryness increase, but that these effects were more detrimental for signals of the highest elevation population, which occupies naturally colder and more humid environments. We suggest that the abiotic environment may cause a selective pressure on the form and expression of sexual chemical signals. Therefore, interpopulational differences in chemical profiles of femoral secretions of male P. hispanicus lizards may reflect adaptation to maximize the efficacy of the chemical signal in different climates.

  19. A Review of Research on Language Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-jian

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review literature on language anxiety. It begins with a discussion of the concepts of general anxiety and language anxiety, and then continues with an introduction of the techniques for identifying language anxiety. Subsequently, litera-ture on the relationships of language anxiety to learner variables and language learning/using are covered. Finally the dispute and theories concerning language anxiety are presented.

  20. Analysis of test anxiety in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pantić Marina; Latas Milan; Obradović Danilo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to a...

  1. Ant nestmate and non-nestmate discrimination by a chemosensory sensillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mamiko; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Fujikawa, Kazuyo; Iwasaki, Masayuki; Yokohari, Fumio; Satoji, Yuji; Nisimura, Tomoyosi; Yamaoka, Ryohei

    2005-07-01

    In animal societies, chemical communication plays an important role in conflict and cooperation. For ants, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends produced by non-nestmates elicit overt aggression. We describe a sensory sensillum on the antennae of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus that functions in nestmate discrimination. This sensillum is multiporous and responds only to non-nestmate CHC blends. This suggests a role for a peripheral recognition mechanism in detecting colony-specific chemical signals. PMID:15947139

  2. Ant nestmate and non-nestmate discrimination by a chemosensory sensillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mamiko; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Fujikawa, Kazuyo; Iwasaki, Masayuki; Yokohari, Fumio; Satoji, Yuji; Nisimura, Tomoyosi; Yamaoka, Ryohei

    2005-07-01

    In animal societies, chemical communication plays an important role in conflict and cooperation. For ants, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends produced by non-nestmates elicit overt aggression. We describe a sensory sensillum on the antennae of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus that functions in nestmate discrimination. This sensillum is multiporous and responds only to non-nestmate CHC blends. This suggests a role for a peripheral recognition mechanism in detecting colony-specific chemical signals.

  3. Chemosensory receptors in tsetse flies provide link between chemical and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiga, Daniel; Obiero, George; Macharia, Rosaline; Mireji, Paul; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Tsetse flies survive in a variety of environments across tropical Africa, often rising to large numbers, despite their low birth rate of one offspring every seven to nine days. They use olfactory receptors to process chemical signals in their environments to find food, escape from predators, and locate suitable larviposition sites. We discuss the identification of odorant and gustatory receptors in Glossina morsitans morsitans and the role genomics could play in management of nuisance insects.

  4. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  5. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  6. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J. Smits; A.C. Berry; D. Rosenfield; M.B. Powers; E. Behar; M.W. Otto

    2008-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related conditio

  7. Anxiety and Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭蕾

    2014-01-01

    Learning a second language is a tough journey which can be hindered by many factors. Anxiety is one of them. In order to improve the learning effect and benefit the learners, it is of great necessity to study learners’ anxiety during the second language learning process.

  8. Afterlife Anxiety in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Steven K.

    Research has shown that the majority of Americans believe in the concept of life after death in some form. To investigate the effects of afterlife anxiety on wellness in the elderly, 293 Los Angeles elderly were interviewed. An afterlife anxiety measure and measures of physical and psychologial health were administered. Pearson correlations failed…

  9. Test Anxiety: Age Appropriate Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David B.; Driscoll, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers information on test anxiety reduction strategies from over thirty years of experience with clients of a variety of ages. Dr. Ross is from the College of Lake County. Dr. Driscoll is a private practitioner and Director of the American Test Anxieties Association. The purpose is to address age appropriate test anxiety…

  10. "Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…

  11. Depression, anxiety, hostility and hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Hirvonen, Toivo; Kvist, Mårten; Lertola, Kaarlo; Niemelä, Pirkko

    2005-09-01

    Sixty-five women (aged 32 - 54 yrs) were assessed at 2 months before to 8 months after total abdominal hysterectomy on four separate occasions. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity (MF), Likert scales and semantic differentials for psychological, somatic and sexual factors varied as assessment tools. High-dysphoric and low-dysphoric women were compared with regard to hysterectomy outcomes. Married nulliparae suffered from enhanced depression post-surgery. Pre-surgery anxiety, back pain and lack of dyspareunia contributed to post-surgery anxiety. Pre-surgery anxiety was related to life crises. Pre- and post-surgery hostility occurred in conjunction with poor sexual gratification. Post-hysterectomy health improved, but quality of sexual relationship was impaired. Partner support and knowledge counteracted hysterectomy aftermath. Post-hysterectomy symptoms constituted a continuum to pre-surgery signs of depression, anxiety or hostility.

  12. Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

  13. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  14. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  15. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  16. The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus genome reveals the early origin of several chemosensory receptor families in the vertebrate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ziping

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR, trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR, V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not been examined systematically in agnathan genomes. Results Petromyzon is the only extant jawless vertebrate whose genome has been sequenced. Known to be exquisitely sensitive to several classes of odorants, lampreys detect fewer amino acids and steroids than teleosts. This reduced number of detectable odorants is indicative of reduced numbers of CR gene families or a reduced number of genes within CR families, or both, in the sea lamprey. In the lamprey genome we identified a repertoire of 59 intact single-exon CR genes, including 27 OR, 28 TAAR, and four V1R-like genes. These three CR families were expressed in the olfactory organ of both parasitic and adult life stages. Conclusion An extensive search in the lamprey genome failed to identify potential orthologs or pseudogenes of the multi-exon V2R family that is greatly expanded in teleost genomes, but did find intact calcium-sensing receptors (CASR and intact metabotropic glutamate receptors (MGR. We conclude that OR and V1R arose in chordates after the cephalochordate-urochordate split, but before the diversification of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The advent and diversification of V2R genes from glutamate receptor-family G protein-coupled receptors, most likely the CASR, occurred after the agnathan-gnathostome divergence.

  17. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

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    Zhang Yong-Jun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined from 54 species covering eight Orders of Insecta. From these ESTs, 142 OBPs and 177 CSPs were identified, of which 117 OBPs and 129 CSPs are new. The complete open reading frames (ORFs of 88 OBPs and 123 CSPs were obtained by electronic elongation. We randomly chose 26 OBPs from eight species of insects, and 21 CSPs from four species for RT-PCR validation. Twenty two OBPs and 16 CSPs were confirmed by RT-PCR, proving the efficiency and reliability of the algorithm. Together with all family members obtained from the NCBI (OBPs or the UniProtKB (CSPs, 850 OBPs and 237 CSPs were analyzed for their structural characteristics and evolutionary relationship. Conclusions A large number of new OBPs and CSPs were found, providing the basis for deeper understanding of these proteins. In addition, the conserved motif and evolutionary analysis provide some new insights into the evolution of insect OBPs and CSPs. Motif pattern fine-tune the functions of OBPs and CSPs, leading to the minor difference in binding sex pheromone or plant volatiles in different insect Orders.

  18. The repertoire of olfactory C family G protein-coupled receptors in zebrafish: candidate chemosensory receptors for amino acids

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    Ngai John

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate odorant receptors comprise at least three types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs: the OR, V1R, and V2R/V2R-like receptors, the latter group belonging to the C family of GPCRs. These receptor families are thought to receive chemosensory information from a wide spectrum of odorant and pheromonal cues that influence critical animal behaviors such as feeding, reproduction and other social interactions. Results Using genome database mining and other informatics approaches, we identified and characterized the repertoire of 54 intact "V2R-like" olfactory C family GPCRs in the zebrafish. Phylogenetic analysis – which also included a set of 34 C family GPCRs from fugu – places the fish olfactory receptors in three major groups, which are related to but clearly distinct from other C family GPCRs, including the calcium sensing receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptors, GABA-B receptor, T1R taste receptors, and the major group of V2R vomeronasal receptor families. Interestingly, an analysis of sequence conservation and selective pressure in the zebrafish receptors revealed the retention of a conserved sequence motif previously shown to be required for ligand binding in other amino acid receptors. Conclusion Based on our findings, we propose that the repertoire of zebrafish olfactory C family GPCRs has evolved to allow the detection and discrimination of a spectrum of amino acid and/or amino acid-based compounds, which are potent olfactory cues in fish. Furthermore, as the major groups of fish receptors and mammalian V2R receptors appear to have diverged significantly from a common ancestral gene(s, these receptors likely mediate chemosensation of different classes of chemical structures by their respective organisms.

  19. Insights into the Origin of Nematode Chemosensory GPCRs : Putative Orthologs of the Srw Family Are Found across Several Phyla of Protostomes

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar Krishnan; Markus Sällman Almén; Robert Fredriksson; Helgi B Schiöth

    2014-01-01

    Nematode chemosensory GPCRs in Caenorhabditis elegans (NemChRs) are classified into 19 gene families, and are initially thought to have split from the ancestral Rhodopsin family of GPCRs. However, earlier studies have shown that among all 19 NemChR gene families, only the srw family has a clear sequence relationship to the ancestral Rhodopsin GPCR family. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between the srw family of NemChRs and the Rhodopsin subfamilies are not fully understood. Also, a wides...

  20. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  1. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called “Biomusic,” maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a “whooshing” embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify “anxious” or “relaxed” states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., biofeedback systems for anxiety management.

  2. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called "Biomusic," maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a "whooshing" embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify "anxious" or "relaxed" states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., information. Biomusic holds promise for monitoring, communication, and biofeedback systems for anxiety management. PMID:27625593

  3. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julia; Jennings, Alexandra K; Kowalski, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS), which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143) of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and disease. PMID

  4. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  5. The Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders

  6. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  7. Anxiety and EFL: Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2013-01-01

    The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…

  8. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  9. Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Guney

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…

  10. Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Tobacco Use, and Nicotine: A Critical Review of Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…

  11. Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Depression and Anxiety in Childhood:Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity and Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. M.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Woods, H.; Lester, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely consid...

  12. Modelling Anxiety in Humans for Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Siepmann, Martin; Joraschky, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Animal behavioural profiles are commonly employed to investigate new therapeutic agents to treat anxiety disorders as well as to investigate the mechanism of action of anxiolytic drugs. However, many clinically important symptoms of anxiety can not be modelled directly in animals. Human models of anxiety should bridge between animal models and anxiety disorders. Experimental anxiety states in humans can be induced by either pharmacological means such as CO2 inhalation or psychological means s...

  13. Familial aggregation of anxiety associated with bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    David Gorski

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper reports the co-occurrence of heritable anxiety-related disorders and awake bruxism in a family and discusses the heritability of anxiety and implications of awake bruxism as comorbidity to anxiety disorders. Subjects: Ten out of 14 members of an extended family reported having a professionally diagnosed anxiety-related disorder. All individuals with anxiety disorders also showed intraoral signs of wear from bruxism and reported being aware of grinding their teeth whi...

  14. Depression, Anxiety, and Arterial Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Seldenrijk; H.P.J. van Hout; H.W.J. van Marwijk; E. de Groot; J. Gort; C. Rustemeijer; M. Diamant; B.W.J.H. Penninx

    2011-01-01

    Background: Arterial stiffness gains attention as a potential mechanism underlying the frequently found association between depression or anxiety and cardiovascular disease. However, observations regarding stiffness and psychopathology were often based on small samples. The current study aimed to ex

  15. Effects of dance on anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesté, A; Rust, J

    1984-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of modern dance on anxiety. State anxiety was assessed before and after a 3-mo. education programme, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The target group followed a class in modern dance. Control groups were (1) a physical education group to control for the effects of exercise, (2) a music group to control for aesthetic sensitivity training, and (3) a mathematics group. Several concomitant variables were measured: age, sex, attitude towards dance, and previous experience in sport, dance, and relaxation. Dance training significantly reduced anxiety, but no control activities did so. Examination of the concomitant variables showed that the result could not be accounted for by any obvious artifacts. PMID:6473025

  16. Anxiety and Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍铃; 王劼

    2012-01-01

      Anxiety is one of the affective factors which are connected with second language learning. It has negative affects in learning language. It is necessary to know why it happens and how to solve it.

