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Sample records for chemosensitizing agent ctbt

  1. CTBT technical issues handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, J.J. [ed.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to give the nonspecialist in nuclear explosion physics and nuclear test monitoring an introduction to the topic as it pertains to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The authors have tried to make the handbook visually oriented, with figures paired to short discussions. As such, the handbook may be read straight through or in sections. The handbook covers four main areas and ends with a glossary, which includes both scientific terms and acronyms likely to be encountered during CTBT negotiations. The following topics are covered: (1) Physics of nuclear explosion experiments. This is a description of basic nuclear physics and elementary nuclear weapon design. Also discussed are testing practices. (2) Other nuclear experiments. This section discusses experiments that produce small amounts of nuclear energy but differ from explosion experiments discussed in the first chapter. This includes the type of activities, such as laser fusion, that would continue after a CTBT is in force. (3) Monitoring tests in various environments. This section describes the different physical environments in which a test could be conducted (underground, in the atmosphere, in space, underwater, and in the laboratory); the sources of non-nuclear events (such as earthquakes and mining operations); and the opportunities for evasion. (4) On-site inspections. A CTBT is likely to include these inspections as an element of the verification provisions, in order to resolve the nature of ambiguous events. This chapter describes some technical considerations and technologies that are likely to be useful. (5) Selecting verification measures. This chapter discusses the uncertain nature of the evidence from monitoring systems and how compliance judgments could be made, taking the uncertainties into account. It also discusses how to allocate monitoring resources, given the likelihood of testing by various countries in various environments.

  2. CTBT technical issues handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this handbook is to give the nonspecialist in nuclear explosion physics and nuclear test monitoring an introduction to the topic as it pertains to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The authors have tried to make the handbook visually oriented, with figures paired to short discussions. As such, the handbook may be read straight through or in sections. The handbook covers four main areas and ends with a glossary, which includes both scientific terms and acronyms likely to be encountered during CTBT negotiations. The following topics are covered: (1) Physics of nuclear explosion experiments. This is a description of basic nuclear physics and elementary nuclear weapon design. Also discussed are testing practices. (2) Other nuclear experiments. This section discusses experiments that produce small amounts of nuclear energy but differ from explosion experiments discussed in the first chapter. This includes the type of activities, such as laser fusion, that would continue after a CTBT is in force. (3) Monitoring tests in various environments. This section describes the different physical environments in which a test could be conducted (underground, in the atmosphere, in space, underwater, and in the laboratory); the sources of non-nuclear events (such as earthquakes and mining operations); and the opportunities for evasion. (4) On-site inspections. A CTBT is likely to include these inspections as an element of the verification provisions, in order to resolve the nature of ambiguous events. This chapter describes some technical considerations and technologies that are likely to be useful. (5) Selecting verification measures. This chapter discusses the uncertain nature of the evidence from monitoring systems and how compliance judgments could be made, taking the uncertainties into account. It also discusses how to allocate monitoring resources, given the likelihood of testing by various countries in various environments

  3. Chemo-sensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzaldehyde analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activity of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycinA, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, was elevated by co-application of certain analogs of benzaldehyde. Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was foun...

  4. Prenylated Chalcone 2 Acts as an Antimitotic Agent and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Tumor Cells to Paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Joana; Marques, Sandra; Silva, Patrícia M A; Brandão, Pedro; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena M; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenylated chalcone 2 (PC2), the O-prenyl derivative (2) of 2'-hydroxy-3,4,4',5,6'-pentamethoxychalcone (1), induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells via disruption of p53-MDM2 interaction. However, the cellular changes through which PC2 exerts its cytotoxic activity and its antitumor potential, remain to be addressed. In the present work, we aimed to (i) characterize the effect of PC2 on mitotic progression and the underlying mechanism; and to (ii) explore this information to evaluate its ability to sensitize tumor cells to paclitaxel in a combination regimen. PC2 was able to arrest breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in mitosis. All mitosis-arrested cells showed collapsed mitotic spindles with randomly distributed chromosomes, and activated spindle assembly checkpoint. Live-cell imaging revealed that the compound induced a prolonged delay (up to 14 h) in mitosis, culminating in massive cell death by blebbing. Importantly, PC2 in combination with paclitaxel enhanced the effect on cell growth inhibition as determined by cell viability and proliferation assays. Our findings demonstrate that the cytotoxicity induced by PC2 is mediated through antimitotic activity as a result of mitotic spindle damage. The enhancement effects of PC2 on chemosensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel encourage further validation of the clinical potential of this combination. PMID:27483224

  5. Prenylated Chalcone 2 Acts as an Antimitotic Agent and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Tumor Cells to Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that prenylated chalcone 2 (PC2, the O-prenyl derivative (2 of 2′-hydroxy-3,4,4′,5,6′-pentamethoxychalcone (1, induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells via disruption of p53-MDM2 interaction. However, the cellular changes through which PC2 exerts its cytotoxic activity and its antitumor potential, remain to be addressed. In the present work, we aimed to (i characterize the effect of PC2 on mitotic progression and the underlying mechanism; and to (ii explore this information to evaluate its ability to sensitize tumor cells to paclitaxel in a combination regimen. PC2 was able to arrest breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in mitosis. All mitosis-arrested cells showed collapsed mitotic spindles with randomly distributed chromosomes, and activated spindle assembly checkpoint. Live-cell imaging revealed that the compound induced a prolonged delay (up to 14 h in mitosis, culminating in massive cell death by blebbing. Importantly, PC2 in combination with paclitaxel enhanced the effect on cell growth inhibition as determined by cell viability and proliferation assays. Our findings demonstrate that the cytotoxicity induced by PC2 is mediated through antimitotic activity as a result of mitotic spindle damage. The enhancement effects of PC2 on chemosensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel encourage further validation of the clinical potential of this combination.

  6. Prenylated Chalcone 2 Acts as an Antimitotic Agent and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Tumor Cells to Paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Joana; Marques, Sandra; Silva, Patrícia M A; Brandão, Pedro; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena M; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2016-07-29

    We previously reported that prenylated chalcone 2 (PC2), the O-prenyl derivative (2) of 2'-hydroxy-3,4,4',5,6'-pentamethoxychalcone (1), induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells via disruption of p53-MDM2 interaction. However, the cellular changes through which PC2 exerts its cytotoxic activity and its antitumor potential, remain to be addressed. In the present work, we aimed to (i) characterize the effect of PC2 on mitotic progression and the underlying mechanism; and to (ii) explore this information to evaluate its ability to sensitize tumor cells to paclitaxel in a combination regimen. PC2 was able to arrest breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in mitosis. All mitosis-arrested cells showed collapsed mitotic spindles with randomly distributed chromosomes, and activated spindle assembly checkpoint. Live-cell imaging revealed that the compound induced a prolonged delay (up to 14 h) in mitosis, culminating in massive cell death by blebbing. Importantly, PC2 in combination with paclitaxel enhanced the effect on cell growth inhibition as determined by cell viability and proliferation assays. Our findings demonstrate that the cytotoxicity induced by PC2 is mediated through antimitotic activity as a result of mitotic spindle damage. The enhancement effects of PC2 on chemosensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel encourage further validation of the clinical potential of this combination.

  7. Biostimulative effects of Nd:YAG Q-switch dye on normal human fibroblast cultures: study of a new chemosensitizing agent for the Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, D.J.; Saxton, R.E.; Fetterman, H.R.; Castro, D.J.; Ward, P.H.

    1987-12-01

    Kodak Q-switch II is a new chemical with an absorption maxima at 1051 nm, designed to be used as an Nd:YAG dye laser. The potential for this dye as a new chemosensitizing agent in the treatment of connective tissue diseases and wound healing with low energy Nd:YAG laser was examined. Two normal fibroblast cell lines were tested for sensitivity to various levels of this dye in vitro. These cells were exposed to Q-switch II dye at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 micrograms/ml for 1 and 24 hours. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Cell duplication and DNA synthesis were measured by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine at 6 and 24 hours postexposure to Q-switch II dye. At concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml, both cell lines tested showed no changes in cell viability. However, at concentrations equal or higher than 50 micrograms/ml, more than 40% of the fibroblasts incorporated trypan blue after 24 hours of exposure to this dye, indicating significant cell destruction. The results indicate that Q-switch II dye is nontoxic to normal human fibroblast cultures and showed significant biostimulative effects on cell duplication at concentrations equal to or lower than 10 micrograms/ml. Further studies will be required to determine the usefulness of Q-switch II dye as a new photochemosensitizing agent for potential biostimulation of wound healing and/or treatment of connective tissue diseases with the Nd:YAG laser (near infrared, 1060 nm) at nonthermal levels of energies.

  8. Heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in esophagealcancer using ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang LING; Zhi-xing YANG; Jian YIN; Wei-min MAO; Chun-jian QI; Xiao-xiao LU; Li-juan QIAN; Lin-hui GU; Zhi-guo ZHENG; Qiang ZHAO; Shi WANG; Xian-hua FANG

    2012-01-01

    Current chemotherapy for esophageal cancer is conducted on the basis of empirical information from clinical trials,which fails to take into account the known heterogeneity of chemosensitivity between patients.This study was aimed to demonstrate the degree of heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in esophageal cancers.Methods:A total of 42 esophageal cancer specimens were collected.The heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in esophageal cancer specimens was examined using an ex vivo ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA).Results:Thirty eight specimens produced evaluable results (90.5%).The most active single agent tested was nedaplatin,to which 28.9% of samples were sensitive.Combinations of chemotherapy agents exhibited much higher sensitivity:cisplatin+paclitaxel was sensitive in 16 of 38 (42.1%) of samples,while nedaplatin+paclitaxel was more effective,which was sensitive in 20 of 38 cases (52.6%).Conclusion:There was a marked heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in esophageal cancer.Chemosensitivity testing may provide apractical method for testing new regimens before clinical trials in esophageal cancer patients.

  9. Visual inspection for CTBT verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-03-01

    On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

  10. Mexico and the CTBT; Mexico y el CTBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  11. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0

  12. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  13. Environmental radiation measurement in CTBT verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the technical requirements of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Radionuclide Stations, the CTBT-related activities carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the ripple effects of such acquired radionuclide data on general researches. The International Monitoring System (IMS), which is one of the CTBT verification regime. Consists of 80 radionuclide air monitoring stations (of those, 40 stations monitor noble gas as well) and 16 certified laboratories that support these stations throughout the world. For radionuclide air monitoring under the CTBT, the stations collect particulates in the atmosphere on a filter and determine by gamma-ray spectrometry the presence or absence of any radionuclides (e.g. 140Ba, 131I, 99Mo, 132Te, 103Ru, 141Ce, 147Nd, 95Zr, etc.) that offer clear evidence of possible nuclear explosion. Minimum technical requirements are stringently set for the radionuclide air monitoring stations: 500 m3/h air flow rate, 24-hour acquisition time, 10 to 30 Bq/m3 of detection sensitivity for 140Ba, and less than 7 consecutive days, or total of 15 days, a year of shutdown at the stations. For noble gas monitoring, on the other hand, the stations separate Xe from gas elements in the atmosphere and, after purifying and concentrating it, measure 4 nuclides, 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe, by gamma-ray spectrometry or beta-gamma coincidence method. Minimum technical requirements are also set for the noble gas measurement: 0.4 m3/h air flow rate, a full capacity of 10 m3, and 1 Bq/m3 of detection sensitivity for 133Xe, etc. On the request of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology, the JAERI is currently undertaking the establishment of the CTBT radionuclide monitoring stations at both Takasaki (both particle and noble gas) and Okinawa (particle), the certified laboratory at JAERI Tokai, and the National Data Center (NDC 2) at JAERI Tokai, which handles radionuclide data, as

  14. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  15. Statistical evaluation of CTBT regional seismic monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.K.

    1996-09-01

    A global seismic monitoring system under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is judged by its capability to detect, locate, and identify suspicious seismic events. Performance measures are those statistical objects that describe these capabilities. Performance criteria are the thresholds derived from the overall monitoring system goals, against which the evaluated performance measures are compared. This report proposes statistical objects for performance measurement of detection and location, a continuation of the research of Anderson and Anderson. A statistical methodology for calibrating regional station magnitudes to the worldwide teleseismic Mb scale is also proposed.

  16. Political significance of the CTBT (History, status, relationship with the Pelindaba Treaty, etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with historical overview, negotiations on CTBT and its adoption, status and verification system of the Treaty, political significance of CTBT and its significance for States signatories in Africa. Separate chapters are devoted to the African region, CTBT Pelindaba Treaty and cooperative prospects and relevance of the CTBT for Africa

  17. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly eDzhavakhiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of using agricultural fungicides is the development of resistance by fungal pathogens, which undermines reliability of fungicidal effectiveness. A potentially new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides, or chemosensitization. Chemosensitization can be accomplished by combining a commercial fungicide with a certain non- or marginally fungicidal substance at levels where, alone, neither compound would be effective. Chemosensitization decreases the probability of the pathogen developing resistance, reduces the toxic impact on the environment by lowering effective dosage levels of toxic fungicides, and improves efficacy of antifungal agents. The present study shows that the antifungal activity of azole and strobilurin fungicides can be significantly enhanced through their co-application with certain natural or synthetic products against several economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Quadris (azoxystrobin combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produced much higher growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Phoma glomerata, Alternaria sp. and Stagonospora nodorum than the fungicide alone. The effect of Dividend (difenoconazole applied with thymol significantly enhanced antifungal activity against B. sorokiniana and S. nodorum. Folicur (tebuconazole combined with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or thymol significantly inhibited growth of A. alternata, at a much greater level than the fungicide alone. In addition, co-application of Folicur and 4-HBA resulted in a similar enhancement of antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum. Lastly, we discovered that metabolites in the culture liquid of F. sambucinum biocontrol isolate FS-94 also had chemosensitizing activity, increasing S. nodorum sensitivity to Folicur and Dividend.

  18. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhavakhiya, Vitaly; Shcherbakova, Larisa; Semina, Yulia; Zhemchuzhina, Natalia; Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A common consequence of using agricultural fungicides is the development of resistance by fungal pathogens, which undermines reliability of fungicidal effectiveness. A potentially new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides, or "chemosensitization." Chemosensitization can be accomplished by combining a commercial fungicide with a certain non- or marginally fungicidal substance at levels where, alone, neither compound would be effective. Chemosensitization decreases the probability of the pathogen developing resistance, reduces the toxic impact on the environment by lowering effective dosage levels of toxic fungicides, and improves efficacy of antifungal agents. The present study shows that the antifungal activity of azole and strobilurin fungicides can be significantly enhanced through their co-application with certain natural or synthetic products against several economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Quadris (azoxystrobin) combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produced much higher growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Phoma glomerata, Alternaria sp. and Stagonospora nodorum than the fungicide alone. The effect of Dividend (difenoconazole) applied with thymol significantly enhanced antifungal activity against B. sorokiniana and S. nodorum. Folicur (tebuconazole) combined with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or thymol significantly inhibited growth of Alternaria alternata, at a much greater level than the fungicide alone. In addition, co-application of Folicur and 4-HBA resulted in a similar enhancement of antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum. Lastly, we discovered that metabolites in the culture liquid of Fusarium sambucinum biocontrol isolate FS-94 also had chemosensitizing activity, increasing S. nodorum sensitivity to Folicur and Dividend.

  19. Verification lessons learned and CTBT's contribution to disarmament and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all nuclear tests for any purposes. The CTBT is essential for peace and security; it is a core element of the nonproliferation regime. It limits the ability of countries to develop advanced nuclear weapons technology. It is enforced through the extensive International Monitoring System designed to detect and deter nuclear explosions in atmosphere, underwater and underground. In the process of monitoring and detecting a potential nuclear test - the system registers over 30,000 events a year - the vast majority of them are earthquakes. The civil and scientific applications of the CTBT data can be used to gain better understanding of the earth, of climate change, of volcanic ash clouds, of the tsunamis, of the movements of whales and much more. The CTBT sets a new legal and verification standard for nuclear weapons. It is a non-discriminatory Treaty with the same rights and obligations for all Member States. Its verification regime is equally nondiscriminatory and provides equal access for all Member States to CTBTO data. We are driving to achieve 160 ratifications by the end of the year, and this will provide additional momentum towards entry into force (EIF) and universality. (A.C.)

  20. Feasibility of chemosensitivity testing in soft tissue sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinstraesser Lars

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft tissue sarcomas comprise less than 1% of all solid malignancies. The presentation and behavior of these tumors differs depending on location and histological characteristics. Standard therapy consists of complete surgical resection in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy is not clearly defined and is largely restricted to clinical trials. Only a limited number of agents have proved to be effective in soft tissue sarcomas. The use of doxorubicin, epirubicin and ifosfamide allowed response rates of more than 20%. In addition, recent chemotherapy trials did not demonstrate any significant differences in efficacy for various histological subtypes. Methods The objective of this study was to gain additional information about the chemosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas to seven 7 different chemotherapy agents as single drugs and 4 combinations. Therefore we used an established ATP based in-vitro testing system and examined 50 soft tissue sarcomas. Chemosensitivity was assessed using a luciferin-luciferase-based luminescence assay providing individual chemosensitivity indices for each agent tested. Results The sensitivity varied widely according to the histological subtypes. The tumors state of cellular dedifferentiation played a crucial role for the efficiency of the chemotherapeutic agents. The sensitivity also depended on the presentation of the sarcoma as a primary or recurrent tumor. The highest sensitivity was demonstrated for actinomycin D as a single agent, with 74% of the tumor samples exhibiting a high-grade sensitivity (20% low sensitivity, no resistance. The combination of actinomycin D and ifosfamide yielded a high sensitivity in 76% (2% resistance. Doxorubicin as a mono-therapy or in combination with ifosfamide achieved high sensitivity in 70% and 72%, respectively, and resistance in 6% of the samples. Conclusion Chemosensitivity testing is feasible in soft tissue sarcomas. It can be

  1. Chemosensitization by antisense oligonucleotides targeting MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberto; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2005-02-01

    The MDM2 oncogene is overexpressed in many human cancers, including sarcomas, certain hematologic malignancies, and breast, colon and prostate cancers. The p53-MDM2 interaction pathway has been suggested as a novel target for cancer therapy. To that end, several strategies have been explored, including the use of small polypeptides targeted to the MDM2-p53 binding domain, anti-MDM2 antisense oligonucleotides, and natural agents. Different generations of anti-human-MDM2 oligonucleotides have been tested in in vitro and in vivo human cancer models, revealing specific inhibition of MDM2 expression and significant antitumor activity. Use of antisense oligos potentiated the effects of growth inhibition, p53 activation and p21 induction by several chemotherapeutic agents. Increased therapeutic effectiveness of chemotherapeutic drugs in human cancer cell lines carrying p53 mutations or deletions have shown the ability of MDM2 inhibitors to act as chemosensitizers in various types of tumors through both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Inhibiting MDM2 appears to also have a role in radiation therapy for human cancer, regardless of p53 status, providing a rationale for the development of a new class of radiosensitizers. Moreover, MDM2 antisense oligonucleotides potentiate the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors by affecting in vitro and in vivo proliferation, apoptosis and protein expression in hormone-refractory and hormone-dependent human prostate cancer cells. These data support the development, among other MDM2 inhibitors, of anti-MDM2 antisense oligonucleotides as a novel class of anticancer agents, and suggest a potentially relevant role for the oligonucleotides when integrated with conventional treatments and/or other signaling inhibitors in novel therapeutic strategies.

  2. The participation of Argentina in the CTBT verification regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina is among the countries involved in the CTBT with seismic, radionuclide and infra sound stations. In May 1998, a Provisional Agreement was signed between the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Executive Secretary of the Provisional technical Secretariat to allow technicians and equipment of the CTBTO to start the harmonization and upgrade of the monitoring stations located in Argentina. It started, through Instituto de Prevencion Sismica (INPRES), participating with the group of Scientific experts at the Conference of Disarmament. Concerning radionuclide monitoring and infra sound technologies Argentina participates with its stations managed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. Participation of Argentina in the CTBT is considered as an excellent opportunity for interchanging information and experiences among Argentine experts and experts from other countries

  3. The present status of the CTBT verification regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature on September 24, 1996. As of November 17, 2006 the numbers of Signatories and Ratifications are 177 and 137 respectively. The Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization, which consists of Signatures, has been preparing for the verification regime in order to monitor compliance with the Treaty. With 10 years passage the International Monitoring System is switching from establishing to operating phase and has functioned effectively to detect nuclear explosions. On the other hand many issues has arisen in long pending of not entering into force, which was not supposed in early time; for example restructuring of the organization for conforming operational body and its nature and status and technology refreshment. Also data globally acquired are being used for civil and scientific applications and attempts are made with increasing interaction between the Organization, Signatories and scientific community. This paper presents an overview of status of the verification regime, discuss future course and issues, and also expresses JAEA's programme related to the CTBT. (author)

  4. Resistance gene expression determines the in vitro chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Khalid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NSCLC exhibits considerable heterogeneity in its sensitivity to chemotherapy and similar heterogeneity is noted in vitro in a variety of model systems. This study has tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of the observed in vitro chemosensitivity of NSCLC lies within the known resistance mechanisms inherent to these patients' tumors. Methods The chemosensitivity of a series of 49 NSCLC tumors was assessed using the ATP-based tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA and compared with quantitative expression of resistance genes measured by RT-PCR in a Taqman Array™ following extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Results There was considerable heterogeneity between tumors within the ATP-TCA, and while this showed no direct correlation with individual gene expression, there was strong correlation of multi-gene signatures for many of the single agents and combinations tested. For instance, docetaxel activity showed some dependence on the expression of drug pumps, while cisplatin activity showed some dependence on DNA repair enzyme expression. Activity of both drugs was influenced more strongly still by the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes by the tumor for both docetaxel and cisplatin. The doublet combinations of cisplatin with gemcitabine and cisplatin with docetaxel showed gene expression signatures incorporating resistance mechanisms for both agents. Conclusion Genes predicted to be involved in known mechanisms drug sensitivity and resistance correlate well with in vitro chemosensitivity and may allow the definition of predictive signatures to guide individualized chemotherapy in lung cancer.

  5. In vitro chemosensitivity of head and neck cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler PJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC includes a variety of antineoplastic drugs. However, drug-resistance interferes with the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Preclinical testing models are needed in order to develop approaches to overcome chemoresistance. Methods Ten human cell lines were obtained from HNSCC, including one with experimentally-induced cisplatin resistance. Inhibition of cell growth by seven chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, carboplatin, 5- fluorouracil, methotrexate, bleomycin, vincristin, and paclitaxel was measured using metabolic MTT-uptake assay and correlated to clinically-achievable plasma concentrations. Results All drugs inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 comparable to that achievable in vivo. However, response curves for methotrexate were unsatisfactory and for paclitaxel, the solubilizer cremophor EL was toxic. Cross-resistance was observed between cisplatin and carboplatin. Conclusion Chemosensitivity of HNSCC cell lines can be determined using the MTT-uptake assay. For DNA-interfering cytostatics and vinca alkaloids this is a simple and reproducible procedure. Determined in vitro chemosensitivity serves as a baseline for further experimental approaches aiming to modulate chemoresistance in HNSCC with potential clinical significance.

  6. The chemosensitivity of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-04-01

    Although rare cancers overall, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young males below 40 years of age. Both subtypes of TGCTs, i.e., seminomas and non-seminomas, are highly curable and the majority of even metastatic patients may expect to be cured. These high cure rates are not due to the indolent nature of these cancers, but rather to their sensitivity to chemotherapy (and for seminomas to radiotherapy). The delineation of the cause of chemosensitivity at the molecular level is of paramount importance, because it may provide insights into the minority of TGCTs that are chemo-resistant and, thereby, provide opportunities for specific therapeutic interventions aimed at reverting them to chemosensitivity. In addition, delineation of the molecular basis of TGCT chemo-sensitivity may be informative for the cause of chemo-resistance of other more common types of cancer and, thus, may create new therapeutic leads. p53, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancers in general, is not mutated in TGCTs, a fact that has implications for their chemo-sensitivity. Oct4, an embryonic transcription factor, is uniformly expressed in the seminoma and embryonic carcinoma components of non-seminomas, and its interplay with p53 may be important in the chemotherapy response of these tumors. This interplay, together with other features of TGCTs such as the gain of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 12 and the association with disorders of testicular development, will be discussed in this paper and integrated in a unifying hypothesis that may explain their chemo-sensitivity. PMID:24692098

  7. Accessing chemosensitivity and ventilatory stability from transient stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, E N

    1996-12-01

    The degree of ventilatory stability of human subjects is inferred from the presence or absence of oscillations in ventilation in response to a brief CO2 disturbance using the method of pseudorandom stimulation. Simultaneously, chemosensitivity is measured. Stability and chemosensitivity are compared in hyperoxia between wakefulness and stage 2 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and between normoxia and hyperoxia awake. Stability is unchanged between wakefulness and sleep but chemosensitivity decreases in sleep. In contrast, stability is reduced in normoxia whereas chemosensitivity is larger than in hyperoxia. It is concluded that chemosensitivity and ventilatory stability may change independently, implying that chemosensitivity alone is not an adequate indicator of the likelihood of a subject to exhibit periodic breathing. PMID:9085498

  8. The National Radiation Protection Authority and its regulatory programme. Potential benefits of the CTBT and thoughts on cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past years Ethiopia became an active participant in the scientific and political development as well as supporter of the CTBT. This paper describes the designated institution for the CTBT implementation in the area of Radionuclides in Ethiopia and its scientific and regulatory program as well as main activities concerning application techniques. The second part of the paper accounts for the links between the objectives of the national institute with the CTBT. It draws substantive details about benefits that could arise from participating in CTBT implementation and summarizes the discussion by suggesting modalities for building partnership and cooperation

  9. Completing and sustaining IMS network for the CTBT Verification Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.

    2015-12-01

    The CTBT International Monitoring System is to be comprised of 337 facilities located all over the world for the purpose of detecting and locating nuclear test explosions. Major challenges remain, namely the completion of the network where most of the remaining stations have either environmental, logistical and/or political issues to surmont (89% of the stations have already been built) and the sustainment of a reliable and state-of the-art network covering 4 technologies - seismic, infrasound , hydroacoustic and radionuclide. To have a credible and trustworthy verification system ready for entry into force of the Treaty, the CTBTO is protecting and enhancing its investment of its global network of stations and is providing effective data to the International Data Centre (IDC) and Member States. Regarding the protection of the CTBTO's investment and enhanced sustainment of IMS station operations, the IMS Division is enhancing the capabilities of the monitoring system by applying advances in instrumentation and introducing new software applications that are fit for purpose. Some examples are the development of noble gas laboratory systems to process and analyse subsoil samples, development of a mobile noble gas system for onsite inspection purposes, optimization of Beta Gamma detectors for Xenon detection, assessing and improving the efficiency of wind noise reduction systems for infrasound stations, development and testing of infrasound stations with a self-calibrating capability, and research into the use of modular designs for the hydroacoustic network.

  10. Intrinsic chemosensitivity of individual nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and locus coeruleus (LC) neurons from neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Hartzler, Lynn K; Conrad, Susan C; Dean, Jay B; Putnam, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Chemosensitive (CS) neurons are found in discrete brainstem regions, but whether the CS response of these neurons is due to intrinsic chemosensitivity of individual neurons or is mediated by changes in chemical and/or electrical synaptic input is largely unknown. We studied the effect of synaptic blockade (11.4 mM Mg2+/0.2mM Ca2+) solution (SNB) and a gap junction uncoupling agent carbenoxolone (CAR--100 microM) on the response of neurons from two CS brainstem regions, the NTS and the LC. In NTS neurons, SNB decreased spontaneous firing rate (FR). We calculated the magnitude of the FR response to hypercapnic acidosis (HA; 15% CO2) using the Chemosensitivity Index (CI). The percentage of NTS neurons activated and CI were the same in the absence and presence of SNB. Blocking gap junctions with CAR did not significantly alter spontaneous FR. CAR did not alter the CI in NTS neurons and resulted in a small decrease in the percentage of activated neurons, which was most evident in NTS neurons from rats younger than postnatal day 10. In LC neurons, SNB resulted in an increase in spontaneous FR. As with NTS neurons, SNB did not alter the percentage of activated neurons or the CI in LC neurons. CAR resulted in a small increase in spontaneous FR in LC neurons. In contrast, CAR had a marked effect on the response of LC neurons to HA: a reduced percentage of CS LC neurons and decreased CI. In summary, both NTS and LC neurons appear to contain intrinsically CS neurons. CS neurons from the two regions receive different tonic input in slices (excitatory for NTS and inhibitory for LC); however, blocking chemical synaptic input does not affect the CS response in either region. In NTS neurons, gap junction coupling plays a small role in the CS response, but gap junctions play a major role in the chemosensitivity of many LC neurons.

  11. Global Monitoring of the CTBT: Progress, Capabilities and Plans (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), established in 1996, is tasked with building up the verification regime of the CTBT. The regime includes a global system for monitoring the earth, the oceans and the atmosphere for nuclear tests, and an on-site inspection (OSI) capability. More than 80% of the 337 facilities of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria for processing. These IMS data along with IDC processed and reviewed products are available to all States that have signed the Treaty. Concurrent with the build-up of the global monitoring networks, near-field geophysical methods are being developed and tested for OSIs. The monitoring system is currently operating in a provisional mode, as the Treaty has not yet entered into force. Progress in installing and operating the IMS and the IDC and in building up an OSI capability will be described. The capabilities of the monitoring networks have progressively improved as stations are added to the IMS and IDC processing techniques refined. Detection thresholds for seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide events have been measured and in general are equal to or lower than the predictions used during the Treaty negotiations. The measurements have led to improved models and tools that allow more accurate predictions of future capabilities and network performance under any configuration. Unplanned tests of the monitoring network occurred when the DPRK announced nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, and 2013. All three tests were well above the detection threshold and easily detected and located by the seismic monitoring network. In addition, noble gas consistent with the nuclear tests in 2006 and 2013 (according to atmospheric transport models) was detected by stations in the network. On-site inspections of these tests were not conducted as the Treaty has not entered

  12. Research on database realization technology of seismic information system in CTBT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing CTBT verification technology has become the most important method that makes sure CTBT to be fulfilled conscientiously. The seismic analysis based on seismic information system (SIS) is playing an important rule in this field. Based on GIS, the SIS will be very sufficient and powerful in spatial analysis, topologic analysis and visualization. However, the critical issue to implement the whole system function depends on the performance of SIS DB. Based on the ArcSDE Geodatabase data model, not only have the spatial data and attribute data seamless integrated management been realized with RDBMS ORACLE really, but also the most functions of ORACLE have been reserved. (authors)

  13. Aptamer–polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinglin; Peng, Caixia; Zhan, Yan; Fan, Liang; Wang, Mengyi; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Jue; Lv, Xiaojuan; Tang, Qiu; Li, Jun; Huang, Xiaodong; Xia, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer–poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush), which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate–tumor chemosensitivity assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. PMID:27274239

  14. Noscapine chemosensitization enhances docetaxel anticancer activity and nanocarrier uptake in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Ravi; Patel, Ketan; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Singh, Mandip

    2016-08-01

    Chemosensitization and enhanced delivery to solid tumor are widely explored strategies to augment the anticancer efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics agents. The aim of current research was to investigate the role of low dose Noscapine (Nos) in potentiating docetaxel cytotoxicity and enhancing tumor penetration of nanocarriers. The objectives are; (1) To evaluate the chemo-sensitizing effect of Nos in combination with docetaxel (DTX), and to elucidate the possible mechanism (2) To investigate the effect of low dose Nos on tumor stroma and enhancing nanocarrier uptake in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) bearing nude mice. Cytotoxicity and flow cytometry analysis of DTX in Nos (4µM) pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed 3.0-fold increase in cell killing and 30% increase in number of late apoptotic cells, respectively. Stress transducer p38 phosphorylation was significantly upregulated with Nos exposure. DTX showed remarkable downregulation in expression of bcl-2, survivin and pAKT in Nos pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Nos pre-sensitization significantly (p<0.02) enhanced the anti-migration effect of DTX. In vivo studies in orthotopic TNBC tumor bearing mice showed marked reduction in tumor collagen-I levels and significantly (p<0.03) higher intra-tumoral uptake of coumarin-6 loaded PEGylated liposomes (7-fold) in Nos treated group. Chemo-sensitization and anti-fibrotic effect of Nos could be a promising approach to increase anticancer efficacy of DTX which can be used for other nanomedicinal products. PMID:27177833

  15. Aptamer-polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen QL

    2016-05-01

    assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. Keywords: circulating tumor cells, aptamer–PNIPAM coating, capture and recovery, cell culture in vitro, chemosensitivity testing

  16. Analysis of acoustic-seismic coupling behaviour for CTBT on-site inspection performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Knoop, Jan-Frederik [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    After teleseismic detection of a big underground explosion, during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) weak seismic signals from aftershocks are to be detected. These, however, can be masked by soil vibrations which are caused by acoustic waves which couple to the ground. To analyse the coupling behaviour between acoustic waves and soil vibrations several experiments with different acoustic sources (helicopters, firecrackers, loudspeaker) were performed. Of special interest is the influence of surface waves, excited in a larger area around the sensor, which can superpose constructively at the position of the sensor and can increase the measured seismic signal. A better understanding of the acoustic-seismic coupling can be used to develop guidelines for seismic aftershock measurements, such as a suitable sensor setup, with the goal of reducing or even preventing disturbing signals to improve the performance of on-site inspections for the CTBT.