  17. Peer Perceptions and Liking of Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduin, Timothy L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    Examined three aspects of childhood anxiety and peer liking: (1) whether or not children can detect anxiety in age-mates, (2) the degree to which peer-reported anxiety, self-reported anxiety, and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with peer liking, and (3) whether or not self-reported anxiety and presence of anxiety disorders are…

  18. Condition-dependent pheromone signaling by male rock lizards: more oily scents are more attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2010-05-01

    Pheromones of vertebrates are often a mixture of several chemicals with different properties and messages, and their production seems condition dependent. Thus, pheromones are a good, but little studied, example of multiple sexual signals. Femoral gland secretions of male rock lizards Iberolacerta cyreni contain steroids that may act as pheromones, but there are also many other lipids, such as oleic acid, whose allocation to secretions may be costly because it has to be diverted from body fat reserves. This suggests that oleic acid could also have some function in secretions. Chemical analyses showed that proportions of oleic acid in femoral secretions of males were positively related to body condition of males, suggesting that the oleic acid secreted may reflect the amount of body fat reserves of a male. Tongue-flick bioassays showed that females were able to detect by chemosensory cues alone differences in proportions of oleic acid in secretions of males. Scents of males with more oleic acid elicited stronger chemosensory responses by females. Further tests with chemical standards confirmed that females distinguished oleic acid, and changes in its concentration, from other chemicals that are naturally found in secretions of males. Moreover, choice trials of scent-marked substrates showed that females were more attracted to areas that were experimentally manipulated to increase the proportion of oleic acid in natural scent marks of males. We suggest that oleic acid in femoral secretions might be a reliable advertisement of a male's body condition, which females could use to select high-quality mates in conjunction with information provided by other chemicals. Alternatively, scent marks with more oleic acid might be simply more attractive to females if chemosensory responses of females to scent of males were originated by a preexisting sensory bias for food chemicals such as the oleic acid. Nevertheless, this sensory trap might have evolved into an honest signal

  19. Olfactory Receptors in Non-Chemosensory Organs: The Nervous System in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Carmona, Margarita; Carro, Eva; Aronica, Eleonora; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Grison, Alice; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) and down-stream functional signaling molecules adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3), olfactory G protein α subunit (Gαolf), OR transporters receptor transporter proteins 1 and 2 (RTP1 and RTP2), receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in neurons of the human and murine central nervous system (CNS). In vitro studies have shown that these receptors react to external stimuli and therefore are equipped to be functional. However, ORs are not directly related to the detection of odors. Several molecules delivered from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, neighboring local neurons and glial cells, distant cells through the extracellular space, and the cells’ own self-regulating internal homeostasis can be postulated as possible ligands. Moreover, a single neuron outside the olfactory epithelium expresses more than one receptor, and the mechanism of transcriptional regulation may be different in olfactory epithelia and brain neurons. OR gene expression is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes MM1 and VV2 with disease-, region- and subtype-specific patterns. Altered gene expression is also observed in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia with a major but not total influence of chlorpromazine treatment. Preliminary parallel observations have also shown the presence of taste receptors (TASRs), mainly of the bitter taste family, in the mammalian brain, whose function is not related to taste. TASRs in brain are also abnormally regulated in neurodegenerative diseases. These seminal observations point to the need for further studies on ORs and TASRs chemoreceptors in the mammalian brain. PMID:27458372

  20. Olfactory Receptors in Non-Chemosensory Organs: The Nervous System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Carmona, Margarita; Carro, Eva; Aronica, Eleonora; Kovacs, Gabor G; Grison, Alice; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) and down-stream functional signaling molecules adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3), olfactory G protein α subunit (Gαolf), OR transporters receptor transporter proteins 1 and 2 (RTP1 and RTP2), receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in neurons of the human and murine central nervous system (CNS). In vitro studies have shown that these receptors react to external stimuli and therefore are equipped to be functional. However, ORs are not directly related to the detection of odors. Several molecules delivered from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, neighboring local neurons and glial cells, distant cells through the extracellular space, and the cells' own self-regulating internal homeostasis can be postulated as possible ligands. Moreover, a single neuron outside the olfactory epithelium expresses more than one receptor, and the mechanism of transcriptional regulation may be different in olfactory epithelia and brain neurons. OR gene expression is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes MM1 and VV2 with disease-, region- and subtype-specific patterns. Altered gene expression is also observed in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia with a major but not total influence of chlorpromazine treatment. Preliminary parallel observations have also shown the presence of taste receptors (TASRs), mainly of the bitter taste family, in the mammalian brain, whose function is not related to taste. TASRs in brain are also abnormally regulated in neurodegenerative diseases. These seminal observations point to the need for further studies on ORs and TASRs chemoreceptors in the mammalian brain. PMID:27458372

  1. Loop diuretics have anxiolytic effects in rat models of conditioned anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Krystal

    Full Text Available A number of antiepileptic medications that modulate GABA(A mediated synaptic transmission are anxiolytic. The loop diuretics furosemide (Lasix and bumetanide (Bumex are thought to have antiepileptic properties. These drugs also modulate GABA(A mediated signalling through their antagonism of cation-chloride cotransporters. Given that loop diuretics may act as antiepileptic drugs that modulate GABAergic signalling, we sought to investigate whether they also mediate anxiolytic effects. Here we report the first investigation of the anxiolytic effects of these drugs in rat models of anxiety. Furosemide and bumetanide were tested in adult rats for their anxiolytic effects using four standard anxiety models: 1 contextual fear conditioning; 2 fear-potentiated startle; 3 elevated plus maze, and 4 open-field test. Furosemide and bumetanide significantly reduced conditioned anxiety in the contextual fear-conditioning and fear-potentiated startle models. At the tested doses, neither compound had significant anxiolytic effects on unconditioned anxiety in the elevated plus maze and open-field test models. These observations suggest that loop diuretics elicit significant anxiolytic effects in rat models of conditioned anxiety. Since loop diuretics are antagonists of the NKCC1 and KCC2 cotransporters, these results implicate the cation-chloride cotransport system as possible molecular mechanism involved in anxiety, and as novel pharmacological target for the development of anxiolytics. In view of these findings, and since furosemide and bumetanide are safe and well tolerated drugs, the clinical potential of loop diuretics for treating some types of anxiety disorders deserves further investigation.

  2. Loop Diuretics Have Anxiolytic Effects in Rat Models of Conditioned Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.; Sutherland, Janice; Hochman, Daryl W.

    2012-01-01

    A number of antiepileptic medications that modulate GABAA mediated synaptic transmission are anxiolytic. The loop diuretics furosemide (Lasix) and bumetanide (Bumex) are thought to have antiepileptic properties. These drugs also modulate GABAA mediated signalling through their antagonism of cation-chloride cotransporters. Given that loop diuretics may act as antiepileptic drugs that modulate GABAergic signalling, we sought to investigate whether they also mediate anxiolytic effects. Here we report the first investigation of the anxiolytic effects of these drugs in rat models of anxiety. Furosemide and bumetanide were tested in adult rats for their anxiolytic effects using four standard anxiety models: 1) contextual fear conditioning; 2) fear-potentiated startle; 3) elevated plus maze, and 4) open-field test. Furosemide and bumetanide significantly reduced conditioned anxiety in the contextual fear-conditioning and fear-potentiated startle models. At the tested doses, neither compound had significant anxiolytic effects on unconditioned anxiety in the elevated plus maze and open-field test models. These observations suggest that loop diuretics elicit significant anxiolytic effects in rat models of conditioned anxiety. Since loop diuretics are antagonists of the NKCC1 and KCC2 cotransporters, these results implicate the cation-chloride cotransport system as possible molecular mechanism involved in anxiety, and as novel pharmacological target for the development of anxiolytics. In view of these findings, and since furosemide and bumetanide are safe and well tolerated drugs, the clinical potential of loop diuretics for treating some types of anxiety disorders deserves further investigation. PMID:22514741

  3. Anxiety disorders in dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, and the control group included 405 patients with other diagnoses causing renal insufficiency (N18. The study was designed as a comparative cross sectional study, and patients were tested using questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and general mental health status. Statistical analysis was done using standard descriptive and analytical methods. Results. Socio-demographic data showed highly significant differences between BEN and N18 in relation to place of residence (urban/rural (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; in the incidence of renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; familial renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; and migrations (c2 = 4.874 p<0.01. Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores were highly significantly different between the two groups p<0.001, in regard to the incidence and variables. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale demonstrated a group significance p<0.001, and variables pointed to somatization, general anxiety and depression. This was confirmed by mini-mental state examination pointing to generalmental weakness. Conclusion. Anxiety appeared in all tested dialysis patients. It may be independent, somatized as part of another mental disorder or reinforced by a cognitive damage. Structured anxiety and depression result in pre-suicidal risk. .

  4. Imaging genetics of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, Katharina; Dannlowski, Udo

    2010-11-15

    Anxiety disorders are frequent and burdensome psychiatric diseases. Despite their moderate to strong heritabilities, the search for candidate genes has been limited by methodological shortcomings hitherto, e.g., the use of clinically defined, but neurobiologically heterogeneous categorical phenotypes. Investigating neurobiological response patterns associated with fear processing as an intermediate phenotype might aid in overcoming these difficulties. The existing imaging literature on the neurobiological correlates of fear processing and anxiety disorders points to a pivotal role of the amygdala in the human fear circuit. Therefore, amygdala responsiveness to anxiety-related stimuli was suggested as an intermediate phenotype for anxiety disorders. The present article provides an overview of imaging genetic studies investigating genetic effects on amygdala responsiveness with particular emphasis on recent imaging genetic findings in anxiety-related traits, panic disorder and social phobia. The existing studies consistently reveal strong genetic effects on the responsiveness of the fear circuit, particularly of genetic variants previously discussed as potential susceptibility variants for anxiety, e.g., the COMT 158val allele or the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Further research will be necessary involving larger sample sizes to allow for investigating gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. More evolved statistical and neuroimaging methods such as effective connectivity measures could lead to a better understanding of imaging endophenotypes and the nature of gene-brain relationships. Longitudinal studies in patient samples will be required to elucidate how genetically influenced neurobiological intermediate phenotypes are associated with subtype, severity and the course of anxiety disorders, thereby having the potential for developing individualized therapy regimes derived from neurobiological research. PMID:19944771

  5. Anxiety disorders in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, M; Borah, G L

    1997-08-01

    Surgery is a stressful event, with the potential for profound disturbance to the patient's psychological and physiologic homeostasis. Cosmetic surgery is a particularly intense psychological experience because, in addition to the usual concerns about surgical side effects, cosmetic patients bring their hopes and expectations for improved self-image, putting them at risk for the added anxiety of disappointment. High levels of anxiety coupled with the perception of vulnerability or threat to self can cause significant psychological reactions complicating care for the plastic surgical patient. This paper outlines the diagnostic features of the common types of anxiety disorders seen in plastic surgical patients, and it offers treatment strategies for the practitioner, delineating when referral to a mental health expert is advised. Specific clinical case studies of panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder, and acute stress disorder are presented to illustrate the variety of abnormal anxiety responses that may be encountered in the perioperative setting. Interventions for the anxious patient are part science and part art. Careful questioning and psychosocial assessment can identify those patients who are at greater risk for psychological problems after surgery. However, some patients may mask or keep secret their concerns, which can be manifested with resulting anger and hostility. Plastic surgeons must use appropriate indicators of psychological anxiety and measure a specific patient's reactions to surgery to make the diagnosis of abnormal anxiety. Close follow-up by the plastic surgical team is an essential part of the anxiety disorder patient's psychological treatment, but it is imperative that these problematic patients be referred promptly to a qualified mental health professional to limit their adverse experience and promote their well-being. Patients who are less anxious during the perioperative period report less emotional distress and fewer defensive

  6. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER–INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability wi...

  7. Does father know best? A formal model of the paternal influence on childhood social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bögels, S.M.; Perotti, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore paternal social anxiety as a specific risk factor for childhood social anxiety in a rational optimization model. In the course of human evolution, fathers specialized in external protection (e.g., confronting the external world) while mothers specialized in internal protection (e.g., providing comfort and food). Thus, children may instinctively be more influenced by the information signaled by paternal versus maternal behavior with respect to potential external threats. As a result...

  8. Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bluett, R J; Gamble-George, J C; Hermanson, D J; Hartley, N D; Marnett, L J; Patel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor for the development of mood and anxiety disorders; elucidation of novel approaches to mitigate the deleterious effects of stress could have broad clinical applications. Pharmacological augmentation of central endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the adverse behavioral and physiological consequences of stress. Here we show that acute foot-shock stress induces a transient anxiety state measured 24 h later using...

  9. Anxiety and Resistance in Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazime Tuncay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate students' anxiety and resistance towards learning through distance education.Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: -What are the reasons of students not choosing distancelearning courses? -Which symptoms of anxiety, if any, do distance learner’s exhibit towards distance learning? Does genderhave any significant relationships with distance learners' perception of factors that affect their anxiety and resistance? A totalof 120 distance education students in Near East University were observed and 96 of them were interviewed. Computer anxiety,language anxiety, social anxiety were observed to be among the reasons of students’ resistance to distance learning.

  10. The role of parental anxiety sensitivity in parent reports of child anxiety in treatment seeking families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has examined the contribution of parental anxiety sensitivity to child anxiety, suggesting only a modest relationship between these two variables. No study to date, however, has examined the role of parental anxiety sensitivity in parent reports of the child's anxiety. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive risk factor for the development of anxiety, would be significantly correlated with parents' reports of their child's anxiety, specifically with respect to panic and separation anxiety. The present study employed a sample of 56 treatment-seeking children and their parents. Parent and child reports of the child's anxiety were obtained, and self-reports of anxiety sensitivity were obtained from parent and child. Parent reports of their child's panic and separation anxiety symptoms were significantly related to not only parental anxiety sensitivity (r = .39 and r = .29, respectively) but also the child's self-reported level of anxiety sensitivity (r = .35 and r = .37, respectively). These findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity, a significant predictor of panic symptomatology amongst both adults and children, might be related to parents' perceptions of their child's symptoms of panic and separation anxiety. These findings further suggest taking into consideration parental levels of anxiety sensitivity when interpreting parent reports of child anxiety in clinical settings.

  11. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  12. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety

  13. Researches on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴均霞

    2013-01-01

      Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.

  14. Anxiety and Depression Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer Consultation Selective Mutism SIG Peer Consultation Social Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation Professional Opportunities: Jobs and Fellowships ...

  15. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  16. Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use Disorders in Parents of Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica D.; Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in…

  17. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  18. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  19. Anxiety disorders and GABA neurotransmission: a disturbance of modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuss P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Nuss1,21Department of Psychiatry, Hôpital St Antoine, AP-HP, 2UMR 7203, INSERM ERL 1057 – Bioactive Molecules Laboratory, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FranceAbstract: Lines of evidence coming from many branches of neuroscience indicate that anxiety disorders arise from a dysfunction in the modulation of brain circuits which regulate emotional responses to potentially threatening stimuli. The concept of anxiety disorders as a disturbance of emotional response regulation is a useful one as it allows anxiety to be explained in terms of a more general model of aberrant salience and also because it identifies avenues for developing psychological, behavioral, and pharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety disorder. These circuits involve bottom-up activity from the amygdala, indicating the presence of potentially threatening stimuli, and top-down control mechanisms originating in the prefrontal cortex, signaling the emotional salience of stimuli. Understanding the factors that control cortical mechanisms may open the way to identification of more effective cognitive behavioral strategies for managing anxiety disorders. The brain circuits in the amygdala are thought to comprise inhibitory networks of Υ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic interneurons and this neurotransmitter thus plays a key role in the modulation of anxiety responses both in the normal and pathological state. The presence of allosteric sites on the GABAA receptor allows the level of inhibition of neurons in the amygdala to be regulated with exquisite precision, and these sites are the molecular targets of the principal classes of anxiolytic drugs. Changes in the levels of endogenous modulators of these allosteric sites as well as changes in the subunit composition of the GABAA receptor may represent mechanisms whereby the level of neuronal inhibition is downregulated in pathological anxiety states. Neurosteroids are synthesized in the brain and

  20. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  1. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  2. The Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mathyssek, Christina

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders most commonly have their onset at an early age, and they are the most frequent mental health problem in children and adolescents. The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of the developme...

  3. Screening for anxiety disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Ellin; Bögels, Susan Maria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the children had self-reported scores on the screening questionnaire Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotio...

  4. Neurostructural Abnormalities in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Hamm, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in fear and threat processing systems in youth with anxiety disorders; however, the structural neuroanatomy of these systems in children and adolescents remains largely unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), gray matter volumes were compared between 38 medication-free patients with anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder; social phobia; separation anxiety disorder, mean age: 14.4 ± 3 years) and 27 comp...

  5. Social anxiety disorder in genuine halitosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitsu Takashi; Ueno Masayuki; Shinada Kayoko; Wright Fredrick A; Kawaguchi Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who...

  6. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hek, Karin

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression in older adults. In particular, comorbidity, health care use, cortisol and atherosclerosis and genetic factors are studied in relation to anxiety and...

  7. The Essence of Anxiety and Morality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2015-01-01

    in this paper, I meant to bring out problems about morality and anxiety through the point of view of Contradiction, to study Morality and Anxiety together, and at the same time we try to elucidate the essence of Morality and Anxiety and the rationality and value of their existence. In order to deal with the dilemma of Morality and Anxiety, we propose to seek the equivalence between man, society and nature with aesthetic attitude and the mental state of Wuwo.

  8. PSYCHOBIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES TO ANXIETY STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, N.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY The current psychobiology and the therapeutic principles of anxiety states have been reviewed. The seprohippocampal system probably operates as the organ of match-mismatch comparator. A dysfunction of this internal comparator could possibly be the source of anxiety. There seem to be two distinct psychobiologic models for pain disorder and chronic anxiety state. The therapeutic responses of panic disorder to TCA and MAOI and the response to the chronic anxiety state to benzodiazepines ...

  9. The many faces of social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, affecting 7-13% of subjects in the community at some time in their lives. Despite being eminently treatable, it remains largely under-recognised and, therefore, undertreated. The disorder is characterized by a fear of scrutiny by others, with sufferers experiencing excessive anxiety in social and performance situations. This excessive anxiety usually leads to avoidance behaviour that can seve...

  10. Nasal chemosensory-stimulation evoked activity patterns in the rat trigeminal ganglion visualized by in vivo voltage-sensitive dye imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rothermel

    Full Text Available Mammalian nasal chemosensation is predominantly mediated by two independent neuronal pathways, the olfactory and the trigeminal system. Within the early olfactory system, spatiotemporal responses of the olfactory bulb to various odorants have been mapped in great detail. In contrast, far less is known about the representation of volatile chemical stimuli at an early stage in the trigeminal system, the trigeminal ganglion (TG, which contains neurons directly projecting to the nasal cavity. We have established an in vivo preparation that allows high-resolution imaging of neuronal population activity from a large region of the rat TG using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs. Application of different chemical stimuli to the nasal cavity elicited distinct, stimulus-category specific, spatiotemporal activation patterns that comprised activated as well as suppressed areas. Thus, our results provide the first direct insights into the spatial representation of nasal chemosensory information within the trigeminal ganglion imaged at high temporal resolution.

  11. Nasal chemosensory-stimulation evoked activity patterns in the rat trigeminal ganglion visualized by in vivo voltage-sensitive dye imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Markus; Ng, Benedict Shien Wei; Grabska-Barwińska, Agnieszka; Hatt, Hanns; Jancke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian nasal chemosensation is predominantly mediated by two independent neuronal pathways, the olfactory and the trigeminal system. Within the early olfactory system, spatiotemporal responses of the olfactory bulb to various odorants have been mapped in great detail. In contrast, far less is known about the representation of volatile chemical stimuli at an early stage in the trigeminal system, the trigeminal ganglion (TG), which contains neurons directly projecting to the nasal cavity. We have established an in vivo preparation that allows high-resolution imaging of neuronal population activity from a large region of the rat TG using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs). Application of different chemical stimuli to the nasal cavity elicited distinct, stimulus-category specific, spatiotemporal activation patterns that comprised activated as well as suppressed areas. Thus, our results provide the first direct insights into the spatial representation of nasal chemosensory information within the trigeminal ganglion imaged at high temporal resolution. PMID:22039441

  12. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  13. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  14. A Foucaultian Approach to Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Gavrielle

    2008-01-01

    Academic anxiety interferes with achievement and performance, as well as social and psychological development among children and adults. Although the writings of Michel Foucault do not address anxiety directly, his themes of knowledge and power have been applied to education and describe relationships that are likely to create anxiety among some…

  15. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  17. Physician's Death Anxiety and Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Aderman, David

    1978-01-01

    It was shown that terminal patients of physicians with high death anxiety survive longer during their final hospital stay than terminal patients of physicians with low death anxiety. Physicians high in death anxiety seem to be less willing to accept patients' terminality and use heroic measures to keep them alive. (Author)

  18. Positive thinking in anxiety disordered children reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, S.M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Vervoort, L.; Wolters, L.H.; Nauta, M.H.; Hartman, C.A.; Moorlag, H.; de Haan, E.; Boer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Negatively valenced thoughts are assumed to play a central role in the development and maintenance of anxiety. However, the role of positive thoughts in anxiety is rather unclear. In the current study we examined the role of negative and positive self-statements in the anxiety level of anxious and n

  19. Cognitive coping and childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Legerstee; N. Garnefski; F.C. Jellesma; F.C. Verhulst; E.M.W.J. Utens

    2010-01-01

    To investigate differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious 9-11-year-old children. Additionally, differences in cognitive coping between specific anxiety disorders were examined. A clinical sample of 131 anxiety-disordered children and a general population s

  20. Longitudinal Genetic Analysis of Anxiety Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Helena M. S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is associated with both anxiety and depression and has been shown to be heritable. Little, however, is known about the role of genetic influence on continuity and change of symptoms over time. The authors' aim was to examine the stability of anxiety sensitivity during adolescence. By using a genetically sensitive design, the…

  1. Social Anxiety in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…

  2. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  3. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  4. Mathematics Anxiety in Secondary Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools…

  5. Insights into the origin of nematode chemosensory GPCRs: putative orthologs of the Srw family are found across several phyla of protostomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Krishnan

    Full Text Available Nematode chemosensory GPCRs in Caenorhabditis elegans (NemChRs are classified into 19 gene families, and are initially thought to have split from the ancestral Rhodopsin family of GPCRs. However, earlier studies have shown that among all 19 NemChR gene families, only the srw family has a clear sequence relationship to the ancestral Rhodopsin GPCR family. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between the srw family of NemChRs and the Rhodopsin subfamilies are not fully understood. Also, a widespread search was not previously performed to check for the presence of putative srw family-like sequences or the other 18 NemChR families in several new protostome species outside the nematode lineage. In this study, we have investigated for the presence of 19 NemChR families across 26 eukaryotic species, covering basal eukaryotic branches and provide the first evidence that the srw family of NemChRs is indeed present across several phyla of protostomes. We could identify 29 putative orthologs of the srw family in insects (15 genes, molluscs (11 genes and Schistosoma mansoni (3 genes. Furthermore, using HMM-HMM profile based comparisons and phylogenetic analysis we show that among all Rhodopsin subfamilies, the peptide and SOG (somatostatin/opioid/galanin subfamilies are phylogenetically the closest relatives to the srw family of NemChRs. Taken together, we demonstrate that the srw family split from the large Rhodopsin family, possibly from the peptide and/or SOG subfamilies, well before the split of the nematode lineage, somewhere close to the divergence of the common ancestor of protostomes. Our analysis also suggests that the srsx family of NemChRs shares a clear sequence homology with the Rhodopsin subfamilies, as well as with few of the vertebrate olfactory receptors. Overall, this study provides further insights into the evolutionary events that shaped the GPCR chemosensory system in protostome species.