  17. Salinomycin increases chemosensitivity to the effects of doxorubicin in soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas remains unsatisfactory due to their low chemosensitivity. Even the first line chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin only yields a response rate of 18-29%. The antibiotic salinomycin, a potassium ionophore, has recently been shown to be a potent compound to deplete chemoresistant cells like cancer stem like cells (CSC) in adenocarcinomas. Here, we evaluated the effect of salinomycin on sarcoma cell lines, whereby salinomycin mono- and combination treatment with doxorubicin regimens were analyzed. To evaluate the effect of salinomycin on fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and liposarcoma cell lines, cells were drug exposed in single and combined treatments, respectively. The effects of the corresponding treatments were monitored by cell viability assays, cell cycle analysis, caspase 3/7 and 9 activity assays. Further we analyzed NF-κB activity; p53, p21 and PUMA transcription levels, together with p53 expression and serine 15 phosphorylation. The combination of salinomycin with doxorubicin enhanced caspase activation and increased the sub-G1 fraction. The combined treatment yielded higher NF-κB activity, and p53, p21 and PUMA transcription, whereas the salinomycin monotreatment did not cause any significant changes. Salinomycin increases the chemosensitivity of sarcoma cell lines - even at sub-lethal concentrations - to the cytostatic drug doxorubicin. These findings support a strategy to decrease the doxorubicin concentration in combination with salinomycin in order to reduce toxic side effects

  18. Tracking the Fukushima releases: from environmental monitoring to a showcase of CTBT verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-04-01

    In the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident large amounts of antropogenic radionuclides relevant to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) were released and detected globally. Our group participated in the large European monitoring campaign and tracked fission products in various environmental media in Austria. We could show that the intake of environmental I-131 into the thyroids of wild animals can be used for verification of the CTBT. Due to continuous and highly specific accumulation of I-131, its apparent half-life in the thyroid biomonitor exceeds the physical one, thus making I-131 detectable three weeks longer than using conventional CTBT-grade high volume air samplers. This means an increase in sensitivity of almost one order of magnitude compared with conventional systems. In a second campaign we analysed the large data set of analyses of Japanese foods. Food was regarded as a geographically well localized environmental sample. The objective of this study was to determine the radiocesium activity ratio (Cs-134/137) in foods from each geographic area to possibly identify the radioactive signature of the four different reactors (i.e. four independent sources) in the distinct regions. No clear deviations from the average value (0.98) could be confirmed in the various regions. Hence, the releases from reactor No. 4 (carrying a significantly smaller activity ratio) are assumed to be small when compared with the other three reactor release. The individual radioisotopic signatures of reactors No. 1, 2, and 3 could not be identified in various Japanese regions using the food samples, indicating integral radiocesium contamination from these sources.

  19. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  20. Apollon modulates chemosensitivity in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Tang, Wenqing; Weng, Shuqiang; Liu, Xijun; Rao, Benqiang; Gu, Jianxin; Chen, She; Wang, Qun; Shen, Xizhong; Xue, Ruyi; Dong, Ling

    2014-08-30

    Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are often diagnosed with advanced diseases that respond poorly to chemotherapy. Here we reported that Apollon, a membrane-associated inhibitor of apoptosis protein, was overexpressed in ESCC cell lines and clinical ESCC tissues, and Apollon overexpression clinically correlated with poor response to chemotherapy (P = 0.001), and short overall survival (P = 0.021). Apollon knockdown increased cisplatin/docetaxel-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release in two ESCC cell lines. Apollon knockdown potentiated cisplatin/docetaxel-induced long-term cell growth inhibition, and enhanced chemosensitivity of ESCC cells to cisplatin/docetaxel in xenograft tumor models. Apollon knockdown also enhanced cisplatin/docetaxel-induced activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic pathway) and caspase-9 (intrinsic pathway) in ESCC cells and xenograft tumor models. Mechanism studies revealed that the effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity is mainly mediated by Smac. Apollon expression strongly and negatively correlated with Smac expression in clinical ESCC tissues (P = 0.001). Apollon targeted Smac for degradation in ESCC cells. The effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity was reversed by Smac knockdown in ESCC cells. Taken together, our data show association of Apollon expression with chemotherapeutic response in ESCC, and provide a strong rationale for combining Apollon antagonism with chemotherapy to treat ESCC.

  1. Analysis of acoustic-seismic coupling for CTBT on-site inspection support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebsch, Mattes [Experimentelle Physik III, TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The measurements of weak seismic signals, e.g. aftershock measurements during an on-site inspection for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), can be masked by man-made disturbances. These can be caused by airborne signals, like the noises of aircraft or helicopters, which couple to the ground and excite soil vibrations. We have measured sound pressure and corresponding soil vibrations caused by aircraft and by signals produced artificially with a speaker. Methods of acoustic deadening were applied to reduce the incident acoustic power locally. The influence on soil vibrations in different depths below the surface is investigated. The underlying question was whether the coupling of sound happens locally or soil vibrations created in a wide area around the sensor sum up to the total seismic signal. A better understanding of acoustic-seismic coupling can be used to develop guidelines for seismic aftershock measurements in order to improve the performance of on-site inspections for the CTBT.

  2. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  3. Synergy between von Hippel-Lindau and P53 contributes to chemosensitivity of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyi; Chen, Changjin; Lin, Junzhi; Zeng, Wentong; Zhao, Juan; Liang, Yindan; Tan, Qinrui; Yang, Chao; Li, Hui

    2016-09-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL; E3 ubiquitin ligase gene) is frequently mutated or undetectable in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and therefore these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, including adriamycin (ADM) and sunitinib. A mutation in the tumor protein p53 (TP53) also leads to chemoresistance in tumors; however, in CCRCC, TP53 is frequently functional, yet the tumors remain highly insensitive to chemotherapy. This indicates the possibility of a synergistic effect of VHL and P53 in CCRCC. The present study aimed to detect the chemosensitivity of CCRCC. The expression of VHL in the MZ1257 cell line sensitized these cells to ADM and sunitinib, and a knockdown of VHL in the ACHN cells increased their chemoresistance. To confirm that VHL and P53 are both required for chemosensitivity, VHL and P53 were co‑expressed in 786‑O cells. The results of the functional antagonist assay (which assessed the IC50 values, i.e. the half maximal inhibitory concentration) confirmed that VHL and P53 act in synergy to promote chemosensitivity. Cell cycle arrest was measured by propidium iodide staining following treatment with ADM or sunitinib. Further analysis indicated that co‑expression of VHL and P53 inhibited cell proliferation by completely inhibiting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and promoted apoptosis following treatment with ADM or sunitinib. These findings demonstrated that VHL and P53 act synergistically in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in CCRCC. Overall, VHL and P53 have important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in CCRCC. Furthermore, the regulatory role of VHL is dependant on the activation P53. PMID:27485825

  4. Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant) was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA) as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization) resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application ...

  5. Seismic Characterization of Coal-Mining Seismicity in Utah for CTBT Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabasz, W J; Pechmann, J C

    2001-03-01

    Underground coal mining (down to {approx}0.75 km depth) in the contiguous Wasatch Plateau (WP) and Book Cliffs (BC) mining districts of east-central Utah induces abundant seismicity that is monitored by the University of Utah regional seismic network. This report presents the results of a systematic characterization of mining seismicity (magnitude {le} 4.2) in the WP-BC region from January 1978 to June 2000-together with an evaluation of three seismic events (magnitude {le} 4.3) associated with underground trona mining in southwestern Wyoming during January-August 2000. (Unless specified otherwise, magnitude implies Richter local magnitude, M{sub L}.) The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) undertook this cooperative project to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in research and development relating to monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The project, which formally began February 28, 1998, and ended September 1, 2000, had three basic objectives: (1) Strategically install a three-component broadband digital seismic station in the WP-BC region to ensure the continuous recording of high-quality waveform data to meet the long-term needs of LLNL, UUSS, and other interested parties, including the international CTBT community. (2) Determine source mechanisms--to the extent that available source data and resources allowed--for comparative seismic characterization of stress release in mines versus earthquakes in the WP-BC study region. (3) Gather and report to LLNL local information on mine operations and associated seismicity, including ''ground truth'' for significant events. Following guidance from LLNL's Technical Representative, the focus of Objective 2 was changed slightly to place emphasis on three mining-related events that occurred in and near the study area after the original work plan had been made, thus posing new targets of opportunity. These included: a magnitude

  6. Chemosensitive nanocomposite for conductometric detection of hydrazine and NADH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ulrich [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Mirsky, Vladimir M., E-mail: vmirsky@hs-lausitz.d [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Lausitz University of Applied Sciences, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    A new chemosensitive material based on palladium nanoparticles and PEDOT-PSS is described. The composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and in situ resistance measurements. The material was applied for conductometric detection of hydrazine and NADH. Upon exposure to these analytes PEDOT is reduced leading to an increase in its conductance. This process is catalyzed by palladium. A model for description of the potential dependence of polymer conductivity was suggested, tested and applied for the development of new calibration procedure of chemiresistors based on electroactive polymers.

  7. Engineering upgrades to the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer for the CTBT International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated collection and analysis system designed for aerosol radionuclide monitoring for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The advantages of an automated system include minimal need for human intervention and consistent analytical data. However, maintainability and down time issues threaten this utility, even for systems with over 90 % data availability. Engineering upgrades to the RASA are currently being pursued to address these issues, as well as measures relevant to technical lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear power plant event. Current work includes a new automation control unit and other potential improvements such as alternative detector cooling and sampling options. This paper presents the current state of upgrades and improvements under investigation. (author)

  8. Role of EGFR mutations in lung cancers: prognosis and tumor chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancers with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation account for ~40 % of adenocarcinomas in East Asians and ~15 % of those in Caucasians and African Americans, which makes them one of the most common molecularly defined lung cancer subsets. The discriminative clinical and pathological features of lung cancers with EGFR mutations have been intensively studied, and the predictive role of an EGFR mutation for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is well established. However, controversial issues remain regarding the clinical and therapeutic implications of EGFR mutations in lung cancers. These include the prognostic impact of the EGFR mutation, its predictive implication for successful treatment with anticancer agents other than EGFR-TKIs, appropriate cytotoxic agents for lung cancers with this mutation, and the chemosensitivity of EGFR-mutation-positive lung cancers after acquisition of resistance to EGFR-TKIs. In this review, we discuss these unanswered but important questions, referring to in vitro studies, basic research, retrospective analyses, and the results of phase III clinical trials. PMID:25983263

  9. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting midkine induced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-cheng DAI; Xiang WANG; Xing YAO; Yong-liang LU; Jin-liang PING; Jian-fang HE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Overexpression of midkine (MK) has been observed in many malignancies. This aim of this study is to screen for suitable antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN) targeting MK in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and evaluate its antitumor activity. Methods: Ten ASODN targeting MK were designed and synthesized. After transfection with ASODN, cell proliferation was analyzed with MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2//-tetrazolium, inner salt] assay. In addition, MK mRNA, protein levels, as well as apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were also examined in HepG2 cells. Cell proliferation was then analyzed after treatment with both ASODN and chemotherapeu-tic drugs. Results: In this experiment, the ASODN5 among the 10 ASODN showed higher inhibitory activity against proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. In HepG2 cells, ASODN5 could significantly reduce the MK mRNA level and protein content. After transfection with ASODN5 for 48 h, accompanied with a decline of survivin and Bcl-2 protein content, a remarkable increase of apoptosis and caspase-3 activity was observed in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, ASODN5 transfer can significantly increase chemosensitivity in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: Antisense oligonucleotides targeting MK shows therapeutic effects on HCC; ASODN5 has the possibility to be developed as an effective antitumor agent.

  10. Prediction of drug efficacy for cancer treatment based on comparative analysis of chemosensitivity and gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, P; Li, Q; Eklund, AC;

    2012-01-01

    The NCI60 database is the largest available collection of compounds with measured anti-cancer activity. The strengths and limitations for using the NCI60 database as a source of new anti-cancer agents are explored and discussed in relation to previous studies. We selected a sub-set of 2333...... and in a data set of expression profiles of 1901 genes for the corresponding tumor cell lines. Five clusters were identified based on the gene expression data using self-organizing maps (SOM), comprising leukemia, melanoma, ovarian and prostate, basal breast, and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively....... The strong difference in gene expression between basal and luminal breast cancer cells was reflected clearly in the chemosensitivity data. Although most compounds in the data set were of low potency, high efficacy compounds that showed specificity with respect to tissue of origin could be found. Furthermore...

  11. MEK2 is a prognostic marker and potential chemo-sensitizing target for glioma patients undergoing temozolomide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Yao, Maojin; Zhang, Wenhao; Tao, Bangbao; Liu, Feili; Li, Shu; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chenran; Meng, Yicheng; Li, Yuxin; Hu, Guohan; Luo, Chun; Zong, Hui; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-09-01

    Although temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma, it is often non-curative due to drug resistance. To overcome the resistance of glioblastoma cells to TMZ, it is imperative to identify prognostic markers for outcome prediction and to develop chemo-sensitizing agents. Here, the gene expression profiles of TMZ-resistant and TMZ-sensitive samples were compared by microarray analysis, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2) was upregulated specifically in resistant glioma cells but not in sensitive tumor cells or non-tumor tissues. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of patient data revealed that the increased level of MEK2 expression correlated well with the advancement of glioma grade and worse prognosis in response to TMZ treatment. Furthermore, reducing the level of MEK2 in U251 glioma cell lines or xenografted glioma models through shRNA-mediated gene knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced the sensitivity of cells toward TMZ treatment. Further analysis of tumor samples from glioma patients by real-time PCR indicated that an increased MEK2 expression level was closely associated with the activation of many drug resistance genes. Finally, these resistance genes were downregulated after MEK2 was silenced in vitro, suggesting that the mechanism of MEK2-induced chemo-resistance could be mediated by the transcriptional activation of these resistance genes. Collectively, our data indicated that the expression level of MEK2 could serve as a prognostic marker for glioma chemotherapy and that MEK2 antagonists can be used as chemo-sensitizers to enhance the treatment efficacy of TMZ.

  12. Architecture and critical technologies of seismic information system in CTBT verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xue-feng; SHEN Jun-yi; JIN Ping; ZHENG Jiang-ling; SUN Peng; ZHANG Hui-min; WANG Tong-dong

    2006-01-01

    Seismic monitoring is one of the most important approaches for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring capability for low magnitude seismic events, a seismic information system was developed by using the technologies of geographic information system and database. This paper describes the designing and critical technologies of the Seismic Information System in CTBT Verification developed based on ArcGIS and ORACLE platforms. It is a combination of the database storage framework, application programming interface and graphic application software for users to meet their monitoring objectives. Combining the ArcSDE Geodatabase, RDBMS ORACLE and ArcObjects developing technique on COM, not only the multi-sources data has been seamlessly integrated, but also the most functions of ORACLE, for example, consistency, concurrent access, security mechanism, etc, have been reserved. For easy access to the information system we develop two different mechanisms. The first is a menu-driven internal system that is run on NT platforms. The second access mechanism is based on LAN and easily accessible by any web browsers.

  13. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  14. Ad hoc algorithms and methodologies for the radionuclide CTBT treaty verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 'Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization' is the international organization establishing the global verification system under the CTBT, which bans all nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion. The verification system includes the International Monitoring System (IMS), a global network of 321 monitoring stations (radionuclide technologies: particulate and noble gases; waveform technologies: seismic, hydro acoustic and infrasound), a communications infrastructure, an International Data Centre (hereinafter referred to as the IDC) and the capability to carry out on-site inspections. To verify the treaty, the radionuclide monitoring needs to review data coming daily from 80 particulate and 40 noble gas stations. The big amount of data to review and the specific and sensitive task in the treaty verification led to the development of new methods and algorithms to help the human analysis reducing the reviewing time and enhancing the quality of the results. Specific science for gamma spectroscopy has been involved and applied in ad hoc algorithms to make the automatic screening faster, consistent and scientific sound, moreover a set of special tools have been provided to the analysts to review and correct identify the daily findings. A whole package containing all those needs and algorithms has been developed at the CTBTO and is called Simulated Assisted Interactive Nuclide-review Tool (SAINT). The two major peculiarities of the SAINT are: A total new approach of gamma peak finding that enhances drastically the capability to detect very small signals. The usage of Monte Carlo simulated spectra for the correct Nuclide Identification A good spectrum baseline calculation is essential for the application of these ad-hoc calculations. The algorithm named 'lawnmower' has been developed at the IDC. (author)

  15. Assessment of pancreatic carcinoma cell chemosensitivity using a three-dimensional culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Quan; HU Ya; ZHAO Yu-pei; ZHOU Tao; ZHANG Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Monolayer cell culture models are the traditional culture models used for in vitro research of pancreatic carcinoma chemosensitivity. However, these models neglect the interactions between tumor cells and the impact of the tumor microenvironment. Such tumor cell monolayers poorly mimic the solid tumor microenvironment. The present study aimed to investigate the chemosensitivity characteristics of pancreatic cancer cells in a three-dimensional culture system by analyzing the differences in drug sensitivity between a scattered cell culture model and a multicellular spheroid culture model.Methods Three pancreatic cancer cell lines (SW1990, ASPC-1 and PCT-3) were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels as well as in traditional two-dimensional monolayers. The chemosensitivities of the pancreatic carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin in vitro were detected by both the Cell Counting Kit-8 test and the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug-sensitivity test.Results In the two-dimensional culture model, differences in the chemosensitivities of the cloned pancreatic carcinoma cells and scattered cells existed for some concentrations of 5-FU, gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. In the three-dimensional culture model, there were significant differences in the chemosensitivities of the pancreatic cancer cells between the scattered cells and multicellular spheroids (P <0.05).Conclusion Pancreatic carcinoma cells exhibit multicellular resistance in three-dimensional cultures.

  16. Chemosensitization of cancer cells by siRNA using targeted nanogel delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Targeted therapies that enhance cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase drug efficacy while reducing toxic effects on untargeted cells. Targeted cancer therapy by RNA interference (RNAi) is a relatively new approach that can be used to reversibly silence genes in vivo by selectively targeting genes such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has been shown to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to taxane chemotherapy. However, delivery represents the main hurdle for the broad development of RNAi therapeutics. We report here the use of core/shell hydrogel nanoparticles (nanogels) functionalized with peptides that specially target the EphA2 receptor to deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting EGFR. Expression of EGFR was determined by immunoblotting, and the effect of decreased EGFR expression on chemosensitization of ovarian cancer cells after siRNA delivery was investigated. Treatment of EphA2 positive Hey cells with siRNA-loaded, peptide-targeted nanogels decreased EGFR expression levels and significantly increased the sensitivity of this cell line to docetaxel (P < 0.05). Nanogel treatment of SK-OV-3 cells, which are negative for EphA2 expression, failed to reduce EGFR levels and did not increase docetaxel sensitivity (P > 0.05). This study suggests that targeted delivery of siRNAs by nanogels may be a promising strategy to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In addition, EphA2 is a viable target for therapeutic delivery, and the siRNAs are effectively protected by the nanogel carrier, overcoming the poor stability and uptake that has hindered clinical advancement of therapeutic siRNAs

  17. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  18. NG09 And CTBT On-Site Inspection Noble Gas Sampling and Analysis Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Tanaka, Junichi

    2010-05-01

    A provision of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) allows on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspect nuclear sites to determine if the occurrence of a detected event is nuclear in origin. For an underground nuclear explosion (UNE), the potential success of an OSI depends significantly on the containment scenario of the alleged event as well as the application of air and soil-gas radionuclide sampling techniques in a manner that takes into account both the suspect site geology and the gas transport physics. UNE scenarios may be broadly divided into categories involving the level of containment. The simplest to detect is a UNE that vents a significant portion of its radionuclide inventory and is readily detectable at distance by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The most well contained subsurface events will only be detectable during an OSI. In such cases, 37 Ar and radioactive xenon cavity gases may reach the surface through either "micro-seepage" or the barometric pumping process and only the careful siting of sampling locations, timing of sampling and application of the most site-appropriate atmospheric and soil-gas capturing methods will result in a confirmatory signal. The OSI noble gas field tests NG09 was recently held in Stupava, Slovakia to consider, in addition to other field sampling and analysis techniques, drilling and subsurface noble gas extraction methods that might be applied during an OSI. One of the experiments focused on challenges to soil-gas sampling near the soil-atmosphere interface. During withdrawal of soil gas from shallow, subsurface sample points, atmospheric dilution of the sample and the potential for introduction of unwanted atmospheric gases were considered. Tests were designed to evaluate surface infiltration and the ability of inflatable well-packers to seal out atmospheric gases during sample acquisition. We discuss these tests along with some model-based predictions regarding infiltration under different near

  19. In Vitro Chemosensitivity Testing of Primary and Recurrent Breast Carcinomas and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi LI; Haiping SONG; Wenshan HE; Yuan TIAN; Tao HUANG

    2008-01-01

    In this study, in vitro chemosensitivity testing was conducted on primary cultured breast cancer cells from 96 patients with breast cancer, and the results showed that the cells from a few patients with primary breast cancer developed multidrug resistance (MDR) prior to the first chemotherapy exposure. All the cells from the recurrent cancer patients had MDR. The findings suggested that patients having MDR would benefit from high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) regimens. In vitro chemosensitivity screening, which was aimed at improving the therapeutic efficacy and minimizing side effects, helps in choosing individualized treatment for breast cancer.

  20. Targeting the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain of Cryptococcus through Antifungal Chemosensitization: A Model for Control of Non-Fermentative Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC inhibition compared to species of Candida. This higher sensitivity results from the inability of Cryptococcus to generate cellular energy through fermentation. To heighten disruption of cellular MRC, octyl gallate (OG or 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA, phenolic compounds inhibiting mitochondrial functions, were selected as chemosensitizers to pyraclostrobin (PCS; an inhibitor of complex III of MRC. The cryptococci were more susceptible to the chemosensitization (i.e., PCS + OG or 2,3-DHBA than the Candida with all Cryptococcus strains tested being sensitive to this chemosensitization. Alternatively, only few of the Candida strains showed sensitivity. OG possessed higher chemosensitizing potency than 2,3-DHBA, where the concentration of OG required with the drug to achieve chemosensitizing synergism was much lower than that required of 2,3-DHBA. Bioassays with gene deletion mutants of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that OG or 2,3-DHBA affect different cellular targets. These assays revealed mitochondrial superoxide dismutase or glutathione homeostasis plays a relatively greater role in fungal tolerance to 2,3-DHBA or OG, respectively. These findings show that application of chemosensitizing compounds that augment MRC debilitation is a promising strategy to antifungal control against yeast pathogens.

  1. Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC suppresses tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurier Jean-Fabien

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microtubules are considered major therapeutic targets in patients with breast cancer. In spite of their essential role in biological functions including cell motility, cell division and intracellular transport, microtubules have not yet been considered as critical actors influencing tumor cell aggressivity. To evaluate the impact of microtubule mass and dynamics on the phenotype and sensitivity of breast cancer cells, we have targeted tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC, a crucial protein for the proper folding of α and β tubulins into polymerization-competent tubulin heterodimers. Methods We developed variants of human breast cancer cells with increased content of TBCC. Analysis of proliferation, cell cycle distribution and mitotic durations were assayed to investigate the influence of TBCC on the cell phenotype. In vivo growth of tumors was monitored in mice xenografted with breast cancer cells. The microtubule dynamics and the different fractions of tubulins were studied by time-lapse microscopy and lysate fractionation, respectively. In vitro sensitivity to antimicrotubule agents was studied by flow cytometry. In vivo chemosensitivity was assayed by treatment of mice implanted with tumor cells. Results TBCC overexpression influenced tubulin fraction distribution, with higher content of nonpolymerizable tubulins and lower content of polymerizable dimers and microtubules. Microtubule dynamicity was reduced in cells overexpressing TBCC. Cell cycle distribution was altered in cells containing larger amounts of TBCC with higher percentage of cells in G2-M phase and lower percentage in S-phase, along with slower passage into mitosis. While increased content of TBCC had little effect on cell proliferation in vitro, we observed a significant delay in tumor growth with respect to controls when TBCC overexpressing cells were implanted as xenografts in vivo. TBCC overexpressing variants displayed enhanced sensitivity to

  2. 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol chemosensitizes neuroblastoma cells for taxol and vincristine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, H; Veldman, Robert; Ausema, B; Nijhof, W; Kamps, W; Vellenga, E; Kok, JW

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we show that an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, D,L-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), increases the chemosensitivity of neuroblastoma tumor cells for Taxol and vincristine. At noneffective low doses of Taxol or vincristine, the addition of a n

  3. Predictive value of early F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in chemosensitive relapsed lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, B; van Imhoff, G; Pruim, J; Sluiter, W; Vaalburg, W; Vellenga, E

    2003-01-01

    F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a better tool than computerized tomography (CT) in predicting long-term treatment outcome in patients with relapsed chemosensitive lymphoma who are candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We studied patien

  4. Chemosensitizing activities of cyclotides from Clitoria ternatea in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Zhang; Zhan, Xiao Kai; Jing, Jin; Yi, Zhang; Wanqi, Zhou

    2013-02-01

    Cyclotides comprise a family of circular mini-peptides that have been isolated from various plants and have a wide range of bioactivities. Previous studies have demonstrated that cyclotides have antitumor effects and cause cell death by membrane permeabilization. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing activities of cyclotides from Clitoria ternatea in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells. In this study, a total of seven cyclotides were selected for colorimetric cell viability assay (MTT assay) to evaluate their anticancer and chemosensitizing activities in the lung cancer cell line A549 and its sub-line A549/paclitaxel. Results suggested that certain cyclotides had significant anticancer and chemosensitizing abilities; such cyclotides were capable of causing multi-fold decreases in the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of cliotides in the presence of paclitaxel. More importantly, their bioactivities were found to be correlated with their net charge status. In conclusion, cyclotides from C. ternatea have potential in chemosensitization application. PMID:23419988

  5. Systematically characterizing and prioritizing chemosensitivity related gene based on Gene Ontology and protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genes that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity of cancer cells is of great importance. Chemosensitivity related genes (CRGs have been widely utilized to guide clinical and cancer chemotherapy decisions. In addition, CRGs potentially share functional characteristics and network features in protein interaction networks (PPIN. Methods In this study, we proposed a method to identify CRGs based on Gene Ontology (GO and PPIN. Firstly, we documented 150 pairs of drug-CCRG (curated chemosensitivity related gene from 492 published papers. Secondly, we characterized CCRGs from the perspective of GO and PPIN. Thirdly, we prioritized CRGs based on CCRGs’ GO and network characteristics. Lastly, we evaluated the performance of the proposed method. Results We found that CCRG enriched GO terms were most often related to chemosensitivity and exhibited higher similarity scores compared to randomly selected genes. Moreover, CCRGs played key roles in maintaining the connectivity and controlling the information flow of PPINs. We then prioritized CRGs using CCRG enriched GO terms and CCRG network characteristics in order to obtain a database of predicted drug-CRGs that included 53 CRGs, 32 of which have been reported to affect susceptibility to drugs. Our proposed method identifies a greater number of drug-CCRGs, and drug-CCRGs are much more significantly enriched in predicted drug-CRGs, compared to a method based on the correlation of gene expression and drug activity. The mean area under ROC curve (AUC for our method is 65.2%, whereas that for the traditional method is 55.2%. Conclusions Our method not only identifies CRGs with expression patterns strongly correlated with drug activity, but also identifies CRGs in which expression is weakly correlated with drug activity. This study provides the framework for the identification of signatures that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity and offers a valuable

  6. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents. PMID:26832222

  7. Induction of autophagy by valproic acid enhanced lymphoma cell chemosensitivity through HDAC-independent and IP3-mediated PRKAA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Meng-Meng; Wang, Li; Zhan, Qin; Xue, Wen; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xia; Xu, Peng-Peng; Shen, Yang; Liu, Han; Janin, Anne; Cheng, Shu; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is closely related to tumor cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs. The HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) interacted synergistically with chemotherapeutic agents to trigger lymphoma cell autophagy, which resulted from activation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and inhibition of downstream MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) signaling. In an HDAC-independent manner, VPA potentiated the effect of doxorubicin on lymphoma cell autophagy via reduction of cellular inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3), blockade of calcium into mitochondria and modulation of PRKAA1/2-MTOR cascade. In murine xenograft models established with subcutaneous injection of lymphoma cells, dual treatment of VPA and doxorubicin initiated IP3-mediated calcium depletion and PRKAA1/2 activation, induced in situ autophagy and efficiently retarded tumor growth. Aberrant genes involving mitochondrial calcium transfer were frequently observed in primary tumors of lymphoma patients. Collectively, these findings suggested an HDAC-independent chemosensitizing activity of VPA and provided an insight into the clinical application of targeting autophagy in the treatment of lymphoma.

  8. Activity of mevalonate pathway inhibitors against breast and ovarian cancers in the ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous data suggest that lipophilic statins such as fluvastatin and N-bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid, both inhibitors of the mevalonate metabolic pathway, have anti-cancer effects in vitro and in patients. We have examined the effect of fluvastatin alone and in combination with zoledronic acid in the ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) for effects on breast and ovarian cancer tumour-derived cells. Both zoledronic acid and fluvastatin showed activity in the ATP-TCA against breast and ovarian cancer, though fluvastatin alone was less active, particularly against breast cancer. The combination of zoledronic acid and fluvastatin was more active than either single agent in the ATP-TCA with some synergy against breast and ovarian cancer tumour-derived cells. Sequential drug experiments showed that pre-treatment of ovarian tumour cells with fluvastatin resulted in decreased sensitivity to zoledronic acid. Addition of mevalonate pathway components with zoledronic acid with or without fluvastatin showed little effect, while mevalonate did reduced inhibition due to fluvastatin. These data suggest that the combination of zoledronic acid and fluvastatin may have activity against breast and ovarian cancer based on direct anti-cancer cell effects. A clinical trial to test this is in preparation

  9. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Cheol-Hee

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein.