  6. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Zhao-Qun; Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  7. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 3 gustatory receptors (GRs and 4 odorant receptors (ORs. Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  8. New chemosensory component in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): first-year results for measured olfactory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Howard J; Rawal, Shristi; Li, Chuan-Ming; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. NHANES included chemosensory assessments in the 2011-2014 protocol. We provide an overview of this protocol and 2012 olfactory exam findings. Of the 1818 NHANES participants aged ≥40 years, 1281 (70.5 %) completed the exam; non-participation mostly was due to time constraints. Health technicians administered an 8-item, forced-choice, odor identification task scored as normosmic (6-8 odors identified correctly) versus olfactory dysfunction, including hyposmic (4-5 correct) and anosmic/severe hyposmic (0-3 correct). Interviewers recorded self-reported smell alterations (during past year, since age 25, phantosmia), histories of sinonasal problems, xerostomia, dental extractions, head or facial trauma, and chemosensory-related treatment and changes in quality of life. Olfactory dysfunction was found in 12.4 % (13.3 million adults; 55 % males/45 % females) including 3.2 % anosmic/severe hyposmic (3.4 million; 74 % males/26 % females). Selected age-specific prevalences were 4.2 % (40-49 years), 12.7 % (60-69 years), and 39.4 % (80+ years). Among adults ≥70 years, misidentification rates for warning odors were 20.3 % for smoke and 31.3 % for natural gas. The highest sensitivity (correctly identifying dysfunction) and specificity (correctly identifying normosmia) of self-reported olfactory alteration was among anosmics/severe hyposmics (54.4 % and 78.1 %, respectively). In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, risk factors of olfactory dysfunction were racial/ethnic minority, income-to-poverty ratio ≤ 1.1, education education on non-olfactory avoidance of hazardous events. PMID:27287364

  9. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Zhao-Qun; Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  10. Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-V

    OpenAIRE

    Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorde...

  11. The Influence of Parent Preprocedural Anxiety on Child Procedural Pain: Mediation by Child Procedural Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bearden, Donald J.; Feinstein, Amanda; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Data suggest parents’ preprocedural anxiety is related to children's acute procedural anxiety and pain. This study examined the temporal relations among these constructs to determine whether children's anxiety mediates the relation between parents' anticipatory anxiety and children's procedural pain. Methods A total of 90 preschoolers receiving immunizations, their parents, and the nurses rated children's procedural anxiety and pain. Parents provided ratings of their own preprocedur...

  12. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Renate; Marnane Claire L; Silove Derrick M; Manicavasagar Vijaya L; Rees Susan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety...

  13. Responding to Anxiety with Rumination and Hopelessness: Mechanism of Anxiety-Depression Symptom Co-Occurrence?

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings we...

  14. Dental Anxiety in Elementary Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rabaldo BOTTAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the percentage of students with dentalanxiety.Method: A transversal exploratory study was designed involving976 schoolchildren aged 9 to 17 years from three public schoolslocated in the urban perimeter of the city of Campos Novos (SC.Data collection instruments were questionnaires adapted from theDental Anxiety Scale (DAS and Dental Fear Survey (DFS.Results: 84% of the subjects manifested anxiety, most of thembeing classified as low-anxiety individuals. Girls were a little moreanxious than boys (87% versus 81%. The relationship betweenage group and percentage of anxious patients indicates a decreasein the frequency for older individuals. The most frequently mentionedphysiological responses were accelerated heart beat and tremors.The triggering factors were “to see” or “to hear the noise of” thedental bur and anesthesia. Most subjects (84.5% affirmed to havevisited a dental office in the past two years and 63.5% of themreported that the dental appointments were scheduled for restorativepurposes.Conclusion: Dental anxiety was present in this population in ahigh percentage.

  15. Development of fear acquisition and extinction in children: effects of age and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Nylocks, Karin Maria; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L; Smith, Ami; Davis, Telsie A; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-09-01

    Development of anxiety disorders is associated with neurobiological changes in areas that are a critical part of the fear neurocircuitry. Fear conditioning paradigms can offer insight into the mechanisms underlying the neurobiological ontogeny of anxiety. A small number of studies have focused on the effects of age and anxiety separately in school age children. The present study aimed to investigate these effects in 8-13 year old children with higher and lower trait anxiety. We examined differential fear conditioning and extinction using skin conductance responses and fear-potentiated startle in 60 children recruited from a low-income urban population. The results indicated that children under 10 years of age show poor discrimination of conditioned stimuli, and that anxiety increases fear responses during fear acquisition. After controlling for age and trauma exposure, fear-potentiated startle to the safety cue predicted child anxiety levels suggesting that impaired safety signal learning may be a risk factor for anxiety disorders in adulthood. Identifying risk phenotypes in children may provide opportunities for early intervention and prevention of illness.

  16. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntingh, Anna D. T.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (so

  17. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, En-Ju D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the classical neurotransmitters, neuropeptides represent an important class of modulators for affective behaviors and associated disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Many neuropeptides are abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in emotional processing and anxiety behaviors. Moreover, risk factors for anxiety disorders such as stress modulate the expression of various neuropeptides in the brain. Due to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and yet limited treatment options, there is a clear need for more effective therapeutics. In this regard, the various neuropeptides represent exciting candidates for new therapeutic designs. In this review, I will provide an up-to-date summary on the evidences for the involvement of seven neuropeptides in anxiety: corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortins, vasopressin, oxytocin, substance P, neuropeptide Y and galanin. This review will cover the behavioral effects of these neuropeptides in animal models of anxiety by both genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Human studies indicating a role for these neuropeptides in anxiety disorders will also be discussed.

  18. Anxiety sensitivity and auditory perception of heartbeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, R A; Carter, A S; Amir, N; Marks, L E

    2006-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the fear of sensations associated with autonomic arousal. AS has been associated with the development and maintenance of panic disorder. Given that panic patients often rate cardiac symptoms as the most fear-provoking feature of a panic attack, AS individuals may be especially responsive to cardiac stimuli. Consequently, we developed a signal-in-white-noise detection paradigm to examine the strategies that high and low AS individuals use to detect and discriminate normal and abnormal heartbeat sounds. Compared to low AS individuals, high AS individuals demonstrated a greater propensity to report the presence of normal, but not abnormal, heartbeat sounds. High and low AS individuals did not differ in their ability to perceive normal heartbeat sounds against a background of white noise; however, high AS individuals consistently demonstrated lower ability to discriminate abnormal heartbeats from background noise and between abnormal and normal heartbeats. AS was characterized by an elevated false alarm rate across all tasks. These results suggest that heartbeat sounds may be fear-relevant cues for AS individuals, and may affect their attention and perception in tasks involving threat signals. PMID:16513082

  19. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lars eSchulze; Babette eRenneberg; Lobmaier, Janek S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhance...

  20. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called “Biomusic,” maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a “whooshing” embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify “anxious” or “relaxed” states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., < 10 min) and no contextual information. Biomusic holds promise for monitoring, communication, and biofeedback systems for anxiety management. PMID:27625593

  1. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff;

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... Skills); both courses were offered in multiple classes (with a total of 171 students in 2009 and 156 students in 2010). All classes in 2009 participated in the SSL stage of the Basic Surgical Skills course before performing live-animal surgery, and one class (28 students) in 2010 did not. Two validated...

  2. Stress and music performance anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stress, as well as accompanying changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect cognitive processes, including memory. In professional musicians occupational stress and music performance anxiety (MPA) are a major source of concern during a musical career, whereas a boost is to a certain extent necessary for a musical performance. ---------- A protocol was successfully designed to induce acute stress in healthy students while measuring electro-encephalography...

  3. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    OpenAIRE

    van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M; Muntingh Anna DT; van Marwijk Harm WJ; Spinhoven Philip; Penninx Brenda WJH; van Balkom Anton JLM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder), depressive disorders or no disorder (controls). Methods Participants were 1601 primary...

  4. Attentional bias in math anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  5. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  6. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  7. Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Muris; M. Kindt; S. Boegels; H. Merckelbach; B, Gadet; V. Moulaert

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perce

  8. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  9. Anxiety and Related Disorders in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Joe E.; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    impairments ineducational, social, and occupational functioning as well as in overall quality of life (Olatunji et al. 2007 ). A review of over 1,000 subjects aged 16–25 with anxiety disorders found that those with anxiety disorders had a 5.85 times higher rate ofsuicide attempts (Boden et al. 2007 ) than...... is excessive and, in general, lasts for 6 months or longer (APA 2013 ).The National Comorbidity Survey found that lifetime prevalence rates for each anxiety disorder were lower in males compared to females: panic disorder (PD)(2.0 % in males vs. 5.0 % females), specifi c phobia (6.7 % vs. 15.7 %), social...... may differentially impact men (Grant and Potenza 2007 ), the goal of this chapter is to discuss the role of gender in our understanding and treating of anxiety disorders. Specifically, we will be discussing the impact of gender on social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder...

  10. Acupressure and Anxiety in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beikmoradi, Ali; NAJAFI, Fatemeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratallah; Pour Esmaeil, Zahra; Khatibian, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety has negative effects on mental and physical performance, quality of life, duration of hospitalization, and even on the treatment of patients with cancer. Objectives: Today acupressure is widely used to treat anxiety. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of acupressure on anxiety in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 85 patients hospitalized with 3 groups including acupressure group (n = ...

  11. Attachment patterns and separation anxiety symptom

    OpenAIRE

    Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdullah; Ikechkwu - Uba

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns related differently to separation anxiety symptoms (fear of being alone, and fear of abandonment). Three attachment patterns assessed were secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment. Findings indicated that ambivalent attachment was most consistently related with higher separation anxiety symptom. And also, different associations were found bet...

  12. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cuneyt Evren

    2010-01-01

    High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...

  13. Social anxiety in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2005-01-01

    Although clinical impressions suggest that patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience distress in social situations, social anxiety in BDD has received little investigation. This study examined social anxiety in 81 patients with BDD and change in social anxiety with pharmacotherapy. Subjects completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) and were assessed with measures of BDD symptomatology. Participants in a placebo-controlled fluoxetine trial completed measures at bas...

  14. Negative Generalization and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...

  15. Manage Anxiety Through CBT: Teach Yourself

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2011-01-01

    Using the proven techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy, this book will show you how to manage your anxiety, in whatever form it appears, from phobias to panic attacks and general anxiety disorder. You will receive support for understanding with and coping with different types of anxiety, using CBT to manage your symptoms and alleviate much of your distress. You will also learn how to be more resilient and accepting of all your thoughts, fears and emotions, and discover new, healthier wa...

  16. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  17. Childhood anxiety disorders. Approach to intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Manassis, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present an approach to intervention in childhood anxiety disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for recent literature on childhood anxiety disorders and on my experience as a child psychiatrist and researcher in a specialized anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN MESSAGE: Children with symptoms of high sympathetic arousal; persistent worries or intrusive thoughts; and extreme clinging, avoidance, or repetitive behaviours that i...

  18. Social Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Zerrin Binbay; Ahmet Koyuncu

    2012-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subseq...

  19. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a cho...

  20. Mathematical anxiety in the primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Friškovec, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with test anxiety of students in elementary school in the class of mathematics. The level of anxiety has been studied during the assessment of mathematical knowledge. The thesis consists of theoretical and empirical work. The theoretical part contains the definition of notion “test anxiety”, explaining its four components that occur to students during the assessment of mathematical knowledge. With the help of literature the causeres of test anxiety in situations of valuat...

  1. Candidate gene studies in human anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Donner, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder (PD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias are common psychiatric disorders, characterized by exaggerated, prolonged and debilitating levels of anxiety. They are complex diseases with onset influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but so far little progress has been made in identifying solid susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to shed light on the genetic basi...

  2. Anxiety sensitivity in anxious youth: Do children with separation anxiety differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Björg Sigurjónsdóttir 1985

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the proposed link between separation anxiety disorder in childhood (SAD) and panic disorder (PD) have yielded mixed results, suggesting that there is perhaps a missing link between these disorders. We examined whether anxiety sensitivity could be a potential key element in the relationship between SAD and PD. Anxiety sensitivity levels of three hundred and fifteen clinic-referred children (ages 6-17) were evaluated, using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI). One hundred ...