  10. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) analogues chemosensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to clinical anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Wang, Xu; Liu, Peng; Deng, Rongxin; Lei, Min; Chen, Wantao; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-15

    Novel 20(S)-protopanoxadiol (PPD) analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the chemosensitizing activity against a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line (KBvcr) overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that aromatic substituted aliphatic amine at the 24-positions (groups V) effectively and significantly sensitized P-gp overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to anticancer drugs, such as docetaxel (DOC), vincristine (VCR), and adriamycin (ADM). PPD derivatives 12 and 18 showed 1.3-2.6 times more effective reversal ability than verapamil (VER) for DOC and VCR. Importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed by the active PPD analogues (5μM) against both non-MDR and MDR cells, suggesting that PPD analogues serve as novel lead compounds toward a potent and safe resistance modulator. Moreover, a preliminary mechanism study demonstrated that the chemosensitizing activity of PPD analogues results from inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressed in MDR cancer cells. PMID:23683834

  11. CD80 antigen expression as a predictor of ex vivo chemosensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivekäs, Ilkka; Hulkkonen, Janne; Hurme, Mikko; Vilpo, Leena; Vilpo, Juhani

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the correlation between expression of 31 surface membrane antigens and chemosensitivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 patients with CLL. The sensitivity of CLL cells to nine drugs (2'-chlorodeoxyadenosine, cisplatin, chlorambucil, cyclosporin A, doxorubicin, fludarabine, prednisolone, verapamil and vincristine) and two types of irradiation (gamma and UV-irradiation) was determined from dose-response curves of 4-day cultures ex vivo. The results indicated that the CLL cases responding to purine analogs (2'-chlorodeoxyadenosine and fludarabine) can be identified according to CD80 expression: all resistant cases had low or negative CD80 expression. No other correlations were revealed. CD80 may be a surrogate chemosensitivity marker for purine analogs. PMID:11916516

  12. Increased leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin- like domains 1 expression enhances chemosensitivity in glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohui Liu; Shenqi Zhang; Dong Ruan; Xiaonan Zhu; Zhentao Guo; Huimin Dong; Mingmin Yan; Qianxue Chen; Daofeng Tian; Liquan Wu; Junmin Wang; Qiang Cai; Heng Shen; Baowei Ji; Long Wang

    2011-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is an anti-oncogene.LRIG1 is correlated with Bcl-2 in ependymomas.Decreased Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression can improve the chemosensitivity of glioma.In the present study, a tissue microarray of human brain astrocytomas was constructed.To investigate the relationship of LRIG1 with Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase, LRIG1, Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression in our tissue microarray was determined using immunohistochemistry.In addition, we constructed the LRIG1-U251 cell line, and its responses to doxorubicin and temozolomide were detected using the MTT assay.Results showed that LRIG1 expression was significantly negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression in glioma.Also, proliferation of LRIG1-U251 cells exposed to doxorubicin or temozolomide was significantly inhibited, i.e.in the LRIG1-U251 cell line, the chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and temozolomide was increased.This indicates that increased LRIG1 expression produces a chemosensitivity in glioma.

  13. Knockdown of cullin 4A inhibits growth and increases chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; You, Liang; Jablons, David M; Li, Ya-Chin; Mao, Jian-Hua; Xu, Zhidong; Lung, Jr-Hau; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2016-07-01

    Cullin 4A (Cul4A) has been observed to be overexpressed in various cancers. In this study, the role of Cul4A in the growth and chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells were studied. We showed that Cul4A is overexpressed in lung cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of the Cul4A expression by shRNA in lung cancer cells resulted in decreased cellular proliferation and growth in lung cancer cells. Increased sensitivity to gemcitabine, a chemotherapy drug, was also noted in those Cul4A knockdown lung cancer cells. Moreover, increased expression of p21, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) and TGF beta-induced (TGFBI) was observed in lung cancer cells after Cul4A knockdown, which may be partially related to increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was also noted after Cul4A knockdown. Notably, decreased tumour growth and increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine were also noted after Cul4A knockdown in lung cancer xenograft nude mice models. In summary, our study showed that targeting Cul4A with RNAi or other techniques may provide a possible insight to the development of lung cancer therapy in the future.

  14. Development of chemosensitivity in neurons from the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Susan C; Nichols, Nicole L; Ritucci, Nick A; Dean, Jay B; Putnam, Robert W

    2009-03-31

    We studied the development of chemosensitivity during the neonatal period in rat nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurons. We determined the percentage of neurons activated by hypercapnia (15% CO(2)) and assessed the magnitude of the response by calculating the chemosensitivity index (CI). There were no differences in the percentage of neurons that were inhibited (9%) or activated (44.8%) by hypercapnia or in the magnitude of the activated response (CI 164+/-4.9%) in NTS neurons from neonatal rats of all ages. To assess the degree of intrinsic chemosensitivity in these neurons we used chemical synaptic block medium and the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. Chemical synaptic block medium slightly decreased basal firing rate but did not affect the percentage of NTS neurons that responded to hypercapnia at any neonatal age. However, in neonates aged NTS neurons activated by hypercapnia in neonatal rats of any age. In summary, the response of NTS neurons from neonatal rats appears to be intrinsic and largely unchanged throughout early development. In young neonates (NTS neurons that respond to hypercapnia or the magnitude of that response.

  15. Comparison of chemosensitivity tests: clonogenic assay versus MTT assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawada K

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available When the development of chemotherapeutic agents reaches the clinical trial stage, it is necessary to perform drug sensitivity tests quickly in order to select the most promising agents for the treatment of cancer. In order to assess the possibility of using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay as a substitute for the human tumor clonogenic assay (HTCA, we evaluated the correlation between the results obtained by these 2 assays in 5 human lung cancer cell lines. The correlation coefficient between the results of the HTCA and the MTT assay was 0.673, indicating a relatively good correlation. The correlation was most prominent in platinum analogues (r = 0.939 and good in anthracyclines/anthracenedione (r = 0.611. However, no significant correlation was observed in vinca alkaloids, etoposide, irinotecan, SN-38 (an active metabolite of irinotecan, and rhizoxin. The results of the MTT assay showed a high degree of correlation with those of the HTCA in predicting the sensitivity of cancer cell lines to platinum analogues, and anthracyclines/anthracenedione. These results suggest that the MTT assay may be more convenient and quickly performed than the HTCA and can replace HTCA in evaluating the effects of anticancer agents, especially the platinum analogues and anthracyclines/anthracenedione.

  16. miR-218 suppresses tumor growth and enhances the chemosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hang; Hou, Lei; Xiong, Yu-Mei; Huang, Jun-Xiang; She, Ying-Jun; Bi, Xiao-Bao; Song, Xing-Rong

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNA-218 (miR-218) acts as a tumor suppressor and is involved in tumor progression, development and metastasis and confers sensitivity to certain chemotherapeutic drugs in several types of cancer. However, our knowledge concerning the exact roles played by miR-218 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain relatively unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to detect the expression of miR-218 in human ESCC tissues and explore its effects on the biological features and chemosensitivity to cisplatin (CDDP) in an ESCC cell line (Eca109), so as to provide new insights for ESCC treatment. Here, we found increased expression of miR-218 in the ESCC tissues compared with that in the matched non-tumor tissues, and its expression level was correlated with key pathological characteristics including clinical stage, tumor depth and metastasis. We also found that enforced expression of miR-218 significantly decreased cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, as well as suppressed tumor growth in a nude mouse model. In addition, our results showed that miR-218 mimics increased the sensitivity to the antitumor effect of CDDP in the human Eca109 cells. Importantly, this study also showed that miR-218 regulated the expression of phosphorylated PI3K, AKT and mTOR, which may contribute to suppressed tumor growth of ESCC and enhanced sensitivity of ESCC cells. These findings suggest that miR-218 is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ESCC.

  17. EFFECTS OF p16INK4 GENE ON CHEMOSENSITIVITY OF HUMAN GLIOMA U251 CELL LINE TO TENIPOSIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects on the cell growth, tumorigenicity and chemosensitivity of p16/CDK4I in human glioma. Methods: p16 gene was transfected into U251 cells by lipofectin. Expression of exogenous p16 gene was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Northern blot. The effects of exogenous p16 gene on the growth and chemosensitivity to teniposide were examined. Results: Expression of exogenous p16 gene inhibited the growth dramatically in vitro. G1 arrest of tumor cells was observed. However, wt p16-positive U251 was less sensitive than control cell lines and the number of apoptotic cells after chemotherapy was reduced. Conclusion: The expression of exogenous p16 gene could inhibit the growth of glioma. On the other hand, the chemosensitivity to teniposide of p16-positive U251 was decreased.

  18. In vitro characterization of noradrenergic modulation of chemosensitive neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Fu-Shan; Falquetto, Bárbara; Chen, Dawei; Oliveira, Luiz M; Takakura, Ana C; Mulkey, Daniel K

    2016-09-01

    Chemosensitive neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) regulate breathing in response to CO2/H(+) changes and serve as an integration center for other autonomic centers, including brain stem noradrenergic neurons. Norepinephrine (NE) contributes to respiratory control and chemoreception, and, since disruption of NE signaling may contribute to several breathing disorders, we sought to characterize effects of NE on RTN chemoreception. All neurons included in this study responded similarly to CO2/H(+) but showed differential sensitivity to NE; we found that NE activated (79%), inhibited (7%), or had no effect on activity (14%) of RTN chemoreceptors. The excitatory effect of NE on RTN chemoreceptors was dose dependent, retained in the presence of neurotransmitter receptor blockers, and could be mimicked and blocked by pharmacological manipulation of α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs). In addition, NE-activation was blunted by XE991 (KCNQ channel blocker), and partially occluded the firing response to serotonin, suggesting involvement of KCNQ channels. However, in whole cell voltage clamp, activation of α1-ARs decreased outward current and conductance by what appears to be a mixed effect on multiple channels. The inhibitory effect of NE on RTN chemoreceptors was blunted by an α2-AR antagonist. A third group of RTN chemoreceptors was insensitive to NE. We also found that chemosensitive RTN astrocytes do not respond to NE with a change in voltage or by releasing ATP to enhance activity of chemosensitive neurons. These results indicate NE modulates subsets of RTN chemoreceptors by mechanisms involving α1- and α2-ARs. PMID:27306669

  19. Role and mechanism of Twist1 in modulating the chemosensitivity of FaDu cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sumei; Yu, Liang; Mu, Yakui; Ma, Juke; Tian, Jiajun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Haibo

    2014-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the most important obstacles affecting the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments for numerous types of cancer. In the present study, we have demonstrated the possible function of Twist1 in the chemosensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and have identified that its mechanism maybe associated with MDR1/P-gp regulation. To investigate this, the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line, FaDu, and its MDR cell line induced by taxol, FaDu/T, were employed. Stable transfectants targeted to Twist1 overexpression and Twist1 silencing based on FaDu were also conducted. Morphological observation, flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and laser scanning confocal microscope detection were utilized to detect the associations between Twist1 and the chemosensitivity of FaDu cells. Our results demonstrated that Twist1 and MDR1/P-gp were upregulated in FaDu/T cells in a MDR dose-dependent manner. The anti-apoptotic capabilities of FaDu/T cells were enhanced during MDR progression, with apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, activated caspase-3 and caspase-9) changing to resist apoptosis. Twist1 overexpression decreased the sensitivity of cells to taxol as revealed by a significant increase in MDR1/P-gp and IC50 (Pcell death, and inhibited Ca2+ release induced by taxol (Pcells also confirmed this result. This study provided evidence that alterations of Twist1 expression modulates the chemosensitivity of FaDu cells to taxol. Therefore, Twist1 knockdown may be a promising treatment regimen for advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients with MDR.

  20. Relationship between chemosensitivity, obesity and blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, I; Collins, F L; Grunstein, R R; Hedner, J; Kelly, D T; Sullivan, C E

    1994-03-01

    It has previously been documented that patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have an abnormal blood pressure (pressor) response to acute hypoxia when awake. The relationship between hypoxic chemosensitivity and 24 h blood pressure in OSA is not known. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP (ABP) was measured at 15 min intervals for 24 h using a non-invasive device (Oxford Medilog ABP or Spacelabs 90207 recorder) in 49 men (mean age 51 +/- 9 years), with OSA. The BP response to acute hypoxia was measured either directly (radial arterial line) or indirectly (Finapress) during wakefulness. The pressor response to hypoxia (expressed as the slope of the regression line of mean BP on % fall in arterial oxygen saturation) was compared with the results of the ABP recording, sleep study data and clinical variables. A pressor response to acute hypoxia was present in all patients (mean 1.4 +/- 1.1 mmHg/% delta SaO2, range 0.1-4.5). There was a relationship between the magnitude of the pressor response to hypoxia, severity of sleep apnoea (RDI and minimum SaO2) and central obesity (waist measurement). In contrast, there was no relationship between BP response to hypoxia during wakefulness and 24-h BP. However, increasing obesity and severity of OSA were associated with loss of the normal fall in BP at night. We conclude that enhanced chemosensitivity is common in OSA but there is no demonstrable link between chemosensitivity and mean daytime or night-time ABP. PMID:8199720

  1. Cell fate determination in cisplatin resistance and chemosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Khanh V.; Wang, Ling; Roberts, Brett J.; Wahl, James K.; Peng, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the determination of cell fate choices after cancer treatment will shed new light on cancer resistance. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the individual cell fate choice in resistant UM-SCC-38 head and neck cancer cells exposed to cisplatin. Our study revealed a highly heterogeneous pattern of cell fate choices in UM-SCC-38 cells, in comparison to that of the control, non-tumorigenic keratinocyte HaCaT cells. In both UM-SCC-38 and HaCaT cell lines, the majority of cell death occurred during the immediate interphase without mitotic entry, whereas significant portions of UM-SCC-38 cells survived the treatment via either checkpoint arrest or checkpoint slippage. Interestingly, checkpoint slippage occurred predominantly in cells treated in late S and G2 phases, and cells in M-phase were hypersensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, although the cisplatin-resistant progression of mitosis exhibited no delay in general, prolonged mitosis was correlated with the induction of cell death in mitosis. The finding thus suggested a combinatorial treatment using cisplatin and an agent that blocks mitotic exit. Consistently, we showed a strong synergy between cisplatin and the proteasome inhibitor Mg132. Finally, targeting the DNA damage checkpoint using inhibitors of ATR, but not ATM, effectively sensitized UM-SCC-38 to cisplatin treatment. Surprisingly, checkpoint targeting eliminated both checkpoint arrest and checkpoint slippage, and augmented the induction of cell death in interphase without mitotic entry. Taken together, our study, by profiling cell fate determination after cisplatin treatment, reveals new insights into chemoresistance and suggests combinatorial strategies that potentially overcome cancer resistance. PMID:26993599

  2. Anti-ABCG2 scFv antibody of lung adenocarcinoma increases chemosensitivity and induces apoptosis through the activation of mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Si; Luo, Yi; Li, Bo-Yi; Zhou, Han-Jing; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    ABCG2 is a multidrug resistance efflux pump expressed in many diverse tumors. The overexpression of ABCG2 is associated with resistance to a wide variety of anticancer agents, providing a noticeable setback to successful cancer therapy. Therapies targeting ABCG2 may therefore be a promising candidate for reversal of chemoresistance. The anti-ABCG2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody was constructed by phage display peptide library technology. Immunoblotting, ELISA and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluate the soluble expression and immunoreactivity of the scFv. The effects of scFv on cell function and chemosensitization were confirmed by colony formation, cell migration and CCK-8 assays. Flow cytometry was used to analyse the cell cycle and apoptosis. Radioimmunoimaging and nude mouse tumorigenicity assays were taken to determine the biodistribution and antitumor capacity of the scFv antibody. We have successfully screened out the candidate scFv antibody with an apparent molecular weight of 34 kDa. The scFv demonstrated favourable binding ability to lung adenocarcinoma cells and ABCG2 antigen, and the radioactivity was specifically aggregated at the tumor location. Furthermore, the internalized scFv resulted in antibody-mediated downregulation of ABCG2, proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and cisplatin (DDP) sensitivity. The anti-ABCG2 scFv antibody possesses good tumoraffin and antitumor activity and may therefore be an effective therapeutic agent for lung adenocarcinoma that is dependent on ABCG2 for drug resistance and survival. PMID:27293996

  3. Empirical studies about quercetin increasing chemosensitivity on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Zhan; Runxiang Zhang; Yanping Xu; Shuhua Yang; Daze Xie; Liwei Tan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate whether quercetin exerts increasing chemosensitivity on human lung adenocarcinoma cells when quercetin combined with cisplatin (DDP) and vincristine (VCR) in vitro respectively and its possible antitumor mechanism. To provide experimental proof for clinical combination application. Methods: Using intermittent administration of high dose VCR, human lung adenocarcinoma sensitive cell line (A549/S) was induced to VCR-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549/VCR). MTT assay was adapted for examing the 50% inhibition (IC50) value of DDP and VCR on A549/S and A549/VCR when quercetin combined with DDP and VCR respectively. Results: IC50 of DDP on A549/S and A549/VCR was 10.18 and 12.35 mg/L, and the IC50 of VCR on the two cell lines was 1.21 and 12.77 mg/L, respectively. The resistance fold of A549/VCR on VCR and DDP was 10.55 and 1.21, respectively. When quercetin at concentration of 50, 100 and 200 μmol/L in combination with DDP and VCR respectively, the IC50 of DDP and VCR on A549/S and A549/VCR were obvious decreased (P < 0.05 – P < 0.01). Conclusion: The experiment results suggested that quercetin could increase the chemosensitivity and partly revise the resistance of A549/VCR.

  4. A case of advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma successfully treated with chemosensitivity test-guided systemic chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumichi Abe; Takeru Wakatsuki; Fumiko Katsushima; Kyoko Monoe; Yukiko Kanno; Atsushi Takahashi; Junko Yokokawa; Hiromasa Ohira

    2009-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a relatively rare and highly fatal neoplasm that arises from the biliary epithelium. Prognosis is generally poor and survival is limited to a few months. Here we present a case of advanced ICC successfully treated by chemosensitivity test-guided systemic chemotherapy combining S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP). A 65-year-old woman with a liver tumor was referred to our hospital on November 21, 2007. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed low-density masses of 50 and 15 mm in diameter, respectively in segment Ⅷ of the liver and in the enlarged lymph node in the para-aorta. Ultrasonography-guided fine needle biopsy diagnosed the tumors as ICC. Since the patient was inoperable for lymph node metastasis, she underwent systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Six months after initiation of chemotherapy, CT revealed ICC progression in the liver and pleural dissemination with pleural effusion. The patient was admitted to our hospital for anticancer drug sensitivity testing on June 9, 2008. Based on the sensitivity test results, we elected to administer systemic chemotherapy combining S-1 and CDDP. Two months into the second chemotherapy treatment, CT revealed a reduction of the tumors in the liver and lymph node and a decrease in pleural effusion.After eight cycles of the second chemotherapy, 17 mo after ICC diagnosis, she is alive and well with no sign of recurrence. We conclude that chemosensitivity testing may effectively determine the appropriate chemotherapy regimen for advanced ICC.

  5. Paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability in cells with dysfunctional telomeres: Implication in multinucleation and chemosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Seon Rang [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Mo [Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Tissue Regeneration, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun Ran; Park, In-chul; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Kee [Department of Life Science and Genetic Engineering, Paichai University, Daejeon 302-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Kwon [Department of Biotechnology, Seoul Woman' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-74-2 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Paclitaxel serves as a stimulator of chromosomal fusion in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. {yields} Typical fusions involve p-arms, but paclitaxel-induced fusions occur between both q- and p-arms. {yields} Paclitaxel-stimulated fusions in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional evoke prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest and delay multinucleation. {yields} Upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel promotes chromosomal instability and subsequent apoptosis. {yields} Chromosomal fusion enhances paclitaxel chemosensitivity under telomere dysfunction. -- Abstract: The anticancer effect of paclitaxel is attributable principally to irreversible promotion of microtubule stabilization and is hampered upon development of chemoresistance by tumor cells. Telomere shortening, and eventual telomere erosion, evoke chromosomal instability, resulting in particular cellular responses. Using telomerase-deficient cells derived from mTREC-/-p53-/- mice, here we show that, upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel propagates chromosomal instability by stimulating chromosomal end-to-end fusions and delaying the development of multinucleation. The end-to-end fusions involve both the p- and q-arms in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. Paclitaxel-induced chromosomal fusions were accompanied by prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest, delayed multinucleation, and apoptosis. Telomere dysfunctional cells with mutlinucleation eventually underwent apoptosis. Thus, as telomere erosion proceeds, paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability, and both apoptosis and chemosensitization eventually develop.

  6. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the deoxycytidine kinase gene and chemosensitivity of gemcitabine in six pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Shuang; LIAO Quan; ZHAO Yu-pei; HU Ya; ZHANG Qiang; YOU Li-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) gene are associated with chemosensitivity to nucleoside analogs. 2',2'-Difluoro 2'-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine) is a first-line nucleoside analog drug in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, the association between SNPs in the dCK gene and chemosensitivity to gemcitabine has not been fully established. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between SNPs in the dCKgene and chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cell lines.Methods Seven SNPs in the dCK gene were sequenced in six human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The chemosensitivity of these six cell lines to gemcitabine were evaluated in vitro with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) test.Inhibition rates were used to express the chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer cell lines to gemcitabine.Results The genotype of the A9846G SNP in the dCKgene was determined in six human pancreatic cancer cell lines.The cell lines BxPC-3 and T3M4 carried the A9846G SNP genotype AG, whereas cell lines AsPC-1, Mia PaCa2, SW1990 and SU86.86 carried the GG genotype. Cell lines with the AG genotype (BxPC-3 and T3M4) were more sensitive to gemcitabine compared with cell lines with the GG genotype (AsPC-1, Mia PaCa2, SW1990 and SU86.86) and significantly different inhibition rates were observed between cell lines carrying the AG and GG genotypes (P <0.01).Conclusions Variants in the A9846G SNP of the dCK gene were associated with sensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The dCK A9846G SNP may act as a genetic marker to predict chemotherapy efficacy of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.

  7. In vitro chemosensitivity profile of oral squamous cell cancer and its correlation with clinical response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Oral cancers represent a disparate group of tumors with diverse clinical behavior and chemosensitivity profile. Currently, it is difficult to predict whether a tumor will respond to chemotherapy and which drug(s will achieve the maximum clinical response. Aims : To study in vitro chemosensitivity profile of oral cancers and to correlate the in vitro chemosensitivity of oral cancer to clinical response to chemotherapy. Settings and Design : Prospective study in a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Material : We prospectively studied the chemosensitivity profile of 57 untreated, advanced, unresectable oral cancers to cisplatin, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil and their combinations by using histoculture drug response assay (HDRA and correlated them to the clinical response to chemotherapy. Statistical Analysis Used : Chi Square test. Results : Biopsy samples were successfully histocultured in 52/57 (91% cases. Of these 52 evaluable patients, 47 had primary gingivo-buccal cancers and five had tongue / floor of mouth cancers. Based on the assay, 27 (52% tumors were sensitive to cisplatin, 27 (52% to methotrexate, 24 (46% to 5-fluorouracil, 38 (73% to combination of cisplatin and methotrexate and 36 (69% to combination of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Of these, 31 patients with good performance status received two cycles of chemotherapy using one or more of these test drugs. There was a significant correlation (p=0.03 between the in vitro chemosensitivity and the clinical response. Negative predictive value of the test was 80%, positive predictive value-69%, sensitivity-79% and specificity -71%. The overall accuracy of the assay was 74%. Conclusions : We found HDRA to be a fairly good predictor of chemo-response of oral cancer.

  8. Silencing of high mobility group A1 enhances gemcitabine chemosensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-dong; DENG Yu-xia; GE Xiao-lin; HUANG Pei-lin; SUN Xin-chen; MA Jun; JIN Zhi-liang; CHENG Hong-yan; XU Rui-zhi; LI Fan; QIN Shu-kui

    2011-01-01

    Background The high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) proteins are architectural transcription factors found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a powerful tool for silencing endogenous or exogenous genes in human cancer cells. Our preliminary study shows that gemcitabine inhibits growth of the human lung cancer cell line SPCA-1 and induces apoptosis,and this effect might link with down-regulation of HMGA1 expression. This study aimed to investigate the chemosensitivity change of the lung adenocarcinoma cells SPCA-1 after HMGA1 inhibition by lentivirus-mediated RNAi.Methods We studied a highly malignant lung adenocarcinoma cell line (SPCA-1 cells). Lentiviral short-hairpin RNA (shHMGA1) expression vectors targeting HMGA1 were used for generation of lentiviral particles. After being transfected into the lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPCA-1,the expression of HMGA1 was determined by retrotranscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The effect of gemcitabine on proliferation of positive and negative cells was observed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and clonogenic survival assay. Apoptosis was observed by flow cytometery. Chemosensitivity to gemcitabine was determined by IC50 analysis. Caspase activity was quantitated by a caspase colorimetric protease assay kit.Results HMGA1-siRNA silenced its target mRNA specifically and effectively in SPCA-1 cells. The apoptotic rates of the scramble control group were (7.43±0.21)%,(11.00±0.20)%,and (14.93±0.31)%,and the apoptotic rates in the silenced group were (9.53±0.42)%,(16.67±0.45)%,and (25.40±0.79)% under exposure to 0.05,0.5 and 5.0 μg/ml of gemcitabine (P <0.05). The IC5o of the silenced group was (0.309±0.003) μg/ml which was significantly lower than in the scramble control group,(0.653±0.003) μg/ml (P <0.05). It reduced cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death after being treated with

  9. 胰岛素增加肿瘤细胞化疗敏感性的研究%The effect of insulin on the chemosensitivity of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙龙昊; 何向辉; 朱理玮

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of insulin and hypoglycemia on the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Methods Human colon cancer cells SW480, mouse colon cancer cells CT-26 and mouse breast cancer cells 4T1 were cultured and treated with insulin and chemotheraputic drugs, 5-fluorouracil or methotrexate. MTT assay was used to measure the cytotoxity. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of insulin on the uptake of fluorescent methotrexate by cancer cells. Mouse breast cancer cells 4T1 were inoculated into syngeneic BALB/C mice. Insulin was administrated to the mice before giving methotrexate and the therapeutic effect was monitored. Results (1) Insulin enhanced the chemocytotoxity of chemotheraputic drugs on cancer cells by 4. 1% to 11.5%;(2) Insulin increased the uptake of fluorescent methotrexate by cancer cells in vitro by 141. 9% ;(3) Insulin and hypoglycemia enhanced the chemotherapeutic effect of methotrexate on mouse breast cancer models by 20. 1%. Conclusion Insulin and hypoglycemia increase absorption of chemotherapeutic agents by cancer cells and enhance the chemosensitivity of cancer cells.%目的 探讨胰岛素对肿瘤细胞化疗敏感性的影响及机制.方法 以胰岛素和甲氨蝶呤(MTX)或5-氟尿嘧啶(5-Fu)处理人结肠癌细胞SW480,小鼠结肠癌细胞CT-26及小鼠乳腺癌细胞4T1,噻唑蓝(MTT)法分析细胞活力,荧光显微镜和流式细胞术观察肿瘤细胞对荧光标记MTX的摄取,并利用小鼠荷瘤模型,观察胰岛素及低MTX糖对MTX化疗疗效的影响.结果 (1)胰岛素增加MTX和5-Fu的细胞毒作用4.1%-11.5%.(2)胰岛素增加肿瘤细胞对MTX摄取141.9%.(3)胰岛素及低血糖状态增强MTX抑瘤作用20.1%.结论 胰岛素及低血糖状态增加肿瘤细胞对化疗药物的吸收,提高肿瘤细胞对化疗药物的敏感性.

  10. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kline Richard; Sharma Rakesh

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining fo...

  11. STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMOSENSITIVITY OF BREAST CANCER AND EXPRESSION OF p73α AND p53

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; SUN Zhi-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of p73α and p53 versus the chemosensitivity in breast cancer cells. Methods: Twelve surgical samples of breast cancer diagnosed by pathology were used. The cancer sample cells were separately cultured in the incubator at 37℃, 5% CO2 in vitro. The relative inhibition rate of cancer cells by 4 kinds of anticancer drugs, which were EPI, MMC, 5-Fu and DDP, were assayed by MTT method. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of p73α and p53 in the cancer cells. Results: The positive expression of p73α was found in 5/12 (41.67%), and p53 positive expression rate was 50.0% (6/12). The relative inhibition rate of MMC, EPI, 5-Fu and DDP were significantly higher in the p73α positive cancer cells than in the p73α negative cancer cells. A positive correlation was found between expression of p73α and chemosensitivity for all the four anticancer drugs. Conclusion: The expression of p73α is related with the chemosensitivity of the breast cancer cells, and it may become one of the markers for judging the effect of chemotherapy in clinic.

  12. Overexpression of miR-100 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and chemosensitivity in human glioblastoma through FGFR3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan YX

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yongxin Luan,1 Shuyan Zhang,1 Ling Zuo,2 Lixiang Zhou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Second Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Background: Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most deadly forms of brain cancer. We investigated the regulatory effects of microRNA-100 (miR-100 on cell proliferation, migration, and chemosensitivity in human glioblastoma. Methods: miR-100 expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in both glioblastoma cells and human tumors. Lentiviruses of miR-100 mimics and inhibitors were transfected into U251 and T98G cells. The regulatory effects of either overexpressing or downregulating miR-100 on glioblastoma were evaluated by a viability assay, growth assay, migration assay, chemosensitivity assay, and an in vivo tumor transplantation assay. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3, the bioinformatically predicted target of miR-100, was examined by Western blot in glioblastoma. FGFR3 was then ectopically overexpressed in U251 and T98G cells, and its effects on miR-100-mediated cancer regulation were evaluated by growth, migration, and chemosensitivity assays. Results: MiR-100 was markedly downregulated in both glioblastoma cell lines and human tumors. Overexpressing miR-100 through lentiviral transfection in U251 and T98G cells significantly inhibited cancer growth (both in vitro and in vivo and migration and increased chemosensitivity to cisplatin and 1, 3-bis (2-chloroethyl-l-nitrosourea, whereas downregulation of miR-100 had no effects on development of cancer. FGFR3 was directly regulated by miR-100 in glioblastoma. Ectopically overexpressing FGFR3 was able to ameliorate the anticancer effects of upregulation of miR-100 on glioblastoma growth, migration, and chemosensitivity. Conclusion: MiR-100 was generally downregulated in glioblastoma. Overexpressing mi

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ah Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells’ molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies.