  3. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a so...

  4. Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...

  5. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...

  6. Treatment response in child anxiety is differentially related to the form of maternal anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, P J; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C

    2008-01-01

    An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...

  7. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.

  8. Negative Interpretation Bias Mediates the Effect of Social Anxiety on State Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety predict that interpretation bias mediates the relationship between level of social anxiety and state anxiety in response to social-evaluative threat. We tested this prediction in 67 socially anxious undergraduates. Participants completed self-report measures of social anxiety and interpretation bias, and two days later they completed an impromptu speech. Mediational analyses supported the hypothesis that interpretation bias mediates the effect of social anxi...

  9. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. The Influence of Anxiety on English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程墨芳

    2010-01-01

    We always acquire knowledgeby reading,so reading plays a vital role in our daily life of language learning.But we found that it's difficult to improve your reading ability during English learning,There are many factors believed to influence reading efficiency.Among them,anxiety is considered to be one of the most significant factors.This paper analyzes the causes ofthe students'anxiety,puts forward some proper adjustments to reduce the anxiety and finally to achieve the aim of helping learners reduce their anxiety and promote their reading efficiency.

  11. The Essence of Anxiety and Morality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2015-01-01

    in this paper,I meant to bring out problems about morality and anxiety through the point of view of Contradiction,to study Morality and Anxiety together,and at the same time we try to elucidate the essence of Morality and Anxiety and the rationality and value of their existence.In order to deal with the dilemma of Morality and Anxiety,we propose to seek the equivalence between man,society and nature with aesthetic attitude and the mental state of Wuwo.

  12. Dental students' perception of patient anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, J; Tripp, G

    1993-04-01

    This study examined the ability of dental students to assess patients' anxiety during dental treatment, and the relationship between patients' general, waiting room and clinic levels of anxiety. Sixty-six restorative dental patients and 35 Final-year dental students participated in the study. Prior to a routine dental appointment, patients completed visual analogue scales indicating their general and waiting room levels of anxiety. During treatment, patients and dental students completed similar scales to indicate patients' levels of anxiety up to and at that time. Patients' general and waiting room levels of anxiety were found to correlate significantly with their reports of anxiety during treatment. Female patients reported higher levels of anxiety than male patients. The correlations between patient and student ratings of patients' anxiety were small and non-significant, suggesting the students were not accurate in their estimates of patients' anxiety during treatment. It is suggested, therefore, that dental students be encouraged to ask patients directly how they are feeling about the dental situation. Such discussion could take place prior to, or at the beginning of, the dental appointment.

  13. Anxiety in older adults often goes undiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koychev, Ivan; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorder in the elderly is twice as common as dementia and four to six times more common than major depression. Anxiety is associated with poorer quality of life, significant distress and contributes to the onset of disability. Mortality risks are also increased, through physical causes, especially cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in older adults remains a challenge because of the significant overlap in symptoms between physical disorders (shortness of breath; abdominal and chest pain; palpitations) and depression (disturbed sleep; poor attention, concentration and memory; restlessness). Good history taking is crucial in elucidating whether the complaint is of new onset or a recurrence of a previous disorder. The presence of comorbid depression should be clarified. If present, its temporal relationship with the anxiety symptoms will indicate whether there is an independent anxiety disorder. A medication review is warranted, as a number of drugs may be causative (calcium channel blockers, alpha- and beta-blockers, digoxin, L-thyroxine, bronchodilators, steroids, theophylline, antihistamines) or may cause anxiety in withdrawal (e.g. benzodiazepines). Substance and alcohol abuse should be excluded, as withdrawal from either may cause anxiety. A new or exacerbated physical illness may be related to anxiety. Medical investigations will help clarify the extent to which a particular somatic symptom is the result of anxiety. PMID:27180498

  14. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  15. Cognitive content-specificity in anxiety and depression: a twin study of associations with anxiety sensitivity dimensions across development.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. M.; Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Trzaskowski, M; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The classification of anxiety and depressive disorders has long been debated and has important clinical implications. The present study combined a genetically sensitive design and multiple time points to investigate cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms across anxiety sensitivity dimensions, a cognitive distortion implicated in both disorders. Method Phenotypic and genetic correlations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depre...

  16. Specificity of autonomic arousal to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tabitha A; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Brian, Jessica; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety is one of the most concerning comorbidities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its high prevalence, negative impact on physical and psychological well-being, and interaction with core deficits of ASD. Current assessment and treatment of anxiety, which rely on the observation of behavior and self-reports, are often ineffective as ASD is associated with deficits in communication and diminished introspective ability. In this light, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been suggested as a marker of physiological arousal associated with anxiety. However, physiological arousal measured by ANS indices also occurs with other cognitive and emotional processes, and it is unclear whether anxiety-related arousal can be differentiated from that related to other cognitive processes. To address this gap, we investigated the use of linear and nonlinear classification techniques for differentiating anxiety-related arousal from arousal due to three cognitive processes (attention, inhibitory control, and social cognition) and physical activity based on electrocardiography signal features. Our results indicate that over 80% classification accuracy can be achieved, suggesting that ANS response can be used as a specific marker of anxiety-related arousal in a subgroup of children with ASD who demonstrate an increase in heart rate in response to anxiogenic stimuli. PMID:26389543

  17. Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluett, R J; Gamble-George, J C; Hermanson, D J; Hartley, N D; Marnett, L J; Patel, S

    2014-07-08

    Stress is a major risk factor for the development of mood and anxiety disorders; elucidation of novel approaches to mitigate the deleterious effects of stress could have broad clinical applications. Pharmacological augmentation of central endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the adverse behavioral and physiological consequences of stress. Here we show that acute foot-shock stress induces a transient anxiety state measured 24 h later using the light-dark box assay and novelty-induced hypophagia test. Acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), reverses the stress-induced anxiety state in a cannabinoid receptor-dependent manner. FAAH inhibition does not significantly affect anxiety-like behaviors in non-stressed mice. Moreover, whole brain anandamide levels are reduced 24 h after acute foot-shock stress and are negatively correlated with anxiety-like behavioral measures in the light-dark box test. These data indicate that central anandamide levels predict acute stress-induced anxiety, and that reversal of stress-induced anandamide deficiency is a key mechanism subserving the therapeutic effects of FAAH inhibition. These studies provide further support that eCB-augmentation is a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  19. Self-Efficacy, Gender and Trait Anxiety as Moderators of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…

  20. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kindt; S.M. Bögels; M. Morren

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  1. The impact of brief parental anxiety management on child anxiety treatment outcomes: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L; Newall, Carol; Rapee, Ronald M; Lyneham, Heidi J; Schniering, Carolyn C; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Schneider, Sophie; Seeley-Wait, Elizabeth; Edwards, Susan; Gar, Natalie S

    2014-01-01

    Parental anxiety is a risk to optimal treatment outcomes for childhood anxiety disorders. The current trial examined whether the addition of a brief parental anxiety management (BPAM) program to family cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was more efficacious than family CBT-only in treating childhood anxiety disorders. Two hundred nine children (aged 6-13 years, 104 female, 90% Caucasian) with a principal anxiety disorder were randomly allocated to family CBT with a five-session program of BPAM (n = 109) or family CBT-only (n = 100). Family CBT comprised the Cool Kids program, a structured 12-week program that included both mothers and fathers. Overall, results revealed that the addition of BPAM did not significantly improve outcomes for the child or the parent compared to the CBT-only group at posttreatment or 6-month follow-up. Overall, however, children with nonanxious parents were more likely to be diagnosis free for any anxiety disorder compared to children with anxious parents at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. BPAM did not produce greater reductions in parental anxiety. The results support previous findings that parent anxiety confers poorer treatment outcomes for childhood anxiety disorders. Nevertheless the addition of BPAM anxiety management for parents in its current format did not lead to additional improvements when used as an adjunct to family CBT in the treatment of the child's anxiety disorder. Future benefits may come from more powerful methods of reducing parents' anxiety.

  2. Creating a Low-Anxiety Classroom Environment: What Does Language Anxiety Research Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of six potential sources of anxiety in the second language classroom, student manifestations of anxiety, and possible remedies covers such areas as personal and interpersonal anxieties, learner beliefs about language learning, instructor beliefs about language teaching, instructor-learner interactions, classroom procedures, and language…

  3. The Effects of Trait Anxiety and Dogmatism on State Anxiety During Computer-Assisted Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Edward

    In this study of the interaction between anxiety trait (A-trait), anxiety state (A-state), and dogmatism in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), subjects were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a measure of anxiety and on a measure of dogmatism. The subjects were presented with a CAI task consisting of difficult mathematical problems. The…

  4. Relationship among Iranian EFL Students' Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…

  5. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  6. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Role of Child Anxiety Sensitivity in Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Valerie A.; Francis, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting findings exist regarding (1) whether anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a construct distinct from anxiety in children and (2) the specific nature of the role of AS in child anxiety. This study uses meta-analytic techniques to (1) determine whether youth (ages 6-18 years) have been reported to experience AS, (2) examine whether AS…

  7. The Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale: An Alternative Way of Measuring Mathematical Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Peña, M. Isabel; Guilera, Georgina; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale (SIMA), based on the item suggested by Ashcraft, provided valid and reliable scores of mathematical anxiety. A large sample of university students (n = 279) was administered the SIMA and the 25-item Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) to evaluate the relation between the scores…

  8. Anxiety Sensitivity and the Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    There has been significant interest in the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis, we empirically evaluate differences in AS between anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and nonclinical controls. A total of 38 published studies (N = 20,146) were included in the analysis. The results yielded a large effect…

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

  10. Anxiety Disorders: Recognizing the Symptoms of Six of the Most Common Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…

  11. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  12. Treating Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Anxiety disorders are generally treated with medication, specific types ...

  13. Untangling genetic networks of panic, phobia, fear and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Sandra; Burmeister, Margit

    2003-01-01

    As is the case for normal individual variation in anxiety levels, the conditions panic disorder, agoraphobia and other phobias have a significant genetic basis. Recent reports have started to untangle the genetic relationships between predispositions to anxiety and anxiety disorders.

  14. Understanding Anxiety Disorders: When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...

  15. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have GAD? For More Information Share Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). What is ...

  16. CREATING A LOW-ANXIETY FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Anxiety plays a significant role in language learning. This article analyzes the negative effects of anxiety, explores its sources, and proposes a number of strategies for reducing learner anxiety in the language classroom.

  17. Children Who Won't Go to School (Separation Anxiety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... separation anxiety disorder. The potential long-term effects (anxiety and panic disorder as an adult) are serious for a child who has persistent separation anxiety and does not receive professional assistance. The child ...

  18. Neurobiology of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray B

    2009-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common illness with diagnostic criteria that have changed substantially over time. Symptoms of GAD overlap with those of major depressive disorder to such an extent that studying one disorder without studying the other may be impossible. Such an overlap, combined with potentially inappropriate diagnostic criteria for GAD, makes diagnosing and researching GAD challenging. Recent research into the genetics and neural circuitry of GAD may suggest solutions for the disorder's diagnostic controversies and point the way to productive future studies of etiology and pathophysiology.

  19. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  20. Stressful Life Events, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity represents a robust risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among both adolescents and adults. However, the development of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents remains inadequately understood. In this study, the authors examined the role of stressful life events as a risk factor for the development of elevated anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity was then examined in a longitudinal design as a mechanism linking stressful life events to changes in anxiety s...

  1. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety characteristics with several inflammatory markers. For this purpose, persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1273) or remitted (N = 459) anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social ph...