  14. Chronic oxidative stress promotes H2AX protein degradation and enhances chemosensitivity in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruosso, Tina; Mieulet, Virginie; Cardon, Melissa; Bourachot, Brigitte; Kieffer, Yann; Devun, Flavien; Dubois, Thierry; Dutreix, Marie; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Miller, Kyle Malcolm; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Anti-cancer drugs often increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause DNA damage. Here, we highlight a new cross talk between chronic oxidative stress and the histone variant H2AX, a key player in DNA repair. We observe that persistent accumulation of ROS, due to a deficient JunD-/Nrf2-antioxidant response, reduces H2AX protein levels. This effect is mediated by an enhanced interaction of H2AX with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168, which is associated with H2AX poly-ubiquitination and promotes its degradation by the proteasome. ROS-mediated H2AX decrease plays a crucial role in chemosensitivity. Indeed, cycles of chemotherapy that sustainably increase ROS reduce H2AX protein levels in Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. H2AX decrease by such treatment is associated with an impaired NRF2-antioxidant response and is indicative of the therapeutic efficiency and survival of TNBC patients. Thus, our data describe a novel ROS-mediated regulation of H2AX turnover, which provides new insights into genetic instability and treatment efficacy in TNBC patients. PMID:27006338

  15. Hispidulin inhibits proliferation and enhances chemosensitivity of gallbladder cancer cells by targeting HIF-1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hui; Xie, Jing [Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Peng, Jianjun, E-mail: jianjunpeng@126.com [College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Han, Yantao, E-mail: hanyt19@126.com [Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Mei; Wang, Chunbo [Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy of the bile duct, which is associated with a low (5-year) survival and poor prognosis. The transcription factor HIF-1α is implicated in the angiogenesis, cell survival, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasiveness of GBC. In this study, we have investigated the role of HIF-1α in the pathobilogy of GBC and effect of hispidulin on the molecular events controlled by this transcription factor. We observed that hispidulin caused induction of apoptosis, blockade of growth and cell cycle progression in GBC cells. Our results have demonstrated for the first time that hispidulin-exerted anti-tumor effect involved the suppression of HIF-1α signaling. Hispidulin was found to repress the expression of HIF-1α protein dose-dependently without affecting the HIF-1α mRNA expression. In addition, the inhibition of HIF-1α protein synthesis was revealed to be mediated through the activation of AMPK signaling. Hispidulin also sensitized the tumor cells to Gemcitabine and 5-Fluoroucil by down-regulating HIF-1α/P-gp signaling. Given the low cost and exceedingly safe profile, hispidulin appears to be a promising and novel chemosensitizer for GBC treatment. - Highlights: • Hispidulin inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by targeting HIF-1α. • Hispidulin regulates HIF-1α via activating AMPK signaling. • Hispidulin sensitized the GBC cells to chemotherapeutics by down-regulating P-gp.

  16. HCN channels contribute to serotonergic modulation of ventral surface chemosensitive neurons and respiratory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Virginia E; Hawryluk, Joanna M; Takakura, Ana C; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Moreira, Thiago S; Mulkey, Daniel K

    2015-02-15

    Chemosensitive neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) provide a CO2/H(+)-dependent drive to breathe and function as an integration center for the respiratory network, including serotonergic raphe neurons. We recently showed that serotonergic modulation of RTN chemoreceptors involved inhibition of KCNQ channels and activation of an unknown inward current. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are the molecular correlate of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih) and have a high propensity for modulation by serotonin. To investigate whether HCN channels contribute to basal activity and serotonergic modulation of RTN chemoreceptors, we characterize resting activity and the effects of serotonin on RTN chemoreceptors in vitro and on respiratory activity of anesthetized rats in the presence or absence of blockers of KCNQ (XE991) and/or HCN (ZD7288, Cs(+)) channels. We found in vivo that bilateral RTN injections of ZD7288 increased respiratory activity and in vitro HCN channel blockade increased activity of RTN chemoreceptors under control conditions, but this was blunted by KCNQ channel inhibition. Furthermore, in vivo unilateral RTN injection of XE991 plus ZD7288 eliminated the serotonin response, and in vitro serotonin sensitivity was eliminated by application of XE991 and ZD7288 or SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase blocker). Serotonin-mediated activation of RTN chemoreceptors was blocked by a 5-HT7-receptor blocker and mimicked by a 5-HT7-receptor agonist. In addition, serotonin caused a depolarizing shift in the voltage-dependent activation of Ih. These results suggest that HCN channels contribute to resting chemoreceptor activity and that serotonin activates RTN chemoreceptors and breathing in part by a 5-HT7 receptor-dependent mechanism and downstream activation of Ih.

  17. Tf-PEG-PLL-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced chemosensitivity for hypoxia-responsive tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Xue; Guo, Liting; Wang, Fei; Xia, Guohua; Chen, Baoan; Yin, HaiXiang; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an inseparable component of the solid tumor as well as the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of the novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly L-lysine (PLL)-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NPs) modified by transferrin (Tf) loaded with daunorubicin (DNR) (DNR-Tf-PEG-PLL-PLGA-NPs, abbreviated as DNR-Tf-NPs) on leukemia cells (K562) under hypoxia. In vitro and in vivo tests to determine the effect of the enhanced chemosensitivity were evaluated using the immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, 3,-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-tetrazoliumbromide assay, Western blot analysis, histopathological examination, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Under hypoxia, K562 cells were hypoxia-responsive with the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of DNR increased, resulting in chemotherapy insensitivity. By targeting the transferrin receptor (TfR) on the surface of K562 cells, DNR-Tf-NPs led to an increased intracellular DNR level, enhancing drug sensitivity of K562 cells to DNR with a decreased IC50, even under hypoxia. We further detected the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in K562 cells. The results indicated that DNR-Tf-NPs downregulated HIF-1α and induced apoptosis to overcome hypoxia. In the xenograft model, injection of DNR-Tf-NPs significantly suppressed tumor growth, and the immunosignals of Ki67 in DNR-Tf-NPs group was significantly lower than the other groups. It was therefore concluded that DNR-Tf-NPs could be a promising candidate for enhancing drug sensitivity under hypoxia in tumor treatment. PMID:27574446

  18. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori [Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi [Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  19. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  20. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Myelinated Ah-type trigeminal ganglion neurons in female rats: neuroexcitability, chemosensitivity to histamine, and potential clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Xin, Ting; He, Wei; Li, Fang; Su, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate-to-severe headaches often associated with numerous autonomic nervous system symptoms, and it is more prevalent in women. To fully understand the underlying mechanism, standard electrophysiology was performed with trigeminal ganglion neurons (TGNs) isolated from adult rats of both genders using the whole-cell patch clamp technique to test the distribution, neuroexcitability, and chemosensitivity to histamine. In addition to traditionally classified A- and C-type TGNs, myelinated Ah-type TGNs were also observed in females. The electrophysiological features showed low firing threshold and the capability to fire repetitively upon stimulation. Ah-type neurons also functionally expressed persistent TTX-R Na(+) channels with more hyperpolarized activating voltage. Iberiotoxin and NS11021 significantly altered the discharge profiles of Ah-type TGNs. Finally, Ah-type TGNs showed a more potent reaction to histamine, with relatively larger inward currents and membrane depolarization compared with C-types. These data provide evidence of the gender-specific distribution of myelinated Ah-type TGNs in adult female rats, characterized by a low threshold and high frequency of firing that are at least partially attributable to persistent TTX-R Na(+) and BK-KCa channel expression and potent chemosensitivity to histamine, suggesting that Ah-type TGNs may play a key role in gender differences in migraine. PMID:24686179

  2. Restoration of IGFBP-rP1 increases radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the tumor-suppressive activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) through induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IGFBP-rP1 for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate PC-3 cancer cells. Five assays were performed using PC-3 cells transfected with IGFBP-rP1 (PC-3rP1) and control cells transfected with an empty vector (PC-3N): PC-3rP1 and PC-3N were compared by clonogenic survival assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptotic assay for radiosensitivity. The number of colonies of PC-3rP1 cells significantly decreased after 4 and 8 Gy of irradiation, compared with those of PC-3N in the clonogenic survival assay. After 16 hr irradiation at 8 Gy, the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in PC-3rP1 compared with PC-3N. Growth of PC-3rP1 was significantly lower than that of PC-3N after docetaxel treatment both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that restoration of IGFBP-rP1 to PC-3 cells increases both their radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. (author)

  3. Wild type p53 increased chemosensitivity of drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma Be17402 / 5-FU cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xiuLI; Zhi-binLIN; Huan-ranTAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of wild type (wt) p53 gene transfection on drug resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cells induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: The cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs on Be17402 and Be17402/5-FU cells was assessed using SRB assay, p53 expression was detected at its mRNA level by RT-PCR assay and at its protein level Western blot or immunocytochemistry assay in Be17402/5-FU cells transfected with either control vector or wt p53. AnnexinV-FITC/PI double labeled assay was performed to detect apoptosis. The chemosensitivity of Be17402/5-FU cells transfected with wt p53 was assessed using SRB assay. RESULTS: Be17402/5-FU cells exhibited cross-resistance to vincristine, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and so on. wt p53 gene transfection upregulated the expression of p53 in Be17402/5-FU cells, wt p53 was able to greatly inhibit cell proliferation and significantly induce apoptosis in Be17402/5-FU cells. Moreover, wt p53 gene transfection increased the chemosensitivity of Be17402/5-FU cells to some anticancer drugs. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the wt p53 gene transfection not only induced suppression of cell growth, but also increased the sensitivity of Be17402/5-FU cells to 5-FU, vincristine, and doxorubicin.

  4. Organ-Tumor-on-a-Chip for Chemosensitivity Assay: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Kashaninejad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With a mortality rate over 580,000 per year, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. However, the emerging field of microfluidics can potentially shed light on this puzzling disease. Unique characteristics of microfluidic chips (also known as micro-total analysis system make them excellent candidates for biological applications. The ex vivo approach of tumor-on-a-chip is becoming an indispensable part of personalized medicine and can replace in vivo animal testing as well as conventional in vitro methods. In tumor-on-a-chip, the complex three-dimensional (3D nature of malignant tumor is co-cultured on a microfluidic chip and high throughput screening tools to evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs are integrated on the same chip. In this article, we critically review the cutting edge advances in this field and mainly categorize each tumor-on-a-chip work based on its primary organ. Specifically, design, fabrication and characterization of tumor microenvironment; cell culture technique; transferring mechanism of cultured cells into the microchip; concentration gradient generators for drug delivery; in vitro screening assays of drug efficacy; and pros and cons of each microfluidic platform used in the recent literature will be discussed separately for the tumor of following organs: (1 Lung; (2 Bone marrow; (3 Brain; (4 Breast; (5 Urinary system (kidney, bladder and prostate; (6 Intestine; and (7 Liver. By comparing these microchips, we intend to demonstrate the unique design considerations of each tumor-on-a-chip based on primary organ, e.g., how microfluidic platform of lung-tumor-on-a-chip may differ from liver-tumor-on-a-chip. In addition, the importance of heart–liver–intestine co-culture with microvasculature in tumor-on-a-chip devices for in vitro chemosensitivity assay will be discussed. Such system would be able to completely evaluate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET of

  5. Effects of hypoxia on expression of a panel of stem cell and chemosensitivity markers in glioblastoma cell line-derived spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Jesper; Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte;

    immunohistochemical panel included hypoxia (HIF-1α, HIF-2α), proliferation (Ki-67) and stem cell (CD133, nestin, podoplanin, Bmi-1, Sox-2) markers as well as markers related to chemosensitivity (MGMT, MDR-1, TIMP-1, Lamp-1). Since spheroids derived in hypoxia were smaller than in normoxia, a set of experiments...

  6. Atmospheric transport modelling for the CTBT radionuclide network in routine operation and after the Fukushima releases; Atmosphaerische Transportmodellierung fuer das Radionuklidmessnetz zur Ueberwachung des Kernwaffenteststoppvertrages im Regelbetrieb und nach den Freisetzungen in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.O.; Ceranna, L.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). B4.3; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany). SW2.5

    2014-01-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all types of nuclear explosions. For verification of compliance with Treaty the International Monitoring System (IMS) is being built up by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT-Organisation in Vienna. The IMS observes waveform signals (seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic) of explosions and traces of radionuclides in the atmosphere to proof the nuclear character of an event. The International Data Centre (IDC) provides analysis products for the IMS data such as various event bulletins, radionuclide reports, and atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) results confining the possible source region of detected radionuclides. The judgment on the character of a suspicious event remains with the member states. The German National Data Centre for verification of CTBT is hosted by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Hannover. The BGR operates four IMS stations (IS26, IS27, PS19, and AS35) and cooperates closely with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) who operates the radionuclide station RN33 at mount Schauinsland and supports the NDC with radionuclide expertise. In response to the Fukushima accident caused by the large magnitude 9.0 Tohuku Earthquake and Tsunami the HSYSPLIT model driven by 0.5 degree NCEP data was used at the German NDC to simulate the primary transport pathways of potentially emitted radioisotopes. The analysis focuses on arrival times and dilution ratios at the radionuclide stations of the IMS. The arrival times were predicted correctly at most stations for ten days after the accident. Traces of the Fukushima emissions were detected at all IMS radionuclide stations on the Northern Hemisphere end of March. In April also some stations on the Southern Hemisphere detected some traces which passed the ITCZ. In respect to the CTBT context the influence of the Tohoku earthquake and the Fukushima emissions on the network capability to detect a

  7. Predictive value of MTT assay as an in vitro chemosensitivity testing for gastric cancer: One institution's experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Jin-Shui Zhu; Yi Zhang; Wei-Ming Shen; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the predictive clinical value of in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for directing chemosensitivity in patients with gastric cancer.METHODS: Results of a total of 353 consecutive patients with gastric cancer treated with MTT-directed chemotherapy or physician's empirical chemotherapy from July 1997 to April 2003 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate of MTTsensitive group (MSG) and control group (CG) was 47.5% and 45.1%, respectively. The results of subgroup analysis with Cox proportional-hazards model were favorable for the MSG-sensitive group. However, no statistically significant difference in survival rate was observed between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Individualized chemotherapy based on in vitro MTT assay is beneficial, but needs to be confirmed by further randomized controlled trials.

  8. Suppression of bcl-2 Gene by RNA Interference Increases Chemosensitivity to Cisplatin in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line CNE1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua YIN; Cai-Ping REN; Feng LI; Xu-Yu YANG; Hui LI; Ming ZHAO; Kai-Tai YAO

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of suppressing BCL-2 expression using RNA interference (RNAi) technique in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE1. CNE1 cell lines stably expressing shRNAs targeted bcl-2 and GL3 gene were established and gene expression inhibition was assessed by Western blotting analysis. The effect of suppressing bcl-2 by RNAi on cell growth was studied, the apoptosis induction and the sensitization of CNE 1 cells to cisplatin were quantified by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results showed that: stable transfection of CNE 1 cells with vectors expressing shRNAs against bcl-2 decreased the expression of BCL-2 protein; suppression of BCL-2 expression did not affect cell proliferation but could increase the chemosensitivity to cisplatin in CNE1 cells. This will help physicians to make some clinical trials of gene therapy on nasopharyngeal carcinoma by RNAi.

  9. RASSF1A expression inhibits cell growth and enhances cell chemosensitivity to mitomycin in BEL-7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hong-geng; XUE Wan-jiang; QIAN Hai-xin; ZHOU Xiao-jun; QIN Lei; LAN Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background The antitumor role of Ras association domain family 1A (RASSFIA) gene and its potential molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to observe the antitumor ability of RASSFIA in hepatoceliular carcinoma, and study the mechanisms of cell apoptosis induced by RASSFIA.Methods After stably transfecting a RASSF1A (wild-type or mutant) expression vector into the BEL-7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, RT-PCR and Westem blotting was used to detect the RASSF1A expression levels in recombinant cells. The effects of wild-type RASSF1A on cell growth were observed in vitro by analyzing cell proliferation rate, cell colony formation, and in vivo by analyzing tumorigenesis in nude mice. In addition, the effect of RASSF1A gene expression on the chemosensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to antitumor drugs was examined by inhibition of cell proliferation and the percentage of apoptotic cells.Results Wild-type RASSF1A, not the mutant, suppressed cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of wild-type RASSF1A could enhance the inhibition of cell proliferation and the percentage of apoptotic cells following cell treatment with mitomycin, but had no significant effect when combined with adriamycin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatJn treatment.Conclusion Wild-type RASSF1A inhibits cell growth and enhances cell chemosensitivity to mitomycin in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that RASSF1A may serve as a new target for gene therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  10. Modulation of P-Glycoprotein Mediated Multidrug Resistance (Mdr in Cancer Using Chemosensitizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velingkar V.S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is one of the main obstacles in the chemotherapy of cancer. MDR is associated with the over expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, resulting in increased efflux of chemotherapy from cancer cells. Inhibiting P-gp as a method to reverse MDR in cancer patients has been studied extensively, but the results have generally been disappointing. First-generation agents were limited by unacceptable toxicity, whereas second-generation agents had bettertolerability but were confounded by unpredictable pharmacokinetic interactions and interactions with other transporter proteins. Third-generation inhibitors have high potency and specificity for P-gp. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies to date have shown no appreciable impact on drug metabolism and no clinically significant drug interactions with common chemotherapy agents. Third-generation P-gp inhibitors have shown promise in clinical trials. The continued development of these agents may establish the true therapeutic potential of P-gp-mediated MDR reversal.

  11. ER maleate is a novel anticancer agent in oral cancer: implications for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guodong; Somasundaram, Raj Thani; Jessa, Fatima; Srivastava, Gunjan; MacMillan, Christina; Witterick, Ian; Walfish, Paul G.; Ralhan, Ranju

    2016-01-01

    ER maleate [10-(3-Aminopropyl)-3, 4-dimethyl-9(10H)-acridinone maleate] identified in a kinome screen was investigated as a novel anticancer agent for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aim was to demonstrate its anticancer effects, identify putative molecular targets and determine their clinical relevance and investigate its chemosensitization potential for platinum drugs to aid in OSCC management. Biologic effects of ER maleate were determined using oral cancer cell lines in vitro and oral tumor xenografts in vivo. mRNA profiling, real time PCR and western blot revealed ER maleate modulated the expression of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Their clinical significance was determined in oral SCC patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated with prognosis by Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate Cox regression analyses. ER maleate induced cell apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in oral cancer cells. Imagestream analysis revealed cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and increased polyploidy, unravelling deregulation of cell division and cell death. Mechanistically, ER maleate decreased expression of PLK1 and Syk, induced cleavage of PARP, caspase9 and caspase3, and increased chemosensitivity to carboplatin; significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased antitumor activity of carboplatin in tumor xenografts. ER maleate treated tumor xenografts showed reduced PLK1 and Syk expression. Clinical investigations revealed overexpression of PLK1 and Syk in oral SCC patients that correlated with disease prognosis. Our in vitro and in vivo findings provide a strong rationale for pre-clinical efficacy of ER maleate as a novel anticancer agent and chemosensitizer of platinum drugs for OSCC. PMID:26934445

  12. MicroRNA-mediated Silencing of RhoC Inhibits Tumor Invasion and Increases Chemosensitivity to Paclitaxel in SKOV3 Cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ying; DU Zhen-wu; LENG Wei-chun; ZHOU Jia-wen; WANG Ying-jian; SHENG Min-jia; WANG Jun-rong; ZHANG Gui-zhen

    2011-01-01

    RhoC is a member of the Ras-homologous family of genes which are implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Up-regulation of RhoC is associated with tumor progression in ovarian carcinoma and RhoC is significantly correlated with the invasive capability of ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. We developed a system that blocks RhoC in the human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells using specific MicroRNA(miRNA) interference. By transfecting SKOV3 cells with the plasmid vector to express specific MiRNA that targets human RhoC, we were able to establish a stable clone in which RhoC expression was significantly downregnlated. This resulted in the decreased invasive potential of SKOV3 cells as well as increased chemosensitivity to paclitaxel. RhoC involves in invasion and chemosensitivity of SKOV3, indicating that RhoC may be a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  13. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Richard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining for chemotherapeutic action of different drugs. Results DNA fragmentation, ratiometric ions and fluorescence endlabelling plots were characteristic for cell lines and drug response. 31P-23Na NMR spectra showed characteristic high phospho-choline and sodium peaks. Conclusion Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods and NMR peaks indicated apoptosis and offered in vivo drug monitoring method.

  14. RNAi-mediated silencing of CD147 inhibits tumor cell proliferation, invasion and increases chemosensitivity to cisplatin in SGC7901 cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD147 is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to the Ig superfamily. CD147 has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological activities. Enriched on the surface of many tumor cells, CD147 promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis and confers resistance to some chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we investigated the possible role of CD147 in the progression of gastric cancer. Methods Short hairpin RNA (shRNA expressing vectors targeting CD147 were constructed and transfected into human gastric cancer cells SGC7901 and CD147 expression was monitored by quantitative realtime RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation, the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, the invasive potential and chemosensitivity to cisplatin of SGC7901 cells were determined by MTT, gelatin zymography, Transwell invasion assay and MTT, respectively. Results Down-regulation of CD147 by RNAi approach led to decreased cell proliferation, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and invasive potential of SGC7901 cells as well as increased chemosensitivity to cisplatin. Conclusion CD147 involves in proliferation, invasion and chemosensitivity of human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901, indicating that CD147 may be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  15. Application of ATP-bioluminescence assay for screening chemotherapeutic agents of ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of using ATP-bioluminescence assay for tumor chemosensitivity testing in vitro, authors selected the A2780 cell line as a model and established the suitable assay condition. Screening chemotherapeutic agents of ovarian cancer in vitro were preliminarily researched. Using this assay, dose-response curve was detected in cell line treated with these agents. The result showed that the coefficients of variation for assay ranged from 0.2% to 8.2%, which means high reproducibility. It can measured ATP content of as few as forty cells. The thermal stability of the luciferin-luciferase system was high enough used in industry. The predictable accuracy rate is about 90.6%. This study demonstrated ATP-bioluminescence assay is a reliable, reproducible and sensitive method. It can provide a technical base for screening sensitive chemotherapeutic agents in clinic

  16. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  17. A Probe into the International Verification Mechanism of CTBT%《全面禁止核试验条约》国际核查机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝发辉

    2013-01-01

    国际核不扩散体系的构成在防止核扩散中发挥着巨大的作用,《全面禁止核试验条约》对于核不扩散体系具有里程碑式的意义,条约最大的成果就是建立了国际核查机制,以科学技术为基础建立起来的国际核查机制在建立和发展过程中不仅受着国际政治和管理等多方面的影响,科学技术的发展和进步也很大程度上影响着国际核查机制的建设。本文叙述了以科学技术为基础建立起来的国际核查机制及目前的建设和运行情况,分析了科学技术对国际核查机制的作用,阐明了《全面禁止核试验条约》所确立的国际核查机制在国际大环境中的发展情况。%International system of non -proliferation of nuclear weapons plays a significant role in preventing the spread of nucle -ar weapons.The Comprehensive Nuclear -Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) serves as a milestone in the system of non -proliferation of nuclear weapons , with its greatest achievement in establishing the international verification mechanism .Throughout the construc-tion, establishment and development process of the international verification mechanism , which is built upon science and technol-ogy, it is affected not only by international politics and administration , but also the advancement and progress of science and tech-nology .This article describes current construction and operation status of CTBT's science-and technology -oriented internation-al verification mechanism , and analyzes the effects it bears from science and technology , and finally , states the development situ-ation of CTBT's international verification mechanism with reference to the macro international environment .

  18. Co-expression of ING4 and P53 enhances hypopharyngeal cancer chemosensitivity to cisplatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Mingjie; Wang, Mengjun; Ma, Shiyin

    2016-09-01

    Hypopharyngeal cancer is a distinct type of malignant head and neck tumor, which exhibits low sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. The importance of developing methods for reducing chemotherapy resistance, and improving and enhancing prognosis has previously been emphasized and is considered a challenge for effective clinical treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. The current study investigated the effects of co‑expression of inhibitor of growth protein 4 (ING4) and P53, a tumor suppressor gene, on chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human hypopharyngeal cancer xenografts in vivo, and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. A tumor model was established by injecting athymic nude mice with FADU human hypopharyngeal cancer cells. Five days after intratumoral and peritumoral injections of an empty adenoviral vector (Ad), Ad‑ING4‑P53, cisplatin, or a combination of Ad‑ING4‑P53 and cisplatin (Ad‑ING4‑P53 + cisplatin) every other day for 5 days, the mice were euthanized and their tumors, livers, and kidneys were removed. The tumor weights were used to calculate the inhibition rate, and the expression levels of ING4 and P53 were detected by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, apoptotic cells were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and immunohistochemistry determined the levels ING4, P53, B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2 associated X protein (Bax) protein expression. The results demonstrated increased expression of ING4 and P53 in the Ad‑ING4‑P53 groups compared with PBS and Ad groups, indicating successful introduction of the genes into the tumor cells. Notably, the Ad‑ING4‑P53 + cisplatin group exhibited a higher inhibition rate compared with the four other groups. The results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that Bax expression was increased and Bcl‑2 was decreased in the Ad‑ING4‑P53 + cisplatin group. This suggested that the enhanced

  19. Assessment of central chemosensitivity and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity using I-123 MIBG imaging in central sleep apnea syndrome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-123 m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging has been used to study cardiac sympathetic function in various cardiac diseases. Central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. One of the mechanisms of its poor prognosis may be related to impaired cardiac sympathetic activity. However, the relationship between chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide, which is reported to correlate with the severity of CSAS, and cardiac sympathetic activity has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess cardiac sympathetic function and chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide in CHF patients. The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was evaluated in 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (male/female: 19/2, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)5 times/h underwent polysomnography. Patients with an apnea hypopnea index >15/h but without evidence of obstructive apnea were defined as having CSAS. Early (15 min) and delayed (4 hr) planar MIBG images were obtained from these patients. The mean counts in the whole heart and the mediastinum were obtained. The heart-to-mediastinum count ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the corrected myocardial washout rate (WR) were also calculated. The central chemoreflex was assessed with the rebreathing method using a hypercapnic gas mixture (7% CO2 and 93% O2). Ten of the 21 patients had CSAS. The H/M ratio was similar in patients both with and without CSAS (1.57±0.18 vs. 1.59±0.14, p=0.82). However, the WR was higher in patients with CSAS than in patients without CSAS (40±8% vs. 30±12%, p<0.05). ODI significantly correlated with central chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide. Moreover, there was a highly significant correlation between WR and central chemosensitivity (r=0.65, p<0.05). However, there was no correlation between ODI and the WR (r=0.36, p=0.11). Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CHF and CSAS is

  20. Uso de teste de químio-sensibilidade para escolha da quimioterapia adjuvante no câncer gástrico avançado Use of the chemosensitivity test to choose appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Shinjiro Matsuzaki

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Introduzir e familiarizar em nosso meio o uso do teste de químio-sensibilidade MTT avaliando a ação de agentes quimioterápicos sobre células tumorais de 30 doentes com câncer gástrico avançado. Correlacionar os resultados do teste MTT com os aspectos clínicos, anátomo-patológicos e estádio utlizando a mesma metodologia do estudo realizado em pacientes japoneses na Universidade de Keio, Japão. MÉTODO: Foi realizado o teste MTT em tumores de 30 pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma gástrico, submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico no Departamento de Cirurgia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Foram estudados in vitro os seguintes agentes quimioterápicos: mitomicina C, doxorrubicina, cisplatina e 5-fluorouracil. RESULTADOS: Os índices de atividade sobre células tumorais foram: 16,6% para a mitomicina C, 10,0% para a doxorrubicina, 6,6% para a cisplatina e 6,6% para o 5-fluorouracil. Os resultados do teste MTT não tiveram correlação com a idade, sexo, aspectos microscópicos e estádio (p0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A ação dos agentes quimioterápicos estudados sobre células tumorais do câncer gástrico foi baixa. Os resultados da ação dos quimioterápicos in vitro não apresentou correlação estatística com a idade, sexo, aspectos microscópicos e estádio destes doentes. Utilizando a mesma metodologia, tanto em nosso meio como em pacientes japoneses, a quimio-sensibilidade se mostrou baixa em ambos os estudos, podendo-se deduzir também que os resultados da químiosensibilidade independe da etnia. Com o surgimento de novos agentes quimioterápicos, a expectativa é grande para melhores resultados na prática clínica. Com a utilização e difusão do teste MTT em nosso meio, poder-se-á criar protocolos e estudos multicêntricos para selecionar os quimioterápicos a serem utlizados.BACKGROUND: Utilizing the MTT chemosensitivity test to evaluated the action of chemotherapeutic agents on

  1. Knockdown of astrocyte elevated gene-1 inhibits proliferation and enhancing chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin or doxorubicin in neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1 was originally characterized as a HIV-1-inducible gene in primary human fetal astrocyte. Recent studies highlight a potential role of AEG-1 in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate if AEG-1 serves as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma. Methods We employed RNA interference to reduce AEG-1 expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines and analyzed their phenotypic changes. Results We found that the knockdown of AEG-1 expression in human neuroblastoma cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. The specific downregulation induced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we also observed a significant enhancement of chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin and doxorubicin by knockdown of AEG-1. Conclusion Our study suggests that overexpressed AEG-1 enhance the tumorogenic properties of neuroblastoma cells. The inhibition of AEG-1 expression could be a new adjuvant therapy for neuroblastoma.

  2. Silibinin suppresses NPM-ALK, potently induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Ommoleila; Samadi, Nasser; Wu, Chengsheng; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Lai, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), an oncogenic fusion protein carrying constitutively active tyrosine kinase, is known to be central to the pathogenesis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL). Here, it is reported that silibinin, a non-toxic naturally-occurring compound, potently suppressed NPM-ALK and effectively inhibited the growth and soft agar colony formation of ALK+ALCL cells. By western blots, it was found that silibinin efficiently suppressed the phosphorylation/activation of NPM-ALK and its key substrates/downstream mediators (including STAT3, MEK/ERK and Akt) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Correlating with these observations, silibinin suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, survivin and JunB, all of which are found to be upregulated by NPM-ALK and pathogenetically important in ALK+ALCL. Lastly, silibinin augmented the chemosensitivity of ALK+ALCL cells to doxorubicin, particularly the small cell sub-set expressing the transcriptional activity of Sox2, an embryonic stem cell marker. To conclude, the findings suggest that silibinin might be useful in treating ALK+ALCL.

  3. DYSREGULATION OF ION HOMEOSTASIS BY ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang eZhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose dependent Ca2+ burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast S. cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca2+ stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides.

  4. ATP-TCA检测乳腺癌细胞对体外化疗药物敏感性的研究%Chemosensitivity in Vitro by ATP-TPC in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大庆; 崔振; 余辉; 陈凯; 余建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To measure the appropriate chemotherapeutic agents on breast cancer cells in vitro by ATP - TCA and to evaluate the possibility of individual chemotherapy of breast cancer patients. Methods The study included 35 women with breast cancer who were subjected to modified radical mastectomy. All patients were initially treated, without adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumor tissue were cultured with 9 kinds of chemotherapeutic agents at respective peak plasma concentration with three repeats for 3-5 days. The inhibition rate of the samples was measured by ATP bioluminescence assay. Results 32 of 35 assays completed successfully with ATP - TCA, with a evaluability rate of 91. 4% . The assay results suggested that 32 specimens from different breast cancer patients responded to chemotherapeutic drugs with individualized profiles. The most effective drug in the experiment was Adriamycin , and then Docetaxel, Paclitaxel, Vinorelbine, 5 - Fluorouracil, Cis - platinum and Gemcitabine, the rates of chemosensitivity of which were 81. 2% , 68.8% ,59.4% ,43.8% ,34.4%,31.2% and 25% respectively. While Methotrexate and Etoposide ( VP-16) were almost weakly active or resistive(0&12. 5% ) . Conclusion The anthracycline and taxane chemotherapeutic program has a better consistence of breast cancer in vitro chemosensitivity test. The vitro susceptibility test may provide the experimental basis for the implementation of the individual chemotherapeutic drugs.%目的 ATP-TCA检测乳腺癌患者肿瘤细胞对化疗药物的敏感性,评价本方法指导乳腺癌个体化疗的可行性.方法 35例行乳腺癌改良根治术患者纳入本研究,术中取新鲜无菌肿瘤组织,进行原代细胞培养,分别加入9种化疗药物,采用 ATP-TCA 测定药物对肿瘤细胞的抑制情况.结果 35例标本中32例完成药敏检测,标本的可评价率为91.4%.患者对化疗药物的体外敏感性存在个体差异,乳腺癌细胞对ADM

  5. Increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel by telomeric fusion-induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seon Rang; Juhn, Kyoung Mi; Park, Jeong Eun; Ju, Yeun Jin; Yun, Mi Yong; Lee, Kee Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong; Kim, Joon [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A telomere is a region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes. They protect a cell's chromosomes from fusing with each other or rearranging and so cells are normally destroyed when their telomeres are consumed. Most normal somatic cells lose telomeric repeats after each cell division. Telomeric shortening in humans can induce replicative senescence which blocks cell division. This mechanism appears to prevent genomic instability by limiting the number of cell divisions. Telomerase is an attractive molecular target, since its activity has been found in more than 85% of human cancers. Combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agent is superior to single in overall response rate and progression free survival. In this study, we showed that telomerase null cells are more hypersensitive by paclitaxel treatment than at wild type cells.