  2. β2 integrins (CD11/18) are essential for the chemosensory adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Park, Hye Rim; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied widely for applications in biomedical materials such as prosthetic artificial blood vessels owing to its unique characteristics, which include nontoxicity and nonimmunogenicity as compared with synthetic biopolymers such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE). However, to date, studies on the relative effect of leukocytes on BC as a prosthetic vascular graft are insufficient. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a pivotal role in early-phase immune response to bacterial or periprosthetic infection. PMN recruitment at sites of infection or inflammation mediated by various integrins such as β2 integrin family (CD11/CD18 family). Therefore, we discuss our investigations into the mechanisms by which β2 integrins-mediated chemosensory adhesion and migration of PMN on the vascular graft surface, BC. Our results show that CD11b/CD18 components mainly mediate PMN adherence on BC. CD11b/CD18 displays weak coordination with the other two α subunits (CD11a and CD11c). Furthermore, it was found that the β subunit (CD18) plays a critical role in both the adhesion and migration of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN on BC. The activity of CD18 contrasts with that of the individual α subunits. Among these, only CD11b displayed inhibition of PMN migration on BC surfaces. PMID:25231265

  3. RNAi-induced phenotypes suggest a novel role for a chemosensory protein CSP5 in the development of embryonic integument in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszka, J; Forêt, S; Saint, R; Maleszka, R

    2007-03-01

    Small chemosensory proteins (CSPs) belong to a conserved, but poorly understood, protein family found in insects and other arthropods. They exhibit both broad and restricted expression patterns during development. In this paper, we used a combination of genome annotation, transcriptional profiling and RNA interference to unravel the functional significance of a honeybee gene (csp5) belonging to the CSP family. We show that csp5 expression resembles the maternal-zygotic pattern that is characterized by the initiation of transcription in the ovary and the replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. Blocking the embryonic expression of csp5 with double-stranded RNA causes abnormalities in all body parts where csp5 is highly expressed. The treated embryos show a "diffuse", often grotesque morphology, and the head skeleton appears to be severely affected. They are 'unable-to-hatch' and cannot progress to the larval stages. Our findings reveal a novel, essential role for this gene family and suggest that csp5 (unable-to-hatch) is an ectodermal gene involved in embryonic integument formation. Our study confirms the utility of an RNAi approach to functional characterization of novel developmental genes uncovered by the honeybee genome project and provides a starting point for further studies on embryonic integument formation in this insect. PMID:17216269

  4. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 1. The olfactory organ, with special reference to olfaction in geckos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan J Rehorek; Bruce T Firth; Mark N Hutchinson

    2000-06-01

    The luminal surface of the chemosensory epithelia of the main olfactory organ of terrestrial vertebrates is covered by a layer of fluid. The source of this fluid layer varies among vertebrates. Little is known regarding the relative development of the sources of fluid (sustentacular cells and Bowman’s glands) in reptiles, especially in gekkotan lizards (despite recent assertions of olfactory speciality). This study examined the extent and morphology of the main olfactory organ in several Australian squamate reptiles, including three species of gekkotans, two species of skinks and one snake species. The olfactory mucosa of two gekkotan species (Christinus marmoratus and Strophurus intermedius) is spread over a large area of the nasal cavity. Additionally, the sustentacular cells of all three gekkotan species contained a comparatively reduced number of secretory granules, in relation to the skinks or snake examined. These observations imply that the gekkotan olfactory system may function differently from that of either skinks or snakes. Similar variation in secretory granule abundance was previously noted between mammalian and non-mammalian olfactory sustentacular cells. The observations in gekkotans suggests that the secretory capacity of the non-mammalian olfactory sustentacular cells show far more variation than initially thought.

  5. Science Anxiety among Form Four Students in Penang: A Gender Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Foo Lay; Tek, Ong Eng

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a causal-comparative study of science anxiety among Form Four students in Penang. The Wynstra's (1991) Science Anxiety Inventory (SAI), which consists of six factors (i.e., danger anxiety, science test anxiety, math and problem-solving anxiety, squeamish anxiety, performance anxiety, and science classroom anxiety), was…

  6. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  7. Childhood separation anxiety and the pathogenesis and treatment of adult anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Markowitz, John C; Gerber, Andrew J; Cyranowski, Jill; Altemus, Margaret; Shapiro, Theodore; Hofer, Myron; Glatt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety disorder in childhood leads to adult panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. The prevailing pathophysiological model of anxiety disorders, which emphasizes extinction deficits of fear-conditioned responses, does not fully consider the role of separation anxiety. Pathological early childhood attachments have far-reaching consequences for the later adult ability to experience and internalize positive relationships in order to develop mental capacities for self-soothing, anxiety tolerance, affect modulation, and individuation. Initially identified in attachment research, the phenomenon of separation anxiety is supported by animal model, neuroimaging, and genetic studies. A role of oxytocin is postulated. Adults, inured to their anxiety, often do not identify separation anxiety as problematic, but those who develop anxiety and mood disorders respond more poorly to both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. This poorer response may reflect patients' difficulty in forming and maintaining attachments, including therapeutic relationships. Psychotherapies that focus on relationships and separation anxiety may benefit patients with separation anxiety by using the dyadic therapist-patient relationship to recapture and better understand important elements of earlier pathological parent-child relationships.

  8. Internet Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…

  9. Development of the Sport Injury Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…

  10. Language Anxiety among Gifted Learners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hasrul; Ibrahim, Noraniza; Yunus, Melor Md; Ishak, Noriah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Language anxiety has significantly sparked great concern in the second and foreign language learning world. Researches have found negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement of English language learners; and, most of the studies focus on average school students and tertiary level students. This paper, however, explores…

  11. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  12. Research Anxiety among Turkish Graduate ELT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merç, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level and predictors of research-related anxiety among graduate ELT students in the Turkish context. 81 MA and PhD students from 14 universities offering graduate programs in ELT responded to a background questionnaire, a research anxiety scale, and a research self-efficacy survey. The analysis of…

  13. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, of

  14. Symptoms: Personal Snapshots of Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these conditions: Panic Disorder: "For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart ... / Studying Anxiety Disorders / Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ...

  15. Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety is a complex emotional state associated with sustained heightened autonomic and behavioral arousal and an increase in avoidance behavior. Anxiety-related behavior is a form of risk assessment behavior that is associated with a level of uncertainty or unpredictability regarding the outcome...

  16. Computer Anxiety Levels of Virginia Extension Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brenda L.; Stewart, Daisy L.; Hillison, John

    2001-01-01

    Survey responses from 402 Virginia extension personnel showed that secretaries and younger staff had the lowest computer anxiety, technicians and older staff the highest. Time spent using computers, age, and years of employment were somewhat associated with anxiety. Training recommendations were made. (SK)

  17. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda G.

    2013-01-01

    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  18. Relationships between Learning Environment and Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bret A.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relationships between the learning environment and students' mathematics anxiety, as well as differences between the sexes in perceptions of learning environment and anxiety. A sample of 745 high-school students in 34 different mathematics classrooms in four high schools in Southern California was used to cross-validate the What Is…

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  20. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy pr

  1. Metaphysical Beliefs as Predictors of Death Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R. K.; Sinha, Ambalika

    1992-01-01

    Investigated impact of four metaphysical beliefs (existence of God, attributes of God, afterlife, consequences of suffering) on death anxiety. Householders (n=120), one-half of whom lived in high exposure to death sight areas, responded to pictures depicting death and nondeath scenes to measure death anxiety. Subjects from low exposure areas…

  2. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  3. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety leve

  4. Anxiety disorders. Part 1: Diagnosis and treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Labelle, A.; Lapierre, Y. D.

    1993-01-01

    Anxiety disorders often take second priority in clinical practice because many physicians do not understand them or their treatment. This paper reviews the diagnostic groupings of anxiety disorders according to the American Psychiatric Association's Revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 3-R) and discusses differential diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Anxiety and the Outward Bound Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebing, Charles E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Hypothesized ways in which level of participants' anxiety affected their experience during outdoor adventure course. Studies anxiety levels of 27 male and 13 female incoming Wheaton College freshmen participating in 3-week High Road Program involving solar experiences, rock climbing, and rappelling. (NEC)

  6. Parental Control in the Etiology of Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballash, Natalie; Leyfer, Ovsanna; Buckley, Amy F.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent forms of adult and childhood psychiatric disorders, and they are highly familial. However, the mechanisms of transmission remain unclear. One familial characteristic that may promote the development of anxiety is the construct of parental control. This paper provides a conceptual overview of the…

  7. Familial aggregation of anxiety associated with bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gorski

    2015-07-01

    Practical Implications: Anxiety disorders are highly related to suicidal behaviors, particularly in children and adolescents. Additionally, awaken bruxism can often serve as an indicator of anxiety or stress. By recognizing bruxism as a possible manifestation of psychological distress, the dental practitioner may be able to direct patients to life-saving services like psychologists and crisis hotlines when appropriate.

  8. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  9. The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.

  10. Taking Math Anxiety out of Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Darla J.

    2007-01-01

    To take math anxiety out of math instruction, teachers need to first know how to easily diagnose it in their students and second, how to analyze causes. Results of a recent study revealed that while students believed that their math anxiety was largely related to a lack of mathematical understanding, they often blamed their teachers for causing…

  11. Taking Anxiety out of the Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2006-01-01

    Math anxiety is an affliction that causes several intelligent students to believe, mistakenly, that they lack the ability to master the subject. Professors are starting to question their teaching tactics in hopes of tackling math anxiety, with some educators looking at ways to make their classes more interactive, while others are considering…

  12. Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…

  13. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  14. Social anxiety in orthognathic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, F S; Moles, D R; Shute, J T; Clarke, A; Cunningham, S J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that patients seeking orthognathic treatment may be motivated by social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of this study was to investigate SAD in orthognathic patients using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNES) and to compare these findings with those of the general population. This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire study conducted in two parts. Firstly, a national survey was conducted to yield data for the BFNES from a large, random sample of the UK general population. Secondly, orthognathic patients completed the BFNES. The BFNES scores are reported in two formats: the original 12-item scale (O-BFNES) and a shorter eight-item version (S-BFNES). With regards to the national survey, 1196 individuals participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 29.72 (standard deviation (SD) 9.39) and S-BFNES score was 15.59 (SD 7.67). With regards to the orthognathic sample, 61 patients participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 39.56 (SD 10.35) and the mean S-BFNES score was 24.21 (SD 8.41). Orthognathic patients had significantly higher scores than the general UK population (Porthognathic patients experience significantly higher levels of social anxiety than the general population.

  15. Resting Vagal Tone and Vagal Response to Stress: Associations with Anxiety, Aggression and Perceived Anxiety Control among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the associations of both resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress with anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression among 80 youth (aged 11-17 years). Measures included physiological assessments of emotion regulation along with youth self-report of anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression and caregiver reports of their child's anxiety and aggression. Resting vagal tone was positively related to anxiety control beliefs, but negatively associated with anxiet...

  16. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], sep...

  17. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid

    OpenAIRE

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Joshua P. Smith; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between...

  18. Psychobiology and therapeutic approaches to anxiety States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N

    1986-04-01

    The current psychobiology and the therapeutic principles of anxiety states have been reviewed. The seprohippocampal system probably operates as the organ of match-mismatch comparator. A dysfunction of this internal comparator could possibly be the source of anxiety. There seem to be two distinct psychobiologic models for pain disorder and chronic anxiety state. The therapeutic responses of panic disorder to TCA and MAOI and the response to the chronic anxiety state to benzodiazepines supports the classification ot two distinct syndromes. However different provocative challenge tests have not clearly delineated the role of nor-adrenergic (NF) mechanisms in panic disorder and benzodiazepine receptor theory for chronic anxiety state. Challenge tests with receptor specific pharmacologic agents may reveal the molecular basis of these disorders unlike the tests with non-specific agents like lactate and caffeine.

  19. Anxiety and Search during Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Mukherjee, Ashkesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims. Design/methodology/approach – By means of qualitative study the paper investigates...... the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above. Findings – The authors show that anxiety during...... food choice increases information search in four product categories – ready dinner meals, salad dressing, biscuits, and cakes. Further, the results show that the positive effect of anxiety on information search is stronger when consumers have a less favourable attitude towards nutritional claims...

  20. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS......: To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years....... The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  1. Relation Between Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety in Young Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdzieva, Aneta; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry (the relative difference in power between two signals in different hemispheres) has been suggested as biomarker for anxiety. The goal of this study was to evaluate alpha asymmetry in the frontal region for young people (7-18 years) with generalized anxiety disorder, diagnosed according to two statistic manuals (DMS-IV-R and ICD-10), the medical history and the neuropsychological assessment. The QEEG recording and analysis of the obtained results from alpha spectra power and log of alpha spectra power are made in four conditions (eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT). The obtained results for alpha power in general showed higher cortical activity in the right hemisphere, associated with negative emotions. The calculated alpha asymmetry separate for eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT conditions showed the right activation in all four conditions. In addition, the right frontal asymmetry was specific for the Fp(1)-Fp(2) region, while a greater left frontal activation was recorded for the F(7)-F(8) region. The log of alpha power in general was additionally analyzed. The calculated asymmetry score in general (in a way that the left log transformed score was subtracted from the right) confirmed a greater right activation. Testing the power of the whole alpha band (μV(2)) in general, for all four conditions and for frontal region confirmed the right alpha asymmetries in all participants. The right alpha asymmetry in the frontal region was specific only for the Fp(1)-Fp(2) region (frontopolar region). The only greater left frontal activation was registered between the F(7)-F(8) region. Our findings are supported by many other studies using specific localization methods like fMRI or LORETA source localization. PMID:27442382

  2. Parental social anxiety disorder prospectively predicts toddlers' fear/avoidance in a social referencing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Aktar; M. Majdandžić; W. de Vente; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety runs in families. Observational learning of anxious behavior from parents with anxiety disorders plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety. We investigated the link between parental anxiety (parental lifetime anxiety disorders and expressed parental

  3. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc

  4. The endocannabinoid system in guarding against fear, anxiety and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Maldonado, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-12-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has emerged as a central integrator linking the perception of external and internal stimuli to distinct neurophysiological and behavioural outcomes (such as fear reaction, anxiety and stress-coping), thus allowing an organism to adapt to its changing environment. eCB signalling seems to determine the value of fear-evoking stimuli and to tune appropriate behavioural responses, which are essential for the organism's long-term viability, homeostasis and stress resilience; and dysregulation of eCB signalling can lead to psychiatric disorders. An understanding of the underlying neural cell populations and cellular processes enables the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate behavioural maladaptation. PMID:26585799

  5. Anxiety trajectories in response to a speech task in social anxiety disorder: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial of CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S; Brozovich, Faith A; Lee, Ihno A; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-03-01

    The subjective experience of anxiety plays a central role in cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, much remains to be learned about the temporal dynamics of anxiety elicited by feared social situations. The aims of the current study were: (1) to compare anxiety trajectories during a speech task in individuals with SAD (n=135) versus healthy controls (HCs; n=47), and (2) to compare the effects of CBT on anxiety trajectories with a waitlist control condition. SAD was associated with higher levels of anxiety and greater increases in anticipatory anxiety compared to HCs, but not differential change in anxiety from pre- to post-speech. CBT was associated with decreases in anxiety from pre- to post-speech but not with changes in absolute levels of anticipatory anxiety or rates of change in anxiety during anticipation. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences should be further incorporated into exposures.

  6. Palliative Care and Death Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Inci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dying patient. In terms of the end of life, it is expected that the nurse stands by patient’s family to help them in sustaining their psychosocial wellness. In order to meet this expectation, nurses should get a qualitative training for end of life care along with good interpersonal communication skills and coping strategies.

  7. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  8. Gender factors of social anxiety in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety in adolescence is one of the most important factors of social and psychological maladjustment. The data of Russian and international research of the differences in the severity of social anxiety in boys and girls is not uniform. In a study conducted by the authors, participants were 183 adolescents aged 12-16 years (90 boys and 93 girls, students of VII-X grades. We measured the level of social anxiety and defined the type of gender identity. The results showed that biological sex does not influence the severity of social anxiety: there were no differences in this indicator between boys and girls. The factor influencing the level of social anxiety was gender identity, and gender identity types (masculinity, femininity, androgyny have approximately the same distributions in both boys and girls. The level of social anxiety shows inversed connection with level of masculinity in adolescents of both sexes and direct connection with femininity index. The magnitude of the gap between the real and the ideal of masculinity of the Self is more pronounced in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

  9. Screening anxiety in the HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; Morgan, Jennifer C; Önen, Nur F; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Overton, Edgar Turner

    2012-11-01

    Individuals with HIV experience fluctuating levels of distress throughout the course of their infection. This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the prevalence of and associations between anxiety symptoms, sociodemographic, and biomedical markers among individuals presenting for care. A total of 635 individuals were screened, the majority of whom was male and African American. Younger individuals, African Americans, individuals with less education, and those who were unemployed were more likely to express more severe anxiety symptoms. Individuals who were not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were 1.61 times more likely to experience higher anxiety symptoms. Among individuals receiving ART, higher levels of anxiety were associated with less adherence, higher viral loads and lower CD4 cell counts. Current smokers were 1.66 times more likely to have higher rates of anxiety. When controlling for these significant factors, younger, unemployed, and less educated individuals were more likely to express more severe anxiety symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of screening and management of anxiety as an integral component of HIV care.

  10. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755

  11. The Role of Anxiety in Prostate Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, William; Bilir, Pinar; Han, Misop; Meltzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the impact of anxiety on patients with some types of cancer is well recognized, to the authors knowledge its impact on patients with prostate carcinoma has not been studied as thoroughly. The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for high-quality articles that quantified anxiety levels in men with prostate carcinoma and identified 29 articles. Using the clinical timeline of prostate carcinoma to organize the articles, cross-sectional studies that reflected anxiety prevalence in populations and longitudinal studies that reflected changes in anxiety over time were identified. Anxiety appeared to fluctuate over the clinical timeline in response to stressors and uncertainty (such as at the time of screening and/or biopsy), rising before these times and falling afterward. Although anxiety levels in men age > 55 years who were at risk for prostate carcinoma were modest (10–15%), multiple studies found that these levels were substantially higher in men who presented for screening (> 50%), and “seeking peace of mind” was the motivation cited most frequently for pursuing screening. Most studies demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety levels after a normal screening or biopsy result, although the proportion of men who remained anxious afterward did not fall to baseline levels (20–36%). Men who presented for prostate-specific antigen monitoring after treatment had elevated anxiety levels at the time of testing (23–33%). Many years after therapy for localized disease, anxiety levels were lower after prostatectomy (23%) compared with the levels after watchful waiting (31%). PMID:15959911

  12. Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Debnam, Scott E; Firth, David R

    2015-12-01

    This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%-80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management. PMID:26529030

  13. Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J. Bromenshenk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%–80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

  14. Potential Therapeutic Value of a Novel FAAH Inhibitor for the Treatment of Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Marco

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric diseases with high personal costs and a remarkable socio-economic burden. However, current treatment of anxiety is far from satisfactory. Novel pharmacological targets have emerged in the recent years, and attention has focused on the endocannabinoid (eCB system, given the increasing evidence that supports its central role in emotion, coping with stress and anxiety. In the management of anxiety disorders, drug development strategies have left apart the direct activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors to indirectly enhance eCB signalling through the inhibition of eCB deactivation, that is, the inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH enzyme. In the present study, we provide evidence for the anxiolytic-like properties of a novel, potent and selective reversible inhibitor of FAAH, ST4070, orally administered to rodents. ST4070 (3 to 30 mg/kg per os administered to CD1 male mice induced an increase of time spent in the exploration of the open arms of the elevated-plus maze. A partial reduction of anxiety-related behaviour by ST4070 was also obtained in Wistar male rats, which moderately intensified the time spent in the illuminated compartment of the light-dark box. ST4070 clearly inhibited FAAH activity and augmented the levels of two of its substrates, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine, in anxiety-relevant brain regions. Altogether, ST4070 offers a promising anxiolytic-like profile in preclinical studies, although further studies are warranted to clearly demonstrate its efficacy in the clinic management of anxiety disorders.

  15. [Anxiety: personality and relationship. Some considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, Melania; Zaccagni, Michela; Vitali, Mario; Petruccioli, Lionello; Aceti, Franca

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is a well defined symptom in psychiatric field, but also a concept that refers to the theoretical and epi-stemological visions of the theories on the psychical functioning. The present work shows, in the first part, a brief description of the evolution of the anxiety concept, highlighting the several meanings of this word; particularly, is wanted to show off how in the modern psychodynamic points of view anxiety is tightly linked to the role of the "relationship" in the "personality forming". The second part shows a synthetic historical picture of the main psychoanalytic theories on this topic.

  16. Development and Validation of a Mobile Computer Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Shun

    2007-01-01

    Although researchers have developed various scales for measuring users' computer anxiety or Internet anxiety, none of the literature has addressed the measurement of mobile computer anxiety (MCA). The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a multidimensional mobile computer anxiety scale (MCAS) based on previous research on computer…

  17. “A STUDY ON TEST ANXIETY OF STUDENTS”

    OpenAIRE

    Hosamani Manilingappa

    2015-01-01

    A Study reveals that anxiety level of college male & fame students, the present study attempts that level of anxiety among college students the study shows that females have more anxiety then the male. The male have less anxiety then the Female.

  18. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  19. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  20. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

  1. Anxiety Disorders and the Family: How families affect psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsley, John

    1991-01-01

    Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  2. Improvement of the symptoms of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity through the application of a mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yagüe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a training program mindfulness to reduce anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 20 participants suffering from anxiety and high scores on ASI-3 and subscale of anxiety from SCL-90. A quasi-experimental comparison group design with pretest-posttest measurement with an experimental group and a control group with 10 participants each group was performed. As instruments of assessment questionnaires ASI-3, MAAS, and SCL-90 were used. Statistical analyzes show a reduction in all in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity factor and anxiety subscale of the SCL-90 once the interventions as well as improvement in the ability to be present or mindfulness measured by the MAAS scale. The results are consistent with other research which has show the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in improving the symptoms of anxiety

  3. Identification and expression profiling of odorant binding proteins and chemosensory proteins between two wingless morphs and a winged morph of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii glover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Insects interact with their environment and respond to the changes in host plant conditions using semiochemicals. Such ecological interactions are facilitated by the olfactory sensilla and the use of olfactory recognition proteins. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii can change its phenotype in response to ecological conditions. They reproduce mainly as wingless asexual morphs but develop wings to find mates or new plant hosts under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, plant nutrition and population density. Two groups of small soluble proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to be involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. However, the exact molecular roles that these proteins play in insect olfaction remain to be discovered. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of three asexual developmental stages (wingless spring and summer morphs and winged adults and characterised 9 OBP and 9 CSP genes. The gene structure analysis showed that the number and length of introns in these genes are much higher and this appears to be unique feature of aphid OBP and CSP genes in general. Another unique feature in aphids is a higher abundance of CSP transcripts than OBP transcripts, suggesting an important role of CSPs in aphid physiology and ecology. We showed that some of the transcripts are overexpressed in the antennae in comparison to the bodies and highly expressed in the winged aphids compared to wingless morphs, suggesting a role in host location. We examined the differential expression of these olfactory genes in ten aphid species and compared the expression profile with the RNA-seq analyses of 25 pea aphid transcriptome libraries hosted on AphidBase.

  4. Variation of chemosensory receptor content of Campylobacter jejuni strains and modulation of receptor gene expression under different in vivo and in vitro growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotaxis is crucial for the colonisation/infection of hosts with Campylobacter jejuni. Central to chemotaxis are the group A chemotaxis genes that are responsible for sensing the external environment. The distribution of group A chemoreceptor genes, as found in the C. jejuni sequenced strains, tlp1-4, 7, 10 and 11 were determined in 33 clinical human and avian isolates. Results Group A tlp gene content varied among the strains with genes encoding tlp1 (aspartate receptor, ccaA and tlp7 present in all strains tested, where as tlp11 was present in only one of our international collection clinical isolates, C. jejuni 520, but was more prevalent (9/13 in the freshly isolated clinical stains from patients who required hospitalisation due to C. jejuni infection (GCH1-17. Relative expression levels of the group A tlp genes were also determined in C. jejuni reference strains NCTC 11168-GS, 11168-O and 81116 using cells grown in vitro at 37°C, 42°C and maintained at room temperature and with cells isolated directly from murine and avian hosts by immune magnetic separation without subsequent culture. Gene expression of tlp genes was varied based on strain, growth conditions and in vivo isolation source. Tlp1, although the most conserved, showed the lowest and most varied mRNA expression and protein production under laboratory conditions. Tlp7 was highly expressed at most conditions tested, and gene expression was not influenced by the tlp7 gene encoding a full length protein or one expressed as separate periplasmic and cytoplasmic domains. Conclusion We have shown that chemosensory receptor set variation exists among C. jejuni strains, but is not dependent on the isolation source.