  6. Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Miwa, Shinji; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Uehara, Fuminaru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Ming; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo. PMID:25564963

  7. Knockdown of dual specificity phosphatase 4 enhances the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells to doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu; Du, Feiya; Chen, Wei; Yao, Minya; Lv, Kezhen; Fu, Peifen, E-mail: fupeifendoczju@163.com

    2013-12-10

    Background: Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer-related deaths in females world-wide. Doxorubicin-based therapy has limited efficacy in breast cancer due to drug resistance, which has been shown to be associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the molecular mechanisms linking the EMT and drug resistance in breast cancer cells remain unclear. Dual specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4), a member of the dual specificity phosphatase family, is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation; however, its role in breast cancer progression is controversial. Methods: We used cell viability assays, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining, combined with siRNA interference, to evaluate chemoresistance and the EMT in MCF-7 and adriamycin-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Results: Knockdown of DUSP4 significantly increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells to doxorubicin, and MCF-7/ADR cells which expressed high levels of DUSP4 had a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, knockdown of DUSP4 reversed the EMT in MCF-7/ADR cells, as demonstrated by upregulation of epithelial biomarkers and downregulation of mesenchymal biomarkers, and also increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin. Conclusions: DUSP4 might represent a potential drug target for inhibiting drug resistance and regulating the process of the EMT during the treatment of breast cancer. - Highlights: • We used different technologies to prove our conclusion. • DUSP4 knockdown increased doxorubicin chemosensitivity in breast cancer cells. • DUSP4 is a potential target for combating drug resistance in breast cancer. • DUSP4 is a potential target for regulating the EMT in breast cancer.

  8. Associations between gene polymorphisms of thymidylate synthase with its protein expression and chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in pancreatic carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; ZHAO Yu-pei; LIAO Quan; HU Ya; XU Qiang; ZHOU Li; SHU Hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key regulatory enzyme for de novo DNA synthesis.TS activity is also an important determinant of the response to chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine prodrugs,and its expression may be affected by gene polymorphisms.In this study,we investigated the associations between polymorphisms of the TS gene and its protein expression,and the implications on the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in pancreatic cancer cells.Methods Genotypes based on the 28-bp TS tandem repeat for pancreatic cell lines were determined by electrophoretic analysis of PCR products.A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 12 of the second 28-bp repeat of the 3R allele was determined by nucleotide sequencing.The chemosensitivity of pancreatic carcinoma cells to 5-FU in vitro was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8).TS protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting.Results Seven pancreatic carcinoma cell lines had different genotypes in terms of the 28-bp TS tandem repeat,as follows:homozygous 2R/2R (T3M4 and BxPC-3 cells),heterozygous 2R/3R (AsPC-1,Capan-1,and SU86.86),and homozygous 3R/3R (PANC-1 and COLO357).The optical density ratio of genotypes 3R/3R,2R/2R and 2R/3R was 1.393±0.374,0.568±0.032 and 0.561±0.056,respectively.Cells with the 2R/3R or 3R/3R genotypes were further analyzed for the G to C SNP at nucleotide 12 of the second 28-bp repeat of the 3R allele,yielding heterozygous 2R/3Rc (AsPC-1,Capan-1,and SU86.86),homozygous 3Rg/3Rg (COLO357) and homozygous 3Rc/3Rc (PANC-1).The optical density ratio of homozygous 3Rg/3Rg cells and homozygous 3Rc/3Rc cells was 1.723±0.062 and 1.063±0.134,respectively,and this difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Cells with the 2R/2R and 2R/3R genotypes of TS were hypersensitive to 5-FU in vitro as compared with those with the 3R/3R cells.Conclusions Polymorphisms in the TS gene influenced its protein expression and affected sensitivity of 5-FU in seven pancreatic cancer cell

  9. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  10. The DNA Repair Inhibitor DT01 as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Chemosensitization of Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Nirmitha I; Devun, Flavien; Lienafa, Marie-Christine; Herbette, Aurélie; Denys, Alban; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic liver disease from colorectal cancer is a significant clinical problem. This is mainly attributed to nonresectable metastases that frequently display low sensitivities to available chemotherapies and develop drug resistance partly via hyperactivation of some DNA repair functions. Combined therapies have shown some disease control; however, there is still a need for more efficient chemotherapies to achieve eradication of colorectal cancer liver metastasis. We investigated the tolerance and efficacy of a novel class of DNA repair inhibitors, Dbait, in association with conventional chemotherapy. Dbait mimics double-strand breaks and activates damage signaling, consequently inhibiting single- and double-stranded DNA repair enzyme recruitment. In vitro, Dbait treatment increases sensitivity of HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines. In vivo, the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and the efficacy of the cholesterol-conjugated clinical form of Dbait, DT01, were assessed. The chemosensitizing abilities of DT01 were evaluated in association with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil in intrahepatic HT29 xenografted mice used as a model for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. The high uptake of DT01 indicates that the liver is a specific target. We demonstrate significant antitumor efficacy in a liver metastasis model with DT01 treatment in combination with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (mean: 501 vs. 872 mm(2), P = 0.02) compared to chemotherapy alone. The decrease in tumor volume is further associated with significant histologic changes in necrosis, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Repeated cycles of DT01 do not increase chemotherapy toxicity. Combining DT01 with conventional chemotherapy may prove to be a safe and effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of metastatic liver cancer.

  11. PKM2 enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin through interaction with the mTOR pathway in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Cheng, Huihui; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key driver of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and has been shown to be up-regulated by mTOR in vitro. Our previous proteomic profiling studies showed that PKM2 was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues after treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Whether PKM2 expression predicts cisplatin-based NACT sensitivity and is mTOR dependent in cervical cancer patients remains unclear. Using paired tumor samples (pre- and post-chemotherapy) from 36 cervical cancer patients, we examined mTOR, HIF-1α, c-Myc, and PKM2 expression in cervical cancer samples and investigated the response to cisplatin-based NACT. In addition, we established PKM2 suppressed cervical cancer cell lines and evaluated their sensitivity to cisplatin in vitro. We found that the mTOR/HIF-1α/c-Myc/PKM2 signaling pathway was significantly downregulated in post-chemotherapy cervical cancer tissues. High levels of mTOR, HIF-1α, c-Myc, and PKM2 were associated with a positive chemotherapy response in cervical cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based NACT. In vitro, PKM2 knockdown desensitized cervical cancer cells to cisplatin. Moreover, PKM2 had complex interactions with mTOR pathways. mTOR, HIF1α, c-Myc, and PKM2 expression in cervical cancer may serve as predictive biomarkers to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PKM2 enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin through interaction with the mTOR pathway in cervical cancer. PMID:27492148

  12. Altered features and increased chemosensitivity of human breast cancer cells mediated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent heterogeneous cell population suitable for cell therapies in regenerative medicine. MSCs can also substantially affect tumor biology due to their ability to be recruited to the tumor stroma and interact with malignant cells via direct contacts and paracrine signaling. The aim of our study was to characterize molecular changes dictated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) and the effects on drug responses in human breast cancer cells SKBR3. The tumor cells were either directly cocultured with AT-MSCs or exposed to MSCs-conditioned medium (MSC-CM). Changes in cell biology were evaluated by kinetic live cell imaging, fluorescent microscopy, scratch wound assay, expression analysis, cytokine secretion profiling, ATP-based viability and apoptosis assays. The efficiency of cytotoxic treatment in the presence of AT-MSCs or MSCs-CM was analyzed. The AT-MSCs altered tumor cell morphology, induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, increased mammosphere formation, cell confluence and migration of SKBR3. These features were attributed to molecular changes induced by MSCs-secreted cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer cells. AT-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of SKBR3 cells in direct cocultures which was shown to be dependent on the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis. MSC-CM-exposed SKBR3 or SKBR3 in direct coculture with AT-MSCs exhibited increased chemosensitivity and induction of apoptosis in response to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Our work further highlights the multi-level nature of tumor-stromal cell interplay and demonstrates the capability of AT-MSCs and MSC-secreted factors to alter the anti-tumor drug responses

  13. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase Domain 17 Regulates Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Chemosensitivity Via Notch1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Ye, Xiangcang; Bhattacharya, Rajat; Boulbes, Delphine R; Fan, Fan; Xia, Ling; Ellis, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in mediating chemoresistance in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17; also known as tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme [TACE]) was shown to be overexpressed and to mediate cell proliferation and chemoresistance in CRC cells. However, its role in mediating the CSC phenotype in CRC has not been well-characterized. The objective of the present study was to determine whether ADAM17 regulates the CSC phenotype in CRC and to elucidate the downstream signaling mechanism that mediates cancer stemness. We treated established CRC cell lines and a newly established human CRC cell line HCP-1 with ADAM17-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or the synthetic peptide inhibitor TAPI-2. The effects of ADAM17 inhibition on the CSC phenotype and chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in CRC cells were examined. siRNA knockdown and TAPI-2 decreased the protein levels of cleaved Notch1 (Notch1 intracellular domain) and HES-1 in CRC cells. A decrease in the CSC phenotype was determined by sphere formation and ALDEFLUOR assays. Moreover, TAPI-2 sensitized CRC cells to 5-FU by decreasing cell viability and the median lethal dose of 5-FU and increasing apoptosis. We also showed the cleavage and release of soluble Jagged-1 and -2 by ADAM17 in CRC cells. Our studies have elucidated a role of ADAM17 in regulating the CSC phenotype and chemoresistance in CRC cells. The use of drugs that inhibit ADAM17 activity might increase the therapeutic benefit to patients with mCRC and, potentially, those with other solid malignancies.

  14. Expression of TP53 isoforms p53β or p53γ enhances chemosensitivity in TP53(null cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Silden

    Full Text Available The carboxy-terminal truncated p53 alternative spliced isoforms, p53β and p53γ, are expressed at disparate levels in cancer and are suggested to influence treatment response and therapy outcome. However, their functional role in cancer remains to be elucidated. We investigated their individual functionality in the p53(null background of cell lines H1299 and SAOS-2 by stable retroviral transduction or transient transfection. Expression status of p53β and p53γ protein was found to correlate with increased response to camptothecin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. Decreased DNA synthesis and clonogenicity in p53β and p53γ congenic H1299 was accompanied by increased p21((CIP1/WAF1, Bax and Mdm2 proteins. Chemotherapy induced p53 isoform degradation, most prominent for p53γ. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib substantially increased basal p53γ protein level, while the level of p53β protein was unaffected. Treatment with dicoumarol, a putative blocker of the proteasome-related NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase NQO1, effectively attenuated basal p53γ protein level in spite of bortezomib treatment. Although in vitro proliferation and clonogenicity assays indicated a weak suppressive effect by p53β and p53γ expression, studies of in vivo subcutaneous H1299 tumor growth demonstrated a significantly increased growth by expression of either p53 isoforms. This study suggests that p53β and p53γ share functionality in chemosensitizing and tumor growth enhancement but comprise distinct regulation at the protein level.

  15. Expression of TP53 isoforms p53β or p53γ enhances chemosensitivity in TP53(null) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silden, Elisabeth; Hjelle, Sigrun M; Wergeland, Line; Sulen, André; Andresen, Vibeke; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Micklem, David R; McCormack, Emmet; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore

    2013-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal truncated p53 alternative spliced isoforms, p53β and p53γ, are expressed at disparate levels in cancer and are suggested to influence treatment response and therapy outcome. However, their functional role in cancer remains to be elucidated. We investigated their individual functionality in the p53(null) background of cell lines H1299 and SAOS-2 by stable retroviral transduction or transient transfection. Expression status of p53β and p53γ protein was found to correlate with increased response to camptothecin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. Decreased DNA synthesis and clonogenicity in p53β and p53γ congenic H1299 was accompanied by increased p21((CIP1/WAF1)), Bax and Mdm2 proteins. Chemotherapy induced p53 isoform degradation, most prominent for p53γ. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib substantially increased basal p53γ protein level, while the level of p53β protein was unaffected. Treatment with dicoumarol, a putative blocker of the proteasome-related NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase NQO1, effectively attenuated basal p53γ protein level in spite of bortezomib treatment. Although in vitro proliferation and clonogenicity assays indicated a weak suppressive effect by p53β and p53γ expression, studies of in vivo subcutaneous H1299 tumor growth demonstrated a significantly increased growth by expression of either p53 isoforms. This study suggests that p53β and p53γ share functionality in chemosensitizing and tumor growth enhancement but comprise distinct regulation at the protein level. PMID:23409163

  16. Targeting GLI1 Suppresses Cell Growth and Enhances Chemosensitivity in CD34+ Enriched Acute Myeloid Leukemia Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Long

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Resistance of leukemia stem cells (LSCs to chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML causes relapse of disease. Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance and differentiation of cancer stem cells. Yet its role in AML remains controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of GLI1, the transcriptional activator of Hh signaling, in AML progenitor cells and to explore the anti-AML effects of GLI small-molecule inhibitor GANT61. Methods: The expression of GLI1 mRNA and protein were examined in AML progenitor cells and normal cells. The proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis and differentiation of AML progenitor cells were also analyzed in the presence of GANT61. Results: Kasumi-1 and KG1a cells, containing more CD34+ cells, expressed higher level of GLI1 compared to U937 and NB4 cells with fewer CD34+ cells. Consistently, a positive correlation between the protein levels of GLI1 and CD34 was validated in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC of AML patients tested. GANT61 inhibited the proliferation and colony formation in AML cell lines. Importantly, GANT61 induced apoptosis in CD34+ enriched Kasumi-1 and KG1a cells, whereas it induced differentiation in U937 and NB4 cells. Furthermore, GANT61 enhanced the cytotoxicity of cytarabine (Ara-c in primary CD34+ AML cells, indicating that inhibition of GLI1 could be a promising strategy to enhance chemosensitivity. Conclusions: The present findings suggested that Hh signaling was activated in AML progenitor cells. GLI1 acted as a potential target for AML therapy.

  17. P-glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: A re

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M. Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of solid tumors to treatment is significantly attributed to pharmacokinetic reasons at both cellular and multi-cellular levels. Anticancer agent must be bio-available at the site of action in a cytotoxic concentration to exert its proposed activity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp is a member of the ATP-dependent membrane transport proteins; it is known to pump substrates out of cells in ATP-dependent mechanism. The over-expression of P-gp in tumor cells reduces the intracellular drug concentrations, which decreases the cytotoxicity of a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Accordingly, P-gp inhibitors/blockers are potential enhancer for the cellular bioavailability of several clinically important anticancer drugs such as, anthracyclines, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and podophyllotoxins. Besides several chemically synthesized P-gp inhibitors/blockers, some naturally occurring compounds and plant extracts were reported for their modulation of multidrug resistance; however, this review will focus only on major classes of naturally occurring inhibitors viz., flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins.

  18. Using 99mTc-MIBI to Evaluate the Effects of Chemosensitizer on P-glycoprotein in Multidrug-resistant Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhenwei; ZHANGXuemei; WUHua; ZHAOMing; XIANYUZhiqun; ZHOUJian; LAIShiying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method to evaluate the effects of chemosensitizer on P-glycoprotein using 99mTc-MIBI, and observe the changes of 99mTc-MIBI uptake kinetics and P-glycoprotein levels after using verapamil in MDR human breast cells MCF-7/Adr. Methods: MDR breast carcinoma cells, MCF-7/Adr, were incubated and different protocols were performed. Protocol I: a chemosensitizer, verapamil (10μmol/L), was added into cell culture medium, while in control group, the same volume of DMEM was given. Cells were harvested after 2 h incubation with 99mTc-MIBI. Protocol Ⅱ: Verapamil (10μmol/L) was added into cell culture medium and incubated for 20 min, 40 min, 60 rain, 80 min, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively. Cells were harvested after 2 h incubation with 99mTc-MIBI. The radioactivity of the cells was measured and P-glycoprotein expression levels were determined with immunohistochemical stain. Results: Protocol I: After 2h incubation with verapamil the cellular uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was remarkably higher than control group (t=2.33, P0.05). Protocol

  19. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  20. [Knock-down of apollon gene by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits the proliferation of Lovo cells and enhances chemo-sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-hua; Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wu, Feng-yun; Liao, Xiao-li; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Jian-wei

    2011-02-01

    expression of apollon mRNA, and inhibit the proliferation, induce apoptosis, arrest cell cycle at S phase of colorectal cancer Lovo cells in vitro and enhance the chemo-sensitivity to 5-FU, DDP and EPI.

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, 2-propylpentanoic acid, increases the chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Cui-jie; WU Ming-wei; CHEN Fu-rong; LI Cong; XIA Yun-fei; CHEN Zhong-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment for malignant glioma generally consists of cytoreductive surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.In this study,we intended to investigate the effects of 2-propylpentanoic acid (VPA),a histone deacetylase inhibitor,on chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity in human glioma cell lines.Methods Human glioma cell lines,T98-G,and SF295,were treated with temozolomide (TMZ) or irradiation (IR),with or without VPA (1.0 mmol/L).Then,cytotoxicity and clonogenic survival assay was performed.Cell cycle stage,apoptosis,and autophagy were also detected using flow cytometry and dansyl monocadaverin (MDC) incorporation assay.One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were used to analyze the differences among variant groups.Results Mild cytotoxicity of VPA was revealed in both cell lines,T98-G and SF295,with the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) value of (3.85±0.58) mmol/L and (2.15±0.38) mmol/L,respectively; while the IC50 value of TMZ was (0.20±0.09) mmol/L for T98-G and (0.08±0.02) mmol/L for SF295.Moreover,if combined with VPA (1.0 mmol/L) for 96hours,the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ was significant increased (P <0.05).The surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF2) of T98-G and SF295 cells exposed to IR alone were 0.52 and 0.58.However,when VPA was combined with IR,the SF2 of T98-G and SF295 dropped to 0.39 (P=0.047) and 0.49 (P=-0.049),respectively.Treatment with VPA plus TMZ or IR also resulted in a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in the G2 phase and increased apoptotic rates as well as autophagy in T98-G and SF295 cell lines (P <0.01).Conclusion VPA may enhance the activities of TMZ and IR on glioma cells possibly through cell cycle block and promote autophagy,and thus could be a potential sensitizer of glioma treatment.

  2. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  3. Effects of glucocorticoids on the growth and chemosensitivity of carcinoma cells are heterogeneous and require high concentration of functional glucocorticoid receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-Shen Lu; Huang-Chun Lien; Pei-Yen Yeh; Kun-Huei Yeh; Min-Liang Kuo; Sung-Hsin Kuo; Ann-Lii Cheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine how glucocorticoids (GCs) may affect the growth and chemosensitivity of common carcinoma cells.METHODS: The effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on growth and chemosensitivity was assessed in 14 carcinoma cell lines. The function of GC receptors (GR) was assessed by MMTV reporter assay. Overexpression of GR was done by in vitro transfection and expression of a GR-expressing vector. Immunohistochemical stain of tissues and cells were done by PA1-511A, an anti-GR monoclonal antibody.RESULTS: DEX inhibited cell growth of four (MCF-7, MCF-7/MXR1, MCF-7/TPT300, and HeLa), increased cisplatin cytotoxicity of one (SiHa), and decreased cisplatin cytotoxicity of two (H460 and Hep3B) cell lines. The GR content of the seven cell lines affected by DEX was significantly higher than those of the seven cell lines unaffected by DEX(5.2±2.5×104 sites/cell vs 1.3±1.4×104 sites/cell, P= 0.005).Only two DEX-unresponsive cell lines (NPC-TW01 and NPCTW04) contained high GR amounts in the range (1.9-8.1×104sites/cell) of the seven DEX-responsive cell lines. The GR function of NPC-TW01 and NPC-TW04, however, was found to be impaired. The importance of high cellular amount of GR in mediating DEX susceptibility of the cells was further exemplified by GR dose-dependent drug resistance to cisplatin of AGS, a cell line with low GR content and was unaffected by DEX before transfection of GR-expressing vector. Immunohistochemical studies of human cancer tissues showed that 5 of the 45 (11.1%) breast cancer and 43 of the 85 (50.6%) non-small cell lung cancer had high GR contents at the ranges of the GC-responsive carcinoma cell lines.CONCLUSION: The growth and chemosensitivity of human carcinomas with high GR contents may be affected by GC. However, in light of the heterogeneous and even contradictive effects of GC on these cells, routine examination of GR contents of human carcinoma tissues may not be clinically useful until other markers that help predict the ultimate effect of

  4. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  5. Overcoming chloroquine resistance in malaria: Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel chemoreversal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudhar, Aicha; Ng, Xiao Wei; Loh, Chiew Yee; Chia, Wan Ni; Tan, Zhi Ming; Nosten, Francois; Dymock, Brian W; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-08-25

    Malaria remains a significant infectious disease with even artemisinin-based therapies now facing resistance in the field. Development of new therapies is urgently needed, either by finding new compounds with unique modes of action, or by reversing resistance towards known drugs with 'chemosensitizers' or 'chemoreversal' agents (CRA). Concerning the latter, we have focused on the resistance mechanisms developed against chloroquine (CQ). We have synthesized a series of compounds related to previously identified CRAs, and found promising novel compounds. These compounds show encouraging results in a coumarin labeled chloroquine uptake assay, exhibiting a dose response in resensitising parasites to the antimalarial effects of chloroquine. Selected compounds show consistent potency across a panel of chloroquine and artemisinin sensitive and resistant parasites, and a wide therapeutic window. This data supports further study of CRAs in the treatment of malaria and, ultimately, their use in chloroquine-based combination therapies. PMID:27173385

  6. Antitumor and chemosensitizing action of dichloroacetate implicates modulation of tumor microenvironment: A role of reorganized glucose metabolism, cell survival regulation and macrophage differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva; Singh, Sukh Mahendra, E-mail: sukhmahendrasingh@yahoo.com

    2013-11-15

    Targeting of tumor metabolism is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), has been shown to exert a potent tumoricidal action against a variety of tumor cells. The main mode of its antineoplastic action implicates a shift of glycolysis to oxidative metabolism of glucose, leading to generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the effect of DCA on tumor microenvironment, which in turn regulates tumor cell survival; remains speculative to a large extent. It is also unclear if DCA can exert any modulatory effect on the process of hematopoiesis, which is in a compromised state in tumor-bearing hosts undergoing chemotherapy. In view of these lacunas, the present study was undertaken to investigate the so far unexplored aspects with respect to the molecular mechanisms of DCA-dependent tumor growth retardation and chemosensitization. BALB/c mice were transplanted with Dalton's lymphoma (DL) cells, a T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin, followed by administration of DCA with or without cisplatin. DCA-dependent tumor regression and chemosensitization to cisplatin was found to be associated with altered repertoire of key cell survival regulatory molecules, modulated glucose metabolism, accompanying reconstituted tumor microenvironment with respect to pH homeostasis, cytokine balance and alternatively activated TAM. Moreover, DCA administration also led to an alteration in the MDR phenotype of tumor cells and myelopoietic differentiation of macrophages. The findings of this study shed a new light with respect to some of the novel mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of DCA and thus may have immense clinical applications. - Highlights: • DCA modulates tumor progression and chemoresistance. • DCA alters molecules regulating cell survival, glucose metabolism and MDR. • DCA reconstitutes biophysical and cellular composition of tumor microenvironment.

  7. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P P = 0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P = 0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  8. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  9. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  10. Prediction of drug efficacy for cancer treatment based on comparative analysis of chemosensitivity and gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Peng; Li, Qiyuan; Larsen, Jens Erik Pontoppidan;

    2012-01-01

    The NCI60 database is the largest available collection of compounds with measured anti-cancer activity. The strengths and limitations for using the NCI60 database as a source of new anti-cancer agents are explored and discussed in relation to previous studies. We selected a sub-set of 2333 compou...

  11. Prognostic value of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index in chemosensitive recurrent or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphomas treated with high-dose BEAM therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, E; Peslin, N; Arnaud, P; Ferme, C; Carde, P; Vantelon, J M; Bocaccio, C; Bourhis, J H; Koscielny, S; Ribrag, V

    2005-06-01

    High-dose therapy (HDT) is now recommended for patients under 60 years of age with chemosensitive relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, approximately half of these patients will be cured by HDT. Prognostic factors are needed to predict which patients with chemosensitive lymphoma to second-line therapy could benefit from HDT. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of the widely used age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (AA-IPI) calculated at the time of relapse (35 patients) or just before second-line salvage therapy for primary refractory disease (5 patients). The median age was 51 years (range 18-64 years). Thirty-six patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Salvage cytoreductive therapy before HDT was DHAP/ESHAP (cytarabine, cysplatin, etoposide, steroids) in 17 patients, VIM3-Ara-c/MAMI (high-dose cytarabine, ifosfamide, methyl-gag, amsacrine) in 17 patients, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) or reinforced CHOP in 4 patients, high-dose cyclophosphamide and etoposide in 2 patients. The HDT regimen consisted of BEAM (carmusine, cytarabine, etoposide, melphalan) in all cases. Eleven patients were in partial remission and 29 in complete remission at the time of HDT. Ten patients had an IPI >1, 16 had relapsed early (6 months after first-line chemotherapy) (P=1), but the AA-IPI >1 was associated with a poor outcome (P=0.03). In conclusion, the AA-IPI could have a prognostic value in patients with chemosensitive recurrent lymphoma treated with BEAM HDT.

  12. Study of chemosensitivity testing in vitro on astrocytoma%星形细胞瘤体外化疗药物敏感程度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕晓华; 刘波; 周蓉; 曾年菊; 卢明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解星形细胞瘤对常用化疗药物的敏感程度,探讨化疗药物体外敏感试验对于胶质瘤化疗的指导意义,比较不同WHO分级星形细胞瘤对化疗药物敏感度的差异,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 收集手术切除的新鲜星形细胞瘤标本共142例,其中低级别星形细胞瘤(Ⅰ、Ⅱ级)55例,高级别星形细胞瘤(Ⅲ、Ⅳ级)87例,分别进行星形细胞瘤细胞分离培养,采用MTT法检测临床常用11种化疗药物对肿瘤细胞的生长抑制情况,判定药物敏感程度.结果 142例患者中有78例(54.93%)获临床推荐使用药物,其中低级别星形细胞瘤为41.82%(23/55),而高级别星形细胞瘤为63.22%(55/87).不同WHO分级星形细胞瘤敏感化疗药物基本相似,以替尼泊苷、卡铂、长春新碱更为敏感.结论 化疗药物体外敏感试验对于胶质瘤的化疗药物筛选具有一定的指导意义,恶性程度越高,作用越突出.不同WHO分级的星形细胞瘤在化疗药物的选择上差异不明显.%Objective To observe the sensitivity ofastrocytoma to chemotherapeutic drugs, in order to explore the drug selection using chemosensitivity testing in vitro on astrocytoma. Comparing different WHO grade astrocytoma to chemotherapeutic drugs sensitivity differences,providing the basis data for clinical treatment. Methods The astrocytoma cells were seperated and cultured in vitro from 142 tumor tissues by glioma resection, including 55 cases of low-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade Ⅰ , Ⅱ) and 87 cases of high-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade Ⅲ, Ⅳ). The proliferation inhibition and chemosensitivity of tumor cells to 11 drugs were investigated by using MTT method. Results There were 54.93% (78/142) patients recommended chemotherapeutic drug in 142 cases. The percentage was 41.82%(23/55) in the low-grade astrocytoma, and 63.22% (55/87) in the high-grade astrocytoma respectively. Teniposide,carboplatin,vincristine as the sensitive drugs were similar in

  13. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Kazuhiro; Ito Kazuto; Suradji Eka W; Yamazaki Chiho; Kobayashi Kenji; Faried Ahmad; Abdulah Rizky; Murakami Masami; Kuwano Hiroyuki; Koyama Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout ...

  14. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  15. Application value of ATP based bioluminescence tumor chemosensitivity assay in the chemotherapy for hydrothorax caused by non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaijian Le; Yuming Jia; Jing Wang; Maoqiong Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical value and application of ATP based bioluminescencetumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) in the chemotherapy for hydrothorax caused by non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Methods: Hydrothorax specimens from 120 NSCLC patients were analyzed by ATP-TCA and the most sensitivechemotherapeutic drugs were used in NSCLC patients (treatment group). At the same time, 56 NSCLC patients with hydrothoraxwere admitted in our Hospital (Department of Oncology, The No. 2 People's Hospital of Yibin, China) and given chemotherapywithout guidance of the ATP-TCA (control group). Before the third chemotherapeutic cycle, clinical outcomes wereanalyzed in the two groups. Results: Effective rate of hydrothorax in treatment group was 67%, while 46% in control group(P < 0.05). In refractory hydrothorax patients, they were 69% and 40% (P < 0.05), respectively. In vitro results correlated wellwith clinical outcomes (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Effective rate of chemotherapy for hydrothorax in NSCLC is higher in treatmentgroup than that in control group. ATP-TCA is especially helpful for refractory hydrothorax.

  16. Integration of photothermal therapy and synergistic chemotherapy by a porphyrin self-assembled micelle confers chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shishuai; Ding, Yanping; Li, Yiye; Wu, Yan; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a malignant cancer type with a high risk of early recurrence and distant metastasis. Unlike other breast cancers, triple-negative breast cancer is lack of targetable receptors and, therefore, patients largely receive systemic chemotherapy. However, inevitable adverse effects and acquired drug resistance severely constrain the therapeutic outcome. Here we tailor-designed a porphyrin-based micelle that was self-assembled from a hybrid amphiphilic polymer comprising polyethylene glycol, poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) and porphyrin. The bilayer micelles can be simultaneously loaded with two chemotherapeutic drugs with synergistic cytotoxicity and distinct physiochemical properties, forming a uniform and spherical nanostructure. The drug-loaded micelles showed a tendency to accumulate in the tumor and can be internalized by tumor cells for drug release in acidic organelles. Under near-infrared laser irradiation, high density of self-quenched porphyrins in the hydrophobic layer absorbed light efficiently and converted into an excited state, leading to the release of sufficient heat for photothermal therapy. The integration of localized photothermal effect and synergistic chemotherapy conferred great chemosensitivity to cancer cells and achieved tumor regression using about 1/10 of traditional drug dosage. As a result, chemotherapy-associated adverse effects were successfully avoided. Our present study established a novel porphyrin-based nanoplatform with photothermal activity and expanded drug loading capacity, providing new opportunities for challenging conventional chemotherapy and fighting against stubborn triple-negative breast cancer.