  5. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  6. Trait anxiety but not state anxiety during critical Illness was associated with anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M. I.; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B; Aitken, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients: Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, understand En...

  7. Cognitive risk profiles for anxiety disorders in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Joseph R; Stevens, Erin N; Clark, Charles Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-09-30

    The purpose of the present study was to identify subgroups of participants who may be at particularly high risk for anxiety pathology based on specific combinations of demographic characteristics and higher-order cognitive abilities in a population at disproportionate risk for deficits in cognitive abilities (i.e., smokers within the criminal justice system). Participants (N=495) provided demographic information, were administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and completed a number of measures assessing cognitive abilities. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) model using signal detection theory indicated that the strongest predictor of anxiety disorder diagnosis was race, with White participants having a 30.6% likelihood of diagnosis and participants in the non-White category (97% of which identified as Black/African American) having a 18.9% likelihood of diagnosis. Interestingly, the individual risk profile associated with the highest probability of having a current anxiety disorder was characterized by White participants with impaired response inhibition (58.6%), and the lowest probability of having a current anxiety disorder was among non-White males (13.9%). The findings, which indicated that White individuals with impaired response inhibition are at a disproportionately high risk for anxiety disorders, suggest a potential target for prevention and intervention. PMID:26089016

  8. Writing Anxiety: A Case Study on Students’ Reasons for Anxiety in Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Selma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the present study set out to investigate the learners‟ attitudes towards academic writing courses that they have to take as part of their curriculum, whether they experience second language writing anxiety and what reasons they report for their anxiety and failure in academic writing courses. Second, the study aimed to develop a selfreport measure of second language writing anxiety reasons

  9. Assessing Anxiety in Youth with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chiaying; Hoff, Alexandra; Villabø, Marianne A.; Peterman, Jeremy; KENDALL, Philip C.; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda; Keaton, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties, including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the youth self-report and parent-report forms of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents and youth (N= 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 – 17 who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Although the typical low agreement between parent and youth self-reports was found, the MASC eviden...

  10. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth: Are They Distinguishable?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowart, Maria Jane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is defined by persistent, irrational anxiety in social situations while generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry unrelated to any specific situation. These two disorders share some features and are frequently comorbid in children and adults. The current study sought to examine this comorbidity and compare the disorders on a number of dimensions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. It was hypothesized that SAD would be...

  11. Suppressing the White Bears interacts with Anxiety Sensitivity in the prediction of Mood and Anxiety Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Keough, Meghan E.; Timpano, Kiara R; Riccardi, Christina J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression is a commonly used strategy to manage unwanted thoughts by attempting to actively remove them from awareness. However, research has shown that this cognitive strategy often results in the paradoxical effect of increasing the frequency of unwanted thoughts. While the association between thought suppression and mood and anxiety symptoms has been repeatedly demonstrated, relations between this cognitive strategy and other anxiety risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity (AS) are unex...

  12. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  13. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  14. The Study of the Relationship between Mothers' Anxiety with the Mathematical Performance and Students' Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Moradpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.

  15. Anxiety of Parents of Mentally Handicapped Children and Affects of Informing on Anxiety Level

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu; Said Bodur

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 5...

  16. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

  17. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication ...

  18. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorde...

  19. States of anxiety and their induction by drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Lader, M; Bruce, M

    1986-01-01

    Syndromes of anxiety include generalized anxiety states, various forms of phobic disorder and panic attacks. It is unclear whether panic attacks are a separate syndrome from anxiety states or a more severe form. Drug-induced states of anxiety should provide useful models of the mechanisms of anxiety and its treatment. High-risk populations might be identifiable. Catecholamine infusions produce marked peripheral changes without fully reproducing the central feelings. Lactate infusions also pro...

  20. Using Metaphors to Overcome Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Harry E.

    1992-01-01

    Three metaphors can help alleviate performance anxiety: (1) a cloud as a symbol for getting rid of unwanted behavior; (2) a snowball sweeping away all obstacles; and (3) a pyramid as a symbol of unsuspected inner resources. (SK)

  1. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713

  2. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS): psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  3. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  4. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Awards Consumers Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce ... and many more. Fitness Tips: Stay Healthy, Manage Stress For the biggest benefits of exercise, try to ...

  5. Panic anxiety after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, M; Arikawa, K; Miura, C; Inanaga, K

    1989-06-01

    We observed a case of withdrawal after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin. A 41-year-old woman was treated according to a diagnosis of depression, which was her 6th episode. Mianserin 30 mg/day, etizolam 1 mg/day and flunitrazepam 1 mg/day were administered. When the patient discontinued taking the drugs by herself because of subsiding of these symptoms, severe panic anxiety appeared. This panic anxiety was not relieved by taking etizolam and flunitrazepam again, but subsided rapidly by the re-administration of mianserin 30 mg/day, and because of that the depressive symptom also disappeared. From these experiences panic anxiety seemed to be a withdrawal symptom, and involvement of the noradrenergic system in panic anxiety as well as serotonergic system was suggested. PMID:2796025

  6. Levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kandasamy; D Srinath

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones can cause adverse neuropsychiatric side effects, which are more common in older age. We present three cases of levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia in young adults. In all the cases, discontinuation of levofloxacin immediately lead to remission.

  7. Sleep bruxism and anxiety level in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcelo Tomás de; Bittencourt, Sandra Teixeira; Marcon, Karina; Destro, Samia; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB). The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG) and without bruxism (CG). Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children's behavior and habits. Additionally, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was applied to parents of the selected patients. Data analysis revealed a statistical significant difference between the groups (Student's t-test, p = 0.0136). Based on the results, anxiety assessment revealed that children with bruxism have reached higher levels in the STAIC scale than the non-bruxism group. Therefore, it indicates a direct relationship between the presence of anxiety disorder and the onset of bruxism in children.

  8. Systematic review of existential anxiety instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van V.; Vos, J.; Westerhof, G.J.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Glas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Existential anxiety (EA) is an expression of being occupied with ultimate concerns such as death, meaninglessness, and fundamental loneliness. Philosophers and psychologists have claimed its importance for the study of human thinking, emotion, decision making, and psychopathology. Until now research

  9. Anxiety Predicts Mortality in ICD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Caspar Thygesen, Lau; Hastrup Svendsen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although highly effective in preventing arrhythmic death, patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may still experience psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and reduced quality of life. The objectives of this study were to describe patient...... receiving ICD between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2011 (n = 499). The following instruments were used: SF-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HeartQoL, EQ-5D, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. RESULTS: The response rate was 72%. Mean age was 65.5 years and 82% patients were males. Fifty...... of perceived health, quality of life, and fatigue; for example, physical health 39.8 versus 44.3 points, compared to secondary prevention indication. Anxiety, poor perceived health, fatigue, and low quality of life were all predictors of mortality, anxiety being the strongest with an adjusted odds ratio of 4...

  10. Caring for Clients and Families With Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated Japanese home care nurses’ experiences of supporting clients and families with anxiety. We interviewed 10 registered nurses working in home care agencies and analyzed the data using grounded theory to derive categories pertaining to the nurses’ experiences of providing care. We conceptualized nurses’ approaches to caring for anxiety into three categories: First, they attempted to reach out for anxiety even when the client/family did not make it explicit; second, they tried to alter the outlook of the situation; and third, they created comfort in the lives of the client/family. The conceptualizations of nurses’ strategies to alleviate client/family anxiety may reflect Japanese/Eastern cultural characteristics in communication and their view of the person and social care system, but these conceptualizations may also inform the practice of Western nurses by increasing awareness of skills they may also have and use.

  11. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Help Find a Therapist Treatment Support Groups Coaching Mental Health Apps Helping Others Self-Help Publications & ... Yes No Your anxiety interfering with your daily life Having more than one illness at the same ...

  12. Anxiety in non-psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic approach of anxiety in non-psychiatric patients contributes significantly to the effective treatment. At first, is essential to explore the biological causes and afterwards the possibility that anxiety is a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, when anxiety is diagnosed as patient's response to the disease, it is crucial to explore the psychological mechanisms that the patient mobilizes in order to defend it, the psycho-social problems of the patient, the supportive network, personality and the personal meaning that the patient gives to the disease. The most effective treatment of anxiety is the combination of medication therapy (benzodiazepines, antidepressants with psychological therapies such as cognitive- behavioral psychotherapy that aim to change patterns of thought, behavior and belief.

  13. Social anxiety disorder in genuine halitosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsu Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who had score 2 or higher by the organoleptic test were diagnosed as genuine halitosis patients. Gas chromatography (GC was conducted before and after oral malodor treatment for the oral malodor measurement. Based on their risk of social anxiety disorder, subjects were divided into low- and high-risk groups using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. The questions related to oral malodor and the clinical oral examination were both conducted before oral malodor treatment. The level of anxiety before and after oral malodor treatment was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale of Anxiety (VAAS. Results More than 20% of subjects had a score of 60 or more on the LSAS (high LSAS group. The mean age and the percentage of females were significantly higher in the high LSAS group compared to the low LSAS group. The high LSAS group was more likely to have problems associated with oral malodor and to adopt measures against oral malodor compared to the low LSAS group. The mean concentrations of H2S and CH3SH by GC significantly decreased after the oral malodor treatment in both LSAS groups. VAAS scores also significantly decreased after treatment in both LSAS groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the high LSAS group had a 2.28 times higher risk of having a post-VAAS score of 50 or more compared to the low LSAS group. Conclusions This study revealed that genuine halitosis patients with a strong trait of social anxiety disorder have difficulty

  14. Hopelessness during emerging adulthood: Contributions of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Suvashisa Rana; Gitanjali Lall; Asima Mishra; Durgesh Nandinee; Kallavarapu Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Context: During emerging adulthood, a person takes on several roles and needs to cope up with psychosocial challenges that are connected to an autonomous personal life. Hence, anxiety and its repercussions, though common in this phase, yet may produce a detrimental effect in their life. Aims: The objective of the study was to examine the contributions of anxiety to hopelessness of emerging adults during their transitional phase from late adolescence to adulthood. Settings and Design: The stud...

  15. Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered youth

    OpenAIRE

    KENDALL, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Bergman, Lindsey; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cindy; Iyengar, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Reports the characteristics of a large, representative sample of treatment seeking anxious youth (N =488). Participants, aged 7–17 years (mean 10.7 yrs), had a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not included, there were few other exclusion ...

  16. Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Although individual differences exist in how people respond to positive affect (PA), little research addresses PA regulation in people with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to provide information about responses to PA in people with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The tendency to dampen PA and the ability to savor PA were examined in an undergraduate sample. Analyses examined the unique links...

  17. COMORBID ANXIETY IN PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dernovšek, Mojca Zvezdana; Šprah, Lilijana

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosis of psychosis has tended to discount the considerable degree of emotional disorder associated with it, in a manner that may also inform psychological treatment options. Depression and anxiety are often associated with schizophrenia. Up to 40% of people have clinical levels of depression and anxiety symptoms could occur in 60% of patients with chronic psychotic disorder. Among emotional problems depression and depressive symptoms are well recognised and treated with success, whereas...

  18. Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Elen

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction" Elen Turner discusses two examples of Indian "popular literature" which reflect contemporary Indian middle-class anxieties surrounding globalization and social change. The recent proliferation of foreign business process outsourcing companies in India has changed the financial and lifestyle opportunities available to young, urban Indians. While sociological and ethnographic studies have found that workers embrace what the...

  19. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Alline C; Manoela V. Fogaca; Daniele C. Aguiar; Guimaraes, Francisco S.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mecha...

  20. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...