  17. MiR-92b regulates the cell growth, cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line and target PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Li; Guan, Yan; Liu, Xiuju; Meng, Qingyong; Guo, Qisen

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged to play important roles in tumorigenesis and drug resistance of human cancer. Fewer studies were explored the roles of miR-92b on human lung cancer cell growth and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP). In this paper, we utilized real-time PCR to verify miR-92b was significantly up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues. In vitro assay demonstrated that knock-down of miR-92b inhabits cell growth and sensitized the A549/CDDP cells to CDDP. Furthermore, we found miR-92b could directly target PTEN, a unique tumor suppressor gene, which was downregulated in lung cancer tissues compared to the matched adjacent normal tissues. These data indicate that the miR-92b play an oncogene roles by regulates cell growth, cisplatin chemosensitivity phenotype, and could serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy. PMID:24099768

  18. Enhanced chemosensitivity of p73α gene transferred into H1299 cell line of human lung adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; FAN Shi-zhi; Kalkunte S Srivenugopal; JIANG Yao-guang; QIN Chuan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of transferred wild type p73α gene on the sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agents and the growth of p53-null H1299 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: The pcDNA3-HA-p73α plasmid was transferred into the cultured p53-null H1299 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma with the mediation of Dosper liposome;The cells resistant to G418 were selected. The expression of p73α gene in the cells was examined with Western blot. MTT assay was used to analyze the response of the transfected cells to cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (cDDP) and adriamycin (ADM). The rate of drug-induced apoptosis of the transfected cells was determined with flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assay. The changes of the biological behaviors were observed with colony formation assay. Results: The transfected H1299 cells of human lung adenocarcinoma over-expressed p73α protein stably. MTT assay showed that the IC50 values of cDDP and ADM were reduced by approximately 7 fold and 130 fold respectively in the transfected cells as compared with the untransfected ones. Lower concentration of the chemotherapeutic agents ( 1.25 μmol/L of cDDP and 0.05 μmol/L of ADM)could be employed to suppress markedly the growth of the transfected H1299 cells. The apoptotic rate induced by cDDP was increased from 10.1% to 38.4% ( P < 0.01 ) and that of ADM from 12.1% to 49.3 % ( P < 0.01 ). The clonogenecity after the administration of chemotherapeutic agents was significantly lower in the transfected H1299 cells than in the parental cells (P < 0.01). The sensitive enhancement ratios were 1.8 and 2.6 for cDDP and ADM respectively. Conclusion: The transfection of H1299 cells with wild type p73α gene results in an increase of the sensitivity of the cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

  19. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells through downregulation of survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-qin; Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, enhances cisplatin-mediated cell apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin on cisplatin-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining were performed to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of H460 cells. Arctigenin dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and potentiated cell apoptosis, coupled with increased cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, arctigenin sensitized H460 cells to cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Arctigenin alone or in combination with cisplatin had a significantly lower amount of survivin. Ectopic expression of survivin decreased cell apoptosis induced by arctigenin (P arctigenin (P arctigenin has a therapeutic potential in combina-tion with chemotherapeutic agents for NSLC. PMID:24395429

  20. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Kazuhiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.

  1. Pristimerin causes G1 arrest, induces apoptosis, and enhances the chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Wang

    Full Text Available Despite rapid advances in chemotherapy and surgical resection strategies, pancreatic cancer remains the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid compound isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, on inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in three pancreatic cancer cells, BxPC-3, PANC-1 and AsPC-1, in both monotherapy and in combination with gemcitabine. Treatment with pristimerin decreased the cell proliferation of all three pancreatic cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with pristimerin also resulted in G1-phase arrest which was strongly associated with a marked decrease in the level of cyclins (D1 and E and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk2, cdk4 and cdk6 with concomitant induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27. Pristimerin treatment also resulted in apoptotic cell death, cleavage of caspase-3, modulation in the expressions of Bcl-2 family proteins, inhibition of the translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. In addition, pristimerin potentiated the growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effects of gemcitabine in all three pancreatic cancer cells, at least in part, by inhibiting constitutive as well as gemcitabine-induced activation of NF-κB in both its DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that pristimerin has strong potential for development as a novel agent against pancreatic cancer.

  2. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  3. Infrasound workshop for CTBT monitoring: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the establishment of new infrasound stations in the global IMS network by the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the CTBTO in Vienna will commence in the middle of 1998. Thus, decisions on the final operational design for IMS infrasound stations will have to be made within the next 12 months. Though many of the basic design problems have been resolved, it is clear that further work needs to be carried out during the coming year to ensure that IMS infrasound stations will operate with maximum capability in accord with the specifications determined during the May 1997 PrepCom Meeting. Some of the papers presented at the Workshop suggest that it may be difficult to design a four-element infrasound array station that will reliably detect and locate infrasound signals at all frequencies in the specified range from 0.02 to 4.0 Hz in all noise environments. Hence, if the basic design of an infrasound array is restricted to four array elements, the final optimized design may be suited only to the detection and location of signals in a more limited pass-band. Several participants have also noted that the reliable discrimination of infrasound signals could be quite difficult if the detection system leads to signal distortion. Thus, it has been emphasized that the detection system should not, if possible, compromise signal fidelity. This report contains the workshop agenda, a list of participants, and abstracts and viewgraphs from each presentation

  4. CTBT and the international technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having in mind the basic aim of the CTBTO this presentation covers the fields of international co-operation as one of the most important and the cooperation of China and some International research and development institutions concerning the related subjects. One of the most important among international organizations being the IAEA, detailed list of general circumstances in the Chinese cooperation with IAEA is presented. It covers nuclear power plants construction and operation, safety of nuclear facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection and waste management, industrial application, agricultural application, human health, fundamental research and information dissemination

  5. Infrasound workshop for CTBT monitoring: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, D.; Whitaker, R.

    1998-11-01

    It is expected that the establishment of new infrasound stations in the global IMS network by the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the CTBTO in Vienna will commence in the middle of 1998. Thus, decisions on the final operational design for IMS infrasound stations will have to be made within the next 12 months. Though many of the basic design problems have been resolved, it is clear that further work needs to be carried out during the coming year to ensure that IMS infrasound stations will operate with maximum capability in accord with the specifications determined during the May 1997 PrepCom Meeting. Some of the papers presented at the Workshop suggest that it may be difficult to design a four-element infrasound array station that will reliably detect and locate infrasound signals at all frequencies in the specified range from 0.02 to 4.0 Hz in all noise environments. Hence, if the basic design of an infrasound array is restricted to four array elements, the final optimized design may be suited only to the detection and location of signals in a more limited pass-band. Several participants have also noted that the reliable discrimination of infrasound signals could be quite difficult if the detection system leads to signal distortion. Thus, it has been emphasized that the detection system should not, if possible, compromise signal fidelity. This report contains the workshop agenda, a list of participants, and abstracts and viewgraphs from each presentation.

  6. The IMS radionuclide network of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty calls for the establishment of a world-wide network of monitoring stations (IMS, International Monitoring System). In total 321 monitoring stations will be installed: 50 primary seismic, 120 auxiliary seismic, 11 hydroacoustic, 60 infrasound and 80 radionuclide. The 80 radionuclide stations collect particulate from the air and measure its radioactivity. Among these radionuclide stations, 40 of them will also have the capability of measuring the concentration in the air of the noble gas Xenon. The particulate stations will have a cycle of 1 day collection, 1 day decay time and 1 day acquisition time whereas the noble gas stations will have 1 day of collection and 1 day of acquisition time. Equipment for particulate station consists of a high volume air sampler (flow rate ≥ 500 m-3 h-1 at standard pressure and temperature) and a HPGe detector system with a relative efficiency of at least 40 %. Stations can be manually or automatically operated depending on the choice of the host country. The technical specification of the equipment to be used, the distribution and the number of stations around the world were chosen in such a way to be able to detect nuclear explosions according to the following criterion: 90 % detection probability within approximately 14 days for a 1 kt nuclear explosion in the atmosphere or from venting by an underground or underwater detonation. All data collected are converted in a standard format and sent directly to Vienna where they are analysed. Most of the stations will send data through a very reliable satellite link. In fact it is required that particulate stations will send spectral data within 72 hours of collection start, within 48 hours for noble gas stations. In addition every station should reach 95 % of data availability; in particular it is required that the maximum consecutive down time is 7 days and a maximum of 15 days annually. In case of suspicious events detected by the stations, atmospheric transport models will be applied in order to localise the source as accurately as possible. After the treaty has entered into force, when a nuclear test is suspected, the state parties can take the decision to perform an on-site inspection at the location where this test is supposed having taken place. Currently about 11 stations are fully installed and it is planned to have additionally about 20 stations installed by the end of the year 2000. (author)

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  8. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  9. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  10. Inhibition of Bcl-2 expression by a novel tumor-specific RNA interference system increases chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in Hela cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-lin HUANG; Yi WU; Hai YU; Ping ZHANG; Xing-qian ZHANG; Lei YING; Han-fang ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: RNA interference (RNAi) has been proposed as a potential treatment for cancer, but the lack of cellular targets limits its use in cancer gene therapy. No current technology has achieved direct tumor-specific gene silencing using RNAi.In the present study we attempt to develop a tumor-specific RNAi system using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter; furthermore, we analyzed its inhibitive effect on Bcl-2 expression. Methods: The vectors containing a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to target exogenous reporters [firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)] and endogenous gene (Bcl-2)were constructed. Luciferase expression was determined by dual luciferase assay.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to measure EGFP expression. Inhibition of Bcl-2 was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blotting.Cell proliferation and viability were measured by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. FACS was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution profile. Results: We showed that with the hTERT promoter directly driving shRNA transcription, expression of the exogenous reporters (LUC and EGFP) in tumor cells, but not normal cells, was specifically inhibited in vitro. The hTERT promoter-driven shRNA also depressed the expression of Bcl-2. Inhibition of Bcl-2 did not affect cell proliferation, but increased the chemosensitivity of HeLa cells to 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: The present study describes an efficient RNAi system for gene silencing that is specific to tumor cells using the hTERT promoter. Suppression of Bcl-2 by using this system sensitized HeLa cells to 5-fluorouracil. This system may be useful for RNAi therapy.

  11. The effect of adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 on 5-fiuorouracil chemosensitivity is related to p53 status in pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sven Eisold; Michael Linnebacher; Eduard Ryschich; Dalibor Antolovic; Ulf Hinz; Ernst Klar; Jan Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    AIM: There are conflicting data about p53 function on cellular sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the combined effects of adenovirus-mediated wild-type (wt) p53gene transfer and 5-FU chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cells with different p53 gene status.METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cell lines Capan-1p53mut,Capan-2p53wt, FAMPACp53mut, PANC1p53mut, and rat pancreatic cancer cell lines ASp53wt and DSL6Ap53null were used for in vitro studies. Following infection with different ratios of Adp53-particles (MOI) in combination with 5-FU, proliferation of tumor cells and apoptosis were quantified by cell proliferation assay (WST-1) and FACS (PI-staining). In addition, DSL6A syngeneic pancreatic tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in to Lewis rats for in vivo studies.Tumor size, apoptosis (TUNEL) and survival were determined.RESULTS: Ad-p53 gene transfer combined with 5-FU significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation and substantially enhanced apoptosis in all four cell lines with an alteration in the p53 gene compared to those two cell lines containing wt-p53. In vivo experiments showed the most effective tumor regression in animals treated with Ad-p53 plus 5-FU. Both in vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that a sublethal dose of Ad-p53 augmented the apoptotic response induced by 5-FU.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Ad-p53 may synergistically enhance 5-FU-chemosensitivity most strikingly in pancreatic cancer cells lacking p53 function. These findings illustrate that the anticancer efficacy of this combination treatment is dependent on the p53 gene status of the target tumor cells.

  12. RNA interference targeting extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) inhibits growth and increases chemosensitivity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Zeng, Y L; Zhang, X G; Chen, W J; Yang, R; Li, S J

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (EMMPRIN CD147) has been implicated in the growth and survival of malignant cells. However, its presence and role in cervical cancer cells has not been well-studied. In the present study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed and synthesized to breakdown the expression of CD147. The present data demonstrated that 24 and 48 hours after transfecting CD147 siRNA, both the CD147 mRNA and protein expression were significantly inhibited as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Meanwhile, simultaneous silencing of CD147 resulted in distinctly increasing MMP-9, VEGF, and MDR-1. Further studies demonstrated decreased CD147 expression, resulted in G1/S phase transition with flow cytometry analysis, as well as the resistance of the cells to 5-FU. These findings provide further evidence that CD147 may become a promising therapeutic target for human cervical cancer and a potential chemotherapy-sensitizing agent.

  13. Bioimpedance microelectronics in a 24-microwell plate with metabolic-sensors for testing chemosensitivity of tumor cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, T.; Demmel, F.; Becker, B.; Zottmann, M.; Wolf, P.; Kleinhans, R.; Brischwein, M.; Otto, A.; Wolf, B.

    2010-04-01

    Living cells react to external influences such as pharmacological agents in an intricate manner due to their complex internal signal processing. Cell reactions are an impact on vitality, cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction and morphological changes. A number of published techniques on impedance spectroscopy (IS) of adherent cells with planar electrodes address these changes. However, IS can merely serve as an indicator of cellular events rather than provide detailed information on a specific cell process. Thus our approach is a 24-microwell sensor-plate with impedance-electrodes in parallel to pH- and O2-sensors, capable of being integrated into a fully automated screening system. For the purpose of IS, high precision impedance-electronics have been developed based on integrated circuits and validated against a Solartron 1260 impedance analyzer. IS data is correlated to the metabolic-sensors and additionally compared with cell images shot by an inverse optical microscope which is also part of the screening system. Proof of principle is demonstrated by experimental growth monitoring of a MCF-7 culture and cellular response to chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, the potential to monitor living tissue probes is presented for the first time.

  14. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  15. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  16. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  17. 流式细胞术应用于抗肿瘤药物敏感性实验的可行性研究%The feasibility of antitumor drugs chemosensitivity testing by flow Cytometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yao; Jianhong Wu; Daxing Xie; Xiaolan Li; Deding Tao; Junbo Hu; Jianping Gong

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing of antitumor drugs by flow cytometry in clinical applications so as to provide experimental and theoretical basis for the establishment of a novel antitumor drugs sensitivity testing and the screening of particular antitumor drugs.Methods:Detect the apoptosis rate of 12 cases of Molt-4 cell line.57 cases of fresh clinical gastrointestinal tumor cells by Sub-G1 and Annexin V assay of flow cytometry under the effects of antitumor drugs at different times and the outcomes were compared with the ones of the MTT(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)assay.Results:The lethality of drugs on Molt-4 cell clinica gastrointestinal tumor cells had a positive correlation with the acting time of antidrugs by employing Annexin V.Sub-G1 and MTT assay.Drug-incurring maximum lethality of Annexin V assay was higher than MTT colorimetric assay.that of Sub-G1 was lower than MTT assay.the virtual times of Annexin V and Sub-G1 assay were obviously earlier than that of MTT colorimetric assay.Conclusion:Annexin V and Sub-G1 assay of flow cytometry can be taken as potent protocols testing anti-tumor drug chemosensitivity.Annexin V assay is featured by more sensitive,concise,reliable compared with the classical chemosensilivity testing assay Of MTT colorimetric assay and it possesses clinical applied value.

  18. 3'-Phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1) knockdown sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer cells to DNA damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ada W Y; Dragowska, Wieslawa H; Ricaurte, Daniel; Kwok, Brian; Mathew, Veena; Roosendaal, Jeroen; Ahluwalia, Amith; Warburton, Corinna; Laskin, Janessa J; Stirling, Peter C; Qadir, Mohammed A; Bally, Marcel B

    2015-07-10

    Standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with no known driver mutation is platinum-based chemotherapy, which has a response rate of only 30-33%. Through an siRNA screen, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthase 1 (PAPSS1), an enzyme that synthesizes the biologically active form of sulfate PAPS, was identified as a novel platinum-sensitizing target in NSCLC cells. PAPSS1 knockdown in combination with low-dose (IC10) cisplatin reduces clonogenicity of NSCLC cells by 98.7% (p < 0.001), increases DNA damage, and induces G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PAPSS1 silencing also sensitized NSCLC cells to other DNA crosslinking agents, radiation, and topoisomerase I inhibitors, but not topoisomerase II inhibitors. Chemo-sensitization was not observed in normal epithelial cells. Knocking out the PAPSS1 homolog did not sensitize yeast to cisplatin, suggesting that sulfate bioavailability for amino acid synthesis is not the cause of sensitization to DNA damaging agents. Rather, sensitization may be due to sulfation reactions involved in blocking the action of DNA damaging agents, facilitating DNA repair, promoting cancer cell survival under therapeutic stress or reducing the bioavailability of DNA damaging agents. Our study demonstrates for the first time that PAPSS1 could be targeted to improve the activity of multiple anticancer agents used to treat NSCLC. PMID:26220590

  19. 3′-Phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1) knockdown sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer cells to DNA damaging agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ada W. Y.; Dragowska, Wieslawa H.; Ricaurte, Daniel; Kwok, Brian; Mathew, Veena; Roosendaal, Jeroen; Ahluwalia, Amith; Warburton, Corinna; Laskin, Janessa J.; Stirling, Peter C.; Qadir, Mohammed A.; Bally, Marcel B.

    2015-01-01

    Standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with no known driver mutation is platinum-based chemotherapy, which has a response rate of only 30–33%. Through an siRNA screen, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthase 1 (PAPSS1), an enzyme that synthesizes the biologically active form of sulfate PAPS, was identified as a novel platinum-sensitizing target in NSCLC cells. PAPSS1 knockdown in combination with low-dose (IC10) cisplatin reduces clonogenicity of NSCLC cells by 98.7% (p < 0.001), increases DNA damage, and induces G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PAPSS1 silencing also sensitized NSCLC cells to other DNA crosslinking agents, radiation, and topoisomerase I inhibitors, but not topoisomerase II inhibitors. Chemo-sensitization was not observed in normal epithelial cells. Knocking out the PAPSS1 homolog did not sensitize yeast to cisplatin, suggesting that sulfate bioavailability for amino acid synthesis is not the cause of sensitization to DNA damaging agents. Rather, sensitization may be due to sulfation reactions involved in blocking the action of DNA damaging agents, facilitating DNA repair, promoting cancer cell survival under therapeutic stress or reducing the bioavailability of DNA damaging agents. Our study demonstrates for the first time that PAPSS1 could be targeted to improve the activity of multiple anticancer agents used to treat NSCLC. PMID:26220590

  20. Stability of solutions of antineoplastic agents during preparation and storage for in vitro assays. General considerations, the nitrosoureas and alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, A G

    1985-01-01

    In vitro drug sensitivity of tumour biopsies is currently being determined using a variety of methods. For these chemosensitivity assays many drugs are required at short notice, and this in turn means that the drugs must generally be stored in solution. There are, however, a number of potential problems associated with dissolving and storing drugs for in vitro use, which include (a) drug adsorption; (b) effects of freezing; (c) drug stability under the normal conditions of dilution and setting up of an in vitro assay; and (d) insolubility of drugs in normal saline (NS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These problems are considered in general, and some recommendations for use of solutions of drugs in in vitro assays are suggested. The nitrosoureas and alkylating agents are also investigated in greater detail in this respect. The nitrosoureas are found to be very labile in PBS at pH 7, with 5% degradation (t0.95) occurring in 10-50 min at room temperature. These values are increased about 10-fold on refrigeration and about 5- to 10-fold on reduction of the pH of the medium to pH 4-5. At pH 7 and room temperature, t0.95 is observed in under 1 h with the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil, melphalan, 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-1,4-benzoquinone (BZQ), dibromodulcitol, dibromomannitol, treosulphan, and procarbazine. Of the other alkylating agents, 4-hydroperoxycylophosphamide (sometimes used in vitro in place of cyclophosphamide), busulphan, dianhydrogalactitol, aziridinylbenzoquinone (AZQ), and dacarbazine have a t0.95 of between 2 and 24 h, while ifosfamide and pentamethylmelamine are both stable in aqueous solution for greater than 7 days. About half the drugs studied in detail have been stored frozen in solution for in vitro use, although very little is known about their stability under these conditions.

  1. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  2. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  3. Suppression of SPIN1-mediated PI3K-Akt pathway by miR-489 increases chemosensitivity in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Ya-Wen; Xing, Ai-Yan; Xiang, Shuai; Shi, Duan-Bo; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan-Xiang; Gao, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major obstacles for improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Increasing evidence has linked the association of aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) with tumour development and progression as well as chemoresistance. Despite recent advances, there is still little known about the potential role and mechanism of miRNAs in breast cancer chemoresistance. Here we describe that 16 miRNAs were found to be significantly down-regulated and 11 up-regulated in drug-resistant breast cancer tissues compared with drug-sensitive tissues, using a miRNA microarray. The results also showed miR-489 to be one of the most down-regulated miRNAs in drug-resistant tissues and cell lines, as confirmed by miRNA microarray screening and real-time quantitative PCR. A decrease in miR-489 expression was associated with chemoresistance as well as lymph node metastasis, increased tumour size, advanced pTNM stage and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Functional analysis revealed that miR-489 increased breast cancer chemosensitivity and inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SPIN1, VAV3, BCL2 and AKT3 were found to be direct targets of miR-489. SPIN1 was significantly elevated in drug-resistant and metastatic breast cancer tissues and inversely correlated with miR-489 expression. High expression of SPIN1 was associated with higher histological grade, lymph node metastasis, advanced pTNM stage and positive progesterone receptor (PR) status. Increased SPIN1 expression enhanced cell migration and invasion, inhibited apoptosis and partially antagonized the effects of miR-489 in breast cancer. PIK3CA, AKT, CREB1 and BCL2 in the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway, demonstrated to be elevated in drug-resistant breast cancer tissues, were identified as downstream effectors of SPIN1. It was further found that either inhibition of SPIN1 or overexpression of miR-489 suppressed the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. These data

  4. miR-590-5p regulates gastric cancer cell growth and chemosensitivity through RECK and the AKT/ERK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Yu, Shaorong; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xiaoyou; Zhong, Jian; Feng, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the role of miRNA-590-5p in gastric cancer (GC) progression. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure endogenous miR-590-5p levels in GC cells and tissues. Overexpression or knockdown of miR-590-5p in GC cells was performed by transfection with mimics or an inhibitor, respectively. MTT, matrigel transwell, and Western blot assays were used to assess the effects of miR-590-5p on cell proliferation, invasion, chemosensitivity of GC cells, and the AKT pathway, respectively. In silico prediction and luciferase reporter activity were used to identify potential targets of miR-590-5p. A xenograft model was also established to evaluate the function of miR-590-5p in vivo. Results The expression of miR-590-5p was significantly increased in GC cells and tissues, and upregulated miR-590-5p was associated with increased tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and poor survival. Overexpression of miR-590-5p promoted cell proliferation and invasion and reduced the sensitivity of GC cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel. In contrast, inhibition of miR-590-5p had the opposite effects on GC cells. RECK was identified as a direct target of miR-590-5p. Knockdown of RECK accelerated cell proliferation and motility and decreased the drug sensitivity. Furthermore, reintroduction of RECK inhibited the oncogenic effects of miR-590-5p by suppressing cell proliferation and invasion and increasing drug sensitivity. We found that the AKT/ERK and STAT3 signaling pathways were activated by miR-590-5p overexpression. The chemoresistance of miR-590-5p was also verified by in vivo analysis. Conclusion In summary, we suggest that the miR-590-5p/RECK/AKT axis contributes to GC and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for treatment. PMID:27757042

  5. miR-29b, miR-205 and miR-221 enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in HuH28 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells. RESULTS: HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221 restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221 or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b, also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.

  6. A meta-analytic review of ERCC1/MDR1 polymorphism and chemosensitivity to platinum in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-bo; HU Jing; SHANG Li-hua; ZHANG Yun-yan; LU Fei-fei; WEI Min; YU Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Platinum-based regimens are used as standard first-line chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.To study if pharmacogenetic approach may allow a tailored selection of platinum chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC,we performed a meta-analysis to compare chemosensitivity to platinum with different ERCC1 C118T/MDR1 C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed,Embase,Cochrane,OVID,Springer,EBSCO and CNKI databases.Inclusion criteria were patients with advanced NSCLC who received platinum-based chemotherapy,an evaluated polymorphism of ERCC/MDR1 and overall response rate.We excluded duplicate publications,letters and review articles.The RevMan 4.2 and STATA 11 package were used to do comprehensive quantitative assessment.Results A total of 11 studies were included in this meta-analysis.For studies evaluating ERCC1 C118T,test for heterogeneity was done (x2=13.41,P=0.1),and the odds ratio (OR) for the wild-type C/C genotype versus the heterozygous C/T and T/T genotypes was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.06,P=-0.01).In four studies evaluating MDR1 polymorphism,test for heterogeneity was also done (x2=3.22,P=0.36),and the OR for the wild-type C/C genotype versus the heterozygous C/T and T/T genotypes was 2.30 (95% CI 1.44-3.68,P=0.0005).Conclusions The results indicated that platinum-based chemotherapy sensitivity was significantly associated with polymorphism of ERCC1 C118T and MDR1 C3435T SNP.In further perspective studies,the ERCC1/MDR1 SNPs might serve as simple and less invasive biomarkers for personalized chemotherapy with platinum-based anticancer drugs.

  7. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  8. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  9. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  10. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  11. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  12. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  13. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  14. Response to microtubule-interacting agents in primary epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer constitutes nearly 4% of all cancers among women and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the Western world. Standard first line adjuvant chemotherapy treatments include Paclitaxel (Taxol) and platinum-based agents. Taxol, epothilone B (EpoB) and discodermolide belong to a family of anti-neoplastic agents that specifically interferes with microtubules and arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Despite initial success with chemotherapy treatment, many patients relapse due to chemotherapy resistance. In vitro establishment of primary ovarian cancer cells provides a powerful tool for better understanding the mechanisms of ovarian cancer resistance. We describe the generation and characterization of primary ovarian cancer cells derived from ascites fluids of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Chemosensitivity of these cell lines to Taxol, EpoB and discodermolide was tested, and cell cycle analysis was compared to that of immortalized ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and Hey. The relationship between drug resistance and αβ-tubulin and p53 status was also investigated. Results All newly generated primary cancer cells were highly sensitive to the drugs. αβ-tubulin mutation was not found in any primary cell lines tested. However, one cell line that harbors p53 mutation at residue 72 (Arg to Pro) exhibits altered cell cycle profile in response to all drug treatments. Immortalized ovarian cancer cells respond differently to EpoB treatment when compared to primary ovarian cancer cells, and p53 polymorphism suggests clinical significance in the anti-tumor response in patients. Conclusions The isolation and characterization of primary ovarian cancer cells from ovarian cancer patients’ specimens contribute to further understanding the nature of drug resistance to microtubule interacting agents (MIAs) currently used in clinical settings. PMID:23574945

  15. Drugs reverting multidrug resistance (chemosensitizers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Farmaceutiche

    1996-12-01

    Drug resistance is a phenomenon that frequently impairs proper treatment of cancer. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a particular case of acquired drug resistance, resulting from overexpression of a protein (P-170) that functions as a pump, clearing cells from the chemotherapic. The P-170 protein functions can be inhibited by a variety of lipophilic drugs containing a hydrophilic nitrogen, protonated at physiological pH. A considerable effort is underway to identify new drugs able to reverse MDR. Few of these molecules are already undergoing clinical trials.

  16. Over-expression of small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 predicts chemo-sensitivity and poor survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Juwei; Zuo Yong; Yang Wenjing; Chen Zhaoli; Liu Ziyuan; Tu Jun; Li Yan

    2014-01-01

    node metastasis (P=0.015),TNM stage (P=-0.001),and SENP1 expression level (P=0.002) were independent prognostic factors for the survival of NSCLC patients.Conclusions SENP1 may be a promising predictor of survival,a predictive factor of chemo-sensitivity for NSCLC patients,and potentially a desirable drug target for lung carcinoma target therapy.

  17. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  18. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  19. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  20. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  1. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  2. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  3. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  4. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  5. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  6. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  7. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  8. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  9. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  10. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  11. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  12. Preoperative chemosensitivity testing as Predictor of Treatment benefit in Adjuvant stage III colon cancer (PePiTA): Protocol of a prospective BGDO (Belgian Group for Digestive Oncology) multicentric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery is a curative treatment for patients with locally advanced colon cancer, but recurrences are frequent for those with stage III disease. FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to improve recurrence-free survival and overall survival by more than 20% and is nowadays considered a standard of care. However, the vast majority of patients will not benefit from receiving cytotoxic drugs because they have either already been cured by surgery or because their tumor cells are resistant to the chemotherapy, for which predictive factors are still not available. Identifying which patients are unlikely to respond to adjuvant chemotherapy from among those who are eligible for such treatment would be a major step towards treatment personalization. It would spare such patients from unnecessary toxicities and would improve the allocation of societal healthcare resources. PePiTA is a prospective, multicenter, non-randomised trial built on the hypothesis that preoperative chemosensitivity testing using FDG-PET/CT before and after one course of FOLFOX can identify the patients who are unlikely to benefit from 6 months of adjuvant FOLFOX treatment for stage III colon cancer. The study’s primary objective is to examine the ability of PET/CT-assessed tumor FDG uptake after one course of preoperative chemotherapy to predict the outcome of adjuvant therapy, as measured by 3-year disease-free survival. Secondary objectives are to examine the predictive value of changes in PET/CT-assessed tumor FDG uptake on overall survival, to define the best cut-off value of FDG uptake for predicting treatment outcome, and to analyse the cost-effectiveness of such preoperative chemo-sensitivity testing. At study planning, exploratory translational research objectives were 1) to assess the predictive value of circulating tumor cells for disease-free survival, 2) to examine the predictive value of single nucleotide polymorphisms for disease-free survival with respect to genes related either to

  13. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  14. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  15. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  16. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  17. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  18. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  19. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  20. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  1. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  2. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  3. Plumbagin, Vitamin K3 Analogue, Suppresses STAT3 Activation Pathway through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-1: Potential Role in Chemosensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Pandey, Manoj K.; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    The activation of STAT3 has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), an analogue of Vitamin K and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin...

  4. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  5. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  6. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  7. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  8. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  9. c-IAP1在食管鳞癌中的表达及其对化疗敏感性的影响%c-IAP1 expression and tumor chemosensitivity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杨; 刘芳; 周兰萍; 赵晓航

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨食管鳞癌细胞凋亡抑制蛋白1(c-IAP1)表达与化疗敏感性的相关性.方法:食管鳞癌组织芯片免疫组织化学染色,分析食管鳞癌组织及其配对癌旁食管上皮中c-IAP1的表达和定位及其与肿瘤,临床分级的关系.免疫印迹分析食管癌细胞C-IAP1和Smac表达,用RNA干扰技术敲降Smac表达,MTT法检测细胞对化疗药物敏感性的影响.统计分析采用卡方检验.结果:与癌旁食管上皮(54%,28/52)相比,c-IAP1在食管癌组织中高表达(67%,35/52),但与肿瘤病理分级、年龄和}生别无关.c-IAP1定位于组织细胞质和细胞核,在46%(24/52)的肿瘤组织中,细胞质c-IAP1表达水平显著高于配对癌旁食管上皮4%(2/52),具有统计学意义(P<0.001).食管癌EC0156、KYSE510、KYSE30、KYSE1 80和KYSE170细胞普遍表达c-IAP1,其中KYSE170细胞表达最高.经RNA干扰敲降Smac分子,可显著降低KYSE170细胞对化疗药物的敏感性.结论:c-IAP1蛋白在食管癌组织细胞质中表达率高,经化疗药物处理后,Smac介导c-IAP1降解,增加了食管癌细胞对化疗药物的敏感性,c-IAP1在调控食管癌化疗敏感性中发挥重要作用.%AIM: To investigate the expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to evaluate the correlation between c-IAP1 expression and chemosensitivity of ESCC cell lines.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to determine the expression of c-IAP1 in ESCC on tissue microarray.The chisquare test was used to analyze the correlation between c-IAP1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters of ESCC.The expression of c-IAP1and Smac in several ESCC cell lines was detected by Western blot.The chemosensitivity of ESCC cell lines was evaluated by RNA interference with Smac gene expression and MTT assay.RESULTS: c-IAP1 expression was found in 67%(35/52) of ESCC tissue specimens and in 54%(28/52) of tumor-adjacent normal tissue

  10. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  11. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence......, our critical examination offers understandings about how mathematics teachers are part of the larger cultural politics of schooling and education....

  12. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  13. Newer Hemostatic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment of inherited coagulation disorders is based on the infusion of the deficient clotting factor, when available. Significant advances have been made over the past two decades in the production and availability of factor replacement products. In spite of such progression, several issue are still unsolved, the most important being the need for frequent factor concentrate infusions and the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. To overcome these important limitations, several newer hemostatic agents with an extended half-life are at an advanced stage of clinical development. After a brief overview of hemostasis, this narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the most promising novel products for hemostasis. The current status of gene therapy for hemophilia, the only therapeutic option to definitively cure this inherited bleeding disorder, is also concisely discussed. PMID:25893779

  14. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  15. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  16. TAp73-mediated the activation of C-jun N-terminal kinase enhances cellular chemosensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pingde Zhang; Stephanie Si Liu; Hextan Yuen Sheung Ngan

    2012-01-01

    P73, one member of the tumor suppressor p53 family, shares highly structural and functional similarity to p53. Like p53, the transcriptionally active TAp73 can mediate cellular response to chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer cells by up-regulating the expressions of its pro-apoptotic target genes such as PUMA, Bax, NOXA. Here, we demonstrated a novel molecular mechanism for TAp73-mediated apoptosis in response to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells, and that was irrespective of p53 status. ...

  17. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  18. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  19. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  20. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  1. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  2. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  3. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  4. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  5. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  6. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  7. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  8. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutré, J.A.; Sadeh, N.M.; Janson, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005, held in Edi

  9. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  10. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  11. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  12. Agent Roles in Human Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M.; Sycara, K.; Payne, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe results of a series of experiments investigating the effects of agent aiding on human teams. The role an agent played, its task, and the ease with which it communicated with its human teammates all influenced team behavior. Team supporting tasks such as relaying and reminding seemed particularly effective.

  13. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  14. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  15. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  16. 2012 Survey of clothing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Clothing agents take part in China International Clothing and Accessories Fairs ( CHIC ) year by year. In order to attracting investment, they compared with each other at improving their originality and service levels. At the exhibition brands manufacturers and agents had a face-to-face communication,

  17. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  18. Rapid in vivo Taxotere quantitative chemosensitivity response by 4.23 Tesla sodium MRI and histo-immunostaining features in N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea induced breast tumors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ed X

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium weighted images can indicate sodium signal intensities from different features in the tumor before and 24 hours following administration of Taxotere. Aim To evaluate the association of in vivo intracellular sodium magnetic resonance image intensities with immuno-biomarkers and histopathological features to monitor the early tumor response to Taxotere chemotherapy in Methyl-Nitroso-Urea induced rat xenograft breast tumors. Methods and Materials Methyl-Nitroso-Urea (MNU induced rat xenograft breast tumors were imaged for sodium MRI and compared with tumor histology, immunostaining after 24 hours chemotherapy. Results Sodium MRI signal intensities represented sodium concentrations. Excised tumor histological sections showed different in vitro histological end points i.e. single strand DNA content of cell nuclei during cell cycle (G1/S-G2/M, distinct S or M histograms (Feulgen labeling to nuclear DNA content by CAS 200, mitotic figures and apoptosis at different locations of breast tumors. Necrosis and cystic fluid appeared gray on intracellular (IC sodium images while apoptosis rich regions appeared brighter on IC sodium images. After 24 hours Taxotere-treated tumors showed lower 'IC/EC ratio' of viable cells (65–76% with higher mitotic index; apoptotic tumor cells at high risk due to cytotoxicity (>70% with high apoptotic index; reduced proliferation index (270 vs 120 per high power field associated with enhanced IC sodium in vivo MR image intensities and decreased tumor size (3%; p in vivo associated with apoptosis and different pre-malignant features within 24 hours of exposure of cancer cells to anti-neoplastic Taxotere drug. Conclusion Sodium MRI imaging may be used as in vivo rapid drug monitoring method to evaluate Taxotere chemosensitivity response associated with neoplasia, apoptosis and tumor histology features.

  19. TAp73-mediated the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase enhances cellular chemosensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingde Zhang

    Full Text Available P73, one member of the tumor suppressor p53 family, shares highly structural and functional similarity to p53. Like p53, the transcriptionally active TAp73 can mediate cellular response to chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer cells by up-regulating the expressions of its pro-apoptotic target genes such as PUMA, Bax, NOXA. Here, we demonstrated a novel molecular mechanism for TAp73-mediated apoptosis in response to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells, and that was irrespective of p53 status. We found that TAp73 acted as an activator of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway by up-regulating the expression of its target growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha (GADD45α and subsequently activating mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4. Inhibition of JNK activity by a specific inhibitor or small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly abrogated TAp73-mediated apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, inhibition of GADD45α by siRNA inactivated MKK4/JNK activities and also blocked TAp73-mediated apoptosis induction by cisplatin. Our study has demonstrated that TAp73 activated the JNK apoptotic signaling pathway in response to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells.

  20. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  1. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  2. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  3. MDE and Mobile Agents : another reflexion on the agent migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gherbi, Tahar; Borne, Isabelle; Meslati, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    International audience Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is a software development approach family based on the use of models in the software construction. It allows the exploitation of models to simulate, estimate, understand, communicate and produce code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of h...

  4. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  5. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  6. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingCheng; XuGuan; BaoLiu

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to designing and building complex systems. Yet, to date, little effort had been devoted to discussing the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstream software engineering paradiam.Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agentoriented will be argued.We describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing a auction system.

  7. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  8. Optimistic Agents are Asymptotically Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Sunehag, Peter; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We use optimism to introduce generic asymptotically optimal reinforcement learning agents. They achieve, with an arbitrary finite or compact class of environments, asymptotically optimal behavior. Furthermore, in the finite deterministic case we provide finite error bounds.

  9. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  10. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  11. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  12. Locating Agents in RFID Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The use of software agents can create an “intelligent” interface between users’ preferences and the back‐end systems. Agents are now able to interact and communicate with each other, forming a virtual community and feeding back the user with suggestions. Innovative systems related to Asset Tracking, Inventory and Shelving architectures are more often involving advanced communication techniques (e.g., RFID); these systems are responsible for user authentication and objects verification. RFID s...

  13. Agents in E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mencke; Dumke, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  14. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  15. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  16. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  17. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  18. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhraj eKaur; Sumanpreet eKaur

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  19. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  20. Regulation of death induction and chemosensitizing action of 3-bromopyruvate in myeloid leukemia cells: energy depletion, oxidative stress, and protein kinase activity modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Eva; Estañ, María Cristina; Sánchez-Martín, Carlos; Brea, Rocío; de Blas, Elena; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-02-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrP) is an alkylating, energy-depleting drug that is of interest in antitumor therapies, although the mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity are ill-defined. We show here that 3-BrP causes concentration-dependent cell death of HL60 and other human myeloid leukemia cells, inducing both apoptosis and necrosis at 20-30 μM and a pure necrotic response at 60 μM. Low concentrations of 3-BrP (10-20 μM) brought about a rapid inhibition of glycolysis, which at higher concentrations was followed by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The combination of these effects causes concentration-dependent ATP depletion, although this cannot explain the lethality at intermediate 3-BrP concentrations (20-30 μM). The oxidative stress caused by exposure to 3-BrP was evident as a moderate overproduction of reactive oxygen species and a concentration-dependent depletion of glutathione, which was an important determinant of 3-BrP toxicity. In addition, 3-BrP caused glutathione-dependent stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K phosphorylation or activation, as well as rapid LKB-1/AMP kinase (AMPK) activation, which was later followed by Akt-mediated inactivation. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors revealed that p38 MAPK activation enhances 3-BrP toxicity, which is conversely restrained by ERK and Akt activity. Finally, 3-BrP was seen to cooperate with antitumor agents like arsenic trioxide and curcumin in causing cell death, a response apparently mediated by both the generation of oxidative stress induced by 3-BrP and the attenuation of Akt and ERK activation by curcumin. In summary, 3-BrP cytotoxicity is the result of several combined regulatory mechanisms that might represent important targets to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24307199

  1. Heterogeneity of chemosensitivity in six clonal cell lines derived from a spontaneous murine astrocytoma and its relationship to genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, R; Koppel, H; Pilkington, G J; Thomas, D G; Darling, J L

    1997-09-01

    Heterogeneity in drug sensitivity must, in part, account for the relative lack of success with single agent chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In order to develop in vitro model systems to investigate this, clones derived from the VM spontaneous murine astrocytoma have been characterised with regard to drug sensitivity. Six clonal cell lines have been tested for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs using an intermediate duration 35S-methionine uptake assay. These lines have previously been extensively characterised with regard to morphological, antigenic, kinetic, tumourigenic potential in syngeneic animals and chromosomal properties and display considerable heterogeneity. The present study indicates that heterogeneity extends to sensitivity to all classes of cytotoxic drugs. The greatest difference in sensitivity between the clones was seen in response to cell cycle-specific drugs like the Vinca alkaloids (14-fold and 20-fold for vincristine (VCR) and vindesine (VIND) respectively), while the nitrosoureas, CCNU and BCNU displayed a smaller fold difference in sensitivity (4.3 and 3.6-fold difference respectively). All the clones were considerably more resistant to the adriamycin (ADM), cis-platinum (C-PLAT) and the Vinca alkaloids than the parental cell line although the difference in sensitivity between the clones and parental cell line were less marked for the nitrosoureas and procarbazine (PCB). It has also been possible to examine the relationship between drug sensitivity and the phenotypic and genotypic properties of these clonal cell lines. There is a relationship between chromosome number and sensitivity of a wide variety of cytotoxic drugs including the nitrosoureas, Vinca alkaloids, PCB, C-PLAT, BLEO but not ADR or 5-FU. Clones with small numbers of chromosomes were more resistant than clones with gross polyploidy. Similarly, sensitivity to Vinca alkaloids and ADM, but not other classes of drugs, was greatest in cells with numerous

  2. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  3. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  4. 3-Bromopyruvic acid, a hexokinase II inhibitor, is an effective antitumor agent on the hepatoma cells : in vitro and in vivo findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Wei, Yuhua; Yu, Xin; Peng, Jirun; Leng, Xisheng

    2014-06-01

    Over-expressed in cancer cells, hexokinase II (HK II) forms a mitochondrial complex, which promotes cancer survival. 3- Bromopyruvic acid (3-BrPA) dissociates HK II from this complex, causing cell death, and thus, having an anti-tumor effect. The design of this study was to first analyze the expression of HK II in the hepatoma cell line, BEL-7402, then investigate the effects of 3-Br-PA on these cells, and finally, discuss its potential for clinical usage. HK II expression was detected in BEL-7402 cells by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In vitro treatment of cells with 3-BrPA significantly inhibited their growth, as evaluated by MTT assay and adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). To analyze the in vivo function and safety of this drug, a tumor model was established by subcutaneously implanting hepatic cancer cells into nude mice. 3-BrPA treatment (50 mg/kg ip. daily, 6 days/week for three weeks) was effective in the animal model by attenuating tumor growth and causing tumor necrosis. Toxic signs were not observed. The acute toxicity study provided an LD50 of 191.7 mg/kg for 3-BrPA. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo analyses suggest that 3-BrPA exerts anti-hepatoma effects, and may be an effective pharmacological agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24738957

  5. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  6. Special issue about advances in Physical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of Spanish groups which are doing research in areas related with physical agents: they use agent-based technologies concepts, especially industrial applications, robotics and domotics (physical agents) and applications related to the information society, (software agents) highlighting the similarities and synergies among physical and software agents. In this special issue we will show several works from those groups, focusing on the recent advances in Physical Agents.

  7. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  8. Big Data Solution for CTBT Monitoring Using Global Cross Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, P.; Bobrov, D.; Dupont, A.; Grenouille, A.; Kitov, I. O.; Rozhkov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the mismatch between data volume and the performance of the Information Technology infrastructure used in seismic data centers, it becomes more and more difficult to process all the data with traditional applications in a reasonable elapsed time. To fulfill their missions, the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO/IDC) and the Département Analyse Surveillance Environnement of Commissariat à l'Energie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA/DASE) collect, process and produce complex data sets whose volume is growing exponentially. In the medium term, computer architectures, data management systems and application algorithms will require fundamental changes to meet the needs. This problem is well known and identified as a "Big Data" challenge. To tackle this major task, the CEA/DASE takes part during two years to the "DataScale" project. Started in September 2013, DataScale gathers a large set of partners (research laboratories, SMEs and big companies). The common objective is to design efficient solutions using the synergy between Big Data solutions and the High Performance Computing (HPC). The project will evaluate the relevance of these technological solutions by implementing a demonstrator for seismic event detections thanks to massive waveform correlations. The IDC has developed an expertise on such techniques leading to an algorithm called "Master Event" and provides a high-quality dataset for an extensive cross correlation study. The objective of the project is to enhance the Master Event algorithm and to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) network thanks to a dedicated HPC infrastructure operated by the "Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie" at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. The dataset used for the demonstrator includes more than 300,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and more than 30 terabytes of continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations. In this talk, we will present the Master Event algorithm and the associated workflow, we will give an overview of the designed technical solutions (from the building blocks to the global infrastructure), and we will show the preliminary results at a regional scale.

  9. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  10. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  11. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  12. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  13. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  14. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  15. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  16. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  17. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  18. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  19. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  20. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  1. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  2. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  3. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  4. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  5. Direct Vasodilators and Sympatholytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Meghan N; Chao, James Y; Ng, Tien M H

    2016-01-01

    Direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents were some of the first antihypertensive medications discovered and utilized in the past century. However, side effect profiles and the advent of newer antihypertensive drug classes have reduced the use of these agents in recent decades. Outcome data and large randomized trials supporting the efficacy of these medications are limited; however, in general the blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents has repeatedly been shown to be comparable to other more contemporary drug classes. Nevertheless, a landmark hypertension trial found a negative outcome with a doxazosin-based regimen compared to a chlorthalidone-based regimen, leading to the removal of α-1 adrenergic receptor blockers as first-line monotherapy from the hypertension guidelines. In contemporary practice, direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents, particularly hydralazine and clonidine, are often utilized in refractory hypertension. Hydralazine and minoxidil may also be useful alternatives for patients with renal dysfunction, and both hydralazine and methyldopa are considered first line for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Hydralazine has also found widespread use for the treatment of systolic heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). The data to support use of this combination in African Americans with heart failure are particularly robust. Hydralazine with ISDN may also serve as an alternative for patients with an intolerance to angiotensin antagonists. Given these niche indications, vasodilators and sympatholytics are still useful in clinical practice; therefore, it is prudent to understand the existing data regarding efficacy and the safe use of these medications. PMID:26033778

  6. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  7. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  8. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  9. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  11. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  12. Using Agent to Coordinate Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C H; Chen, Jason J Y

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, agent and web service are two separate research areas. We figure that, through agent communication, agent is suitable to coordinate web services. However, there exist agent communication problems due to the lack of uniform, cross-platform vocabulary. Fortunately, ontology defines a vocabulary. We thus propose a new agent communication layer and present the web ontology language (OWL)-based operational ontologies that provides a declarative description. It can be accessed by various engines to facilitate agent communication. Further, in our operational ontologies, we define the mental attitudes of agents that can be shared among other agents. Our architecture enhanced the 3APL agent platform, and it is implemented as an agent communication framework. Finally, we extended the framework to be compatible with the web ontology language for service (OWL-S), and then develop a movie recommendation system with four OWL-S semantic web services on the framework. The benefits of this work are: 1) dynamic ...

  13. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    2008-01-01

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation in software systems with less human interaction. Major challenge to deployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents and preventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems, as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchor toolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure management of mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. It provide...

  14. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  15. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  16. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H., E-mail: grahamc@queensu.ca

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  17. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  18. Curcumin-albumin conjugates as an effective anti-cancer agent with immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S R; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an active ingredient in turmeric (Curcuma longa) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization properties. Conjugation of curcumin (Curc) to albumin (Alb) has been found to increase the aqueous solubility of the drug. The current study aimed to prove the safe use of the Curc-Alb conjugate in animals and to demonstrate that it retains drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cell viability was inhibited by the Curc-Alb conjugate in a dose dependent manner in vitro, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Administration of up to 11.4 mg of conjugated curcumin per kg body weight to healthy animals was non-toxic both in terms of lethality and weight loss. Histological analysis of vital organs (kidney, liver and spleen) also did not show toxic effects. Favorable immuno-modulatory activity was observed after continuous administration of sub-acute doses of the conjugate which caused increase in total leukocyte count, platelet count, and viable cell count in bone marrow, and enhanced proliferation of lymphocyte in vitro upon culture. In vivo studies in the DLA tumor model in mice demonstrated that conjugated drug induces tumor reduction and prevention. Significant tumor reduction was observed when the Curc-Alb conjugate was administered intraperitoneally in DLA-induced mice after 1 day (prevention therapy) and 7 days (reduction therapy) of tumor induction. There was significant reduction in both tumor volume and tumor cell numbers in the treated animals as well as a marked increase in their mean survival time and percent increase in life span. The effect was greater when the conjugate was administered soon after inducing the tumor as compared to when treatment was started after allowing tumor to grow for 7 days. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that curcumin albumin conjugate has immunomodulatory and tumor growth inhibition properties. The study postulates

  19. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  1. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  2. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  3. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. Crimen organizado y agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Reus, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de la justicia penal actual es la lucha contra la criminalidad organizada, bien por su propia naturaleza de “crimen organizado”, bien porque presenta elementos trasnacionales que impiden su investigación a fondo. Todo ello exige la creación de recursos que permitan la investigación de dichos delitos, recursos como el de infiltración de los agentes policiales, objeto del trabajo.

  5. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, R.; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The sp...

  6. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  7. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  8. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  9. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  10. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  11. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  12. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  13. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  14. Dimensions and Issues of Mobile Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Agent is a type of software system which acts “intelligently” on one’s behalf with the feature of autonomy, learning ability and most importantly mobility. Now mobile agents are gaining interest in the research community. In this article mobile agents will be addressed as tools for mobile computing. Mobile agents have been used in applications ranging from network management to information management. We present mobile agent concept, characteristics, classification, need, applications and technical constraints in the mobile technology. We also provide a brief case study about how mobile agent is used for information retrieval.

  15. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  16. Relationship between cyclophilin A expression and chemosensitivities of gastric carcinoma cells in vitro%胃癌组织中亲环素A表达与肿瘤细胞体外化疗药物敏感性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 李勇; 赵群; 范立侨; 檀碧波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between chemosensitivities of gastric cancer cell,drug-resistant related protein and protein expression of cyclophilin A (CypA)in vitro,and to explore its significance. Methods In 94 tissues of gastric cancer,the chemosensitivities of tumor cell to 5-FU,L-OHP,ADR in vitro were tested by SRB assay, and expression of CypA, P-gp, GST-π, x-IAP and survivin were determined by immunohistochemical method.Results The positive expression of CypA,P-gp,GST-π,x-IAP,survivin were 72.3%(68/94),90.4%(85/94),62.8%(59/94),66.0%(62/94)and 76.6%(72/94),respectively,and protein expression of CypA,P-gp,GST-π,x-IAP,survivin were significantly higher in tumor cell than in adjacent non-tumor cell (P 0.05).CypA protein was positively associated with P-gp,x-IAP and survivin (P 0.05)。相关分析显示,CypA 蛋白与 P-gp、x-IAP、Survivin 均存在正相关关系(均 P <0.05)。结论胃癌细胞对5-FU、L-OHP 药物敏感性与 CypA 蛋白表达有关,该作用可能是 CypA 调节部分耐药相关蛋白实现的。

  17. A framework for organization-aware agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by the presence of a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals. Organizations, such as those used in real-life to structure human activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, can regulate the agents...... explicit coordination mechanisms within the agents. The organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model, but uses an organizational metamodel. We show how AORTA helps agents work together in a system with an organization......’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...

  18. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  19. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  20. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  1. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  2. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  3. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  4. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  5. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server...

  6. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  7. Explaining Simulations Through Self Explaining Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Maaike Harbers; John-Jules Meyer; Karel Van den Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is more variable and harder to predict than reactive behavior, and therefore it might be harder to explain. However, the approach presented in this paper tries to make advantage of the agents' pro-active...

  8. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuayuQiu; ChuanfuLiu; XiaokeMa; YingjuanFu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-15 30%, were better than that of the imported product.

  9. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayu Qiu; Chuanfu Liu; Xiaoke Ma; Yingjuan Fu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally, some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-1530%, were better than that of the imported product.

  10. Virtual Knowledge Communities for Semantic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    International audience Virtual Knowledge Communities are a well suited paradigm for decentralized knowldege exchanges and they have been applied in several domains. In this paper we investigate the implementation of virtual knowledge communities with se- mantic agents. Using the SAM (Semantic Agent Modeling) approach, we show that agents can exchange community re- lated concepts (in OWL) and behavior (in SWRL). Agents can then learn and adapt new community-related behavior, which is useful...

  11. Topology and Social Behaviour of Agents

    OpenAIRE

    O. Hudak

    2003-01-01

    In a social group its members are caled here agents. Any two agents from the group may interact. The interaction consists of the exchange of information and it costs some energy. There exist subgroups of interacting agents which are nonreducibile. The structure, configuration of interactions between agents in the group, forms a macroscopic structure. The statistical equilibrium due to microreversibility is characterised by the maximum of entropy and by the minimum of energy, costs of informat...

  12. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  13. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  14. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  15. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  16. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  17. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  18. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  19. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may r

  20. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  1. Explaining simulations through self explaining agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  2. Explaining Simulations through Self Explaining Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Dignum, F.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  3. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  4. The Ontogenesis of Agent: Linguistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the findings of a longitudinal study of three infants between their 11th and 22nd months to document development of linguistic expression of the agent concept indicated that first vocalizations were inconsistently associated with nonverbal agentive behaviors and later mature utterances coded agent-action-recipient events. (MC)

  5. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  6. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  7. 7 CFR 1430.210 - MILC agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MILC agents. (a) MILC benefits may be disbursed by a dairy marketing cooperative that serves special... operation may authorize an agent of a dairy cooperative or milk handler affiliated with such cooperative to... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false MILC agents. 1430.210 Section 1430.210...

  8. Agents and Lattice-valued Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Germanno Resconi

    2006-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.

  9. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt;

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We ...

  10. Construction and Evaluation of Animated Teachable Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, Bobby; Williams, Betsy; Kramer, Mattie Ruth; Viswanath, Karun; Balachandran, Ramya; Belynne, Kadira; Biswas, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the design decisions, technical approach, and evaluation of the animation and interface components for an agent-based system that allows learners to learn by teaching. Students learn by teaching an animated agent using a visual representation. The agent can answer questions about what she has been taught and take quizzes.…

  11. Stigmergy in multi-agent reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Raghav; Dutech, Alain; Charpillet, François

    2004-01-01

    http://www.computer.org In this paper, we describe how certain aspects of the biological phenomena of stigmergy can be imported into multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), with the purpose of better enabling coordination of agent actions and speeding up learning. In particular, we detail how these stigmergic aspects can be used to define an inter-agent communication framework.

  12. Agent for roentgenocontrast examination of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-soluble agent, additionaly containing starch, agar, water, is suggested to increase accuracy of injured cavity diagnostics. The method for roentgenocontrast agent preparation on the base of starch-agar gel is described. Advantages of the agent suggested in comparison with those of roentgenologic cavity investigation used are shown

  13. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  14. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  15. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  16. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  17. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  18. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 12 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), and Science Citation Index-Expanded (1900 to January 2014). Manual searches in reference...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...

  19. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  20. Camouflaging Agents for Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Claudia; Porto, Dennis A; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired condition resulting in patches of depigmented skin that is cosmetically disfiguring and can subsequently be psychologically disturbing. For patients seeking to mask their vitiligo, camouflage options have historically been limited and been designated as a cosmetic, rather than a medical, concern. As research has indicated that proper concealment of vitiligo lesions can vastly improve quality of life, we believe it is essential that dermatologists become aware of all the options available to their patients and that discussions of camouflage options be broached from the first visit. Methods for concealment include cosmetic tattoos, dihydroxyacetone, general cosmetics, and various topical camouflage agents, including the newest product, Microskin™. We conducted a literature review of all of the available options for vitiligo concealment and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, temporary methods of concealment are recommended; but the particular agent used can come from discussion with the patient based on the location of the lesions, degree of concealment desired, cost, and availability. PMID:27050692

  1. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  2. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  3. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  4. Cooperative planning in multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torreño Lerma, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Automated planning is a centralized process in which a single planning entity, or agent, synthesizes a course of action, or plan, that satisfies a desired set of goals from an initial situation. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a distributed system where a group of autonomous agents pursue their own goals in a reactive, proactive and social way. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) is a novel research field that emerges as the integration of automated planning in MAS. Agents are endowed with plan...

  5. G-CSF: From granulopoietic stimulant to bone marrow stem cell mobilizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Linda J; Bradstock, Kenneth F

    2014-08-01

    G-CSF was among the first cytokines to be identified and rapidly transitioned into clinical medicine. Initially used to promote the production of neutrophils in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia it helped to revolutionize the delivery of cancer therapy. Its ability to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow into the blood was subsequently exploited, changing the face of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Today the knowledge gained in unraveling the mechanisms of stem cell mobilization by G-CSF is being explored as a means to increase chemosensitivity in hematological malignancies. This review provides a brief history of G-CSF and then focuses on recent advances in our understanding of G-CSF-induced stem cell mobilization and the potential clinical application of this knowledge in chemo-sensitization. PMID:25131807

  6. A SURVEY OF THE PROPERTIES OF AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelije Rabuzin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade agent systems were considered to be as one of the major fields of study in Artificial Intelligence (AI field. Many different definitions of agents were presented and several different approaches describing agency can be distinguished. While some authors have tried to define “what” an agent really is, others have tried to identify agents by means of properties which they should possess. Most authors agree on these properties (at least basic set of properties which are intrinsic to agents. Since agent's definitions are not consistent, we are going to give an overview and list the properties intrinsic to an agent. Many different adjectives were attached to the term agent as well and many different kinds of agents and different architectures emerged too. The aim of this paper it go give an overview of what was going on in the field while taking into consideration main streams and projects. We will also present some guidelines important when modelling agent systems and say something about security issues. Also, some existing problems which restrict the wider usage of agents will be mentioned too.

  7. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  8. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server for queries in SQL and converts the query results into XML documents and a stationary agent acting as a client for query forwarding and conversion of received documents into text files readable by a client application. We have tested the performance of the agents in a distributed simulation scenario and established that the agents can be used to connect heterogeneous simulation models and other applications, improving their connectivity and usability.

  9. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  10. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  11. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  12. Model Based Testing for Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Thangarajah, John; Padgham, Lin

    Although agent technology is gaining world wide popularity, a hindrance to its uptake is the lack of proper testing mechanisms for agent based systems. While many traditional software testing methods can be generalized to agent systems, there are many aspects that are different and which require an understanding of the underlying agent paradigm. In this paper we present certain aspects of a testing framework that we have developed for agent based systems. The testing framework is a model based approach using the design models of the Prometheus agent development methodology. In this paper we focus on model based unit testing and identify the appropriate units, present mechanisms for generating suitable test cases and for determining the order in which the units are to be tested, present a brief overview of the unit testing process and an example. Although we use the design artefacts from Prometheus the approach is suitable for any plan and event based agent system.

  13. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  14. Agent-Based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the agent-based modeling and mapping i n manufacturing system, some system models are described in this paper, which are included: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Structure (CAS), Proximity Relation Structure (PRS), and Bus-based Network Structure (BNS ). In DBHS, one sort of agents, called static agents, individually acts as Domai n Agents, Resources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents. And the oth ers, named mobile agents, are the brokers of task and ...

  15. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  16. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  17. Interaction Protocols in Multi-Agent Systems based on Agent Petri Nets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Barkaoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of interaction between agents in Multi Agents System (MAS based on Agent Petri Nets (APN. Our models are created based on communicating agents. Indeed, an agent initiating a conversation with other can specify the interaction protocol wishes to follow. The combination of APN and FIPA Protocols schemes leads to a set of deployment formal rules for points where model interaction can be successfully implemented. We introduce some models FIPA standard protocols.

  18. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... several such logical theories which we prove to be consistent. These theories are all based on first-order predicate logic. To prove our consistency results, we develop a general mathematical framework, suitable for proving a large number of consistency results concerning logical theories involving...

  19. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  20. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  1. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  2. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  3. Effects of methylseleninic acid on inhibition and chemosensitization of triple-negative breast cancer cells%甲基硒酸对人三阴性乳腺癌细胞的抑制和化疗增敏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱万寿; 唐勇; 吴珏堃; 刘威; 李玺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of methylseleninic acid on chemosensitization of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and the molecular mechanism.Methods Methylseleninic acid (MSA) (2.5,3.5,4.0 μmol/L) in combination with paclitaxel,doxorubicin or malondialdehyde (MDA)-treated MB-231 cells were cultured separately.Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was applied to detect the inhibition of cell proliferation rate by chemotherapy drugs use alone or in combination with MSA,and the combined index was calculated to explore the impact of the function of MSA on the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs.Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining was applied to detect apoptosis,flow cytometry to examine cell cycle,and Western blotting to analyze thes histone deacetylase-6 (HDAC-6) expression.Results The cell proliferation rate of chemotherapy drugs in combination with MSA was decreased as compared with chemotherapy drugs used alone,suggesting the synergetic effects of MSA and chemotherapy drugs.The combined use of paclitaxel with MSA could significantly increase the number of cells in G2/M phase (P < 0.05),that of doxorubicin with MSA could significandy increase the number of cells in S-phase cells (P < 0.05),and the prompt MSA enhanced the effect of anticancer drugsinduced cell cycle arrest.MSA,paclitaxel and doxorubicin could induce apoptosis of TNBC cells.The apoptosis rate in MSA + chemotherapy groups was significantly increased as compared with monotherapy group and the control group.Chemotherapy drugs alone did not affect the expression of HDAC-6,and MSA used alone or incombination with chemotherapy drugs could significantly inhibit the HDAC-6 expression.Conclusion MSA enhanced anticancer drugs-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis so as to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs probably by regulating the HDAC-6 expression.%目的 探讨甲基硒酸(MSA)对人三阴性乳腺癌(TNBC)的化疗增敏作用及其分子机制.方法 分别采用2.5

  4. MiR-155增加前列腺癌化疗敏感性的体外研究%MiR-155 on Chemosensitivity Enhancement of Prostate Cancer in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董青川; 程继; 王志刚; 刘全海; 赵华才; 赵文彩; 张海燕; 程永毅

    2016-01-01

    control group,cisplatin group,anti-miR-155 group and cisplatin + anti-miR-155 group(n =6).Results Compared with control group,cell proliferation levels of DU145 and PC-3 in both of anti-miR-155 group and cisplatin group were obviously inhibited.Cdc2 and cyclin B1 protein expression was markedly decreased with cell blocking at G2/M phase.In addition,apoptosis rate,caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were enhanced in anti-miR-155 group and cisplatin group which were significantly different(P<0.05).The cell proliferation levels in cisplatin + anti-miR-155 group were prominently higher than those in control group,however,Cdc2 and cyclin B1 protein expression levels were obviously lower than those in control group with cell blocking at G2/M phase.The apoptosis rate,caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were bigher than those in control group,which were significantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion The inhibition of miR-155 can enhance the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in prostate cancer and increse clinical effects under cisplatin treatment.Its mechanism may be closely related to the process of cell cycle and apoptosis.

  5. Predicting Clinical Chemosensitivity of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Using Methylthiazal Assay Combined with Detection of Multidrug Resistance Gene 1%四甲基偶氮唑盐体外药物敏感试验联合多药耐药基因1检测预测非小细胞肺癌的化疗敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹迎春; 王新美; 王新云; 韩红梅; 侯震波; 张保华; 张日民

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)药物敏感试验联合多药耐药基因1(MDR1)检测预测原发性非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)的化疗敏感性,为临床个体化治疗提供依据. 方法 选择淄博市中心医院2009~2011年手术切除的80例NSCLC患者[男46例,女34例;中位年龄54(29~81)岁]的新鲜标本,采用MTT药物敏感试验检测患者对顺铂(DDP)、吉西他滨(GEM)、多西紫杉醇(DOC)、依托泊苷(VP-16)及长春瑞滨(NVB)的体外药物敏感性,采用实时荧光定量逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术检测肿瘤组织MDR1表达水平. 结果 经化疗药物作用后,体外培养的NSCLC细胞出现不同程度的形态学改变、代谢活性下降及凋亡.MTT法检测结果提示,不同个体NSCLC细胞对不同化疗药物的敏感性不同,NSCLC细胞对不同化疗药物敏感性亦不同:对DOC、GEM及VP-16的敏感性高于DDP和NVB (42.5%±9.5%、40.5%±6.5%、38.4%±7.6% vs.31.5%±8.5%、32.5%±7.8%,P<0.05).肿瘤组织中MDR1的阳性表达率为40.0% (32/80),MDR1阳性表达与患者肿瘤组织学类型、分化程度、淋巴结转移情况及TNM分期无关(P>0.05).MDR1阳性表达与NVB (x2=5.209,P=0.022)、GEM (x2=4.769,P=0.029)、VP-16 (x2=4.596,P=0.032)及DDP(x2=6.086,P=0.014)的体外耐药相关,而与DOC的体外耐药不相关(x2=0.430,P=0.512). 结论 MTT药物敏感试验可有效预测临床化疗药物敏感性,MTT药物敏感试验联合MDR1检测可提高预测NSCLC化疗敏感性,指导其个体化治疗.%Objective To predict clinical chemotherapy sensitivity of primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by methylthiazal (MTT) tumor chemosensitivity assay method in vitro and detection of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), and provide reference for clinical individualized treatment. Methods We selected 80 fresh primary NSCLC samples from NSCLC patients who underwent surgical resection in Zibo Central Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical College

  6. Agent Grid技术研究初探%Initial Research on Agent Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英朝; 张维明; 肖卫东; 沙基昌

    2003-01-01

    The term "Grid" is increasingly appearing in computer literature, generally referring to some form of system framework into which hardware, software, or information resources can be plugged, and which permits easy configuration and creation of new functionality from existing resources. In this article, first, we introduce the concepts of Grid and Agent Grid based on our own understanding. Then we compare Agent Grid with the traditional Multi-Agent System to make the concept and characters of Agent Grid much clearer. Next, the key techniques of Agent Grid, such as Agent Grid System Architecture, System Models, Intelligent Agents and Agent-Based System Resource Management, are thoroughly illustrated. Finally, we briefly discusse the future applications of Agent Grid.

  7. MATRIX-AGENT FRAMEWORK:A VIRTUAL PLATFORM FOR MULTI-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lan ZHANG; Clement H.C. LEUNG; Gitesh K. RAIKUNDALIA

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent technology has been applied extensively to many areas, including Decision Support Systems (DSS). However, the applications of multi-agent technology in DSS are still very preliminary.Most of the current agent frameworks, such as middle-agent-based or agent-facilitator-based frameworks, are basically agent-to-agent model. These agent-based frameworks often neglect the living environment for agents and they suffer from: (i) inability to adapt to the environment, (ii)inability to self-upgrade, and (iii) inefficiency in information acquisition. Here, we introduce a recently proposed multi-agent framework, namely Agent-based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD). In this new framework, the communication and cooperation between agents are through a key component, the Matrix, which provides a virtual platform for agents. We use a unified Matrices framework to solve the bottleneck problem in the AOCD framework. Our experimental results based on different agent network topologies indicate that the hybrid topology presents superior performance compared with the centralised and decentralised topologies.

  8. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  9. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-Ting; Dai, Ming-Xiang; Xue, Fang-Zheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all of the agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all of the agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups and that agents in the same group collaborate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203080 and 61473051) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (Grant No. CSTC 2011BB0081).

  10. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  11. Ultrasound contrast agents: bubbles, drops and particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lajoinie, Guillaume Pierre René

    2015-01-01

    The research on the medical use of microbubbles has coontinuously provided fascinating results for half a century. Investigating new agents or new uses of existing agents requires both innovative physics and ideas and extensive testing in-vitro and in vivo. The translation from the lab to the clinic is long and calls upon many specialties. In this dissertation, we have presented and studied various experimental agents for biomedical imaging and therapy, some in the early development phase and...

  12. Web-Based Computing Resource Agent Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Web-based Computing Resource Publishing is a efficient way to provide additional computing capacity for users who need more computing resources than that they themselves could afford by making use of idle computing resources in the Web.Extensibility and reliability are crucial for agent publishing. The parent-child agent framework and primary-slave agent framework were proposed respectively and discussed in detail.

  13. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  14. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  15. Applying Software Engineering to Agent Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Mark A.; Lock Haven University; RITTER, Frank E.; Haynes, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Developing intelligent agents and cognitive models is a complex software engineering activity. This article shows how all intelligent agent creation tools can be improved by taking advantage of established software engineering principles such as high-level languages, maintenance-oriented development environments, and software reuse. We describe how these principles have been realized in the Herbal integrated development environment, a collection of tools that allows agent developers to exploi...

  16. Agent-based argumentation for ontology alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Laera, Loredana; Tamma, Valentina; Bench-Capon, Trevor; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    laera2006a International audience When agents communicate they do not necessarily use the same vocabulary or ontology. For them to interact successfully they must find correspondences between the terms used in their ontologies. While many proposals for matching two agent ontologies have been presented in the literature, the resulting alignment may not be satisfactory to both agents and can become the object of further negotiation between them. This paper describes our work constructing ...

  17. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; O'Farrel, Ryan l; Boloni, Ladislau

    2006-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division at the NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent-based tool to monitor the space shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent (NESTA), increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined crit...

  18. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  19. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  20. Agent fabrication and its implementation for agent-based electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; Zhu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, agent-based e-commerce has emerged as a potential role for the next generation of e-commerce. How to create agents for e-commerce applications has become a serious consideration in this field. This paper proposes a new scheme named agent fabrication and elaborates its implementation in multi-agent systems based on the SAFER (Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming) architecture. First, a conceptual structure is proposed for software agents carrying out e-commerce act...

  1. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  2. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  3. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  4. Agent architecture for intelligent manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis is made of requirements posed by tasks of agents operating in the intelligent manufacturing systems and their resulting architecture is presented.Design/methodology/approach: Architecture of agent systems for industrial environment is presented, making it possible to generate the particular agents customised for the specific tasks, based on the automatic analysis of its required features.Findings: Extension of cellular automata approach underlying the conventional agent behaviour specification using the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps is presented in conjunction with the neural networks providing learning capability of the agents designed for the various levels of the manufacturing supervisory and execution systems. Adding reaction time specification to FCM makes it possible to analyse and design systems with the required behaviour.Research limitations/implications: Specific features of the designed agent architecture have been tested as separate mechanisms which can be merged into the final comprehensive at a later stage.Originality/value: Agent architecture is proposed for the industrial applications of single agents and their groups that can collaborate to achieve the individual and joint goals specified in reaction to changing environment conditions and into their agendas in XML format. Automatic generation of custom agent reactions models can be carried out based on a set of requirements that may be specified in the if-then rules form.

  5. TEST SUITE GENERATION PROCESS FOR AGENT TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUHAMDI ZINA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software agents are a promising technology for today's complex, distributed systems. Methodologies and techniques that address testing and reliability of multi agent systems are increasingly demanded, in particular to support automated test case generation and execution. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for goal-oriented software agent testing. It specifies a testing process that complements the goal oriented methodology Tropos and reinforces the mutual relationship between goal analysis and testing. Furthermore, it defines a structured and comprehensive agent test suite generation process by providing a systematic way of deriving test cases from goal analysis.

  6. Mobile Agents Principles of Operation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Genco, A

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are one of the most effective software design paradigms, and they are considered to be the most recent evolutionary step of object-oriented programming. Agents have several advantages when compared with objects. The most important among them is to be made of active code, which is capable of acting autonomously. Agents can be a suitable choice to exploit the Internet reality, since users can operate easily in a less compelling way and also reduce Internet connection time. Mobile agents thus make a PC an intelligent entity able to autonomously accomplish boring human tasks, s

  7. Dronedarone: a new antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Ola O; Rogers, Carrie E; Hofmann, Prudence O

    2010-09-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The drug is a derivative of amiodarone and has been modified to reduce the organ toxicities frequently encountered with amiodarone. Dronedarone exerts its antiarrhythmic effects through multichannel blockade of the sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and also possesses antiadrenergic activity, thereby exhibiting pharmacologic effects of all four Vaughan Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. The efficacy of dronedarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm, ventricular rate control, and reduction in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Although a high rate of gastrointestinal events (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) has been associated with dronedarone, more serious adverse events such as thyroid, liver, or pulmonary toxicities have not been observed. Because of a possible increase in mortality, dronedarone should be avoided in patients with New York Heart Association class IV or II-III heart failure with a recent decompensation. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, dronedarone represents a reasonable alternative for maintenance of sinus rhythm in appropriately selected patients.

  8. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  9. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  10. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  11. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Core Competencies Of A Call Centre AgentCore Competencies Of A Call Centre Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Vera Roos

    2005-01-01

    Call centre agents are becoming increasingly important in the call centre context. They act as a contact point between the customer and the company. Call centre agents should have certain competencies to perform their duties sufficiently. Identifying competencies, required to be effective agents, will ease the task of training and recruitment. Due to the interrelatedness of the call centre agent, the management of a call centre and customers, all relevant role players’ perceptions were taken ...

  13. Your company's secret change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  14. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  15. Modeling agents with a theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Training systems with intelligent virtual agents provide an effective means to train people for complex, dynamic tasks like crisis management or firefighting. Virtual agents provide more adequate behavior and explanations if they not only take their own goals and beliefs into account, but also the a

  16. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  17. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal agents. (a) The Federal Reserve Banks referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States, are... Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH,...

  18. 31 CFR 342.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.9 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States..., Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ (northern half), NY (City & State), RI, VT,...

  19. Transient Diversity in Multi-Agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lyback, David

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is an important aspect of highly efficient multi-agent teams. We introduce the main factors that drive a multi-agent system in either direction along the diversity scale. A metric for diversity is described, and we speculate on the concept of transient diversity. Finally, an experiment on social entropy using a RoboCup simulated soccer team is presented.

  20. Semantics of Agent Communication: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, R.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Communication has been one of the salient issues in the research on concurrent and distributed systems. This holds no less for the research on multiagent systems. Over the last few years the study of agent communication, and in particular the semantics of agent communication, has attracted increased

  1. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  2. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  3. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  4. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  5. Modelling cooperative agents in infrastructure networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of concepts of cooperation into an agent-based model of an industrial network. It first addresses the concept of cooperation and how this could be captured as heuristical rules within agents. Then it describes tests using these heuristics in an abstract model of

  6. Freeze conditioning agents ease winter railcar unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    A US midwest utility's freeze control programme is described. All coal is treated with a glycol-based freeze control agent. Some rail wagons were treated with a side release agent which stops coal sticking to the metal wagon. The use of calcium chloride or heat to thaw frozen coal is also discussed.

  7. Explanation in human-agent teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bradshaw, J.M.; Johnson, M.; Feltovich, P.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    There are several applications in which humans and agents jointly perform a task. If the task involves interdependence among the team members, coordination is required to achieve good team performance. This paper discusses the role of explanation in coordination in human-agent teams. Explanations ab

  8. Agent programming languages: programming with mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Agents are personal assistants which can provide proactive support to users by executing routine activities like searching on the Internet, the scheduling of meetings, etc. The concept of an Intelligent Agent has its roots in Artificial Intelligence and provides a basis for the con

  9. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  10. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  11. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  12. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.

  13. Interaction between some common genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1986-01-01

    The clastogenic effects of arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide and the protective effect of selenium were studied in short-term lymphocyte cultures. The three agents selected are the major toxic substances in emissions from copper smelters. Cells from non-smoking, healthy individuals were exposed to individual agents and combinations of the four agents (sodium arsenite, lead acetate, sodium sulphite and sodium selenite) and the cells were analysed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatide exchanges. Selenium showed an antagonistic (protective) effect against the other agents. No synergistic effects were found, and the interactions between arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide were mainly antagonistic. These rather unexpected findings indicate that mixed exposure from copper smelters, and other mixed exposures where arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide are involved, may cause less genetic damage than expected and that an adequate dietary supplement of selenium may reduce the genotoxic effects of these agents. PMID:3793119

  14. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  15. A Network Management Framework Using Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Network management of heterogeneous networks is still hard to achieve automatically and efficiently. In this study, we present a framework that has the ability to perform network management tasks on heterogeneous networks using mobile agents. This framework handles the inability of many network devices to run mobile agents. While the main focus of the project is the framework, we present an example of mobile agents that are able to locate a fixed set of network failures and detect the possible causes accurately. Experimental results show that some network management tasks can be more easily executed by mobile agents. In particular, search and diagnostic mobile agents are able to find more precisely a cause of a network failure by finding alternate paths to gather more data about the failure.

  16. Incorporating Inertia Into Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Man, W C

    2005-01-01

    We consider a model that demonstrates the crucial role of inertia and stickiness in multi-agent systems, based on the Minority Game (MG). The inertia of an agent is introduced into the game model by allowing agents to apply hypothesis testing when choosing their best strategies, thereby reducing their reactivity towards changes in the environment. From massive numerical simulations, a remarkable improvement of global cooperation is observed throughout the whole phase space, and the maladaptation behaviour due to over-reaction of agents is removed. Also, these agents are found to be advantageous over the standard ones, which are sometimes too sensitive to attain a fair success rate. Analytical calculation on determining the minimum amount of inertia needed to achieve the above improvement is also provided, which is consistent with the numerical data.

  17. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Miguel; Mathieu, Philippe; Rodríguez, Juan; Adam, Emmanuel; Ortega, Alfonso; Moreno, María; Navarro, Elena; Hirsch, Benjamin; Lopes-Cardoso, Henrique; Julián, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  18. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  19. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  20. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  1. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  2. Agent-based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the gent-based modeling and mapping in m anufacturing system, in this paper, some system models are described, which are including: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Struc ture (CAS), Proximity Relation structure (PRS), and Bus-based network structure (BNS). In DBHS, one sort of agent individually delegates Domain Agents, Res ources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents and the other one is a br oker of tasks and process flow. Static agents representing...

  3. An Application of Mobile Agent System in Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen-xiang; DU Jun-ping; YIN Yi-xin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a reusable mobile agent system in network management. A mobile agent reusable system is constructed to realize a new method in forming mobile agent systems. By using this method, an agent can change its route dynamically without making any change to its specific behavior. By classifying mobile agents into two categories, the task agent can be reusable in different networks. In this way, a mobile agent system can easily carry out network management tasks.

  4. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  5. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  6. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  7. Agent and multi-Agent systems in distributed systems digital economy and e-commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Hartung, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technology, in particular artificial intelligence, can be used to support economy and commerce using digital means. This book is about agents and multi-agent distributed systems applied to digital economy and e-commerce to meet, improve, and overcome challenges in the digital economy and e-commerce sphere. Agent and multi-agent solutions are applied in implementing real-life, exciting developments associated with the need to eliminate problems of distributed systems.   The book presents solutions for both technology and applications, illustrating the possible uses of agents in the enterprise domain, covering design and analytic methods, needed to provide a solid foundation required for practical systems. More specifically, the book provides solutions for the digital economy, e-sourcing clusters in network economy, and knowledge exchange between agents applicable to online trading agents, and security solutions to both digital economy and e-commerce. Furthermore, it offers soluti...

  8. 银杏酚酸通过抑制PKD-2活性提高Tca8113细胞对化疗药物的敏感性%Ginkgolic acid enhances chemosensitivity of Tca8113 cells via suppressing PKD-2activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽娜; 张平; 苏勤; 王金华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of protein kinase D-2 (PKD-2) in chemosensitivity enhanced by ginkgolic acid (GA) in Tca8113 cells. Methods The effect of different concentrations of GA on the proliferation of Tca8113 cells and the cell survival rate for single use of Carboplatin (CBP) or Paclitaxel (PTX) and combination of CBP or PTX with GA was detected by Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium ( MTT) assay. Western blot analysis was used to detect protein expression of phospho-protein kinase D ( p-PKD-2) and PKD-2 in Tca8113 cells induced by GA for different times. shRNA was introduced to downregulate the expression of PKD-2 in Tca8113 cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used to induce the phosphorylation of PKD-2. MTT assay was used to detect viability after exposure of cells to drugs or combination of drugs and GA. Results The IC50 of GA which was detected by MTT was 20 mg/L. The folds of chemosensitivity of Tca8113 to CBP and PTX enhanced by GA were 4.37 and 39.20 respectively. Exposure of Tca8113 cells to GA resulted in a decrease in phospho-PKD-2 level in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PKD-2 with shRNA enhanced chemosensitivity of Tca8113 cells to CBP and PTX or combination with GA, with the folds of 1.651 7 and 1. 501 6 respectively. GA also antagonized the function of PMA, which induced the phosphorylated activation of PKD2 and increased chemotherapy drugs resistance of Tca8113 cells. Conclusion GA may promote chemosensitivity of Tca8113 cells via inhibiting phosphorylation of PKD-2 pathway.%目的 探讨蛋白激酶D-2( protein kinase D-2,PKD-2)在银杏酚酸(ginkgolic acid,GA)提高舌鳞状细胞癌细胞株Tca8113对化疗药物敏感性过程中的作用.方法 通过MTT方法检测GA对Tca8113的增殖抑制及提高Tca8113对化疗药物敏感性;Western blot检测在GA不同作用时间下PKD-2在Tca8113中的表达及磷酸化特性;利用shRNA干扰技术基因沉默Tca8113中的PKD-2基因;利用佛波酯(PMA)诱导Tca8113

  9. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the

  10. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  11. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Bansal, A.K. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Song, S.-H.; Dick, B. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-07-09

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents {beta}-mercaptoethanol ({beta}-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  12. Cognitive agent programming : A semantic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Riemsdijk, van, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we are concerned with the design and investigation of dedicated programming languages for programming agents. We focus in particular on programming languages for rational agents, i.e., flexibly behaving computing entities that are able to make "good" decisions about what to do. An important line of research in this area is based on Bratman’s so-called Belief Desire Intention (BDI) philosophy. The idea of BDI philosophy is that the behavior of rational agents can be predicted by...

  13. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  14. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  15. On agent-mediated electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    He, M.; Jennings, N. R.; Leung, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyzes the state of the art of agent-mediated electronic commerce (e-commerce), concentrating particularly on the business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) aspects. From the consumer buying behavior perspective, agents are being used in the following activities: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering, and negotiation. The roles of agents in B2B e-commerce are discussed through the business-to-business tran...

  16. Intelligent agent based control of TL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agent based control of complex systems is becoming popular due to its ability to identify the critical situation and its ability to dynamically search for the best available solution to the problem with constrained optimization of the inputs. In this paper we are presenting the architecture of intelligent agent for automatic control of power supplies of TL-1 (Transfer Line 1) to maximise the injection process against the changes in the input beam obtained from Microtron. The paper discusses the results obtained by applying this agent architecture to the accelerator model comprises of Microtron output, TL-1 and booster. (author)

  17. Information Service Model with Mobile Agent Supported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 王继成; 张福炎

    2000-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a kind of novel agent technology characterized by mobile, intelligent, parallel and asynchronous computing. In this paper, a new information service model that adopts mobile agent technology is introduced first,and then an experimental system DOLTRIA system that is implemented based on the model is described. The DOLTRIA system implemented by WWW framework and Java can search for relevant HTML documents on a set of Web servers. The result of experiments shows that performance improvement can be achieved by this model, and both the elapsed time and network traffic are reduced significantly.

  18. Evaluating Agent Architectures: Cougaar, Aglets and AAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian; Haack, Jereme N.; Mcgee, David R.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Thomson, Judi R.; Carlos Lucena Alessandro Garcia Alexander Romanovsky, et al

    2003-05-03

    Research and development organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies in order to implement the next generation of advanced applications. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, agent technologies are perceived as an approach that can provide a competitive advantage in the construction of highly sophisticated software systems in a range of application areas. To determine the sophistication, utility, performance, and other critical aspects of such systems, a project was instigated to evaluate three candidate agent toolkits. This paper reports on the outcomes of this evaluation, the knowledge accumulated from carrying out this project, and provides insights into the capabilities of the agent technologies evaluated.

  19. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  20. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  1. Ontology Based Agent Communication in Resource Allocation and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of ontology is to share information between sending and receiving agents of Multi Agent System (MAS. It provides standard vocabulary and terms for knowledge sharing and is designed to share information conveniently and understandably. Agent based application requires complex interaction among agents. This complexity is due to agent-agent and agent-user communication. It is required to use ontology in agent based application of resource allocation and monitoring. The purpose of Resource Allocation and Monitoring System is to make the procedures involved in allocating fund resources to competing fund seekers transparent so that deserving candidates get funds. Proactive and goal directed behaviour of agents make the system transparent and intelligent. This paper presents ontology designed and implemented for the purpose of communication among agents of Multi Agent System for Resource Allocation and Monitoring (MASRAM. FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents compliant software JADE (Java Agent Development is used to implement ontology.

  2. RESEARCH ON A SOCCER SERVER TEAM WITH ENVIRONMENTAL-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposed a new agent model, which applies the agent-oriented paradigm to represent multiple objects. This agent model consists of three types of agents as follows: (a) an upperagent which describes an autonomous and dynamic object; (b) a lower-agent which describes a reactive and static object; and (c) an environ-mental-agent which describes the environment of the other agents. As an example, it considered soccer players (a kind of multiple objects) in environmental-agent. Three kinds of soccer agents were constructed with different powers. With soccer server the soccer games were simulated to confirm the effectiveness of our model.

  3. Comparative study of chemosensitivity and efficacy between pirarubicin and epirubicin in breast cancer%乳腺癌对吡柔比星和表柔比星的药物敏感性及有效性的对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧梦芳; 张咏梅; 智英辉; 翟震; 张敏; 谷峰; 付丽; 只向成

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the chemosensitivity of pirarubicin(THP)and epimbicin (EPI)in primary breast cancer(PBC)cells so as to examine tIleir difierential chemosensitivity to THP and EPI by CD-DST(collagen gel droplet embedded culture-drug sensitivity test)system;To detect the differences in the short.term clinical efficacy and side effects between TAC(docetaxel+pirarubicin+cyclophosphamide)and IEC(docetaxel + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide)as the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens and the long-term clinical efficacy of CAF ( cyclophosphamide+pirarubicin+fluoroumcil)and CEF(cyclophosphamide+epirubicin+fluorouracil)as the chemotherapy regimens in breast callcer:To evaluate the feasibility of THP as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimen in the treatment of breast cancer.Methods From January 2008 to January 2009,a total of 129 fresh breast cancer samples were collected. The differential chemosensitivity of cultured PBC cells to THP and EPI was measured by CD-DST test. And 139 cases of PBC patients in II b-Ⅲ c phase were randomly divided into two groups: TAC and TEC groups. After 4-6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the primary lesion, axiltary lymph nodes and side effects were assessed; The clinical data and survival status of 1241 cases of PBC patients treated at our hospital from 2003 to 2006 were collected and divided into CAF and CEF groups according to their chemotherapeutic regimens. Long-term prognosis was compared between two groups. Results There was no significant difference of chemosensitivity between THP and EPI in PBC cells ( P = 0. 743 ) ; The overall response rate (RR) of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 87.8% ; there was no significant difference between TAC and TEC groups (P > 0.05 ). No significant differences existed between two groups in such side effects as leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, constipation, cardiotoxity and hepatorenal dysfunction (P > 0. 05 ). The gastrointestinal reactions of nausea and vomiting was less frequent in the TAC group than that

  4. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  5. Multi-target pursuit formation of multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Guan Xin-Ping; Luo Xiao-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to design a team of agents that can accomplish multi-target pursuit formation using a developed leader-follower strategy. It is supposed that every target can accept a certain number of agents. First, each agent can automatically choose its target based on the distance from the agent to the target and the number of agents

  6. Web Search Agents: "One-Stop Shopping" for Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Explains Web search agents as tools that apply intelligent agent software technology for the purpose of automating, improving, and speeding up online search operations. Topics include intelligent desktop agents; search agent marketplace; comparing Web search agents; subjective evaluations; and use by researchers. (LRW)

  7. A Highly Secure Mobile Agent System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okataku, Yasukuni; Okutomi, Hidetoshi; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Ohgishi, Nobuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    We propose a system architecture for mobile agents to improve their security in the environments of insecure networks and non-sophisticated terminals such as PDAs. As mobile agents freely migrate onto their favorite terminals through insecure networks or terminals, it is not appropriate for them to store some secret information for authentication and encryption/decryption. We introduce one and more secure nodes(OASIS NODE) for securely generating and verifying authentication codes. The each agent’s data are encrypted by a pseudo-chaos cipher mechanism which doesn’t need any floating processing co-processor. We’ve constructed a prototype system on a Java mobile agent framework, “Bee-gent" which implements the proposed authentication and cipher mechanisms, and evaluated their performances and their applicability to business fields such as an auction system by mobile agents.

  8. Agent Based Patient Scheduling Using Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes about an agent based approach to patient scheduling using experience based learning. A heuristic algorithm is also used in the proposed framework. The evaluation on different learning techniques shows that the experience based learning (EBL gives better solution. The processing time decreases as the experience increases. The heuristic algorithm make use of EBL in calculating the processing time. The main objective of this patient scheduling system is to reduce the waiting time of patient in hospitals and to complete their treatment in minimum required time. The framework is implemented in JADE. In this approach the patients and resources are represented as patient agents (PA and resource agents (RA respectively. Even though mathematical model give optimal solution, the computational complexity increases for large size problems. Heuristic solution gives better solution for large size problems. The comparisons of the proposed framework with other scheduling rules shows that an agent based approach to patient scheduling using EBL is better.

  9. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir kamal Salih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework (JADE as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems.

  10. Behavior-based dual dynamic agent architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵博; 吴敏; 曹卫华

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the architecture is to make agent promptly and adaptively accomplish tasks in the real-time and dynamic environment. The architecture is composed of elementary level behavior layer and high level be-havior layer. In the elementary level behavior layer, the reactive architecture is introduced to make agent promptlyreact to events; in the high level behavior layer, the deliberation architecture is used to enhance the intelligence ofthe agent. A confidence degree concept is proposed to combine the two layers of the architecture. An agent decisionmaking process is also presented, which is based on the architecture. The results of experiment in RoboSoccer simu-lation team show that the proposed architecture and the decision process are successful.

  11. Study of Desorption Agent for LADS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojing; Qin Ruyi; Liu Jinlong

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the procedure for selection, evaluation and development of the LADS-D desorption agent associated with the LADS-A adsorbent used in the non-hydroprocessing adsorptive desulfurization (LADS) process for FCC naphtha developed by LPEC Refining Research Institute. The LADS-D desorption agent can effectively remove the sulfides adsorbed on the LADS-A adsorbent. The saturated LADS-A adsorbent can be instantly regenerated by the LADS-D desorption agent to recover its adsorption activity. The LADS-D desorption agent can not only effectively remove all impurities adsorbed on the adsorbent, but also has strong ability to dissolve the impurities to keep a stable desorption efficiency of adsorbent to be basically commensurate with fresh adsorbent after extended use.

  12. Multi-Agent Formations and Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate three intertwined problems concerned with distributed cooperative control of groups of autonomous mobile agents. These problems are the consensus problem in mobile networks, the localization problem in sensor networks and the formation maintenance problem in autonomous robotic teams.

  13. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., quality and level of service, and conformity with established guidelines and procedures. (d) Each Agent... the report of such audit. The auditor selected must be recognized by a State or territorial...

  14. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with mo...

  15. Towards Culturally-Aware Virtual Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    in a game-like environment in a more interesting way than for example learning with a textbook. The authors support the idea that virtual agents are a great opportunity for teaching cultural awareness. Realizing this, the concept of culture needs to be translated into computational models and the advantages......Globalization leads to an increase in intercultural encounters with a risk of misunderstandings due to different patterns of behavior and understanding. Learning applications have been proposed that employ virtual agents as their primary tool. Through their embodiment, learning can be done...... of different systems using virtual agents need to be considered. Therefore, the authors reflect in this chapter on how virtual agents can help to learn about culture, scan definitions of culture from the social sciences, give an overview on how multiagent systems developed over time and classify the state...

  16. Empowerment for Continuous Agent-Environment Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Tobias; Stone, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops generalizations of empowerment to continuous states. Empowerment is a recently introduced information-theoretic quantity motivated by hypotheses about the efficiency of the sensorimotor loop in biological organisms, but also from considerations stemming from curiosity-driven learning. Empowemerment measures, for agent-environment systems with stochastic transitions, how much influence an agent has on its environment, but only that influence that can be sensed by the agent sensors. It is an information-theoretic generalization of joint controllability (influence on environment) and observability (measurement by sensors) of the environment by the agent, both controllability and observability being usually defined in control theory as the dimensionality of the control/observation spaces. Earlier work has shown that empowerment has various interesting and relevant properties, e.g., it allows us to identify salient states using only the dynamics, and it can act as intrinsic reward without requi...

  17. Nominaliseeritud protsessi agent meediauudistes / Reet Kasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasik, Reet, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Ajalehe "Postimees" 2005. aasta materjalile toetudes vaadeldakse, mis tüüpi on nominalisatsioonides representeeritavad protsessid ja mis kujul on esitatud protsessi agent ehk tegija. Aluseks on võetud funktsionaalse grammatika põhimõtted.

  18. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  19. Spatial interactions in agent-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Merlone, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Agent Based Modeling (ABM) has become a widespread approach to model complex interactions. In this chapter after briefly summarizing some features of ABM the different approaches in modeling spatial interactions are discussed. It is stressed that agents can interact either indirectly through a shared environment and/or directly with each other. In such an approach, higher-order variables such as commodity prices, population dynamics or even institutions, are not exogenously specified but instead are seen as the results of interactions. It is highlighted in the chapter that the understanding of patterns emerging from such spatial interaction between agents is a key problem as much as their description through analytical or simulation means. The chapter reviews different approaches for modeling agents' behavior, taking into account either explicit spatial (lattice based) structures or networks. Some emphasis is placed on recent ABM as applied to the description of the dynamics of the geographical distribution o...

  20. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    for chemotherapy. The nanoparticles were 150 nm in size with spherical shape, which contained PFOB in the inner core and Dox and ICG in the polymeric shell. More importantly, they could target folate receptor expressing cancer cells, which provide positive in vitro and in vivo NIR and 19F MRI results. In project......Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...